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legibility study 路 public space 路 public life

BRIGHTON & HOVE

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Client Brighton & Hove City Council Hove Town Hall Norton Road HOVE BN3 3BQ Contact:

Jim Mayor

Consultants Gehl Architects - Urban Quality Consultants Gl. Kongevej 1, 4. sal 1610 Copenhagen V Project Manager: Project Coordinator: Project Team:

Helle Søholt, Partner Birgitte Katborg Laursen, Architect maa Jeff Risom, Urban Designer LÌrke Jul Larsen, Architect maa Bianca Maria Hermansen, Stud. arch Suna Madsen, Stud.arch

Landscape Projects 31 Blackfriars Road Salford Manchester Project Manager: Neil Swanson, Partner Project Team: Louise Didriksen MSc, Landscape Architect

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Content / part 01

Introduction Foreword Introduction

p. 04 p. 05

City scale / analysis

Landscape Districts Movement

City scale & local scale Introduction analysis

p. 17

p. 21 p. 25 p. 29

Local scale / analysis

Movement Spaces

City scale / recommendations

Recommendations landscape Recommendations districts Recommendations movement

p. 37 p. 57

YSIS NS ANAL DATIO MMES MMEN OGRA R P RECO E C A P S PUBLIC

Summary / analysis

‘The inclusive city’

p. 77 p. 83 p. 89

Local scale / recommendations Recommendations movement Recommendations spaces

p. 95 p. 107

Summary / recommendations

p.74

A holistic public space network

p. 123

Public space programmes Public Space programmes

YSIS NS ANAL DATIO MMES MMEN OGRA R P RECO E C A P S PUBLIC

K TOOL

p. 131

IT

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

PART 01

PART 02

YSIS NS ANAL DATIO MMES MMEN O OGRA C R E P R E C A P S PUBLIC

K TOOL

PART 03

IT

MEN IMPLE

TATIO

N PLA

N

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

K TOOL introduction.indd 3

GEHL Architects have been the responsible consultants for the development of Part 01. Landscape Projects have been responsible for delivery of Part 02 and 03.

IT

TATIO

N PLA

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19-04-2007 10:44:55


Foreword We are lucky to live in such a special city. Our diverse blend of residents, our outstanding attractions, our world-famous cultural heritage and our magnificent location all combine to make Brighton & Hove the unique place it is. Sometimes, however, our streets and public spaces do not do our city justice. Over the last few decades the balance of street design has swung too far in favour of lorries and cars, often at the expense of residents and our environment. Streets are cluttered, there are few places to rest and enjoy being in the city, and our historic buildings are hidden away behind road signs and crash barriers. The City Council wants to redress this imbalance by aiming for a high quality city environment, built around a human scale, that accommodates the needs of all people.

With this in mind, I am delighted to be able to introduce this new study, Public Life, Public Space, which has been commissioned from two of the world’s leading experts in urban space, Gehl Architects and Landscape Projects. This study, and the information it contains, sets out an objective assessment of public space in our city today, and describes its future potential.

I see this document as a turning point in our city’s history. The recommendations in this report are not a ‘quick fix’ – they are a vision to be realised over many years. The vision will require longterm support. Copenhagen’s programme of urban space improvement, referred to in this report, took forty years of slow, steady progress, under administrations of different political complexions.

Some of the findings in this study make for uncomfortable reading, but this fresh and objective view of the city tells it like it is, and I think it presents a great opportunity to change our existing approach and realise the opportunities we have.

[The Council will shortly be publishing its response to the study, setting out how we want to take forward this vision for the city’s public space, and identifying some of the first steps on our journey. I hope that everyone in the city will join me in welcoming this vital report, and in making a longterm commitment to the implementation of its vision.]

Our streets should be places for people to meet, spend time and enjoy all that our wonderful city has to offer. They should enable us and our visitors to move safely, quickly and easily around the city.

Councillor Gill Mitchell Chair of Brighton & Hove City Council Environment Committee January 2007

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introduction

overall aim

Process - How to read this document A better city for people

HIGH QUALITY PUBLIC REALM A BETTER CITY

The overall aim There is more focus than ever before on applying the human perspective to city planning. Cities all over the world are rediscovering their public spaces along with an awareness of the need for dignified, high-quality city environments.

legibility

High quality public space

Legibility

Diverse public life

Well balanced traffic network

orienterbar aflæselig hieraki analysis netværk

ng city public realm erachy work

The City Council has initiated this study to improve the legibility of Brighton & Hove. Improving people’s sense of orientation and understanding of their environment starts with improving the public realm.

process vision

bedre for mennesker

Improved pedestrian environment

recommendations bedre bymiljø

Seminar + Public Lecture: “Winning back Public Space”

Workshop 1

Define scope, principles for improvement

Workshop 2

Present further analysis, discuss recommendations, consider space programmes

space programme

Workshop 3 tool kit

Work Processes - examining current methods

Workshop 4 implementation Plan

The overall goal is not only to improve the legibility, but also the quality of the public realm and the “liveability” of Brighton & Hove in general. The aim is to create a better city for people. The city should be easy to navigate and move around in; inviting and attractive. The city’s public spaces should be places where people want to enjoy the day to day activities of everyday life.

Process The study draws on extensive research and analyses to make recommendations for improving the city’s network of streets and spaces. The study reflects local knowledge and experience as well as national and international best practice.

Implementation, elements of the tool kit

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introduction

Public Life and Public Space Reasons for studying public life in cities Need for people data As most cities have excellent statistics on traffic flows and parking patterns, issues relating to traffic and parking are generally well represented in planning processes. Very few cities however, have data on how people use the city as pedestrians! This study assesses the quality of the city as seen from a pedestrian perspective to provide insight into how the city’s public spaces actually function.

Special people conditions Brighton & Hove has a population of approximately 250,000 and welcomes more than 8 million visitors each year. The high number of people using the city makes it even more important to understand pedestrian activity and ensure pedestrian needs are reflected in future strategies and developments impacting on the public realm.

247,500

8 mill. Brighton & Hove: 8 million visitors and 247,500 inhabitants!

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introduction

Ideology The human body is the basis

5’7”

5km/h

Studying the city at human scale The study aims to collect information regarding public space quality, analyse Brighton & Hove at “eye level” and make this information easily accessible to residents, politicians, city planners, developers, landowners, business associations and other groups who work to improve the quality of the city. The study will help target and measure the impact of future improvements, identify changes in the way people use areas and increase general public awareness of the quality of the public realm. The qualitative analysis of public space in this study has been undertaken from the pedestrian perspective.

72°

On average, people walk at a pace of 5 kilometres per hour. We experience the city through delicate senses. We focus on surroundings viewed at an angle of 72 degrees from eye level. When walking through a city it will therefore be things at ground floor – or eye level - which are most likely to hold our attention. These things are crucial to the legibility of the city as well as to our overall impression of city quality.

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introduction

Start with the visions for public life Activities in cities To understand Urban Quality, we need to understand the relationship between cities and people.

Necessary activities

The activities taking place in a city can be divided into 3 categories:

The things that have to be done: Going to school, waiting for the bus, shopping and going to work. These activities occur regardless of the quality of the physical environment because people are compelled to carry them out.

A Good City provides good conditions for the many necessary activities and will retain and strengthen these activities over time.

- NECESSARY ACTIVITIES - OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES - SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

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When urban quality is poor, the number of social or optional (pleasure) activities are low. People limit the things they do in the city to necessary activities, such as going to work or shopping. Monitoring the number of optional and social activities taking place is a good way of assessing the urban quality of an area.

Connections between activities and quality When urban quality is high, one will find necessary activities taking place alongside a multitude of optional and social activities. In Brighton & Hove the vision is to create a high quality environment which invites people to take part in optional and social activities. It is not only the number of people in the city which is important, but also the length of time they spend there. A good city can be compared to a good party - people stay for much longer than they planned if they are enjoying themselves!

Optional activities (urban recreation) Activities people are tempted to do when climatic conditions, surroundings and the place are generally inviting and attractive. These activities are especially sensitive to quality. They only occur when quality is high.

optional and social activities are key to city life quality

A Good City is characterized by a multitude of optional activities. People come to town, find the places attractive and stay for a longer time. A great, attractive city can always be recognised by the fact that many people choose to spend time in its public spaces.

Social activities These activities occur whenever people move about in the same spaces. Watching, listening, interacting with other people, passive and active participation. A Good City offers a wide range of necessary as well as attractive optional activities, and because many people use the city, there are many people to meet, watch and speak to. The city becomes a lively and wonderful city. A people city.

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introduction

THE 12 KEY QUALITY CRITERIA

PROTECTION

The 12 Quality Criteria Protection against traffic and accidents - feeling safe

Protection against crime and violence - feeling secure

Protection against unpleasant sensory Experiences

-Protections for pedestrians -Eliminating fear of traffic

-Lively public realm -Eyes on the street -Overlapping functions day and night -Good lighting

-Wind -Rain/snow -Cold/heat -Pollution -Dust, noise, glare

Oppotunities to walk

Oppotunities to stand/stay

Oppotunities to sit

-Room for walking -Interesting facades -No obstacles -Good surfaces -Accessibility for everyone

-Edge effect/attractive zones for standing/staying -Supports for standing -Facades with good details that invite staying

ENJOYMENT

COMFORT

-

-Zones for sitting -Utilizing advantages: view, sun, people -Good places to sit -Benches for resting

Oppotunities to see

Oppotunities to walk and listen

Oppotunities for play and exercise

-Reasonable viewing distances -Unhindered views -Interesing views -Lighting (when dark)

-Low noise lewels -Street furniture that provides ‘talkscapes’

-Physical activity, exercise -Play and street entertainment -By day and night -In summer and winter

Scale

Oppotunities to enjoy the positive aspects of climate

Positive sensory experience

-Buildings and spaces designed to human scale

-Sun/shade -Heat/coolness -Shelter from wind/breeze

-Good design and detailing -Good materials -Fine views -Trees, plants, water

A good design checklist Attractive public spaces provide room for optional and social activities. How is it possible to transform the vision of an attractive public realm into actual physical spaces? Analyses of existing well functioning public spaces throughout the world shows that they share common characteristics. Gehl Architects have categorised and summarised these characteristics in the ‘12 quality criteria’ on this page. Public spaces must be inviting, attractive, and provide room for recreation, pleasure, exercise, play etc. They must be able to attract a broad variety of people, so that children, teenagers, adults, the elderly and people with special needs all feel welcome. If public spaces are very attractive one can, in fine weather, expect necessary, optional and social activities to take place. Good public spaces reflect the majority, if not all of the 12 quality criteria. As such the list of criteria provides a good design checklist. This study uses the 12 quality criteria in the analysis, recommendation and space programme chapters.

as published in “New City Life”, Gehl, Gemzøe, Kirknæs and Søndergaard, The Danish Architectural Press, 2006

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introduction

Reconquer Brighton and Hove Two directions in city planning Despite the renewed interest in the human dimension, there still exist two opposite approaches to city planning. In the invaded cities, walking and public life is disappearing as vehicular traffic reigns supreme. People move in isolated climates from garages to private cars to parking structures. In the abandoned cities, walking and public life have become completely phased out. Many cities in North America suffer from this approach. In other cities, the reconquered cities, public life is carefully supported by the introduction of good pedestrian environments. These supplement the private life spheres with well-functioning public domains which invite people to walk more and stay longer in the public realm. Reconquering the city Throughout the world, people respond eagerly and enthusiastically to new opportunities for participating in pleasure activities in public spaces. This indicates that the walking environments and other types of public spaces where people can meet are important assets in present day society. In a world being steadily privatised public spaces are gaining in importance. The analyses in this study show that Brighton & Hove is currently dominated by vehicular traffic. Therefore the goal is to reclaim the public spaces in the city and create a better balance between traffic modes.

THE ABANDONED CITY Spokane, Washington, USA

THE INVADED CITY Westport, Ireland

THE RECONQUERED CITY ? Brighton & Hove

The chance and potential is here, but will it be explored? What are the dreams of the future? How can Brighton and Hove become a high quality city that puts people first?

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introduction

Reconquer Brighton and Hove EXEMPLARY STRATEGIES TO RECONQUER OUR CITIES Unified policy for quality and vitality in city streets. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Melbourne is Australia’s second largest city. Its history, street pattern and mix of high and low buildings in the city centre are reminiscent of many other large cities. However, where other cities have surrendered their streets to the automobile and developed indoor shopping malls, Melbourne decided to keep its streets as the city’s most important public spaces. The city undertook extensive renovation of pavements and street furniture, and reinforced its status as a green city. Thus Melbourne has ensured that its streets invite people to walk.

Renovation of public space and public transport Strasbourg, France In only a decade (starting in 1990) Strasbourg carried out an extensive urban renewal project. The conditions for city life, cyclists and public transport have been improved dramatically, while car traffic has been markedly reduced. A linear public space policy introduced an elegant new tram line, which inspired the renovation of squares and streets along its route. Constructing the line paved the way for public space improvements both in the centre and on the outskirts of the city.

The qualities of a good city In the future Brighton & Hove should be able to include the following qualities as a part of its many attractions : A Good City to walk in and to stay in • Room to walk with ease and comfort • Built environment that accentuates positive aspects of climate • Pleasant facades at street level to stroll alongside • Good conditions for people with special needs • Clear structure in the pedestrian system • Well designed footpath with few interruptions • Few and short waiting times at intersections • Widespread seating possibilities

A Good City for social and cultural exchanges • Space for cultural activities and communication • Space for spontaneous activities • Democratic public spaces for all

A Good City for talking, and experiencing • Low level of noise and few disturbances (in certain city areas) • Intimate public spaces • Fine views and good details

A lively, diverse and safe city to move around in Visionary thinking and pioneering public space policy. Barcelona, Spain For the past two decades, Barcelona has been the most important source of inspiration for architects, landscape architects, urban planners and politicians. Barcelona has been both radical and imaginative in implementing its public space policy. Nowhere else in the world can the viewer see so many different examples of new parks and squares with so much exuberance and experimentation in their design.

• A wide variety of uses throughout the day/week/year • ‘Many eyes on the street’ conveying a sense of safety and security • Safe places and streets both day and night.

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introduction

The Copenhagen development The gradual development of pedestrian areas in the heart of Copenhagen from 1962-2005.

Copenhagen as a case study This section describes the developments in Copenhagen city centre, where for 40 years a ‘step by step’ policy has sought to turn a car-oriented city into a people-oriented one. The catalyst for this development was strong public demand at a time when fuel prices and taxes on private cars were rising.

99,770 95,750 First pedestrian promenade in 1962: 15,800 m2.

82,820

Developments have included stopping through traffic, reducing the number of car parking spaces in the city centre and increasing the amount of space set aside for pedestrian activities. Since 1962, when the first pedestrian scheme was introduced, space allocated to car free streets and squares has risen from 15,000 m² to 100,000 m². These physical changes have been the background for a dramatic increase in the number of people using and enjoying the city. In Copenhagen the benefits of these changes have been monitored over three decades.

66,150

49,200

By 1973, the network of pedestrian streets connected the most important locations in the city centre: 49,200 m2. 22,860 15,800

1962

1968

1973

1988

1992

1996

2005

The graph shows the development of pedestrian areas in the parts of the inner city where studies have been conducted from 1962-2005. The numbers indicate m2

The network of car-free streets and squares in 2005: 99,770 m2.

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introduction

What Brighton can learn from Copenhagen

FIRST PEDESTRIANISED STREET In 1963 Strøget was the first street in Copenhagen to be convertedton a pedestrianised street. > 1960 Strøget was invaded by cars. City life was forced onto narrow pavements with minimal pedestrian activities. >> Today Strøget is a mixed recreational, and one of the most popular streets in Copenhagen.

FIRST SHARED SURFACE Strædet marked the introduction of a new type of city street in Copenhagen. > Only 8-11 metres wide this street used to carry quite heavy traffic, including several bus lines.

No masterplan The interesting part of the Copenhagen story is that the development in the inner city was not based on one overall master plan. The development of the public spaces was a slow process that took place over several decades - but with a clear vision and enthusiastic city architects at the helm. Incremental change The first lesson to be learned is that this sort of development takes time. It is therefore crucial to develop a set of tools and a well functioning process on how the ideas are taken from the vision, over the implementation to maintenance.

>> In 1989, it was experimentally reclassified as a shared street (a street where pedestrians and bicycles have priority, but where cars may enter at low speed).

FROM CAR PARK TO RECREATIONAL SQUARE In 1954 these two squares were one big parking space. > The conversion to recreational squares was a two stage process. In 1962 the first square was transformed. >> In 1992 the other square followed. Today the squares are completely free of cars

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introduction

• Workshop 1 Define scope, principles for improvement

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introduction

Visions formulated during workshops with the City of Brighton & Hove. These visions are the overall goals of this study. Process of creating a better city and improving urban living Develop a new culture of political understanding incorporating quality of public space / urban realm + public life Embrace diversity - of the city’s people as well as its destinations Create an inclusive place for all, residents and visitors alike

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• Analysis introduction

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analysis city scale & local scale

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introduction

Analysis introduction Similar problems on all scales A city dominated by traffic The analysis is focused on the way people, both residents and visitors, spend their time in and move around Brighton & Hove. The findings show that Brighton & Hove experiences similar problems at local, district and city scale caused by vehicular traffic overpowering streets and neighbourhoods. Similarly, a lack of consistency and quality of streets and spaces is a persistent problem at both city and local scale.

LANDSCAPE - DISTRICTS

MOVEMENT

How to read the analysis The analysis begins on the wider city scale and investigates the relationship between the core city centre and its surroundings. The City scale analysis has three focal themes - Landscape, Districts and Movement. The second part of the analysis begins to focus on the inner city and is therefore called Local scale. The focal themes in this part of the analysis are Movement and Spaces.

SPACES

The last pages of the analysis summarise Brighton & Hove’s current problems. This section is followed by recommendations aimed at transforming Brighton & Hove.

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introduction

Analysis introduction The basic mental map The natural elements, the built environment, the streets, squares and open spaces all help to define and make cities legible. The organisation of these elements contribute to a “mental map” of the area that each person relies on to find their way around the city. South Downs London University Marina The pavilion Station

Valley Gardens

Whilst local inhabitants generally already have a good knowledge of their city, their mental map can be enhanced by improving the city’s urban form and creating greater variety and character. Visitors approach cities with definite expectations of attractions. These ideas will be formed from social experience and/or information services and will produce images of urban areas.

Lanes

Hove Brighton Pier Victorian villas

The basic visitor mental map of Brighton & Hove is strongly related to the seafront, the Pavilion Estate and the narrow streets in the inner city. The core of Brighton city centre is strongly represented on people’s mental map but for many visitors, Hove centre is less clear.

Pebbled beach

West pier

The need for a clearer mental map The aim is to strengthen the mental map by creating distinct destinations and clarifying routes. Both Brighton and Hove should be represented on the mental map in the future. New attractive destinations should be introduced, leaving a picture of a vivid public realm in the minds of both locals and visitors.

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• Development in relation to topography • Open space

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analysis city scale 路 landscape

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A N A L Y S I S 路 c i t y s c al e 路 lan d s c a p e

Development in relation to topography Sea and land constraining city +100

Brighton & Hove has been shaped by the curving coastline to the south, and the shallow slopes of the Downs to the north. Until the 19th century, the city was built on low ground, and connected to its hinterland by roads which mainly traversed the high ground. In the 19th century, with the arrival of the railways, and later buses and cars, the city expanded dramatically. Urban development crept up the slopes in successive waves of suburban streets. Today these outer districts are disconnected from the core of the city and the seafront. In the mid 20th century, the establishment of downland protection policies at the periphery of the city has effectively halted the expansion of the city, which is now re-developing on brownfield and other sites within the city core.

+75 +50 +25

+0 Road development in relation to topography Dyke Road ancient trackway

1100-1750

1900-1945

Ditchling Road ancient trackway

1750-1840

1945-2001

Old Shoreham Road - Elm Grove and further along the ridge, Roman coastal road

1840-1900

proposed Developments

Church Hill through Patcham along the Wellesbourne river down to Old Steine, Pool Valley and the seafront.

Until the 18th Century the town remained confined to the area between East Street, West Street, North Street and the sea.

When the railway and later the car were introduced it was possible to expand areas which were previously not deemed suitable

Post war development included large expansion of social housing estates, climbing up the hills signified by long, winding streets and cul de sacs.

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A N A L Y S I S 路 c i t y s c al e 路 lan d s c a p e

open space Corridors of public space define the city

South Downs

Brighton & Hove has been shaped by the curving coastline to the south, and the shallow slopes of the Downs to the north. Until the 19th century, the city was built on low ground, and connected to its hinterland by roads which mainly traversed the high ground. In the 19th century, with the arrival of the railways, and later buses and cars, the city expanded dramatically. Urban development crept up the slopes in successive waves of suburban streets. Today these outer districts are disconnected from the core of the city and the seafront as they lack multiple public transit and vehicular links. In the mid 20th century, the establishment of downland protection policies at the periphery of the city has effectively halted the expansion of the city, which is now re-developing on brownfield and other sites within the city core.

Brighton & Hove city boundary

Local scale study areas

English Channel

p r o b l e m

p r o b l e m

Undefined edge between urban and countryside areas

p r o b l e m Connection with the surrounding landscape brings quality to districts

Disconnected green space

p r o b l e m

The sea, the largest public space is not so easily accessible for everyone

Sparse and inconsistent tree planting

Constrained connection and uniform conditions along the seafront

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• Area characteristics • Urban structure

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analysis city scale 路 districts

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A N A L Y S I S · c i t y s c al e · d is t r i c t s

area characteristics Diffuse boundaries Diffuse boundaries The city has a clear identity. Brighton & Hove is a compact city of 8,267 hectares (85 square kilometres). Overall, the general local perception is that the city has a clear sense of identity. Lack of clear districts Within the city, however, the sense of place is less clear; residents perceive their city as a collection of districts, each with distinctive differences. The map to the right is an assessment of the district boundaries of the city. Some areas are well defined, while others overlap. Where districts lack identity and clear boundaries, visitors find navigation confusing. Disconnected city areas Many of the peripheral districts of the city, particularly those built in the mid-20th century, show higher levels of deprivation. Local studies show that these districts often lack a sense of place, are disconnected (physically and culturally) from the city, the seafront and other landmarks, and have limited connections to major transport routes. p r o b l e m

p r o b l e m

Deprived districts lacking sense of place and facilities

City centre district All other districts Areas of deprivation *’NDC and EB4U documentation’

distinct districts

p r o b l e m

Disconnection of districts due to topography, infrastructure corridors and development of large estates

Poor public environment with racetrack streets

diffuse boundaries

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A N A L Y S I S 路 c i t y s c al e 路 d is t r i c t s

urban structure Nodes, barriers and landmarks Navigating in the city Movement into and through the city is constrained by topography and the limited east-west routes. Railway lines, the A23 and the A27 form major barriers, reinforcing the city centre as the major traffic hub. The transition from periphery to the centre of the city is often confusing, particularly from the north and west, where there are few landmarks to assist with orientation. However, the extensive greenspace and the skyline of the Downs visible from the road and rail corridors make an attractive entry sequence to the city.

Brighton Station

Hove Station

Churchill Square

Orientation in the city centre Close to the city centre, glimpses of the sea provide a natural sense of place. Frequent significant buildings and easily recognisable landmarks make the Brighton & Hove city centre relatively easy to navigate. Whilst arrival points by public transport are conveniently located, the quality of these urban spaces, and their connections with the main destinations, is poor.

Pool Valley

Series of parks

Main gateway arrivals

Barriers

Intermediate landmarks

Nodes - arrival points

Prominent building

Seafront vistas

p r o b l e m

p r o b l e m

? ? ?

p r o b l e m

? Bedding plant welcome greeting next to London Road roundabout.

Railway and topography creating separation barriers but also landmarks

Brighton Station has 10,400,000 passengers per year

No or poor gateway feature/ welcome

Inconsistent provision of legible features between city centre and motorway

Lack of function and poor information by nodes

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• • • • • •

Moving to and inside Brighton & Hove Destinations Car journeys Public transport services Cycling and walking in the city Congestion and disconnection

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analysis city scale 路 movement

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A N A L Y S I S · c i t y s c al e · m o v e m e n t

moving to and inside brighton

45 minutes to LONDON

Regular and irregular patterns Heathrow

Many pleasure visits Despite being compact, Brighton & Hove is a remarkably mobile city. As well as 250,000 residents, there are over 8 million visitors and seasonal workers to move around each year. (LDF: core strategy-issues and options p8). Almost half these movements take place using cars. Almost all visits are for pleasure, with the largest majority of visits to just 4 destinations, at the heart of the city. City centre arterial roads experience massive fluctuations in traffic volume as a result. Although the city has an excellent bus network, Park and Ride systems in Brighton & Hove have yet to achieve the impact on city centre congestion as they have in, for example, Cambridge and Oxford. Commuting patterns are much more predictable. Residents use a wide variety of transport modes within the city. The majority of people commuting from the city travel to work in London, Gatwick and Croydon and make good use of the train.

M25

M23 Gatwick

M27

A23 Hastings

Chichester

Brighton & Hove Eastbourne

LK WA 17%

95% approx.

BUS 12%

Commuting to and from Brighton&Hove

AIN 8% OTHE R 3% BIKE 3%

In 28,000

48%

visit for pleasure*

TR

Out 33,500

M HO

CAR M/C

% E9

*‘Lifting the lid of the city’ midnight communications 2005

Modal split of transport to work within the City (Census 2001)

> 60% The Lanes Brighton Pier/ The Beach The North Laines Churchill Square

30% Brighton Marina Kemp Town Royal Pavilion < 10% Hove centre Everything else * ’AB �������������� Research’ �������������� Joseph Harding

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A N A L Y S I S · c i t y s c al e · m o v e m e n t

destinations An uneven spread Everyday destinations The spread of destinations in the city is different for visitors and residents. Residents make daily visits to a network of local centres broadly spread across the city. Leisure destinations Visitor destinations are concentrated to a limited number of major attractions. These attractions are mostly clustered along the seafront and in the city centre.

Withdean Stadium Park and ride Sainsburys

Parking Car park provision reflects this pattern. Car parking in the city centre is at a premium. The current off-street car parking capacity within the city centre is around 5,400 publicly available spaces, many of which are concentrated in and around the Lanes and Churchill Square. The fact that car parks are embedded in the city centre contributes to congestion, as visitors arriving by car queue to enter the city core. Relocating car parks to the edge of the city centre would relieve this problem.

Cricket Ground

leisure destinations

King Alfred Mall

everyday destinations city parking

Palace Pier Brighton Marina

countryside parking

30% almost

find it difficult to locate parking*

p r o b l e m

* ‘AB Research’ Joseph Harding Everyday destinations are spread evenly across the city

Leisure destinations and parking are centred around Brighton City Centre and the seafront

Parking mainly located in City Centre

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A N A L Y S I S · c i t y s c al e · m o v e m e n t

car journeys An unequal distribution

More than 60%

Reasons for congestion The city has some unusual topographic conditions which have constrained transport options. The hilly nature of the area means that north-south traffic flows are focused on a limited number of corridors, which consequently experience congestion and localised air quality problems. East-west movements are similarly constrained leading to a focus on the seafront and city centre. Over-reliance on car Despite the congestion, there is an over-reliance on car transport. Overall, two-thirds of car trips take place wholly within the city. 69% of tourists use their car to travel to Brighton & Hove. Residents in outlying districts employ various strategies (such as “rat-running” – using residential streets as high speed shortcuts) to avoid congestion within the city. Surveys show that less than half (41%) of visitors felt that road signage in the city was adequate. (AB research Joseph Harding)

p r o b l e m

26-39%

Lewes/A27 Chichester/A27

A23

Percentage of commuter trips made by car 30% of households do not own a car A259 Main car routes to and from Brighton & Hove simplified �������������

sid

e

ou

in

t

Two thirds of car trips are wholly within the city

travel to work by car*

*‘Census 2001’

Congested few routes into the City Centre

A270

A259

48%

p r o b l e m

London/M25

50 40 30 20 10 0 Avoid known congestion spots

Timing your journey to quieter Periods

Taking a longer distance route

Avoiding main roads in Brighton & Hove

other

* Actions taken to avoid transport problems. A sizeable number of respondents took evasive action in trying to avoid potential transport problems on their journey to and through Brighton & Hove 22 of 100 respondents choosing to avoid known congestion spots. However only 9 of 100 avoided main roads in Brighton & Hove, suggesting few are familiar with the main roads. ‘AB research’ Joseph Harding

Insufficient and unclear destination signage

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A N A L Y S I S · c i t y s c al e · m o v e m e n t

London Croydon Gatwick Haywards Heath Burgess Hill

public transport services Popular network with congestion in the city centre 2km 1km

Lewes Newhaven Eastbourne Hastings

2km 1km

Falmer

Preston Park Moulsecoomb

2km

1km

Worthing Chichester

Fishergate

Portslade W. Hove

Hove

Aldrington

Buses contribute to congestion The bus network in the city is extensive. 12% of Brightonians use the bus network to commute. The priority bus routes provide frequent services across the city; however, most bus routes cross the city centre, contributing to extreme congestion at major junctions such as the Clock Tower. Consideration should be given to introducing loop bus routes, with a circulating bus connecting city edge drop-off points.

London Road

Brighton More than 50% of the city lies within a 2km reach of the train network making areas like Portslade and Falmer well connected to the city and beyond. Brighton Station is an extreme node with more than 10 million passengers per year, putting pressure on functional space (Infrastructure capacity study draft, Peter Brett associates)

centre

Good use of train There is an extensive public transport network in Brighton & Hove. Train use is more than twice that of similar British cities. Brighton Station, with over 10 million passenger movements per year, is under an hour from London and connections to the continent and major airports. The rail network connects the southern and north-eastern districts of the city. However, outlying areas are less well connected. Brighton Rail Station is by far the busiest on the network.

8%

travel to work by train. more than double compared to England*

p r o b l e m

*‘Census 2001’ Due to the restraining seafront location there is a unique public transport movement, which means all services converge on North Street causing congestion.

Most other cities have built up a circular bus route system avoiding routes through the sensitive centre

Over-reliance on city centre to connect outlying districts

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A N A L Y S I S · c i t y s c al e · m o v e m e n t

cycling and walking in the city Incomplete networks Great potential to increase cycling Cycling and walking are becoming increasingly popular in Brighton & Hove. Cycle use in the city increased by 50% between 1991 and 2001, despite an incomplete network of designated routes. Since then the provision of public cycle storage at the Seafront, Victoria Gardens and Lewes Road, and further extensions of designated routes have made the city more attractive to cyclists. However, only 2.7% of Brightonians currently cycle to work. Need to improve walking routes 17% of people walk to work. The dense city centre makes it convenient for pedestrians to walk short distances. Along the Education Corridor (Lewes Road) connecting the Universities and Colleges, walking activity is high. Walking for pleasure is also popular within the city, with visitors making good use of the seafront, and residents making over 30 million visits to the South Downs. However, the pedestrian network is incomplete, and often dominated by busy, congested roads.

main designated cycle routes

countryside walking routes

disconnections in the existing cycle network

seaside walking route highest pedestrian count outside core city centre (1996 pedestrian cordon)

missing designated cycle routes

p r o b l e m

2.7% only

cycle to work*

*‘Census 2001’

17% commute to work by walking. This figure is high, double if compared to other coastal town such as Bournemouth, Poole and Hull and can be explained by high density of housing and low level of car ownership. (Census 2001)

The walking and cycling network is incomplete

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A N A L Y S I S 路 c i t y s c al e 路 m o v e m e n t

congestion and disconnection Confusing junctions Overall, Brighton & Hove has a distinctive city structure, shaped by its surroundings. The city, however, lacks permeability in terms of offering a variety of quality routes into the city, and this has resulted in an over-reliance on a few key links for movement within the city. Each route leads to a confusing multi-way junction (such as Seven Dials and the Vogue Gyratory) where signage is generally poor. This makes navigation for visitors confusing, which, when combined with the amount of traffic, increases congestion on a few main routes and in the city centre. Lack of connections The lack of permeability also leaves peripheral districts disconnected from the city as a whole. Some outer estates have very limited links to the rest of the city, which contribute towards a sense of detachment amongst their residents.

confusing junctions

good

poor entrances to the city

p r o b l e m

p r o b l e m

missing links/information peak hour/seasonal congestion A lot of information to take in at Vogue gyratory

Array of signs to read and follow

poor Movement towards city centre

Junctions are difficult to negotiate

Characterless main corridors

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• • • • • • • • • •

Study areas for local scale Designing for cars and not people Highway design in the city Bus traffic Cycling environment Pedestrian movement 01 Pedestrian movement 02 Public space network Getting across Getting along

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analysis local scale 路 movement Highway Design in the City

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Hove Station

analysis · local scale · Movement

Study areas for local scale

r.

HOVE

ge St

The overall study area is broken down into two core areas, one in Hove and one in Brighton. Both areas contain a centre; Brighton’s being the busier. Both areas are multifunctional, containing commercial cores as well as business districts. They are main destinations in the overall city fabric and centres for traffic and public transport.

Geor

The local scale section of the study focuses on a 2m² area. The size of the study area has been selected to enable meaningful comparison with other cities around the world.

New Chu

rch Road

Kings Wa

y

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analysis 路 local scale 路 Movement

Study areas for local scale Whilst the two areas share similarities, they are also very different, having specific local characteristics, problems and potentials.

Brighton Station

BRIGHTON

Trafalg a

Gloces

Quee ad

The North Laine

Chur

h Str .

Road

West S tr

Royal Pavilion Gardens

The Lanes

East St.

Road

The local scale study will investigate the individual potentials of each area along with connections between the two. Focusing on the connections is crucial if the city of Brighton & Hove is to be experienced as ONE city rather than two adjacent ones.

ch S tr. New

Nor t

K i ngs

Brighton & Hove was once two separate towns, but recently attained city status as one unified city. The separation, however, is still visible.

Valley Gardens

oad

oad

Road

d

North R

ns Ro

eR Dy k

Western

ter Roa

Generally speaking, Hove is a predominantly residential neighbourhood while Brighton city centre is more commercial in nature and receives higher numbers of out of town visitors.

r St.

Old

St. Jam

S te

p r o b l e m

es St.

ine Ma r i n

e P ro

mena

de

Study area

Brighton is regional and Hove is local.

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analysis · local scale · Movement

Designing for cars and not people

1 in 4 find it difficult to drive in Brighton*

60 km/hour versus 5 km/hour Brighton & Hove’s public realm is designed for vehicles traveling at 60km/hour, not the slow moving pedestrians that share the city with motorists. Traffic signs are prominent and traffic intersections are confusing. Even maps in Brighton Rail Station highlight car routes. The needs of the motorist are prioritised throughout the city, whilst the pedestrian is left to navigate in a world where the car is King. The result is a public realm that is confusing and uninviting for the slow moving animal, homo sapien, moving at 5km/hour and at an average height of 5’-7”

* AB Research Joseph Harding

HOVE

13,141 cars daily 1635 buses daily

p r o b l e m

21,155 cars daily 25 buses daily

All figures indicate daily volume bus traffic - total vehicular traffic - total

The city is planned prioritising motorists over pedestrians & cyclists

Infringing on pedestrian territory

Note: The Bus and car volume figures indicated are provided by Brighton and Hove City Council. The figures cover a 24 hour period.

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Infringing on Pedestrian’s territory

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analysis · local scale · Movement

Highway Design in the City Transportation arteries or barriers for pedestrian movement?

20,522 cars daily

31,460 cars daily 850 buses daily

2,303 cars daily

BRIGHTON

5,048 cars daily 900 buses daily

y ly

20,522 cars daily 1,700 buses daily 8,343 cars daily 3050 buses daily

425 cars daily 277 cars daily

775 buses daily

Poor east/west connections Whilst facilitating vehicular movement through Brighton & Hove, main traffic routes divide the city for pedestrians. The Valley Gardens exemplify the problems this can cause. Because of dominant highway design, the Valley Gardens form a barrier dividing Brighton from Kemptown and the area has become one of the more heavily congested parts of the city. The interesting part though is that the volume of vehicular traffic is far from the carrying capacity of Valley Gardens – meaning that it should be possible to reduce the space allocated for vehicular traffic and transform Valley Gardens into a high quality city boulevard for people as well as cars. Poor north/south connections Although Western Road/ North Street/ St. James Street are not examples of local streets designed as highways, the routes definitely act as a barrier for pedestrian movement. Despite serving a relatively low number of vehicles, this east/west connection divides the city into northern and southern sections. p r o b l e m

28, 748 cars daily Highway design in the CITY

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travel daily along North street

Bus congestion Brighton & Hove has a comprehensive and well-connected bus system. In 2005 80% of the population lived within a 15 minute walk of a bus stop. But there are also some negative consequences of this extensive network. Certain streets are subject to bus congestion that fills the street environment with a constant barrage of noise and fumes.

Western Road 1635 buses daily

We are all pedestrians It is important to remember that time on the bus represents only a portion of the experience for bus users. For the rest of their journey, public transport patrons are pedestrians. Therefore the quality of the bus system should not be judged by the bus journey alone, but also by the net effect that bus traffic has on the public realm and on the walking environment. Often the quality of the public spaces linked to important bus stops or bus routes is poor.

?

?

p r o b l e m

ns

ortant

3,000 buses

Ga rd e

s only est of rians. udged t that alking

Bus Traffic

Va lle y

wellfrom e also work. ollute noise

analysis 路 local scale 路 Movement

Bus grid lock in the city centre

A poor pedestrian environment in relation to important bus routes or bus stops.

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analysis 路 local scale 路 Movement

Bus traffic Lewes Road 850 buses daily

Queens Road 900 buses daily

y

Pavilion Parade 1700 buses daily

North Street 3050 buses daily

St. James Street 775 buses daily Kings Road 25 buses daily

Note:

Bus grid lock divides the city Over 3000 buses travel along North Street daily. The result is often a queue of buses that form a wall of traffic along North Street, negatively affecting this vital street in a variety of ways. The amount of traffic hinders pedestrian movement through an area that should provide high quality connections between locations such as the North Laine, Pavilion, Lanes and seafront. The buses also obstruct the visual connections from prominent sites on either side of the street. North Street as a barrier The congestion on North Street also negatively affects the environment of the street itself for the thousands of people that move east and west along this main route. Vehicle noise makes it difficult to hear the person walking next to you. Narrow footpaths are often crowded and difficult to navigate, whilst people waiting at the undersized bus stops infringe on the space allocated for pedestrian movement. p r o b l e m

Poor North/ South connections

The Bus volume figures indicated are provided by Brighton and Hove City Council. The figures cover a 24 hour period.

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analysis · local scale · Movement

HOVE

Cycling Environment Navigating complicated terrain Great potential to increase cycling Brighton & Hove is home to a large contingent of cycle enthusiasts, and the city has undertaken considerable efforts to improve cycling conditions in the city. But more can be done. As the diagram to the right shows, the cycle network is still quite fragmented and incomplete, meaning that whilst cyclists can move safely and comfortably in certain parts of the city, other areas are perceived as dangerous. Street layout for cyclists Cycling in Brighton & Hove is also complicated by inconsistent cycle lane placement. Dedicated cycle lanes are sometimes on the left hand side of the road, at other times on the right hand side. Cyclists are sometimes directed to share pavement areas with pedestrians and at other times to share the road with vehicles. In general the message sent to cyclists is that their needs are not prioritised. Rather they are allocated whatever space is left over when everyone else’s needs have been accommodated.

Official cycle route Missing Routes 4-5 Percent cycling to work, where as only 3-4 Percent bicycle to work in the unmarked area.

The cycle network is often disrupted

Note: The Bicycle volume figures indicated are provided by Brighton and Hove City Council.

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analysis 路 local scale 路 Movement

BRIGHTON

Cycling Environment Space for everyone? Cycle parking In general cyclists seem to be at odds with both motorists and pedestrians. A lack of proper cycle parking leads to bicycles parked in inappropriate places that cause frustration on the part of cyclists and irritation on the part of shop owners, city maintenance workers, and pedestrians. Need for consistent use of policies A concerted effort to adopt more consistent cycling policies will not only improve conditions for cyclists, but also for the public realm as a whole. Motorists, pedestrians and cyclists will benefit from clear and coherent zones for movement in which each mode of transport is given ample room to safely and comfortably navigate the city. Bicycles are a good alternative to cars and public transport. If the aim is to reduce the number of cars - prioritising cyclists and their movement through the city holds an important key.

p r o b l e m

? ?

Incomplete bicycle network

Va lle y

Ga rd e

ns

?

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HOVE

analysis · local scale · Movement 5,412

Pedestrian Movement 01

106% approx

Summer weekday 10 am to 6 pm

more pedestrians than cars in North Street, Queens Road, Western Road

There is more to walking than walking Walking is first and foremost a type of transportation, but it also provides an opportunity to spend time in the public realm. Walking can be about experiencing the city at a comfortable pace, looking at shop windows, beautiful buildings, interesting views and other people.

12,672

7,203

The Public Life Public Space surveys conducted on July 12th and February 22nd 2006 examine how urban spaces are used and the extent that people walk in Brighton & Hove. They provide information on where people walk, either as part of their daily activities, or for recreational purposes. This information can form the basis on which to make future decisions on which streets and routes need to be improved.

General problems Walking demands space in which to walk freely without being obstructed by physical elements, vehicular traffic or other people. In Brighton & Hove, the pedestrian’s ability to walk comfortably is often compromised by vehicular traffic.

1,161

 The shortest route from A to B is often not dedicated to pedestrians  Pavements are sometimes lined with railings – that keep cars off the footways but fence in pedestrians  Pedestrians are subjected to unpleasant noise and fumes caused by vehicular traffic.

Pedestrian volume on a summer weekday from 10 AM to 6 PM Note: Figures for New Road are from 2005 Main routes

Daytime primary network

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analysis 路 local scale 路 Movement

Pedestrian Movement 01

BRIGHTON

6,354 16,098 4,122

9,852 7,704

11,040 4,566 10,764

7,584

540 12,642

18,420

16,884 6,690

14,028

Whilst these streets are also main vehicular routes, they accommodate significantly more pedestrian traffic than vehicular traffic. North Street 11,400 16,134 Queens Road 6,000 16,098 Western Road 14,776 18,420 The design of these streets, however, does not reflect the relative distribution of vehicular and pedestrian traffic volume. The streets are predominately designed for vehicles.

8,508 8,610

19,026

More people than vehicles The Public Space Public Life Surveys also begin to provide a quantitative hierarchy of pedestrian movement. The diagram here depicts pedestrian movement in the study area. The survey indicates that the heaviest pedestrian traffic occurs along Queens Road and Western Road, continuing into North Street.

Comparison to other cities of comparable size

16,134

Pedestrian volume on a summer weekday, between 10am and 6pm

5,112

7,140

Busiest Streets in:

5,958

14,706

13,686

13,350

Brighton & Hove (Population 250,00) Western Road: 18,420 Odense, Denmark (Population 185,000) Vestergade: 24, 680 Wellington, New Zealand (Population 179,000) Lambton Quay: 23,360

Potential to invite more pedestrians The relatively low number of pedestrians in Brighton & Hove indicates significant potential to improve pedestrian culture and increase the number of pedestrians utilising the public realm. brighton & Hove legibility study路 GEHL ARCHITECTS & landscape projects 路 P 047

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analysis · local scale · Movement 3.804

Pedestrian Movement 02 Summer weekend 10am - 6pm Walking for pleasure Any city can have heavy pedestrian traffic. People often need to walk between bus stops, car parks or rail stations and their final destinations. But a good indication of the quality of the pedestrian environment is the volume of pedestrian traffic when people don’t have to walk, but choose to do so because the public environment is enjoyable.

14,085

8,502

Comparing weekday and weekend pedestrian volume is a good way of determining which streets invite residents and visitors to spend time in the city, and which do not. The figures below indicate the change in pedestrian volume from the weekday to weekend. (timeframe: 10am to 6pm) A. Sydney Street 25% B. Gardner Street 55% C. Kensington Grds. 31% D . Gloucester Place E. Dyke Road F. St. James Street G. Trafalgar Street H. Jubilee Street

90% 305% 50% 56% 21%

1,440

Weekday network

Weekend network

Too few locals walk Of course certain roads such as Trafalgar Street and Dyke Road are simply more heavily used for commuting and it’s understandable that they experience more pedestrian traffic on a weekday. Such streets, however, should still offer an array of activities so as to encourage use at all times of the day and year.

Pedestrian volume on a summer weekend from 10 AM to 6PM Note: Figures for New Road are from 2005

Main routes

The number of people varies between weekday and weekend. The Lanes are more used in the weekends.

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analysis 路 local scale 路 Movement

Pedestrian movement 02

G

BRIGHTON

6,516

24,324 3,420 B

A

17,130 D

18,894

6,504 29,916

E

C

2,604

642 H

16,890

27,522

In the winter, The Lanes fail to attract local citizens and experiences a significant drop in footfall.

11,652

J

Changes in pedestrian traffic compared to a summer weekday between 10am and 6pm.

34,428

10,116

25,698

F

I

35,988

15,294 K

It is no surprise that this intimate and pleasant area is popular during the day time. With its narrow streets and varied shops, it is an attractive tourist destination. But the scene changes dramatically after closing time. Due to its mono-functional retail nature, The Lanes become deserted at night. This leads to a perceived lack of security and safety, and the area becomes a barrier between the city centre and the beach promenade.

winther

29,970

14,502

weekend

13,928

10,308

7,150

15,792

38,004

7,818

The Lanes - feast or famine? The Lanes experience a complete change in character from weekday to weekend. Pedestrian numbers increase, showing that The Lanes are a popular place for weekend strollers enjoying optional activities.

I. Market St. J. Union St. K. East St.

49% 27% 33%

I. Market St. J. Union St. K. East St.

night

I. Market St. J Union St. K. East St.

-39% -40% -45% -35% -20% -42%

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analysis · local scale · Movement

Public Space Network Street hierarchy Lack of legibility This diagram illustrates the hierarchy of Brighton & Hove’s main pedestrian routes based on volume of pedestrian traffic. Despite the clear indications of a street hierarchy, there is little variation in the character and identity of pedestrian routes. Heavily used routes are sometimes narrow and difficult to manouevre in, whilst less travelled paths are wider and more attractive. This ambiguity makes the public realm more confusing and less inviting - legibility of the city is muddled when the routes intended for pedestrians are not discernible from secondary or tertiary routes. Hierarchy based on pedestrians To ensure a sense of liveliness as well as legibility, it is important to concentrate activity and movement along specific routes. The public space analysis indicates a street hierarchy that can be used to determine where activity should be concentrated and what interventions can be made to promote a lively and pleasant urban environment. main pedestrian routes secondary pedestrian routes missing links

green route commercial route

disconnects in pedestrian network

seafront route poor entrances to vital city area

East West connections are characterised by changing quality and lack of identity ?

Disconnected pedestrian network and poor entrance to the North Laine

Disconnection to seafront

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analysis 路 local scale 路 Movement

Public Space Network Discontinuous and Inconsistent

BRIGHTON

Missing link The diagram to the left illustrates other problems with the public space network; discontinuity, missing links and poor entrances to key city areas. Important routes are often completely disconnected from each other. The intersection at the Clock Tower, where the two most heavily travelled pedestrian routes meet, is not designed with the needs of the pedestrian in mind. In other cases, especially in The Lanes, an otherwise well maintained and pleasant route virtually disappears into a run down alley-way. Ship Street and East Street are examples of heavily used streets, whose quality and character drastically deteriorate when moving south, resulting in a poor connection between lively areas in the Lanes and the seafront. Entrances to city areas are seldomly celebrated Entrances to vital city areas, most notably North Laine, are often completely neglected and disjointed from nearby areas of movement and activity. Most of the entrances into North Laine are signed but the run down and barely accessible entrances, especially along Gloucester Place, fail to invite people into this lively and interesting area. p r o b l e m

?

?

?

Missing links in the pedestrian network

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analysis · local scale · Movement

50% approx

Getting Across

jaywalk

No

rth

Jaywalking -a natural consequence of poor street design If given the choice, people will choose to take the shortest route between A and B, to walk directly from one destination to the other along their desire line. In Brighton & Hove, however, the shortest route is often not an option, as guard railings and traffic islands dictate the path pedestrians must take to legally cross a street. For roughly half the time, human nature prevails, resulting in jay-walking.

St

re e

t

A

E

Old Steine

?

?

46%

54%

B:

54%

46%

C:

55%

45%

D: E:

50% 54%

50% 46%

F: G:

32% 29%

68% 71%

C

D

St. James

Street

e

A:

B tei n

Illegal:

G

Old S

The conclusion is that pen crossings and guard railings do not work. They almost force people to act illegally, which increases the number of accidents. Research conducted along the newly renovated Kensington High Street in London actually indicates that removing guard railing and pen crossings decreases the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians!

Legal:

F

Recorded route Desire line

?

Old Steine The Old Steine intersection is a confusing conglomerate of detours, guard railing, and poor paving. This combination results in a barrier that restricts east / west pedestrian movement. People that do attempt to cross from east to west often choose the most direct route, which is rarely offered as a legal option. The result is a high number of dangerous and illegal crossings.

The city “unzipped” or disjointed

Old Steine

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Clock The in


analysis · local scale · Movement

Getting Across

ad Ro ke Dy

A:

37%

63%

A:

B:

48%

52%

B:

C:

42%

53%

D:

79%

21%

Legal:

Illegal:

78%

22%

27 people jaywalking in 5 minutes No

A

B A

rth

St

ree

t

B

C Nort D

A: B: C: D:

Road

Illegal:

New

Quee

ns Ro ad

Legal:

North Street

Bon ds tree t

Queen s Squa re

Queens Road / North Street

h Str eet

Recorded route Desire line

Clock tower The intersection of Queens Road and North Street is a treacherous jungle of guard railing, signage, and vehicular traffic. Despite the apparent efforts to curtail jay-walking and to protect the pedestrian, the “over-design” and focus on vehicular flow has only made the intersection more dangerous for pedestrians. Guard railing simply impedes pedestrian desire lines (preferred routes), encouraging people to take creative and often dangerous routes across the street. The only place where a majority of pedestrian crossings are legal is on the southern end of the intersection across Queens Road. Elsewhere pedestrians are constantly weaving in and out of traffic, walking in the carriageway to avoid being fenced in by guard railing, and running across the street rather than waiting over 1.5 minutes for the less than 10second “walk” signal.

Queens Road/ North street

New Road and North Street The intersection here is a key connector between North Laine, the new Jubilee Library and The Lanes. Again, however, the location of the pedestrian crossing forces people to take a longer route than they desire. The result is a large number of people putting themselves and others in danger by crossing where there is no signalled intersection. After the New Road project is completed and Jubilee Library begins to attract even more patrons more and more pedestrians will wish to cross here, increasing the problem.

North street

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Clock tower scale_ movement.i53 53 Theanalysis_local intersection of Queens Road and North Street is a

New Road and North Street

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analysis · local scale · Movement

Pedestrians per minute

160 140 120 100

83

63

80 60

31

40

76

71

80

42

53

19 ped./min.

20

Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

0

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

Tim e

Moving Along Crowding and congestion

North Street 160 Pedestrians per minute

Efficient space for walking Gehl Architects’ studies from around the world suggest that the maximum pavement volume for comfortable pedestrian movement is 13 people per minute per metre width of footpath. Anything above this level is considered to be overcrowding. (Other methodologies assess crowding according to the number of people that a street can carry – however such methodologies deal only with capacity and not quality). When Copenhagen´s main street, Strøget, reaches the level of 13 persons per minute per metre footpath width, people start finding alternative routes. This has been the case for the last 30 years.

140 120 100 60 40

86

66

80

72 62

30

32 ped./min. Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

20 0

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

Crowding is a sign of low walking quality. When crowding occurs, the pleasure of walking is severely curtailed and walking turns into a fight to get from one point to another.

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

Tim e

Problems related to street layout In Brighton & Hove the problem with crowding and congestion on pavements is often caused by a street layout that prioritises car traffic and leaves too little space for pedestrians.

Cranbourne Street 160 Pedestrians per minutre

This is despite the fact that in many of the areas there are more pedestrians than cars. We need to start planning in favour of the people who use the spaces most, not the vehicles that travel through them.

96

77

83

152

140 120

104

100

78

80 60 40

37

51

87

57

68

64 ped./min.

Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

20 0

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

Tim e

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Cranbourne Street

Pedestrians per minutre Pedestrians per minutre

160

Cranbourne Street 152

140

a n120a l y s i s 路 l o c a 104 l scale 路 Movement 160 100 140 80 120 60 100 40 80 20 60 0 40

152

51

37

87

78

68

104

10-11

Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

57

51

64 ped./min.

87

78

37

20

57

68

64 ped./min.

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

Tim e

0

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

Crowding and congestion

17-18

Tim e

General problems Crowding is generally:

Bond Street 160 Pedestrians per minute Pedestrians per minute

Moving Along

Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

11-12

Bad for commerce - since people have difficulty in stopping / looking at window displays

Bond Street

140

120 160 100 140 80 120 60 100 40 80 20 60 0 40

81

63

20

81

63

77

66

26 ped./min.

65

Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

55

28

24 10-11

65 55

28

24

77

66

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

26 ped./min. Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

Tim e

0

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

Tim e

Pedestrians per minute Pedestrians per minute

Gardner Street

140

120 160 100 140 80 120 60 100 40 80 20 60 0 40 20 0

83

63

63 31

10-11

76

71

80

42

31

53

83

76

71

80

42

11-12

19 ped./min. 53

12-13

13-14

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

19 ped./min.

Limit for comfortable carrying capacity

Tim e

10-11

Bad for those with special needs - since people in wheelchairs, parents with prams, people with disabilities, children and the elderly generally need more space for walking than that available on a crowded footpath. These groups are effectively excluded from any walking under such conditions Bad for encouraging people to walk - since people will avoid walking in the city if it is unpleasant and problematic to do so

Gardner Street 160

Bad for safety - since the fast walking pedestrians will move out onto the road or people will accidentally be pushed into the road

15-16

16-17

17-18

Tim e

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• • • • • • • • • • •

Where do people stay? Hierarchy of spaces Public space typology Why are some spaces more popular? The grass is greener on the other side Sitting in the city Age & gender A seasonal city? Necessary versus optional activities Attractive ground floor frontages Safety

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Physical activities Cultural activities

analysis · local scale · spaces

Commercially activities Children playing Lying down

Where do people stay?

Sitting in folding chairs

Indications on the quality of the spaces

Sitting on cafe chairs

Introduction This section of the Public Space Public Life study provides information on how many - and where - people sit, stand, or carry out various stationary activities in the city. As mentioned in the introduction, optional and social activities are a good indication of the quality of city spaces. Optional and social activities are about spending time in the city because it is enjoyable. “Stationary activities” fall into both categories.

Waiting for transport

Stationary activities The diagram on these pages indicates destinations - ‘people magnets’ - in the city today. When viewed in conjunction with the information regarding pedestrian movement, a public space network begins to take form. As pedestrian volume indicates a hierarchy of streets, stationary activity registration indicates a hierarchy of public space. Today, Pavilion Gardens, Brighton Beach, and Churchill Square are the most widely used public spaces. The reduction in numbers between people using these and the next tier of public space hierarchy is drastic. Local destinations such as Norfolk Square appear to be especially under used. This analysis of activity indicates a lack of quality in the areas that should be more heavily used by locals.

p 058 · gehl architects & Landscape projects · brighton & Hove legibility study

Sitting on secondary seating - possibilities

Sitting on benches

Physical activities

Standing

Cultural activities Commercially activities Children playing Lying down Sitting in folding chairs

30

Sitting on cafe chairs

n

physical activities

Sitting on secondary seating - possibilities

cultural activities

Sitting on benches Waiting for transport

commercial activities

Standing

children playing lying down physical activities

seated in folding chairs

cultural activities

secondary seating

commercial activities

seated on outdoor cafe

children playing

seated on benches

lying down

waiting for transport

seated in folding chairs

standing

secondary seating seated on outdoor cafe

analysis_local scale_spaces.indd58 58

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analysis · local scale · spaces

308

31

Hierarchy of Spaces

a

Local, District and City Destinations

251

1

Little life - little diversity Few places in the study area attract locals and the ones that do fail to provide sufficient opportunities. Additionally, the types of activities taking place in locally oriented public spaces are also limited to the most basic, and are in general quite uniform from place to place. This suggests that the supposedly diverse population is not given an equally diverse range of opportunities to enjoy the public realm. The beach Brighton & Hove’s main public space is the beach. This is especially apparent during the weekend. The popularity of the beach is partly due to the variety of activities made possible on the beach. The entire beach offers areas for recreation, places for children to play, cafés with outdoor seating and places to people-watch or enjoy time together with a chosen group. The beach may be the only space to truly attract a wide range of residents and visitors. Is it possible to transfer some of these qualities to other public spaces in the city?

g

15

13

h

l 23

11

c

b 19

d

67

f

59

144 13 j

k

m

i e

City and Regional destination

District destination

Local destination

a. Brighton Station

f. Regency Square

k. Dorset gardens

b. Churchill Square

g. Upper Gloucester Road

l. Norfolk Square

c. Victoria Gardens South

h. Jubilee Square

m. East Street

d. Pavilion Gardens

i. Bartholomew Square

n. the beach in Hove

e. the beach in Brighton

j. Brighton Place

o. Pool Valley

10

More visitors than locals The analysis indicates that the study areas lack family-oriented places where children can play. In fact, with the exception of Pavilion Gardens and Brighton Beach, virtually no children were recorded playing in the areas surveyed.

o

Stationary activities: Figures signify the average sum of people active in the areas indicated between 10 am and 4 pm on a average summer weekday, July 12th, 2006

p r o b l e m

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analysis · local scale · spaces

Public Space Typology A lack of diversity Space is not enough Public Space Public Life Survey results suggest that public spaces in the study area fail to attract a diverse group of users partaking in a wide variety of activities. At first glance the diagram to the right appears to indicate an abundance of public space. But sheer quantity of space is not enough. Space must be of high quality and welcoming before people will want to spend time there. Which spaces are needed As the previous page illustrates, there are a lack of places for local families to enjoy. Whilst several parks exist they fail to attract a wide range of activities. Away from the beach there are few places for passive and active recreation. There is a lack of urban hard scape places for people watching and urban recreation. This diagram also indicates that Hove is generally lacking places for people to stay that aren’t related to the waterfront.

Parks Urban Squares

p r o b l e m

Beach

There is a lack of usable urban spaces in the city

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analysis 路 local scale 路 spaces

Public space typology Poor differentiation In Brighton & Hove it is difficult to categorise spaces beyond the general distinctions of park, square or street. The finer layer that sets areas apart from each other is missing. The result is a public realm lacking identity and character and subsequently legibility and navigability. Urban Squares Spaces currently lack quality and are disconnected from the wider pedestrian network either by impenetrable barriers of traffic-based design or by poor connections to adjacent areas. Parks and Green Space With the exception of Pavilion Gardens, green spaces lack discernible features that distinguish one area as a place for recreation and another for family-oriented activities or quiet reflection. In fact fencing and signs are implemented discouraging use and activity.

?

?

p r o b l e m

? Uninviting green spaces - lack of accessibility and quality.

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Sitting on secondary sitting-possibilities Sitting on cafe chairs Sitting on benches Waiting for transport Standing

analysis · local scale · spaces Pavilion Gardens Thursday between 10 am and 7 pm

Why are some spaces more popular?

436

Quality comparison with Pavilion Gardens A variety of users & activities Victoria Gardens South Pavilion Gardens is oneThursday of the most10 am popular between and 3 pm public spaces in Brighton & Hove and one of the few used for a variety of recreational purposes. At any given time, one can observe a variety of activities taking place there. 28 10

319 THE 12 KEY QUALITY CRITERIA

Victoria Gardens South Saturday between 10 am and 3 pm

71

7

A 100% place 10:00 am 1:00 pm 4:00 pm When assessed against the ‘12 quality criteria’ described Tim e in the Introduction, it is clear why the gardens are so popular. They provide an intimate retreat protected from the noise of the city and vehicular traffic. Opportunities to people watch or relax and talk with companions are abundant. The Pavilion provides a lovely backdrop adding visual delight to the experience. The enclosed gardens offer spots in the sun or shade, in deck-chairs, café stools or on the grass, attracting residents and visitors of varying ages.

3 10:00 am

Physical activities Good Average Poor

Cultural activities

1:00 pm 1:00 pm Tim e

16 4:00 pm 3:00 pm

Tim e

Commercial activities Children playing Lying down

Pavilion Gardens

10:00 am

21

Pavilion Gardens Saturday between 10 am and 3 pm

858

Sitting in folding chairs Sitting on secondary seating - possibilities Sitting on cafe chairs

574

Sitting on benches

THE 12 KEY QUALITY CRITERIA

Waiting for transport

Pavilion Gardens The influx of weekend users provides further evidence Thursday between 10 am and 7 pm that the Pavilion Gardens is a place that people CHOOSE to spend time in.

Standing

436

319 246 Good Average Poor

71 Valley Gardens 10:00 am

1:00 pm

4:00 pm

Tim e

10:00 am

1:00 pm

3:00 pm

Tim e

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Children playing Lying dow n Sitting on dock chairs Sitting on secondary sitting-possibilities Sitting on cafe chairs Sitting on benches

analysis 路 local scale 路 spaces

Waiting for transport Standing

Victoria Gardens South Thursday between 10 am and 3 pm

28

10 10:00 am

1:00 pm

Victori Saturday be

The grass is greener on the other side

7 4:00 pm

Comparison with Valley Gardens

3 10:00 am

No life The story is very different in the Valley Gardens. At any given time of day virtually no one is using Victoria Gardens South, while the Pavilion Gardens are alive with hundreds of people. The crowds of people in Pavilion Gardens indicate that the lack of use in Victoria Gardens is not due to a lack of interest in utilising pleasant outdoor spaces. The lack of activity is due to the quality of the space provided.

Tim e

Victoria Gardens South Saturday between 10 am and 3 pm

21

3 10:00 am

1:00 pm

16 3:00 pm

Pavilion Gardens Tim e Thursday between 10 am and 7 pm

Pavilion Gardens 436 Saturday between 10 am and 3 pm

858 319

71 Pavilion Garden 1:00 pm

?

Few qualities When considering the quality criteria, 10 out of the 12 categories are not fulfilled, and two categories are only marginally met. (Valley Gardens does provide limited opportunities for play and recreation, as well as the chance to enjoy some positive aspects of the climate). The fact that fewer people use Valley Gardens at the weekend is further indication that the area is not a place where people choose to be. When given the choice of places to spend the weekend hours, visitors and locals alike avoid the Valley Gardens.

574

10:00 am

Pavil Saturday betw

?

4:00 pm

Tim e

246

246

p r o b l e m

10:00 am

? Valley Gardens 10:00 am

1:00 pm Tim e

analysis_local scale_spaces.indd63 63

3:00 pm

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analysis · local scale · spaces

Sitting in the city Seating analysis The city as a meeting place City spaces should be meeting places which invite city users to enjoy the social dynamics of the urban environment. By encouraging and supplementing seating in general, people are invited to stay longer and use the city for recreational purposes. Seating is vital in enabling this. Without a sufficient number of seats, the city becomes a transit zone. People just move from one point to another rather than stopping to enjoy their surroundings. Good, comfortable seating placed in the right locations provides visitors with an opportunity to rest and stay longer, contributing to a livelier city.

Public seating

Secondary seating

The type of seating provided in the city influences the amount of recreational activities that take place. Older generations only enjoy sitting when comfortable bench seating is available and will generally avoid secondary seating.

Secondary seating can include stairs, ledges, niches, monuments, fountains or the pavement itself. These secondary seating opportunities are mainly utilised in good weather and almost exclusively by young people who do not care as much about comfort.

Flexible public seating

Commercial seating

Flexible seating is a special feature in Brighton & Hove. It gives people the possibility to ‘reorganise’ the public space. Flexible seating makes it possible to choose between, for example sun or shade, or quiet reflection or socialising in a group.

In recent years outdoor café culture has provided European cities with a large number of extra seats where a meal or a drink can be combined with an interesting view of life in the city.

This also brings economic benefits - people spend more money in places where they enjoy being. This page illustrates three different seating options which the city has to offer.

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2500

Me

35003000 30002500

melbour

30002500 25002000

3000

melbourne

2500

Copenha

3000

3500 35003000

The Lane

3500

The Lanes

3500

3490

North Lain

3500 40003000 30002500

Hov

2500

melbourneHove 94

Total

4000

3000

2000

1500 1940 25002000 1000 1940 134020001500 500 15001000 0

Sitting in the city

North Laines

be ch s nc es he C Ca s afC fe Total P ea P North Total Laines ubP ub sfee se luicb lic aste ats C blice be sats a nbce nc Pu fe hnec he s bl ea she s ic s be ts nc he s P

Ca f

C a Pu fe s ea bl ic 94 t melbourne The Lanes be 94 s melbourne nc he s melbourne 94

North Laines North Laines

C a Pu fe se bl at ic s C ben a P Ca fe ch Puubl fe se es bl ic b seaats C ic e ts a be nc Pu fe nc he s bl ea he s ic s be ts C nc af ChaP C e Pu ePfseuubslicafe ssea bli b e e ts c b lic baetns ats en benche ch ch s es es

Total

en ch e

s

Pu b

Ca f

es ea lic ts C b a en Pu Cafe ch s es Public fe ea bl b seats ic en t

Hove Hove

2000

C af e P e u ub bl Csaea se The Lanes ic lic ats The Lanes Pub fets C Copenhagen North Laines b af bel n sea e Copenhagen Hove Pu Ca e n icch C ch C a s bees ts a f fe PuCblic fe ea C e P Pu u aef s s s nc t a s b Pbu bl ese e Pu lifce be eat Total Copenhagen he n lbic ic saetat s s s bl beea ch licb be ast s C i C c ntcs es melbourne 94 ebn n s af af Total b C e Pu ecnhch e enC he Pu af se se s cehses c bl C b e P a h at lic afat ic f u e se e Pu bl s s se s Pub e s be Copenhagen at i b s e c e lic nc bl nc ea s at b Total i Chea en s ch ts be e b ch sfeC ens nc Pu North Laines es he ch bli P asfee a North Laines es s c bubCa sets Pu Celiacnfbe ats Melbourne 2004 C s Melbourne 2004 af Public fecehneea C e P c s t s u bl b ehaePs C afe bl Csaea 94 melbourne ic en tssu a i be ch P bl fe se Melbourne 2004 Pcub fets 94 melbourne C s e nc esub ic se ats Copenhagen a The Lanes blincc ea fe C he lic be at C P h a s u a bees ts Pu Cafe s bennch C P bli fe sea nc a u c ch es Publ fe se Pu fe bli be seats he es blic b seaats c s t nc s s bl ea b2004 Melbourne ic e t i e he c ts benc s n b ch s en n h Ca C es af ch Puchees fe s P e s bli ub e se ea s North Laines cb lic ts a C en be ts af North Laines e Pu nc ch he es bl Csaea Copenhagen ic s t f s e P Copenhagen C ubbe se af n North Laines licch at Pu Ca e Melbourne 2004 C bees s s af PubClaic fe ea C P n ch ub eCse Pu bli febe seats af es lic afat bl c bsenacPuts e s Pub e s ic e th bl e a s i n e bel n sea be c s c t melbourne 94 s icch nc he be bees tsC nc he s C a nc h a s es Phu fe Pu fe e se se bsl bl a ic at ic b e ts be s nc n he Melbourne 2004 che s s Copenhagen Melbourne 2004 C af C a Pu Ca e Copenhagen Pu fe se b f Pu lic e a se C b lic afat bl b seats Pub e s ic en ts be ch bel n sea Copenhagen icch nc es bees ts he C nc af s e Pu he s s bl ea ic t s be nc he s Melbourne 2004 C a Melbourne 2004 Pu fe bl Csaea ic Pub fets bel n sea Melbourne 2004 icch bees ts C

25002000 2000 a n a l y s i s · 2000 l3000 o c1500 a l s c a l e · 2000 spaces 1500 1500 1306 3000 5500 20001500 1500 1500 1000 5500 2500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 1000 1000 1500 1000 1940 1000 5500 5500 1000 5500 2500 5000 211 500 5000 1000 500 411 117 5000 5000 484 5000 411 5000 484 5000 500 2000 211 500 211 1000 123 500 500 5000 5000 500 5000 111 0 4500 6 117 500 0 484 6 4500 4500 4500 2000 4500 66 4500 4500 5500 0 5500 538 0 500 5500 0 1500 0 4500 0 4500 4500 5500 4000 4000 0 6 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 5500 Hove North Laine The Lanes 5380 5000 1500 3500 3490 3490 5000 3490 0 3490 4000 4000 5000 3490 3500 Public versus commercial seats55005000 1000 4000 3500 3500 5000 3500 3500 3500 4500 4500 4500 50004500 3500 3500 3500 1000 3000 3000 4500 3000 3000 5500 The city without seats 3000 4000 3000 3000 4000 5500 500 4000 484 5500 3000 3000 3000 In the Brighton & 3490 Hove study public seating is cur-45004000 2500 3490 4000 5500 3500 5500 2500 2500 5000area4790 2500 500 2500 2500 2500 3500 5000 3500 5500 5000 rently only provided in parks or along the seafront. If4000 1940 1940 0 2500 1940 1940 2500 2500 1940 4790 3500 3500 2000 2000 6 5000with 3000 5000 2000 2000 4500special needs are to take 2000 3000 2000 5380 2000 elderly people or people 4500 33 5000 3000 0 1500 4500 35003000 2000 2000 3000 5500 2000 1500 2500 4500 part in public life, the city has to offer better seating op4500 2500 1500 1500 4000 1500 1500 1500 4000 45004000 portunities.1940 2500 30002500 1500 1500 1500 2500 1940 2000 1000 1000 40003500 2000 5000 1000 1000 4000 1000 1000 1000 2000 3500 4000 3500 2000 1500 25002000 1000 1000 1000 211117 500 500 211 By 1500 improving its public realm, 3500 117 500 500 17 3000Melbourne has seen the 35003000 500 484 484 500 484 500 1500 4500 3500 1500 3000 1000 7000 number seats in the city centre increase20001500 7,000 7000 5500 500 500 500 1000of outdoor café 0 0 30002500 01000 0 62500 60 3000 0 0 5500 6 7000 6 7000 over a period of 10 years. However 3000 211 1000 5380 5380 the local authority1500 2500 5380 5380 5380 117 4000 500 0 0500 484 0 47905500 1000 5500 5500 5500 2500 also provides a reasonable amount of public seating in 5500 5000 2000 2500 6500 6500 500 2000 25002000 0 500 3380 5000 the city0centre, inviting 84 5000 6 everyone to take a rest during1000 500 1340 5000 5000 5000 2000 5000 1306 1500 0 3500 2000 6000 6000 20001500 4500 55 their walk. 1500 0 6 1340 500 0 4500 4500 5380 4500 4500 4500 1306 1500 4500 1000 5500 5500 1500 5500 5500 50 5500 5500 5500 5500 1000 5500 3000 15001000 5500 5500 have to pay to get a seat 0 5500 5500 4000 5500 4000 4000You 4000 4790 4790 4000 1000 4000 4790 5,380 411 500 5000 5000 45 5000 5000 5000 1000 500 55005000 5000 5000 4000 5000 In Copenhagen, one in four seats 3380 in the city centre are 5000 1000 500 5500 123 3380 3380 5000 3380 5000 3380 5000 5000 2500 5500 6 3500 3500 3500 411 3500 500 3500 public. The city is currently considering ways to limit the 40 3500 0 5000 4790 4500 4500 4500 4500 500 4500 4500 4500 4500 1234500 500 4500 0 5000 4500 3500 4500 5500 0 5000 4500 4500 5500 number of cafés in 3000 the3000 city centre, to allow a better bal6 3000 35 3000 0 3000 4000 2000 4000 4000 4500 0 4000 4000 4000 4000 4500 4000 ance between “free” and commercially based city activi0 4000 3000 4000 4000 4500 4000 5000 4790 4000 4000 5000 30 2500 2500 3,380 3380 2500 ties. 3000 2500 2500 3500 4000 3500 3500 3500 3500 4000 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 1500 4000 3500 3500 4500 3500 4500 2500 3500 25 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 3000 3500 3000 3000 3500 3000 3000 2500 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3500 The opportunity to linger and enjoy the quality of the 3000 3000 3000 4000 3000 4000 20 1000 1500 1500 1500 city and one’s fellow-man 3000 1500 1500 2500 2000 3000 is the beauty of public life, but 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 3500 3000 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 15 2500 2000 2500 3500 you have to pay for that opportu2500 1000 1000 in Brighton & Hove1000 1000 2500 1000 2000 1340 500 1,694 2000 2000 2500 2000 2000 2000 3000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1500 nity. 10 2000 2000 2000 2000 3000 2000 1340 500 500 1340 500 1340 15001306 1,380 2000 1380 500 500 1500 2000 1306 1500 1500 1,306 1500 1500 1500 2500 1380 1500 1500 0 1340 1500 1306 5 1500 1500 1,059 1500 1500 1500 1500 2500 1000 1500 1306 0 0 0 0 1000 15000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 2000 1000 2000 1000 1000 411 500 411 411 500 500 500 411 411 500 500 1340 500 Seats on411 outdoor cafés500 500 500 411 500 123 500 123 123 500 1500 500 123123 500 500 500 500 500 6 6 6 66 6 Seats1500 on public benches 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 1000 00 0 Copenhagen Wellington Melbourne 0 Brighton 1000 411 500 (2006) (2005) (2004) (2004) 500 6 0 Total for study area 0

3500

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analysis · local scale · spaces

94,3 % White 5,7 % non caucasian

Age & Gender Diversity

5,7 % non Caucasian 94,3 % White

Is Brighton & Hove diverse? The figure shows the age and gender profile of the city’s population. Compared with the population make up in England and Wales, Brighton & Hove has more people in their twenties and thirties, and fewer people in most of the other age groups. The numbers of people in the 20-24 age group are notably higher than those in the younger age groups, which is likely to be a reflection of the significant student population resident in the city.

25.000 20.000 15000 1000 500 females males 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 56-69 70/74 75/79 80-84 85-89 90

0

0-4 5-9

One would expect that if people aged 0-14 represent 15% of the population, then roughly 10-15% of the people visible in the city would be in this age group. For the streets highlighted on the next page, however, this is not the case. While the results should not be considered conclusive, they do suggest that certain vital areas of the city do not equally cater for the age groups found in the city.

population profile of brighton & Hove 2001 census

Population

Diversity in age & gender? The population living in an “inclusive city” should be equally represented in the public realm. GEHL Architects have performed age and gender surveys to determine how the public realm is used by males and females and different age groups. In this section, these on-site survey figures are compared with the 2001 census information for Brighton & Hove.

age * Population profile of Brighton & Hove, 2001 census

Breakdown of census information In the categories used by GEHL Architects to categorise people in the public realm, the 2001 census yields the following comparitive percentages: 0-14 = 15.2% 15-30 male = 10.6% , 15-30 female = 11.5% , 31-64 male = 23%, 31-64 female = 23.3% , >65 = 16.5%

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analysis · local scale · spaces

Age & Gender Under represented in the public realm Queens Road

Queens road

Percent

Percent

48

50 40 30 20 10

15 13

10

5 pm

70

60

60

50

50

40 26

30

2

10

4

27

24

17

20 8

1

0-6

7-14

15-30 F

15-30 M

31-64 F

31-64 M

30

10

4

2

0 0-6

>65

7-14

15-30 F

37

40

15-30 M

31-64 F

31-64 M

3

0 0-6

>65

20 20

19

20

0

0

9 pm

70

60

Percent

12 noon

70

7-14

3 15-30 F

15-30 M

31-64 F

31-64 M

>65

Age

Age

Age

North Street

North street 12 noon

5 pm

70

60

50

50

50

37 26

30 20 10

15

30

30

23

20 22

20

10

7

6

40

10

Percent

60

40

0-6

7-14

15-30 F

15-30 M

31-64 F

31-64 M

>65

3

3

0-6

7-14

15-30 M

31-64 F

31-64 M

24

21 20

1

2

0-6

7-14

2

0

>65

Age

Age

30

30

10

1 15-30 F

40

20

0

0

9 pm

70

60

Percent

Percent

70

15-30 F

15-30 M

31-64 F

31-64 M

>65

Age

Goldstone GoldstoneVillas Villas

12noon

60

50 40 27

30 20 10

15 2

5 pm

70

Percent

Percent

60

33

19 12

40 30

10

2

0

60

50

20 2

2

0-6

7-14

6

2

7-14

15-30 F

15-30 M

31-64 F

31-64 M

>65

Age

40 28 29

30

26

10

12 1

2

0-6

7-14

2

Other streets, like Queens Road, accommodate a substantial percentage of adolescents during day-time hours. After dark the number of young persons on the street drastically decreases. The figures suggest that this group may avoid Queens Road at night due to security perceptions. In Hove, people under 15 are seldom seen in the study area, regardless of the time of day. Pensioners are well represented during the middle of the day, but they too disappear from the public realm in the evening.

p r o b l e m

0

0 0-6

50

20

14 12

14

9 pm

70

Percent

70

No children -few families While the 2001 census indicates a substantial number of adolescents living in Brighton & Hove, virtually no children were observed along several popular routes in the city. Along North Street for example, a key artery in the city, both the youngest and oldest generations are poorly represented. This suggests that the environment along North Street is not attractive to this range of users. Less than 1% of pedestrians on North Street are children aged 0-14 despite the group representing 15% of the city’s population.

15-30 F

15-30 M 31-64 F

Age

31-64 M

>65

15-30 F 15-30 M 31-64 F

Age

31-64 M

>65

All data collected on July 13 2006 All data collected on July 13 2006 The diversity of the locals is not reflected in the city’s public spaces brighton & Hove legibility study· GEHL ARCHITECTS & Landscape Projects · P 067

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analysis 路 local scale 路 spaces

Comparison winter weekday/summer weekday

A seasonal city?

16,098 13,110

14000 13000 12000

Pedestrian traffic, summer and winter

Comparison winter weekday/summer weekday

10000

30000

27822

28000

An exceptional summer activity It comes as no surprise that Brighton & Hove experiences an influx of people during the summer months. But 14000 this overwhelming increase (in relation to other cities) 13000 comes 12000 with significant consequences that should be addressed. 11000 10000 Brighton & Hove experiences a 100% increase in 7,584 9000 pedestrian traffic between the summer and winter.8000This is compared to a v15% increase in London (2004) 7000 and a 6000 50% increase in Copenhagen (1995) 5000 4000

9000

7,584

14000

8000

12000

24000

7000

11000

6000

10000

22000 20000 Comparison winter weekday/summer weekday

5000

18420

18000

16,098 13,110

16000 14000

4000 3000

12000 10000

8460

8000

12,564 7203

6000

2000

13,686

12,642

1000 0

9,402

4000 2000 0

10,692 7,362

7,422 Hove -church Western road road

7,140 6,060

14000 13000 12000

4,386

11000 10000

3000

9000

942 1161

7,584

8000 7000

Hove Kings Grand Jubilee Road Junction Rd

East St. Kensington Queens Road Union St. Gardens

p r o b l e m

6000 5000 4000

3,360

3000 2000 1000 0

Dyke Road

12,642

12,564

13,686

16,098 13,110

9,402

13000

26000

3,360

Dyke Road (68%), Grand Junction Road (77%), 2000 Kings 1000 the Road (53%) and Jubilee Street (53%) experience 0 greatest increases in use between summer and winter. Dyke Road Certain streets however are more widely used during the winter. This pattern could be attributed to both increased public transport usage (and subsequent increased pedestrian traffic on main transport routes) and a preference to walk within the sheltered areas of the city rather than along the cold and windy promenade in winter.

Comparison winter weekday/summer weekday

11000

7,422 12,564 7,584 4,386

10,692 7,362 13,686 12,642 Comparison 7,140 winter weekday/summer weekday 6,060 Comparison winter weekday/summer weekday 9,402

16,098 14000 13,110 16,098 14000 10,692 13000 7,422 13,110 7,362 13000 7000 12000 7,140 12000 13,686 6,060 6000 11000 Comparison winter weekday/summer weekday 12,642 13,686 942 1161 11000 12,564 5000 12,642 10000 4,386 9,402 12,564 30000 10000 7,584 9,402 4000 3,360 9000 27822 7,584 Dyke Road Hove3000 Kings28000Grand Jubilee East 9000 St. Kensington Queens Road Union St. 10,692 8000 ComparisonRoad winter weekday/summer weekday 7,422 26000 Junction Rd 7,362 10,692 Gardens 8000 7,422 2000 24000 7,362 7000 7,14 16,098 942 1161 7000 22000 1000 6000 Comparison 7 13,110 winter weekday/summer weekday 6000 0 20000 5000 4,386 16,098 18000 Dyke Road Hove Kings 18420 Grand Jubilee East St.4,386 Kensington Queens Road Union St. 5000 14000 4000 3,360 13,110 Road Junction Rd winter weekday/summer weekday 16000 Gardens Comparison 13,686 4000 3,360 13000 3000 12,642 14000 12,564 3000 12000 9,402 12000 14000 2000 13,686 2000 942 1161 10000 11000 8460 1300012,642 1000 1161 12,564 942 10,692 8000 1000 9,402 7,42210000 12000 0 7,362 7203 6000 7,584 0 Dyke Road Hove Kings 9000 Grand Jubilee East St. Kensington Queens Road Un 13,686 11000 4000 7,140 12,642 Dyke Road Hove Kings Grand Jubilee East St. Gardens Kensington Queens Road U Road Junction Rd 10,69212,564 6,060 8000 7,422 10000 2000 Road Junction Rd 7,362 9,402 Gardens 7,584 07000 9000 4,386 7,140 Hove -church Western road 6,060 6000 1 8000 road 7,422 7,362 5000 4,386 7000 4000 3,360 6000 942 1161 3000 5000 4,386 2000 4000 942 1161 Queens Road Union3,360 Hove Kings Grand Jubilee East St. Kensington St. 1000 3000 Road Junction Rd Gardens 0 2000 9000

3,360

8000

Dyke Road Hove Kings Grand Jubilee Road Junction Rd 1000 0

1161 East St.942 Kensington Queens Road Union St. Gardens

Dyke Road Hove Kings Grand Jubilee Road Junction Rd

East St. Kensin Gard

100% aprox.

more pedestrians in the summer winter summer

Several areas of the city are used only in the Summer

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analysis · local scale · spaces

Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend

Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend 1778

1800 2000 1600 Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend 1778 1800 1400

1990 1990

2000 1800

1800 1400 1000

1778 826

1600

1600800 2000 1200

1400

1400600 1800 1000

576

Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend 1990

Comparison Summer Weekday Weekend Stationary activities on/ weekdays & weekends 1990

2000 / Weekend Comparison Summer Weekday Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend

Lack of weekend activities As stated earlier, the weekend is a good time to judge 1990 1990 2000 the quality of public space, as Saturdays and Sundays 1600Weekday / Weekend Comparison Summer Weekday Activity 1778 are a time for optional activities. 1800 Activity Weekday Comparison Summer Weekday / WeekendWeekend ActivityJubilee Square, Victoria 1400 1990 Gardens, Dorset Gardens, Regency Square and Norfolk Weekend Activity Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend 1600 1200 1990 Weekday Activity in activity at the weekSquare experience a decrease 2000 1778 576 Comparison Summer Weekday / Weekend 1400 Weekend Activity 1990 end. 1000 1778 2000 426 1800

2000 1600 1200

1778

Necessary versus optional activities

1990

2000

1990

1778

Weekda

Weeken 393 826 Weekday Activity 1200 1990 1778 800 266 Weekday Activity 1800 2000 Activity 1600Weekday Activity 199 185 576Activity Weekend 168 Note that whilst several places on the listWeekday are supposedly 266 1000200 1400 600 1000 1000 576 Weekend Activity 102 Weekend74 Activity 199 185 1778 Weekend Activity 83 59 74 600 168 45 45 44 426 50 30 40 826 1600 1800 826 43 826 27 17 393 1400 green recreation spots, they are actually used more on 102 83 426 74 74 1200 59 800 393 400 45 45 40 44 43 800 50 30 800 27 17 266Hove 576 Weekday Activity Pavilion Bartholomew Victoria Jubilee Dorset Brighton Regency Pool 400 East weekdays! Brighton Norfolk 1400 1600 1200 266 185 576 Beach199 Place 576 Gardens 168 Gardens Street Square Gardens Beach 576 Valley Square Square 1000 Square Victoria East Jubilee Dorset Hove 600 Regency Pool426 Bartholomew Brighton 199 200 Brighton Norfolk 185 600 600 Weekend Activity 102 Weekday Activity 168 393 83 74 74 59 200 Gardens Street Square Gardens Beach Beach 45 45 40 Square Valley Square Place 50 30 Square 826 426 10244 43 1200 1400 426 17426 83 59 393 74 1000 27 74 393 393 45 45 40 44 50 30 do not 43 Weekend Activity 27 266 17 800 Indications that locals use the city spaces 400 Weekday Activity 400 400 826 199 185 266 Pavilion Bartholomew East Jubilee Dorset Hove266 Brighton Regency Pool Brighton 266 Victoria Norfolk 1000 1200 199 185 800 199 576 Pavilion 185 83 102 Victoria East Jubilee Dorset Hove Weekend Activity Regency are Poolthat have 199 Several areas decreased weekend activity Brighton Norfolk 185 Gardens Gardens Brighton Street Square Bartholomew Gardens Beach Square Valley Place 168 74 74 Square 168 59 600Square 168 Beach826 200 44 43 50 30 102 45 40 200 WeekdaySquare Activity Square 27 200 17 102 Gardens Gardens Street Square Gardens Beach74 Valley Square Place83 59 Beach 102 83 59 74 74 74 45 45 74 44 50 40 576 426 59 45 45 40 44 43 43 to 74 50 30 30 45393600 27 45 40 44 43 17 50considered be17 local83 destinations (lessWeekend prominent and 27 17 800 1000 27 30 Activity 400 Victoria East Jubilee Dorset Hove Regency Pool ew Brighton Brighton Norfolk 826 426 to be known by locals only). This could be 266 576 393 Pavilion Bartholomew more Victoria likely Victoria East Jubilee Dorset Hove Brighton Gardens Pool Regency Pool Street Brighton Square Hove Gardens East Beach Beach Brighton Square Jubilee ValleyBrighton Norfolk Dorset 600Regency Place Pavilion Square Victoria Bartholomew Pavilion Bartholomew East Jubilee Dorset Hove Regency Pool Brighton Norfolk 800 Norfolk 199 400 Brighton 185 168 Gardens Gardens Street Square Beach Beach Square Valley Gardens Square Place Gardens Square Street Square Gardens Beach Beach Square Valley Place Gardens Square Square Gardens Street Square Gardens Beach Beach Square Valley426 Gardens 200 Square Place Square 266 102 a variety of factors, but one possible reason could 393 74due to83 74 19930 576 45 40 44 43 18559 50 27 168 17 40045 600 200 1200

826

393

426

1200400 1600 800

1800

be that locals don’t view the74 17study83area as44 43 a place for 59 recreation. The beach seems to be the lone exception, Dorset Regency Norfolk Gardens can Square where both residents and visitors meet. This project Square aspires to change the culture44of43 the city and begin to invite people to occupy more Norfolk of the city’s outdoor spaces.

102 266 74 426 45393 45 40 50 30 27 199 185 Pavilion Bartholomew Brighton168 Brighton Victoria East Jubilee Dorset Hove Regency Pool Norfolk 200 400 102 Gardens Square Gardens Street Square Gardens Beach Beach Square74 Valley Place Square 83 74 266 59 45 45 40 44 43 50 30 Pavilion Bartholomew Brighton Victoria East 17 Jubilee Hove 27 Pool Brighton 185 199 168 Gardens Square Gardens Street Square Beach Beach Valley Place 200 102 83 74 74 Pavilion Bartholomew45Brighton Victoria East Jubilee Dorset Hove 59 Regency Pool Brighton Norfolk 45 40 50 30 27 17 Gardens Square Gardens Street Square Gardens Beach Beach Square Valley Place Square Pavilion Bartholomew Brighton Victoria East Jubilee Dorset Hove Regency Pool Brighton Gardens Square Gardens Street Square Gardens Beach Beach Square Valley Place

Square

Most other spots experience increased staying activity at the weekend. Bartholomew Square, Pavilion Gardens, Brighton Beach, Brighton Place, Hove Beach, Pool Valley and East Street have the largest increases. weekday weekend

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analysis 路 local scale 路 spaces

Attractive ground floor frontages The quality of the facades

The large number of attractive and pleasant facades are significant in Brighton and Hove!

Good frontages The quality of building frontages has a significant influence on the quality of an urban area. Good ground floor facades are rich in detail and exciting to walk by, interesting to look at, to touch and to stand beside. Activities inside the buildings and those occurring on the street enrich each other. In the evening, friendly light shining out through shop windows contributes to a feeling of security as well as genuine safety. Interesting ground floor facades also provide good reasons for walking around in the city in the evenings and on Sundays, engaging in the age-old pastime: window shopping. Blank walls, on the contrary, underline the futility of visiting the city outside working hours.

A - Attractive Small units, many doors (15-20 units per 100 m) Diversity of functions No closed or passive units Interesting relief in facades Good quality materials and refined details

Poor frontages Unfortunately some of the positive aspects of the city by day are negated at night. Despite the opulence of attractive building frontages, metal shutters, dark building frontages and empty display windows convey a sense of insecurity during non-opening hours and throughout the evening. As a result the city takes on a very different personality after dark.

B - Pleasant Relatively small units (10-14 units per 100 m) Some diversity of functions Only a few closed or passive units Some relief in the facades C - Somewhere-in-between Relatively good detailing Mixture of small and larger units (6-10 units per 100 m) Some diversity of functions Only a few closed or passive units Uninteresting facade design D - Dull Somewhat poor detailing Larger units with few doors (2-5 units per 100 m) Little diversity of functions Many closed units Predominantly unattractive facades Few or no details metal shutters Unfortunately some of the positive aspects by day are negated at night

E - Unattractive Large units with few or no doors No visible variation of function Closed and passive facades Monotonous facades No details, nothing interesting to look at

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analysis 路 local scale 路 spaces

The North Laine

Attractive ground floor frontages

Bri

ght

on

P la

ce

The Lanes

1 entrance every 6 meter Two elements are important when looking into the quality of the ground floor frontages. The aesthetic quality of the facade (previous page) and the number of units and entrances. The number of building units and entrances influence the activity level in the street. Many entrances create more active street life as more people walk in and out of building doors.

Ma r k et Str

eet

Sydne y

S t re e

t

Many active frontages in Brighton & Hove Compared with cities around the world, Brighton & Hove is well endowed when it comes to attractive ground floor frontages. The city has a significant building tradition with small units and many entrances. The diagrams on this page illustrate the quality of the streets in the North Laine and the Lanes. The amazingly high number of small units and entrances is part of the reason why the North Laine and the Lanes are considered pleasant strolling areas and experience high pedestrian volume. Celebrate the building culture It is very important that Brighton & Hove make strong efforts to protect and celebrate this building culture in the future. It is recommended to make exact guidelines to preserve this attractive tradition - both when renovating existing buildings and when planning new streets.

Pleasant streets Research conducted by Gehl Architects show, that a good city highstreet has 1 entrance every 6 m. or 15 entrances per 100 m. The North Laines and the Lanes are experienced as pleasant walking environments since they have aprox. 15/16 entrances per 100 m.

As seen in other cities (and in Brighton as well) new buildings seldom have this fine well-detailed structure - they are often mono-functional and have few entrances. International chain stores also have a tendency towards planning only few entrances to their shops. brighton & Hove legibility study路 GEHL ARCHITECTS & Landscape Projects 路 P 071

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1.428

analysis · local scale · spaces

Safety Evening Street Activity 1.440

Few evening activities While much of Brighton & Hove is multi-functional, some of the most important aspects of the public realm are comprised of mono-functional building usage. Failure to overlap functions and activities results in streets and squares that are under-used during the evening and at night. When fewer “eyes are present on the street”, the real and perceived risk of crime increases. Subsequently some of the most popular streets during the day may be completely avoided at night, due in part to a lack of passive surveillance from other people. The Lanes is a good example of an area that changes personality at night time. Despite the opulence of attractive building frontages, metal shutters, dark building frontages, and empty display windows convey a sense of insecurity during non-opening hours and throughout the evening. Pedestrians avoid small streets in evenings Other streets experience more evenly distributed pedestrian volume between day and night. Several factors contribute to the volume of pedestrian traffic. Various factors ranging from proximity to transport (in the case of Trafalgar Street and Western Road), to relatively low overall traffic (Kings Road, Grand Parade), contribute to the liveliness of these streets after dark. Streets such as St. James and West Street are examples of lively streets populated both by people that live along them and those attending the attractive nightlife spots found here. Brighton versus Hove The streets of Brighton are generally much more active than Hove, indicating a potential to increase evening activities in Hove along the main pedestrian network.

1.566

1.050

Night time pedestrian activity Low evening usage

high evening usage

Jubliee Street 16% Dyke Street 17% Gardener Road 18% George Street 11% Bond Street 19% Kensington Gardens 17% East Street 22% Market Street

Kings Road Hove West Street Western Road Trafalgar Street Grand Parade St. James Street Grand Junction Rd.

90% 41% 50% 67% 65% 41% 43%

22%

figures reflect percentage of pedestrian volume on an average summer weekday in the evening (6pm-10pm) in relation to day time movement (10am -6pm)

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analysis · local scale · spaces

Safety ‘Eyes on the street’ Safety perceived on busy streets

4.236 4.392 2.322

1.008

5.016

1.794

1.464 1.896

1.284

540

1.986 2.634 3.276

4.974 4.080

2.370 6.000

5.568

Studies indicate that passive surveillance, or “eyes on the street” is one of the most effective deterrents of crime. It is therefore not surprising that the streets that experience the highest volume of pedestrians between 6pm and 10pm are also perceived as some of the safest in the city. The North Laine is a mixture of residential and commercial streets. This variation makes it a thrilling experience to wander through the area. But many other streets in the city are still mono-functional. Potential exists for restructuring and reorganising vehicular traffic and overlapping building functions to incorporate dwellings on pedesrianised streets (i.e. in The Lanes). The City Centre of Copenhagen is considered to be safe at day time as well as night. One of the reasons is that people are living within the city centre as well. In the case of Brighton, a mixture of dwellings and shops along popular streets is a rare occurrence.

1.788 Pedestrian traffic comparison to other cities

2.490 1.308

5.682

3.048

3.558

There will of course be a drop-off in traffic after closing time on main shopping streets. But specific studies in Brighton city centre indicate an especially significant decrease. Comparison of pedestrian traffic along busy shopping streets during the weekday between 8am and 6pm compared to pedestrian traffic along these streets between 6pm to 10pm. Figures shown indicate night traffic (6pm-10pm) as a percentage of total pedestrian traffic from 8am to 10pm Brighton - Bond St.

19%

Copenhagen - Strøget

30%

Melbourne - Burke St.

38%

Wellington - Lambton Quay

34%

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Summary

The vision is to create an inclusive city. The analysis shows that Brighton & hove could be improved at city, local and detailed scale.

LANDSCAPE The South Downs and the sea provide a unique quality to peripheral districts.

city scale

The green open spaces define built form and help navigation but the provision of street trees and consistency of parkland is poor.

DISTRICT Lack of character of the city fabric makes it difficult to know where you are and where you are heading. Some neighbourhoods experience problems with sense of place and feel unsafe.

MOVEMENT Unclear routes and complicated junctions make it difficult to navigate through the city. Most destinations and car parks are located in central Brighton.

local scale

The city suffers from congestion involving both commuting and seasonal visitors.

MOVEMENT The pedestrian, cycle and vehicle network of the city is inconsistent due to a lack of street hierarchy and missing links. Indistinct identity is a general problem. Car traffic has been prioritised in Brighton & Hove, creating barriers and placing pedestrians at odds with cyclists.

SPACES The study area lacks high quality public spaces, and only few spaces are popular. The green areas do not exploit their potential and are under-used. The urban spaces are few and uninviting The demographic profile of people using public spaces in the study area is not representative of Brighton & Hove . Children, families and the elderly are underrepresented.

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Key recommendations LANDSCAPE

local scale

city scale

Bring sea and countryside closer to the city!

analysis_local scale_spaces.indd75 75

• Landscape strategy • Bring the Downs into the city • Get closer to the sea

DISTRICT Make inclusive districts with legible features! • District strategy • Develop neighbourhood identity • create an “easily-read” city

MOVEMENT Create strong Routes! • Movement strategy • Make a navigable city • Create connections to the periphery

MOVEMENT Emphasize the strings! • Movement strategy • Create viable movement patterns • Create links with specific identity • Improve conditions for walking • Improve conditions for cycling

SPACES Polish the pearls! • Spaces strategy • Create inviting meeting places • • • •

Recapture the green spaces Improve the urban squares Create a high quality city throughout the day/week/ year Improve safety

21-03-2007 11:47:08


• • • •

Bring sea and countryside closer to the city Landscape strategy Bring the downs into the city Get closer to the sea

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21-03-2007 11:47:08


recommendations city scale 路 landscape

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recommendations 路 city scale 路 landscape

bring sea and countryside closer to the city Overview of current and proposed conditions Currently...

Undefined edge between urban and countryside

Disconnected green space

Sparse and inconsistent tree planting

Constrained connection and uniform conditions along the seafront

Develop a network of green fingers.

Plant 10.000 trees in 10 years to enhance green fingers

Create access points along the whole seafront with a range of activities

Proposed...

Agree enhanced strong boundary marking protected countryside

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recommendations 路 city scale 路 landscape

landscape strategy

Define city edge boundary

strengthening green fingers

Extend avenues and boulevards

sea accessibility

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recommendations · city scale · landscape

Bring the downs into the city Clarify boundary marking countryside Continue to protect the urban fringe by enhancing woodland planting and field boundaries to make a clear definition between urban and countryside. Densify and make use of brownfield sites for further housing. Develop distinctive links between districts, through landmarks and gateways and create more pedestrian routes to the countryside parks. Edge definition

Art in the landscape

Natural walls and footpaths

Lookout

Louisiana, Denmark

Little Sparta, UK

Park Corbiere, Le Pecq, France

BO01, Malmö, Sweden

Ecological wetland park

Greening of public space

Green living area

Open space for activities

BO01, Malmö, Sweden

Chatillons, Reims, France

Paris, France

Manchester, UK

Formal street trees

Informal street trees

Seasonal planting

Avenue

Bellizona, Italy

Bury New Road, Manchester, UK

Seattle, USA

Vasa Allen, Gothenburg, Sweden

Develop a network of green fingers Extend the network of green spaces, linking the fragmented fingers of remnant woodland and fields by careful design of roadside planting and open space edges. Connect the city with its natural context, and reinforce green corridors through the city to make coherent and attractive routes for driving, walking and cycling. Plant 10.000 trees in 10 years Expand woodland and hedgerow in the city fringe. Extend hedges to link with avenues, boulevards and other street trees, to improve the physical environment and biodiversity. Implement a tree planting strategy, planting a set number every year to ensure the future city has a strong green infrastructure

p 080 · gehl architects & Landscape projects · brighton & Hove legibility study

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recommendations · city scale · landscape

get closer to the sea sea accessibility & a variety of environments Reconnect the city with its world class seafront. De-clutter streets leading to the seafront to open up views. Reorganise destination signage to bring visitors to the seafront at more evenly distributed locations to relieve congestion at the city centre. Built edge with seating

Cafe and sauna facility

Mini pier

Bo01, Malmö, Sweden

Bjarred�������� , Sweden

Bo01, Malmö, Sweden

Develop the variety of places and conditions available on the seafront to suit a wider range of users. Improve environmental conditions on the seafront by providing shelter and protection. Encourage walking and cycling into spring and autumn, and even winter

Maritime youth centre linking sea and facilities

Maritime youth centre with evening activities

Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

Screens protecting from the sea and wind

Sound of waves

Protected pedestrian route along the waterfront

Hulme Park, Manchester, UK

Yokohama, Japan

Dania Park, Bo01, Malmö, Sweden

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Cr Re str

Re sea tio

De the

Im pro cy


• • • •

Make inclusive districts with legible features Districts strategy Develop neighbourhood identities Create an easy to read city

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21-03-2007 11:56:14


recommendations city scale 路 districts

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recommendations 路 city scale 路 districts

make inclusive districts with legible features Overview of current and proposed conditions Currently...

Deprived districts lacking sense of place and facilities

Disconnection of districts due to topography, infrastructure corridors and development of large estates

Poor public environment with racetrack streets

Non existing city gateways only traffic gyratories

Inconsistent provision of legible features

Lack of function and poor information by nodes

Create improved connections between districts

Design safe and attractive neighbourhoods

Commission welcoming gateway by artwork lighting or landscaping

Improve landmark features and create a distinctive skyline

Make the nodes attractive and improve facilities

Proposed...

Make inclusive districts, build stronger identities

p 084 路 gehl architects & Landscape projects 路 brighton & Hove legibility study

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recommendations 路 city scale 路 districts

districts strategy W

Improve urban structure

W

Improve the mental map of the city. Celebrate arrival in the city by strengthening the identity of gateways and entry points. Develop a second tier of landmarks in the outer city, making use of the dramatic skyline and topography to develop a sense of place in the currently indistinct suburban districts. Simplify road corridors by de-cluttering and introducing consistent roadside treatments. Highlight landmarks and special buildings through de-cluttering and lighting. Identify viewing corridors, improve vistas and extend public art provision to develop informal legibility within the wider city.

W

Close to the seafront, reinforce the presence of the sea, through de-cluttering streets and opening views.

W

redesign major arrival points

W

design welcome gateway feature

band needing more visual clues

improve existing landmarks

Improve connection to seafront

make new landmarks

define district identities

improve lighting to key vistas and buildings

create safe linkages between districts

W

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Imp in t and the topo indi

Sim cons and Iden pub the

Clos thro


recommendations 路 city scale 路 districts

develop neighbourhood identities Make inclusive districts, build stronger identities Improve sense of place to reinforce community spirit. Integrate social and economic investments with environmental improvements to make a positive impact in deprived areas. Develop a comprehensive identity and artwork strategy integrated with way-marking which links the outer districts of the city with the centre. Address perceptions of isolation by improving signage, walking, cycling and public transport provision.

Branding district with signage

Characterful public realm

Well illuminated street

Bespoke design

Bankside, Southwark, London

Kiagata, Japan

Burton Place, Manchester, UK

Hulme Park, Manchester, UK

Feature lighting

Play street

Open active edge with variety

Greenwich millenium village

Dublin, Ireland

New Islington, Manchester, UK

Almere, The Netherlands

London, UK

BedZed homezone street

Abode Homezones

Colourful play space

Informal meeting place

Surrey, UK

Harlow, UK

Bilbao, Spain

Hulme Park, Manchester, UK

Create improved connections between districts Introduce well-lit, safe links between outer districts and the city centre. Develop new housing which overlooks edges and greenspace, bringing activity to green corridors. Encourage permeability by re-opening blocked off roads into peripheral estates, combined with traffic calming and integrated security measures.

Design safe and attractive neighbourhoods Reorganise out-of-date housing areas to bring people and pedestrians into balance with vehicular movement. Open up isolated districts with carefully designed, safe new routes. Introduce traffic calming to make streets more pedestrian friendly. Organise a clearer hierarchy of public space, and ensure that new development overlooks and animates an active public realm to improve passive surveillance. Develop management plans to identify redundant open space which can be redeveloped and areas which should be intensified in terms of possible activities.

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recommendations · city scale · districts

create an easy to read city Commission welcoming gateway artwork Commission large scale artwork projects at entrances to the city to mark arrival points, and celebrate the creative and pleasurable characteristics of Brighton & Hove. Integrate these interventions with new signage connecting the periphery with the city centre.

Famous gateway Angel ������������������ of the North

Ring Road bridge as gateway to city

Mersey Wave

Newcastle, UK

Manchester, UK

Liverpool, UK

Turning Torso in harbour redevelopment

Illuminated, asymmetrical landmarks

Cathedral spires in clear setting

West Harbour Malmö, Sweden

Bristol Quayside, UK

Coventry , UK

Improve landmarks and create a distinctive skyline Enhance intuitive way-finding within the City by exploiting the existing topography, townscape and natural features. Introduce a hierarchy of landmark elements. Differentiate outer suburbia, develop the distinctive skylines of outer Brighton and introduce distinctive features along main corridors, particularly in the outer core. A “landmarks” arts project should be developed to commission excellent artworks in the periphery and outer areas of the city. Make the nodes attractive meeting places Improve the gateways to the city. The “nodal points” of the city, where people change modes of transport and where people meet, should be improved to present a positive welcome to Brighton & Hove. Station forecourts, bus stops, car park entrances and civic spaces should be de-cluttered, and carefully reorganised to put the needs of people first.

informative signage

generous seating and activity area

multifunctional station space

modern fingerpost

Bristol, UK

Schouwburg Plein, The Netherlands

Museum Plein, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Bristol, UK

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• • • •

Steps towards making easy smooth movement Movement network strategy Enjoyable driving Direct movement for pedestrians

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recommendations city scale 路 movement

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recommendations · city scale · movement

steps towards making easy smooth movement Overview of current and proposed conditions

Characterless main corridors

Parking mainly located in City Congested few routes into the Lacking or unclear destination Over reliance on city centre to Walking and cycling network is Poor destination signage creatCentre City Centre signage connect outlying districts� incomplete ing confusion and congestion

Hove OldTown Town Old Seafront Give arrival routes improved legibility by designing quality streetscape

Relocate city centre parking

Disperse traffic by improved Improve wayfinding with simdestinaton signage plified destination signage.

Invest in sustainable rapid pe- Build walking & cycling priority Improve junction design and rimeter route, integral in the network simplify pedestrian crossstreet layout. Loop bus servings ices

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recommendations 路 city scale 路 movement

movement network strategy

Hove Old Town

Old Town Seafront

Falmer

Patcham

Hove Hove

Old Town

Old Town

Old Town

Seafront

Seafront REPEAT REPEAT REPEAT

P INFO P INFO

P INFO

linking further beyond

P

REPEAT P INFO

P

Shoreham

Establish walking priority routes

P

Relocate parking to Brighton & Hove city centre edge Locate transport interchanges

Provide rapid peripheral route

Plan for new interchanges

Introduce free Brighton & Hove city centre bus

P P REPEAT P INFO

Improve arrival routes

P INFO REPEAT

P

Destination signage

link

i ng

fu r t

her

bey

ond

Brighton Marina

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recommendations · city scale · movement

enjoyable driving Give arrival routes individual character Visitors arriving in Brighton & Hove usually have at least a basic understanding of the “city next to the sea”. Wayfinding should build on this simple “mental map”. Most arrival routes into Brighton & Hove are direct, following valleys or the seafront, and are therefore inherently legible. Planting schemes, lighting, verges, edges, screens and road markings should reinforce the “mental map”

Edge details and good lighting

Powerful streetscape

Planting with seasonality

Vertical elements give variety

Arhus, Denmark

New Islington, Manchester, UK

Liverpool, UK

Forest Garden, Germany

Relocate city centre car parking Introduce new car parks located at the edge of the citycentre that are well-integrated with the surrounding city. Reduce long stay parking in the city centre, encouraging commuters to seek alternative, public transport. Balance reduction in city centre parking provision with new park and ride systems for commuters from outside the city. Ensure connections are rapid and frequent.

Improve destination signage Signage at the edge of the city should introduce the key destinations. Repeater signs should reassure visitors, and allow them to make early route decisions. Parking signs are normally guides to city centre car parks. These could be better organised to direct people to car parks outside the inner city centre and should show convincing information on walking distance in minutes to destinations. To help in finding the way, pictograms of upcoming junctions and destinations should be erected well ahead of gyratories.

Hi tech parking system

Ground condition of parking garage

Modern underground garage entrance

Volkswagen, Wolfsburg, Germany

Schouwburg Plein, Rotterdam����������������� , The Netherlands

Barcelona, Spain

Electronic message signage

Attractions/ pictogram map

Indication of walking time to

Highway, USA

London Thames, UK

London, UK

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recommendations · city scale · movement

direct movement for pedestrians Invest in rapid sustainable transport Invest in sustainable (reducing total mileage) transport, linking the outer areas. Introduce a low-cost (free?) city centre bus loop, connecting Brighton and Hove, the main arrival points and future bus interchanges. Continue to implement reliable timing indicator systems on all public transport stops. Public transport integrated in streetscape

Tram platform

Simple, stylish bus stop

Manchester, UK

Melbourne, Australia

Germany

Generous space for cyclists

Pleasant pedestrian routes

Countryside leisure network

Clear indication of function

Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

Oxford, UK

Copenhagen, Denmark

Raised pedestrian crossing

Unifying surface treatment

Protected, level pedestrian movement

Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

Barcelona, Spain

Create walking and cycling priority network The streetscape should be de-cluttered and simplified, to ensure that the surrounding city is visible, and the streets are easier to “read” for pedestrians, cyclists and vehicle users. Identify remaining gaps in the existing network and overcome them to achieve continuity. In this context good value can be achieved by implementing quite small schemes to overcome particular difficulties in an otherwise continuous route. Improve junction design and simplify crossings Address the confusing and hostile pedestrian environments at the main multi-way junctions such as Preston Circus, Vogue Gyratory and Seven Dials. Reorganise the streetscape at these locations to manage directional choice and information overload. Integrate surface materials, lighting, colours, road markings and signage to create coherent and legible junctions. Consider introducing shared space crossings.

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• • • • •

Emphasize the strings! Movement strategy Create links with specific identity and character Improve conditions for walking Improve conditions for cycling

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recommendations

local scale 路 movement

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · M o v e m e n t

Emphasize the Strings main strategy The entire network of public space can be compared with a string of pearls. The public spaces of Brighton & Hove are the “pearls”; the streets that link them the “strings”. The next two sections will present recommendations for ways to build upon the theme of creating a legible and coherent network.

?

From a car planned city to....

Whilst several recommendations are introduced, the underlying theme is the need to consider pedestrian and cycle movement as a higher priority: the first step to a better and more people oriented city.

Highway design in the city?

Missing links in the pedestrian network

Proposed...

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

? Reduce vehicular traffic dominance

Clear pedestrian network

Va lle y

Ga rd e

...a city that puts people first!

ns

In terms of character and quality, several of the city’s “strings” are of reasonable quality and function well in places. The analysis section showed, however, how the network is fragmented and disjointed as a result of years of domination by vehicular traffic oriented design and planning.

Currently...

?

?

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RECO M M ENDATIONS 路 l o c a l s c a l e 路 M o v e m e n t

?

?

Overview of current and proposed conditions ? green route commercial route seafront route

?

green route

?

commercial route ?

seafront route

?

?

?

Poor North/ South connections

East/West connections are characterised by changing quality and lack of identity

Va lle y

The city is unzipped - some streets are ?barriers

Ga rd e

ns

?

Incomplete bicycle network

Bus grid lock in the city centre ? ?

green route

?

commercial route

?

seafront route

Ga rd e

ns

Va lle yG ar de

ns

Problems: difficult to cross street poor entrances to pedestrian ar a lot of traffic

Va lle y

? ?

green route commercial route

?

Ga rd e

Create good quality streets and express individual identity

Va lle y

Close the zip!

ns

seafront route

Problems: difficult to cross street pedestrian areas Accesspoor andentrances visual to connection lot ofattraction traffic to the amain - the sea

A complete bicycle network

Optimize the bus service in the city centre ?

front

?

?

?

?

?

Problems: difficult to cross street poor entrances to pedestrian areas a lot of traffic

Va lle y

Ga rd en s

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · M o v e m e n t

Movement strategy General guidelines Analysis of pedestrian movement in the city identifies the network of streets and spaces that comprise the overall public space network. A hierarchy of streets and public spaces can be defined on the basis of pedestrian activity. A coherent pedestrian and cycle network is vital to the legibility and overall quality of the city. Using results from the Public Space Public Life survey, a hierarchy of streets can be determined based on pedestrian traffic volume. Today, however, there is a confusing mismatch between the streets most used by pedestrians and their relative quality. Main routes often contain confusing intersections and narrow footpaths, do not allow for staying activities and fail to contribute to a feeling of safety and security. At present, this network is fragmented and disjointed at key points, consequently limiting the navigability, legibility and overall quality of Brighton & Hove’s public realm. In the process of turning unpleasant routes into lively, attractive, and pleasant links, several over-arching strategies can be used in collaboration to achieve quality for people in the public realm. Certain streets have been highlighted here that are especially important in establishing continuity in the public realm. The key routes shown here form this network.

Green route

Pedestrianised street

Green Boulevard

Shared surface

Commercial/urban route

Pedestrian priority street

Seafront route

Recreational promenade

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RECO M M ENDATIONS 路 l o c a l s c a l e 路 M o v e m e n t

Movement strategy Sharpen different identities The diagram shown here uses the existing network and develops it a step further by suggesting that key routes be upgraded according to their type. Improvements to streets should be carried out in accordance with both their character and their overall position in the wider hierarchy of the pedestrian network. With that over-arching concept in mind, some specific additional measures can be implemented that will be expanded upon in this section. Using best practice examples from around the world, indepth research into how people experience urban quality and extensive analysis of the study area, a set of urban design guidelines becomes clear. To improve the quality of links for pedestrians is to accommodate the needs of people, in a variety of ways. Suggestions for doing so, in the context of Brighton Hove, are further described here.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · M o v e m e n t

Create links with specific identity & character Green boulevard and streets The Valley Gardens could become the Grand route into the city, reflecting the importance of this historic valley and its connection to the water. On a smaller scale, the east - west route along Edward Street, Church Street and Upper North Street could also incorporate several green elements and begin to attract more joggers, cyclists, and general recreation. The addition of several green elements to the study area could soften the urban environment and create outdoor rooms for people.

Attractive Green Boulevard

Trees beautify the footpath and improve the

Green elements used as defining zones for

Frederiksberg Allé, Copenhagen, Denmark

pedestrian experience. Melbourne, Australia

pedestrians, bicycles, car traffic and parking Paris, France

The median allows for one way traffic crossing

Ground floor activity spills out onto footway but in

Defined zones for street furniture and bollards

Gl. Kongevej, Copenhagen, Denmark

designated zones. Warsaw, Poland

instead of guard railing. Warsaw, Poland

High quality paving conveys a sense of prominence.

Clear zones for cyclists and pedestrians ensure

A variety of places to sit along the route increases

Riverfront in Bilbao, Spain

access for all. The avenue of palm trees creates a green buffer zone to the motorised traffic. Barcelona, Spain

social interaction. Boo1, Malmö, Sweden

Urban streets The east - west route along St. James, North Street and Western Road already supports a lively culture. Active ground floor frontages should allow passers-by to window shop. Where the pavement is wide enough, shops should be encouraged to set up outside displays, further blurring the boundary between inside and out and encouraging a mood of diverse community activity.

Seafront promenade This link should allow for a wide variety of recreation: everything from taking a nap, to taking a canoe ride; from enjoying lovely views to people watching. The seafront promenade should be a vibrant testament to the diversity of Brighton & Hove and the unique and historic character of this particular stretch of beach. Along this link, public space should provide areas for people to meet, play, and interact alongside the life blood of the city: the sea.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · M o v e m e n t

Create links with specific identity & character Pedestrian priority streets While retaining kerb lines and accommodating through traffic, these streets emphasise that the pedestrian is still king. Streets such as Ship Street, East Street and Gloucester Road which experience much higher pedestrian than vehicular traffic should be designed to accommodate the relative volume of traffic and provide opportunities for special events and activities, such as street markets. Generous pavements make walking enjoyable

The paving makes the street homogeneous

Grass defines the zoning of the street

Warsaw, Poland

Freiburg, Germany

Barcelona, Spain

Shared surface Pedestrian movement is prioritised and all kerb stones have been removed. These pedestrian priority streets are good walking environments which retain some of the life and natural surveillance that results from moderate vehicular traffic.

The pavement pattern defines the different zones.

Shared suface with trees, bollards and benches.

Shared surface

Strædet, Copenhagen

Barcelona, Spain

Lyngby,Denmark

Pedestrian priority streets The pavement defines the streetscape. A uniform pavement in the pedestrian priority streets in Brighton & Hove could make the city easier to navigate. The continuous type of pavement could in a natural way guide the pedestrians from one street to the next.

Wall to wall paving defines the street scape.

Running water as a continous element in the

Paving as a piece of art

Bilbao, Spain

streets. Freiburg, Germany

Melbourne, Australia

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · M o v e m e n t

Improve conditions for walking in the city Zip up the city Much has been said about encouraging people to walk and creating a continuous and coherent, or “zipped” network of streets. In general, knowledge about pedestrian volume flows should dictate the interventions made at street level to improve the network. Prioritise pedestrian desire lines When upgrading the pedestrian network, desire lines should be integrated and prioritised, as pedestrians always short cut and jaywalk to get the easiest and fastest route. In Brighton & Hove this is a general problem. But respecting desire lines will go a long way towards ensuring that pedestrians are able to safely and comfortably move about the city.

City scale desire lines

Local scale desire lines

Detail scale desire lines

Prioritise the major desire lines across the city.

Plan according to desire lines between the single space/ street and the overall network.

Strategic placement of crossing in order to support the flow in the city.

Create pleasant walking routes Straight forward interventions such as improving the footway itself by upgrading main routes with high quality materials and paving will contribute significantly towards improving walking conditions in the city. But other aspects of the public realm are also important in achieving this aim. This report has shown that pedestrians prefer to walk along routes that have soft edges and good, attractive ground floor frontages. Attractive ground floor facades with activities contributing to the street life Oslo, Norway

Soft edges with opportunities to sit, Footway as an aesthetic pleasure rest, stand and hang out. and as a pedestrian one feels the Gråbrødre Torv, Copenhagen

richness of the paving. Lisboa, Portugal

Sitting opportunities offering passersby a rest. Schouburg Plein, Rotterdam

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · M o v e m e n t

Improve conditions for walking Expand and protect space for walking Today some of the streets with a high pedestrian volume - such as Bond Street, Gardener Street and North Street - have narrow footpaths that cause crowding. The rule of 13 ped./min. per metre ‘effective footpath width’ should be used as a guideline when designing pedestrian areas to ensure comfortable walking conditions. Footways across side streets in order

Ramp at street intersection that

Remove ALL guard railing - use

Street elements placed in a zone

to ease the pedestrian flow and give priority to pedestrians over cars. Rue de la République, Lyon, France

ensures that wheelchair users and people with prams may move around freely. Barcelona, Spain

bollards instead if necessary. Champs- Élysées, Paris, France

in order to give space for ‘effective footway width’.

Zip up the city and improve access by placing crossings according to pedestrian desire lines. Copenhagen, Denmark

Crossings integrated with the pavements contribute to the visual quality while maintaining a consistent level for prams and wheelchars. Copenhagen, Denmark

Avoid pen crossings since straight

Timed pedestrian crossing signals

crossings correspond to people’s natural behaviour. Warsawa, Poland

rather than push-button crossings on which pedestrians must ask for permission to cross. Japan

Improve pedestrian crossings The analysis section indicated the numerous intersections that limit pedestrian movement and restrict walking in the city. In general, intersections should prioritise pedestrian and vehicle requirements equally. Crossings that are easy to use and consistently designed, incorporating some of the characteristics to the left should replace the overly complicated crossings found in the city today. The crossing signals should be better timed so that pedestrians have a reasonable time to cross.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS 路 l o c a l s c a l e 路 M o v e m e n t

Improve conditions for cycling Develop a Cycling Culture Cities like Copenhagen and Amsterdam, which have strong cycle cultures, have implemented and expanded upon a consistent cycling policy over several years. In these cities, cycle culture has become synonymous with the culture of the city. Current thinking in the UK regarding cycling suggests that rather than implementing permanent infrastructure changes such as dedicated cycle lanes, authorities expect motorists to slow down and learn to share the road with cyclists. This is contrary to strategies implemented in Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Bogota, Colombia and most recently in Adelaide, Australia. Regardless of the overall strategy implemented, inspiring the general public to cycle and educating motorists and cyclists will be vital to achieving increased cycle traffic. In Copenhagen, special programmes have been implemented to give cycling lessons to those who otherwise may not feel comfortable on a cycle. Provisions for cyclists have also been implemented to ease integration with other traffic modes. Taxis are equipped with cycle racks, trains provide places to store bikes, and a free city bike sharing programme has been implemented to allow tourists and residents without a bike to cycle when possible. Another vital component to the success in Copenhagen has been the establishing of a clear set of goals and benchmarks, both in terms of number of cyclists and infrastructure improvements.

Cycling is not only for enthusiasts, it is a common mode of transport for all age groups - here a typical

Cycle culture. Copenhagen has been

Danish bicycle with a carrying box. Copenhagen, Denmark.

known for a strong cycle culture for decades. Copenhagen around 1935.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · M o v e m e n t

Improve conditions for cycling Best practice

Cycle paths are always placed between parked cars and the footpath. Cycle paths are one way and on each side of the street. Copenhagen, Denmark

Planting can be used to separate the cycle path from the carriage way. Paris, France

Shared surfaces. Where no dedicated cycle paths exist, a shared surface is implemented encouraging equal ownership of the street. Copenhagen, Denmark

Cycles paths are always closest to footpaths, with bus stops placed closest to the carriage way Copenhagen, Denmark

Consistent placement of cycle paths In Brighton & Hove the inconsistent siting of cycle paths and pavements often place cyclists and pedestrians in competition for the same space. Furthermore, current infrastructure does little to convey the presence of cyclists on the carriageway, and fails to indicate their importance. Clear and consistent allocation of space drastically improves the relationship between pedestrians, parked and moving vehicles and cyclists. It is imperative that the four zones are consistently placed throughout the city. This clear division of space promotes a sense of equality amongst modes of transport and helps establish rules of engagement ensuring safety for all.

Taking care of cyclists in difficult crossings As in the case of pedestrian crossings, several of the city’s busiest intersections are exceptionally difficult for cyclists to navigate. As shown in the analysis section, the cycle network is interrupted and disjointed. Improving crossings at key intersections will drastically increase access to a variety of city districts that are difficult to access by bike today such as Kemp Town and Brighton City Centre. Marked lanes: In most intersections, especially more complex ones, the cycle lane is marked in the paving so it is clear which space belongs to whom. Paris, France - Copenhagen, Denmark

Dedicated traffic signals for

Turn lanes for cyclists so other

cyclists. Copenhagen, Denmark

cyclists can pass without having to slow down. Copenhagen, Denmark

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• • • • • •

Polish the pearls! Space strategy Recapture the green spaces Improve the urban squares Create a high-quality city for people Improve safety

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recommendations

local scale 路 spaces

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Polish the pearls Continuing the “String of Pearls” analogy, this section gives recommendations for improving the pearls of the city. It is in these urban living rooms that the diverse ? ? group of? citizens and visitors can meet, interact, and en? joy the amenities of the city - if they are invited!

main strategy

Currently...

The ambition is to create a varied series of unique destinations for the ?people of Brighton & Hove.

?

Many people in very few places

Uninviting green spaces

Lack of urban squares

? Future strategies....

?

?

?

?

? ?

? Greater diversity of people and places - many people in many places

More greenery and inviting, lively green spaces.

?

?

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Create attractive city squares

?

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Overview of current and proposed conditions

?

?

?

? Brighton is regional. Hove is local.

?

?

The diversity of the locals is not reflected in the city’s public spaces.

Lack of places to enjoy the city

Several areas of the city are used only in the summer months

Empty and dark streets at night time add to a sense of fear and insecurity

Create varied and diverse invitations for staying.

Active public space year round

Create opportunities for passive surveillance. Lively and well-lit streets at night time will improve the sense of security.

?

?

?

?

?

? Let both Brighton & Hove celebrate local life while integrating regional destinations.

Create a lively and safe public realm that is inclusive for all.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Space strategy Create inviting meeting places Despite an abundance of café seating in Brighton & Hove, there is a lack of space for people from all walks of life to spend time in the city. By carefully placing meaningful and unique places along the appropriate links as determined by the street hierarchy, the public realm can better accommodate residents and visitors and facilitate the quality of public life desired in Brighton & Hove. Make use of niches and unused corners Niches and unused corners can be reinvented as new public spaces whilst existing urban spaces can be expanded to building edges or adjoining streets to ensure a better connection to their surroundings. This strategy will improve conditions for staying in the city, giving more people more opportunities to utilise the public realm. High quality seafront Areas of the already popular and heavily used seafront that lack quality can be improved to accommodate high quality experiences and activities. Since the existing activities are highly commercial, more activities with a noncommercial and local touch are preferable. The concept is to throw the net wider. Several areas already function quite well in the city. Now it’s time to enhance what we have, make it accessible and expand to create new destinations along the wider network Make the city pleasant for locals and the rest will take care of itself!

Green spaces

Urban spaces

sport, recreation and physical activities

local meeting point

quiet reflection

inviting entrance

cultural green

city focal point

ornamental garden

beach

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Strategy for spaces Green and urban oases Recommendations for new or renovated public spaces are broken down into places that are either “green” or “urban” in character. Create green spaces with distinct character Green and park space should be diversified with distinguishable design concepts to establish a sense of character and identity. Different parks should accommodate different types of recreational activities, ranging from quiet reflection to cultural events and sports. Make room for urban oases At first glance, there is not a lot of room in the city for new urban public spaces. An urban oasis, however, can be created with carefully oriented public seating or other precise interventions that provide for a well deserved break, or a quiet niche to enjoy the surroundings. Such small scale spaces offer an important complement to the higher profile large scale city destinations in the public space hierarchy. Focus on both small and large spaces Creating pleasant small scale spaces should not detract from the importance of city scale destinations. Drawing on the best examples from around the world, the following pages make recommendations for creating high quality destinations on a variety of scales, and describe how successful practices adopted elsewhere might be adapted to fit the special conditions found in Brighton & Hove.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Recapture the green spaces Create invitations by providing different activities The study area lacks parks and other areas for recreation. Spaces exist but people don’t seem to notice or use them. This could be due to the fact that, today, many of the parks in the study area resemble each other. A simple lawn, and a bench or two with some trees is the standard unimaginative and unwelcoming landscape. Brighton & Hove can do more to make its green spaces inviting. Basing design features on the needs and wants of anticipated user groups can go a long way towards encouraging use by local residents. Some recommendations for improving green spaces include:

Past meets present.

Rediscover the English garden traditions and

Inviting edge functioning as secondary seating that

Convert historic places into modern spaces with respect for traditions. As this former cloister garden is transformed into a modern park. Santiago de Compostela, Spain

make joyful and compelling green spaces.

may be used from both the inside and the outside. Pioneer Courthouse Square, Portland, US

Increase the accessibility of the city’s parks and green squares by removing fencing and improving the surrounding pedestrian network Upgrade existing parks to establish unique characters and identities. Upgrade maintenance procedures to convey a sense of pride in and importance of the existing parks. Establish new squares and parks for recreation Plan future park upgrades to accommodate families and children.

Buildings in the park

Accentuate unique landscape features

Integrate recreation

Highly transparent pavilions can be used to animate green areas. Copenhagen

Local parks should encompass unique design features that contribute to a sense of identity to distinguish between neighbourhood parks. (above) Valby parken, Copenhagen, (right) Place de la Bourse, Lyon

Overlap activities in time and space to ensure lively areas and increase opportunities for social interaction. Ørestad, Copenhagen

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Make places for children and families Less restrictions - more invitations Brighton & Hove is home to a large number of young families. Unfortunately there is very little in the study area to attract them. Statistics in Denmark indicate that the most prolific users of public space for physical activity and unplanned events are children between 12 and 16 years. The same would most likely hold true in Brighton & Hove if the opportunities existed. Invitations to ball games etc.

Fun for children

Invitations to exercise

Spaces for quiet reflection

Copenhagen, Denmark

Malmö, Sweden

USA

Copenhagen, Denmark

A fantastic consequence of engaging recreational space for use by children is that their activity results in social interaction between parents. The positive domino effect has widespread benefits for local communities and the city as a whole.

Artistic elements as playful invitations Brighton & Hove should capitalise on the creative residents of the city and develop new ways to enliven public space. Well-designed and properly integrated public art can enliven public space and make it more user friendly. Public art in the form of permanent or temporary installations that encourage interaction gives locals and residents another reason to spend time in the public realm. Playgrounds as land art

Protected pockets for relaxing

Temporary interactive exhibition

Park bench that is a visual joy

Sapporo, Japan

BO01, Malmö, Sweden

Oslo

Parc Güell, Barcelona

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Improve conditions for staying in the urban squares Make better use of underused space The study area in Brighton & Hove is already a dense and compact city centre. The addition of Jubilee Square and the New Road Project will add to the public offer of the city. But that doesn’t leave a lot of space for new city squares. The city does however have an abundance of under used “corners” and “pockets”, that if beautified could drastically improve staying opportunities and consequently the quality of public life. Small squares are not the only type of public space that can be upgraded. As illustrated here, with a little inspiration other existing public spaces can be rejuvenated to attract and invite people to spend more time in the city.

Inviting ‘Entrance’. Petite corner-square with attrac-

Local meeting point with simple features such as

The square as green space with removable planting

tions such as trees and a fountain. The square serves as an inviting entrance to a popular city area. Santiago de Compostela, Spain

trees and a high quality pavement can serve as an informal meeting place. Gråbrødretorv, Copenhagen, Denmark

pots. Place de la Bourse, Lyon, France

An intimate square with popular café life style.

An ‘artistic square’ with playful and artistic objects as A complex transport-hub made into a high quality

Barcelona, Spain

an integrated part of the space. Palais Royal by artist Daniel Buren, Paris, France

square. Strasbourg, France

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Improve the urban squares Integrate identity contributing elements

Water wall with playing lights.

Humorous water installation.

Water elements integrated in the

Water jets offering hours of fun.

Paley Plaza, New York.

Exxon Park, New York.

pavement. Denmark.

Somerset House, London, UK

Water elements as a strategy for a seaside city Many areas already offer unique amenities. To establish a hierarchy in the public space network, existing local qualities can be accentuated and utilised as identity creating elements. These elements will help distinguish city neighbourhoods, making the city more legible and easier to navigate. For example, despite Brighton & Hove’s prominent location on the seafront, more could be done to bring water into the city and let it pop-up at carefully chosen places. Sitting opportunities as artistic elements The fact that Brighton and Hove’s lack of public seating is a clear inhibitor of the quality of the public realm has been established. One way to creatively tackle this problem is to stretch the typical definition of seating and develop more imaginative and playful elements that give identity in the public space while encouraging use and interaction.

Bench offering endless seating.

‘Blue Carpet’

Tempting ‘blobs’ to sit on

‘Talkscape’

Park Guël, Barcelona, Spain

by Thomas Heatherwick, Newcastle, UK

Melbourne, Australia

Porto, Portugal

Artistic lighting Creative lighting solutions can also be used to establish identity. Light can be used to accentuate certain design or landscaping elements, giving the area a different ‘feel’ during the day and at night. Artist designed lighting, if properly commissioned, can not only improve the aesthetic aspect of the city but also contribute to the overall perception of safety at night. Temporary ice rink with magical lighting Host of ‘stars’ in the pavement

Playful lighting in the pavement.

Somerset House, London, UK

Up-lights can enhance tree planting.

Barcelona, Spain

Solbjerg Plads, Copenhagen, Denmark

Solbjerg Plads, Copenhagen, Denmark

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Accentuate existing amenities

Celebrate the architectural tradition Brighton & Hove is blessed with a rich and intimate built environment, featuring a number of small and contrasting building frontages. When viewed as a whole, the character of the city is very much defined by the proximity of varying styles and colours. The unique character of intimate and diverse units contributes significantly to the overall character of the city. This tradition should be followed in future projects to ensure the diversity and richness of the city is maintained.

Maintain and accentuate views to the sea The visual connection to the sea from several vantage points in the city is part of what defines Brighton & Hove’s character. This unique visual quality can be further accentuated by creating additional walkways from the city to and along the seaside, to better connect the areas.

Brighton and Hove’s tradition

Narrow streets

The diversity

of diverse building frontages, small units, and numerous interests should be carried through in new building as well. Brighton

can offer a wide variety of sensory experiences when frontages are on a fine scale and welldetailed. Melbourne, Australia

inherent in older built structures can be carried over in modern buildings. Adelaide, Australia

Viewing Corridors

Framing

Activities on the water

Many streets in Brighton offer splendid views to the sea. Brighton

Future building projects could frame specific views to the water Bo01, Malmö, Sweden

Future building projects could also offer new experiences on the water and at the water’s edge Bathing facilities, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Accentuate existing amenities

Clarify zones for movement and staying Hove’s seafront is already a people destination, but more can be done to improve its quality. The colourful beach houses give the stretch character in the summertime, but the tarmac promenade detracts from the overall experience. In general the sea front lacks coherence and high quality aesthetics. By clearly distinguishing between zones for movement and places to stay, the entire seafront will be enhanced. A high quality promenade

Zones for movement and invitations to stay

Temporary and permanent additions

Barcelona, Spain

New York, US

Paris, France

Something for everyone

Places for a family outing

Interactive sculptures

Public exercise pavilion

Skate park facilities, Copenhagen, Denmark

Islandsbrygge, Copenhagen, Denmark

attractive pieces that can double as play furniture

A place for outdoor fitness participants to meet before or after their work-out Kolding, Denmark

New opportunities for public life at the seafront The seafront is a public space where people can take part in shared social activities or enjoy solitude. New opportunities should be offered to encourage people to extend the amount of time spent at this beautiful location. During the spring and autumn, the promenade can accommodate numerous activities when it may be too cold to lie on the beach. Additional spaces that appeal to more subdued activity such as quiet reflection could also be introduced at the seafront. Commercial and noncommercial spaces, with a local touch, could attract more residents and provide new reasons to visit the beach. Regardless, the quality of the public realm used for “every day” activities should not be compromised to maintain the quality of “local life’ in Brighton and Hove!

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RECO M M ENDATIONS 路 l o c a l s c a l e 路 s p a c e s

Create a high-quality city for people Different user groups with a variety of interests Give room for both active and passive activities The previous sections have described the concept of developing a network, by establishing missing links and working with hierarchy and identity. These characteristics are vital in creating a varied yet coherent and legible city. If the city is to be enhanced as a lively and popular venue for everyone, and truly invite unbiased democratic interaction, it is important to provide for a range of user groups and activities. The diverse population of Brighton & Hove use the city in a variety of ways.

children playing People watching

Elements that invites to active interaction

Taking a rest

Oslo, Norway

Palais Royal by artist Daniel Buren, Paris, France

Copenhagen, Denmark

Spontaneous activities

Outdoor exhibition

Spontaneous activities

San Francisco, US

Melbourne, Australia

Copenhagen, Denmark

Give room for both permanent and temporary activities The family, the teenager, the local professional, the pensioner, the sports enthusiast, the young couple, the out of town theatre goer and countless other types of people all use the public realm in a different way. The public realm must aspire to offer something for everyone.

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Create a high-quality city for people Activities throughout the day and season Invitations for activities throughout the day and year Residents and locals would agree that the character and “feel” of the city changes dramatically from winter to summer. The analysis section indicated just how drastic the change in Brighton & Hove is. 100% more people utilise the public realm for purely transitional movement in the summer than in the winter. Market days.

Open-air movie.

Special event space - Federation square

Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

Melbourne, Australia

This figure indicates that Brighton & Hove has a lot to offer and is attractive to visitors. Today, however, it is during the summer months, weekends and holidays that the city is literally busting at the seams with people. Locals enjoy and appreciate the calmer winter months, but a lively, diverse, and attractive public realm throughout the day, week, and year would drastically improve the overall quality of life in the city. By encouraging new activities in the public realm a new positive sequence of events is allowed to flourish. In a city filled with vibrant and creative people new activities will feed new activities. Something will happen because something happens, because something happens....

City “Beach”.

Skating-rink.

Dancing.

Paris, France

Somerset

BO01, Malmö, Sweden

An illustration of the relationship between different user groups, different activities throughout the day and year.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS · l o c a l s c a l e · s p a c e s

Improve safety Provide ‘passive surveillance’ The Analysis section also indicated that certain areas significantly change character between night and day. Certain areas that are lively, safe and secure during the day become deserted and frightening at night. The best way to reduce the empty and isolated feeling of certain neighbourhoods at night is to accommodate “passive surveillance” by encouraging “more eyes on the street”.

Create lively streets at night time ‘Passive surveillance’ may be encouraged in two ways. One is by maintaining a lively flow of people in the streets, moving from one destination to another along key links. Key routes must be well-lit and attractive in the evening hours to encourage activity and provide safe and comfortable passage through the city at night.

Dwellings The juxtaposition of varying building uses ensures passive surveillance “eyes on the street” providing a natural sense of safety and security vital for city activity at night. The city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark

Ambient lighting Ambient lighting spilling out from building entrances gives a sense of activity while reducing dark corners and niches. A well and uniformly lit building edge improves way-finding and orientation at night thus increasing the feeling of safety and security at night The city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark

Promote mixed-use areas The other form of ‘passive surveillance’ occurs naturally in mixed-use areas when restaurants, shops and street stalls that are open at night activate the edges of the public realm. Most vital are the residences in the area, which, regardless of whether shops are open, offer the impression that others are occupying the buildings that overlook the public realm. Promoting mixed use by encouraging a combination of commercial, residential, and office use would be especially beneficial in the Lanes and in North Laine.

Activities During the day as well as in the evenings it is important to plan and invite for activities to happen. Cafes and restaurants are of course ideal for this, but generally the most important thing is to create a natural flow of people, so that there are always many people present in public spaces.

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RECO M M ENDATIONS ¡ l o c a l s c a l e ¡ s p a c e s

Improve safety Create a city wide lighting strategy Brighton & Hove currently lacks a coherent city- wide strategy for lighting. Some streets and areas are poorly lit, whilst others are almost over-lit. This contrast casuses dark areas to appear even darker when entered from an over-lit area. A city-wide lighting strategy would help solve this problem and help to ensure that public spaces such as parks are perceived as safe at night

Human Scale In car-dominated streets the light tends to be focused on the traffic lanes. In the interest of pedestrians a graduated lighting strategy is to be preferred. To establish an environment that is comfortable to move through at night for pedestrians, lighting on a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;human scaleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is a good idea. Human scale lighting lights up the footway and bicycle lane. Light levels should be low to avoid dazzle and consistent to reduce contrast and the perceived notion that some areas and/or streets are especially dark. Barcelona, Spain

%FTERSOMÂŞ OMRĂ&#x152;DETÂŞ HOVEDSAGELIGTÂŞ BESTĂ&#x152;RÂŞ AFÂŞ BOLIGER ÂŞ KOMMERÂŞ BYGNINGERNESÂŞEGENÂŞBELYSNINGÂŞSĂ&#x152;SOMÂŞOPLYSTEÂŞINDGANGE ÂŞTRAPPE OPGANGEÂŞOGÂŞLYSETÂŞGENNEMÂŞBYGNINGERNESÂŞVINDUERÂŞTILÂŞATÂŞSPILLEÂŞENÂŞ VIGTIGÂŞROLLEÂŞFORÂŞOPLEVELSENÂŞAFÂŞOMRĂ&#x152;DETSÂŞLIVÂŞOGÂŞIDENTITETÂŞOMÂŞNAT TENÂŞ$ERÂŞBÂ&#x2019;RÂŞDERFORÂŞLÂ?GGESÂŞEKSTRAÂŞVÂ?GTÂŞPĂ&#x152; ÂŞATÂŞBOLIGINDGANGEÂŞOGÂŞ Quality TRAPPEOPGANGEÂŞERÂŞOPLYST ÂŞSĂ&#x152;ÂŞDERÂŞSKABESÂŞTRYGHEDÂŞOGÂŞBRUGERVEN Street light may add to the quality of streetsLIGHED as in this example of beautifully coordinated street lighting. "OLIGBEBYGGELSERNESÂŞEGETÂŞLYSÂŞSKALÂŞ ÂŞVEDÂŞBEVIDSTÂŞPLANLÂ?GNINGÂŞ ÂŞ Rue de la Republique, Lyon, France KNYTTESÂŞTILÂŞLIVETÂŞOGÂŞAKTIVITETERNEÂŞIÂŞOMRĂ&#x152;DETÂŞ

Brighton & Hove is a dynamic city that takes on a different character at night. Encouraging local businesses to find "ELYSNINGSARMATURERÂŞPĂ&#x152;ÂŞBYGNINGERÂŞSKALÂŞVÂ?REÂŞAFSKÂ?RMETÂŞUDAD alternative means of security to metal shutters when TIL ÂŞSĂ&#x152;LEDESÂŞATÂŞDEÂŞIKKEÂŞBLÂ?NDER ÂŞIKKEÂŞDANNERÂŞLYSBARRIERERÂŞOGÂŞIKKEÂŞ they are closed would enable ambient lighting from store VIRKERÂŞDOMINERENDEÂŞSETÂŞFRAÂŞAFSTANDÂŞ frontages to contribute to the overall lighting of the city at night.

6ISSEÂŞ BYGNINGERÂŞ KANÂŞ FREMHÂ?VESÂŞ MEDÂŞ FACADEBELYSNINGÂŞ $ETÂŞ GÂ?LDERÂŞSÂ?RLIGTÂŞBYGNINGERÂŞPĂ&#x152;ÂŞ3Â&#x2019;RENGUTSTIKKERENSÂŞYDERSTEÂŞSPIDSÂŞ OGÂŞPĂ&#x152;ÂŞDENÂŞVESTLIGEÂŞSIDEÂŞMODÂŞ"JÂ&#x2019;RVIKAÂŞ%NDVIDEREÂŞGÂ?LDERÂŞDETÂŞDEÂŞ YDERSTEÂŞBYGNINGERÂŞPĂ&#x152;ÂŞPROMENADENÂŞMODÂŞSYDÂ&#x2019;ST ÂŞDERÂŞVEDÂŞENÂŞVISÂŞ BELYSNINGÂŞKANÂŞSTĂ&#x152;ÂŞSOMÂŞvPORTALvÂŞFORÂŞOMRĂ&#x152;DETÂŞUDENÂŞATÂŞFORSTYRREÂŞ OPLEVELSENÂŞAFÂŞDENÂŞMÂ&#x2019;RKEÂŞYDREÂŞFJORDÂŞ

A concerted effort to produce a viable and all encompassing lighting strategy that incorporates the recommendations for lighting shown here will contribute greatly to the overall safety and the urban quality of the city as well as to the sustainability of the city.

Detailed scale Lit up corners are important features in the evening streetscape. Wall fixtures can fit into more delicate areas. Lighting building entrances offers light for residents and adds to the perception of safety for passers-by. The medieval city, Copenhagen, Denmark

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â&#x20AC;?Velkommen hjemâ&#x20AC;?

Belyst indgangsparti

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â&#x20AC;˘ A holistic public space network â&#x20AC;˘ The future hot spots

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recommendations

summary

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r e c o mm e n d a t i o n s · S u mm a r y

A holistic public space network A new network This section outlines recommendations to create a series of destinations along high quality links. The overall quality of the city will be improved by considering the most heavily used areas as parts of a wider network rather than individual spaces. The diagram to the right illustrates such a holistic network of links and destinations based on pedestrian movements observed in the city. A well-connected network, however, does not mean that activity is spread equally throughout the city. The diagram to the right illustrates possible locations of activity hot spots. Hot spots are nodes that create a series of invitations, attracting a higher intensity of activity. Each one of these “people magnets” is connected to the next, thus creating an accessible and sustainable public realm. This diagram focuses on the main pedestrian routes, linking important destinations such as transport interchanges, cultural facilities and commercial city areas. However the streets omitted from this diagram should not be forgotten. On the contrary, these streets are subject to a similar quality criteria as those shown.

High activity

Lower activity All the spaces highlighted in the diagram are ‘hot spots’ (people magnets), but some spots are ‘hotter’ (will attract more people) than others...

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The future hot spots The people magnets indicated here either already act as hot spots today, or are oriented so as to easily attract greater activity in future. Suggestions for new hot spots are based on the potential of the space to attract activity. Simply creating a wider network, however, is not enough to create a series of lively public spaces. Spaces must also invite people to utilise them. By identifying the types of user groups and activities that take place in cities, as indicated previously in this section, public space can be designed to attract users. Research from around the world indicates that when spaces are carefully designed, well placed, and inviting, people will use them. Brighton & Hove, with its numerous attractions and cultural amenities, is already an attractive place to be. But subtle interventions, designed with the needs of people in mind, can go a long way towards making the city even better. This section has shown some internationally successful best practice methods. In the next section, Space Programmes have been developed that give guidance as to how these over arching principles can be applied to specific sites in Brighton & Hove.

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r e c o mm e n d a t i o n s · S u mm a r y

Process – How to take the strategies forward New ways of thinking Issues concerning the public realm are often dealt with by numerous different departments in a municipality. Such is the case in Brighton & Hove. Traffic issues are dealt with by one department, planning issues by another, conservation by a third etc. If Brighton & Hove is to develop public spaces of high urban quality, a much more holistic approach to developing the public realm is required.

Planning Department

Park Department

The numbers of young people visiting Brighton on holidays and at weekends further sustains a rather singular and youthful use pattern within the city’s spaces.

Transport Department

These are just some of the problems identified. But Brighton & Hove has so many qualities. The traffic through the city is not the problem in itself – rather the design of streets and the lack of spaces for people activities. And this problem can be dealt with.

A people oriented methodology The introduction and analysis sections in this document present a new way of thinking, derived from a much more people oriented approach to planning.

The strategies and space programmes in this study illustrate ways to deal with these issues. They introduce a new methodology which will prioritise people when future public realm improvements are planned.

Traffic issues are currently given first priority at all levels of scale despite the fact that in some streets there are more than twice as many pedestrians as vehicles.

Internal process and change If the strategies and projects illustrated in this document are to be realised, a new mind set needs to be introduced. Creating change for the better in Brighton & Hove has to start with change from within the Council.

“People qualities” and pedestrian desire lines are not prioritised in the design of streets and spaces. The result is an environment in which people make their way over guard railings and outside pen crossings. This is because people act like people – and not necessarily as the traffic planners would like them to do.

Holistical commissioned, implemented and maintained

Brighton & Hove has the image of a city with a diverse and inclusive population. But the use of the city’s public spaces shows another picture. In fact many age groups are excluded, especially children, teens, families and the elderly.

At a final internal workshop, participants reviewed the three main project processes: Commissioning, Implementation and Management. The workshop resulted in initial recommendations in three categories. - Education

- Communication - Internal process.

A very brief summary of these initial discussions follows:

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Recommendations in 3 categories

01. Education The fundamental change in the way of understanding problems and working towards people oriented design and city development has to be revealed to everyone within the organization through educational activities.

02. Communication In future, new strategies and projects need to be communicated throughout the organisation to ensure a much more co-ordinated approach to delivery. Communication needs to be improved at two levels:

Education can take place at all levels of the city and the organization: At the level of regular staff, managers, steering committee and councillors.

1. Within the individual project team, there needs to be clear and well coordinated communication between the implementation team, the management team and the steering group.

The project managers are a key to success. The project managers are both running the day-to-day development of the projects based on internal dialogue with the staff, at the same time ensuring approval with steering committees and councillors. Depending on the level of ambitions the education could be stretched to groups of citizens, representative and stakeholders. Through education and a thorough introduction of quality criteria and toolkit – a good practise checklist, the regular staff would be enabled to handle small scale projects with very little management or involvement of outside consultants. Finally, the message needs to reach committee members ensuring political buy in and long term investments.

2. Across departments improved communication is required to ensure that the ongoing activities and efforts of different departments are coordinated towards the same goal, and all relevant parties are involved in the process. Communication across departments is especially important for medium to large scale projects.

03. Internal process For medium to large scale projects an improved internal process was discussed. 1. Firstly, a clear client or owner of each project is required. 2. A proper public life and public space analysis should illustrate current problems and potentials 3. A project brief / space programme needs to be developed for each project

The brief should contain the following: - Primary and secondary aims – what is the vision? - Clear problems and potentials – what should be achieved? - Ambitions for life and activities within the space – what should take place? - Spatial strategies and links to the overall strategies of this document – how is it organised? - A budget – what are the economic limits? - Goals for sustainability – how is sustainability ensured within the project? - Levels of management – how will the project be managed after completion?

4. Designs should prioritise the needs of people and draw on the good practice checklist. 5. Buidling projects should be implemented and delivered ensuring finely-detailed elements proportioned in human scale. 6. All schemes should be evaluated and reviewed after completion, and if necessary amended to resolve problems identified.

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A better city every day Urban Design on the agenda To realise the recommendations, the need for both physical and organisational changes were discussed. Siting relevant departments closer to each other would ensure more dialogue. However, to ensure the involvement of the right departments at the right time a more formal process still needs to be initiated. It was suggested that a central urban design unit should be established to deal with all medium to large scale urban design projects. Individual departments should be able to contact a future Public Realm Officer for advice at various stages of a project, from commissioning to implementation and management. The potential benefit of an Enforcement Officer, to make sure management and repair in the streets and public spaces takes place was also discussed

The consultant strongly recommends that the council should build on the outcomes of this initial debate by setting up an internal working group, which can consider and present a more detailed proposal for improving education, internal communication and processes in 2007. This will help ensure that the study brings real benefits and the strategies it contains can be taken forward! Brighton & Hove has many traffic issues, a lack of life in many places and certainly a lack of quality spaces. But it also has the opportunity to start developing spaces that will not only improve the legibility of the city but more importantly improve its liveability! This would be based not on a politically impossible grand master plan, but by consistently applying the methodology, general quality criteria and overall strategies presented in this document. In the future, every project – small or big – can steer the city in this direction, ensuring that Brighton & Hove be a better place to live.

These suggestions arose from creative and positive dialogue amongst participants from departments across the council. The discussions dealt not so much with what the internal process is like today, but more about what a future process, delivering people-oriented designs, may look like.

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New ways of thinking a people oriented methodology

Holistic approach to the development of the public realm The council should focus on: - education

- communcation - internal process Create a methodology, general quality criteria and overall strategies to make Brighton & Hove a fabulous city for people

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• • • • • •

General conditions Street section Busy intersection Entrance to city area Link the city to the seaside Inviting green space along the sea front

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public space programmes

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public Space Programmes

general conditions The Public Space Programme section of this report describes general design concepts that can be applied throughout the city of Brighton & Hove in the coming years. The design interventions illustrated are intended to provide strategic guidance for more detailed design to occur in the future.

1

Although the Public Space Programme illustrates strategies for upgrades at specific sites, these were chosen because they exemplify conditions that exist in several other areas in the city. The principles illustrated in these examples could be applied to real projects where similar conditions apply.

The chosen areas for the space programmes

Church Road

Old Steine

Upper Gloucester

Regency Square

East street connection

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Public Space Programme

The conditions addressed by producing a Public Space Programme are: 1. Street section (Church Road) 2. Busy intersection (Old Steine)

3

3. Entrance to city area (Upper Gloucester Road) 4. Inviting green space (Regency Square) 5. Linking the city to sea-front (East Street)

4 2

5

es

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public Space Programmes

Street section Example: Church Road, Hove Current problems • Restricted access North / South across the street due to motorised vehicle dominated streetscape • Overly complicated pedestrian crossings and difficult to navigate intersections • A general lack of quality in materials, such as paving and urban furniture • A lack of opportunities to pause and stay in the area • Confusing signage • Poor lighting

Integrated paved surface that clearly marks space for cars and space for pedestrians. Place Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France Church Road today

Vision North Street, Western Road and Church Road together make one of the key links between Brighton & Hove. Stretch with beautifull paving that tends to calm down cartraffic on the busy boulevard. Bilbao, Spain

The overall vision is to transform this main commercial street into a high quality, pedestrian friendly city street. The proposed Public Space Programme principle lays out a series of ‘pauses’ on the busy street. At these key points something special happens and this is communicated to both pedestrians and car drivers with a change in paving. The ‘pause’ on Church Road in Hove could additionally be signaled by planting trees along the route.

Church Road today

High quality commercial street with soft edges and plenty of opportunities to rest and window shop. New Oxford Street, London, UK

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Public Space Programme

Street section Example: Church Road, Hove Tools • More transparent, well-detailed building frontages • Allow indoor activity to contribute to the liveliness of the street • Provide a continuous pedestrian route • Remove obstacles and define zones for movement, street furniture and commercial activity • Upgrade commercial quality • Introduce better quality paving. • Introduce lighting for both traffic and pedestrians • Enhance street corners with planting

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public Space Programmes

Street section Example: Church Road, Hove

Street profile:

Pavement 370

Zone 0: 50 cm

Zone 0: Shop displays and caf茅 seats Zone 1: efficient walking width - kept free from all kinds of obstacles Zone 2: zone for street furniture.

Zone 1: 270 cm

Pavement 370

Zone 2: 100 cm

Bicycle lane 250 cm

Carriage way 325 cm

325

Median 0,35 cm

160

Carriage way 325 cm

465

Bicycle lane 250 cm

Zone 2: 100 cm

Zone 1: 220 cm

Zone 0: 50 cm

240

Lighting strategy:

Large scale; Streetlights that light up the carriageway Human scale; Streetlights that give a warm light at the footway Detail: Light at entrances improves the feeling of safety Withdraw activity into buildings - and let them light up the street at night.

Section A-A 1: 200

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Public Space Programme

Street section Example: Church Road, Hove

A

Bus stop Bus stop

A

Plan 1: 500

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public Space Programmes

Busy intersection Example: Old Steine Current problems • Restricted East / West access from one city area to the other. • Motorised vehicle dominated streetscape – excess guard railings, etc • Overly complicated pedestrian crossings and difficult to navigate intersections • Isolated and deserted green lawns • Confusing positioning and organisation of footways and cycle paths • Poor invitations to important city areas on either side of the Valley Gardens

Perceived as a united space even though car traffic cuts through the middle - this is due to the paving. Place Vêndome, Paris, France Old Steine today

Green boulevard

Vision The overall vision is of a more unified Valley Gardens that creates a pleasant, attractive, and inviting ”green lung” in the city. Each green park embodies a unique character and offers a different experience. Vehicular traffic could be reorganised to reduce traffic volume on the west side of the valley, blurring the boundary between the Cultural Quarter and the gardens.

which distributes high amounts of traffic and offers a pleasant walking environment. Champs Elysées, Paris, France Old Steine today

The Space programme of Old Steine unifies two main strategies; those dealing with North Street and Valley Gardens.

Clear pedestrian crossings no cattle pen railings at the crossings.

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Public Space Programme

Busy intersection Example: Old Steine Tools Reorganise Traffic • Provide dedicated and consistently placed zones for pedestrians, cyclists, public transport and other vehicles • Ensure that dedicated cycle zones extend through the entire intersection, using either pavement markings or distinct materials • Concentrate traffic on the eastern side of the valley to minimise the roundabout or race track effect • Tighten up traffic lanes and utilise gained space as public space. Improve East / West connections • Remove traffic islands • Provide clear, simple, and signalled pedestrian crossings with timed signals that provide ample time to cross • Provide clear, simple, navigable access to North Laine, The Lanes, and St. James Quarter Design Principles • View Valley Gardens as a “green lung” • Consider the Valley Gardens as a single area rather than group of disconnected individual green islands • Carry park materials over each street to promote a sense of unity along the entire valley • Emphasise the potentially beautiful chain of green parks • Reduce traffic noise for those using the park • Reintroduce the history and importance of the Valley

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public Space Programmes

Busy intersection Example: Old Steine

fortorv 5 m

Footway 500 cm

cykel 240

Bicyclelane 240 cm Carriage way 325 cm Carriage way 325 cm Median with trees 200 cm Carriage way 325 cm Carriage way 325 cm

cykel 240

Bicyclelane 240 cm

Bicyclelane 250 cm cykel 240 median 200

Median with trees 200 cm Carriage way 325 cm Carriage way 325 cm Buslane 325 cm Median with trees200 200 cm median cykel 240

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Bicyclelane 250 cm

fortorv 5,5 Footway 550 cm

Section A-A 1: 500 Plan 1: 500

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Public Space Programme

A

A

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public Space Programmes

Entrance to city area Example: Upper Gloucester Road Current problems The small niche at the junction of Gloucester Road and Queens Road, like several other entrances to city quarters, is characterised by: • • •

• •

Lack of invitation to pause Poorly defined edges, making the space difficult to identify Clutter in the streetscape – excess guard railings, confusing signage, oddly placed elements such as electric transformers Poor access for pedestrians – complicated crossings, etc A general lack in quality that doesn’t portray the entrance to a popular city quarter

Café life activates the little square Copenhagen, Denmark Upper Gloucester Road today

The many steps offer countless sitting opportunities for people passing by. Pioneer Courthouse Square, Portland, US Upper Gloucester Road today

Invite people to enter the North Laine area! The area is one of several niches, or pocket squares, that can be upgraded to create a new ”pearl” in the city. Simultaneously, these niches can serve both as nodes along the network, contributing to the overall sense of legibility of the city, and as places in and of themselves -places to pause and stay, or be invited along a new path and entrance into another city area.

Playfully designed steps creates a clear identity of the space. Aarhus, Denmark

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Public Space Programme

Entrance to city area Example: Gloucester Road / Queens Road junction area Tools Access •

Extend paving further along Queens Road and into Gloucester Road indicating an entrance to North Laine Clear, simple, and signalled crossings across Queens Road

Design Principles • • • • •

Position public seating to maximise sun exposure and views to the sea Integrate public art to act as a visual invitation Efficiently reduce the width of the carriageway and utilise additional space for people Accentuate existing characteristics, such as change in level, to define the specific character of the space Promote a “soft” inhabitable building edge

Orientation •

The visual feature (art, landscape, or other) along with the change in materials, and unique design of the space will distinguish the area from other spaces, and thus contribute to the overall legibility of the city

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public Space Programmes

Entrance to city area Example: Upper Gloucester

Buffer zone: 50 cm

Zone 1: 270 cm

Zone 2: 80 cm

Bicycle lane 160 cm

Carriage way 325 cm

Carriage way 325 cm

Bicycle lane 160 cm

Zone 2: 80 cm

Zone 1: 270 cm

Buffer zone: 50 cm

Pavement 400 cm

Pavement 400 cm

Zone 1: efficient walking width - kept free from all kinds of obstacles Zone 2: zone for street furniture.

Section A-A 1: 200

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Public Space Programme

A

A

Plan 1: 500

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public Space Programmes

Link the city to the seaside Example: East Street connection to the beach Current problems The numerous and appreciated views to the sea are a constant reminder of the city’s prominent location by the water. Seeing is one thing, but actually getting there is another. It is difficult to access the seafront in several areas of the city. • • • • • •

A barrier of heavy traffic along Kings Road / Kingsway Overly complicated and difficult to navigate pedestrian crossings Clutter and excess guard railing. Poor permeability / accessibility Disregard for pedestrian desire lines as crossings don’t connect destinations or streets A lack of destinations or places to stay along the North, “city” side of the seafront

Recreative promenade Barcelona, Spain Kings Road today

Pedestrians and bicyclist side by side. Porto, Portugal East street connection

Vision As mentioned in the Regency Park Space Programme, the overall intention is to blur the boundary between city and seafront, allowing for improved access to the water. Specific design principles for the seafront aim to improve pedestrian access at key points across the last barrier – Kings Road / Kingsway

The paving unifies the space irrespective of the traffic crossing it. Luisenplatz, Darmstadt, Germany

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Public Space Programme

Link the city to the seaside Example: East Street connection to the beach Tools Access

• • •

Upgrade links to vibrant city areas to bring the life of the city to the water and vice versa Integrate with the pedestrian network in the Lanes and West Street Maintain the visual access of viewing corridors

Reorganise Traffic

• •

Introduce a central island zone to calm traffic, and allow pedestrians to cross one stream of traffic at a time Carry footway paving material across the road to prioritise pedestrian crossings Provide dedicated and consistently placed zones for pedestrians, cyclists, public transport, and other vehicles

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public Space Programmes

Link the city to the seaside

Example: East Street connection to the beach

Recreational promenade Zone for bicycles 300 cm Street furniture 100 cm Carriage way 325 cm Carriage way 325 cm Median with trees 150 cm Carriage way 325 cm Carriage way 325 cm Bicyclelane 160 cm Footway 350 cm

bicycle lane 1,60 m

median 1,5 m

bicycle lane 3 m Street furniture 1 m

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Footpath 3,5 m

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Section A-A 1: 500


Public Space Programme

A

Destination point: Take away bar or ice cream vendor Focal point: public art at the end of the street

Plan 1: 500

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public Space Programmes

Inviting green space along the sea front Example: Regency Square Current problems Regency Square, like several other park areas in the city, especially those between the city and the seafront, is characterised by: • Lack of identity and character • Poor maintenance • Fencing, which limits accessibility and permeability • Poor invitations for use and activity • Lack of diversity

Family recreation in the shade of big trees Kongens have,Copenhagen Regency Square today

Picnic with good friends HC. Ørstedsparken, Copenhagen Regency Square today

Vision Create a series of inviting and attractive recreation hot spots that offer protection from the elements, enableling the seafront area to be enjoyed in all seasons. Bring the city closer to the leisure and pleasure activities offered at the seaside. Turn these parks into varied and exciting “green complement” to the water front.

Plenty of opportunities for enjoying the sun sheltered for the wind Valby Parken, Copenhagen

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Public Space Programme

Inviting green space along the sea front Example: Regency Square Tools Access

• • •

Integrate the park area into the wider pedestrian network – especially green and recreation routes Create green areas that are inviting – both visually and physically Reduce fencing whilst greening park edges and allowing for multiple points of entry Design Principles

• • • • •

Reorganise landscape planning Consider possibilities for integrating shelters or other light structures Reinterpret English garden architecture Integrate a wide range of activity zones Position seating and staying areas in the park in relation to topography, views to the sea, and opportunities to maximise positive aspects of the climate Extend the use of the seafront by offering activities in the “green pockets” (parks) along the water

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public Space Programmes

Inviting green space along the sea front Example: Regency Square

Footway 325 cm

Zone 1: 75 cm

Carriage way 600 cm

325 600 200 75

Gravel path 200 cm

Gravel path 200 cm

Carriage way 600 cm

Zone 1: 75 cm

Footway 325 cm

Visibility improves safety

Section 1: 300 061: zone 5A-A 7for trees and street furniture. 002 0Zone 523

Flower garden

Family area

Quite reflection

sea

Ensure viewing corridors and the panoramic view to the sea. Create good pedestrian connection to the beach.

Divide the park into different activity zones.

Make many entrances so the park is easily accessible and may be used as a walkthrough space also

Ensure accessibility and extensive use of the whole space.

The ‘green lung’ may be extended to cover the hole space from facade to facade. (see section on previous page)

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P u b l i c Spac e P r o g r a m m e

Example: Regency Square

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Bibliography - A history of Brighton & Hove, Ken Fines 2002 - Brighton & Hove NAPs - AB research report, Joseph Harding - Census 2001 - Community Strategy draft - Cycling Strategy 2006 - Destination Access Audit 2005 - Infrastructure capacity study draft, Peter Brett associates 2006 - Lifting the lid of the city 2005 draft, Midnight Communications - Local development framework: core strategy - issues and options - Local Transport Plan - South East Plan - Urban characterisation study ongoing - Walking in Brighton & Hoveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Report 2000 by the University of Brighton, School of Environment.

Internet www.cambridge.gov.uk www.lucas-smith.co.uk/dissertation/Cambridge park and ride - dissertation www.caddie.co.uk

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Brighton & Hove - Public Space Public Life