Page 1

George Street Concept Design

September 2013


Team

Contents

City Design Bridget Smyth

Jan Gehl

Michael Harvey

Henriette Vamberg

Laurence Johnson

Simon Goddard

Katharine Young Glenn Wallace Claire Morgan Nick McCarthy Olivia Gibbeson Imogen Miller Lucy Creagh Thomas Drozdzewski

Contributing Consultants Arterra Arup Hassell Haycraft Duloy MBM Morris Goding Access Consulting Steensen Varming Taylor Thomson Whitting

Purpose of this Concept Design Seven Key Principles

05 16

George Street Concept Design The Eight Elements Light Rail Light Rail Stops Paving Trees Furniture Lighting Art The Edges

18 20 22 28 40 46 50 54 58 62

A World Class Street Image References

66 68


Purpose of the Concept Design The George Street Concept Design builds on the research and testing undertaken by Gehl Architects, the City and its consultants over the last year. It provides a snapshot of the key issues around integrating light rail into George Street and makes recommendations for creating a beautiful, functional and high quality public realm. In 2012, the NSW State Government identified George Street as the preferred light rail route for the City Centre, subject to feasibility and testing. The City has developed detailed plans for the route, including stop locations, lane closures and kerb realignments to assist Transport for NSW (TfNSW) in its role of delivering the light rail project. These plans continue to evolve as more information becomes available. The ideas contained in this study also have implications for places adjacent to George Street, like Sydney Square, Barrack Street and the laneway network. It is not the purpose of this document to develop detailed designs for these areas. Feasibility and design studies for these spaces are being undertaken separately. The principles and recommendations of this Concept Design, if adopted by Council, will be submitted to TfNSW for incorporation into the project.


Past Studies and Guiding Documents __

George Street Concept Design A City of Cities: Metropolitan Strategy NSW Government

Metropolitan Plan for Sydney 2036 NSW Government

Sydney’s Rail Future: Modernising Sydney’s Trains NSW Government

Draft NSW Long Term Transport Master Plan NSW Government

2005

2010

2012

2012

2013

Design principles to guide the integration of light rail into the public realm.

The Vision George Street Concept Design Draft

DRAFT GEORGE STREET URBAN DESIGN STUDY

January 2012

2007

2008

2012

2012

Public Spaces, Public Life Gehl Architects

Sustainable Sydney 2030: The Vision City of Sydney

George Street Urban Design Study City of Sydney and Gehl Architects

George Street Concept Design City of Sydney

2013


OF RECO OVERVIEW OFOVERVIEW RECOMMENDATIO OVERVIEW OF RECOMMENDATIONS OVERVIEW OF RECOMMENDA OVERVIEW OF RECOMMENDATIO OVERVIEW OF RECOMMENDATIONS capitalise on the amenities capitalise the amenities capitalise on the on amenities capitalise on the amenities capitalise on the amenities capitalise on the amenities

Summary __

Recommendations

Public Spaces, Public Life Gehl Architects 2007

A WATERFRONT CITY A WATERFRONT CITY A WATERFRONT CITY WATERFRONT CITY A WATERFRONT ACITY

a waterfront city

In 2007 the City commissioned Gehl Architects to create a blueprint to turn Sydney’s City Centre into a peoplefriendly, public transport-oriented and green city. The report reviews how people use our public spaces and streets. It assesses how they move around and how our public spaces could better promote public life and outdoor leisure. The report provides us with a benchmark to measure our city against others including London, Copenhagen and Stockholm. The report provides a comprehensive set of ideas to transform the city, one of which is the George Street transformation.

a green connected city st

capitalise on the amenities

A WATERFRONT A GREEN CONNECTED CITY ACITY GREEN CONNECTED CITY A GREEN CONNECTED CITYA GREEN CONNECTED CITY A GREEN CONNECTED CITY A GREEN CONNECTED CITY

st century traffic system atraffic 21traffic century system a 21astst 21 traffic system a 21ststcentury century system century traffic system a 21 a 21 century traffic system water

water

water

Identity

water

water

water

Identity

Identity

Identity

Identity

Cycling

Identity Cycling

Cycling

40 km/h ZONE 40 km/h ZONE

Key findings:

Cycling

Cycling

Cycling

40 km/h ZONE

40 km/h ZONE

40 km/h ZONE

40 km/h ZONE

0

100

0

200

100

0

300

200

100

200

300 0

300

0

100

200

100

200

300

300

• An introverted city • A traffic dominated city • A mono-functional city • A high city

a strong public transport system

a better city for walking

a 21st century traffic system

A BETTER BETTER CITY CITY FOR FOR WALKING A BETTERPUBLIC CITY FOR CYCLING PUBLIC TRANSPORT A TRAFFIC CALMED CITY A BETTER CITY FOR WALKING A BETTER CITY FOR CYCLING A TRANSPORT STRONG PUBLIC CITYA STRONG A TRAFFIC CALMED CITY A BETTER CITY FOR WALKING A CYCLING A STRONG CITY TRANSPORT TRAFFIC CALMED CITY CITY A BETTER CITY FOR WALKING A BETTER CITY FOR CYCLING A STRONG PUBLIC TRANSPORTACITY A TRAFFIC CALMED CITY A BETTER CITY FOR WALKING A BETTER CITY FOR CYCLING A STRONG PUBLIC TRANSPORT CITY A TRAFFIC A BETTER CITY FOR WALKING A BETTER CITY FOR CYCLING A STRONG PUBLIC TRANSPORT CITY A TRAFFIC CALMED CITY CALMED CITY

an attractive public realm an attractive public realm an attractive realm an public attractive public realm an attractive public realm an attractive public realm

• A lack of street hierarchy • Scattered open spaces

We want a city of people; a city where people feel safe; a city that is interesting and lively. Jan Gehl

a strong city identity

a diverse and lively city

an attractive public realm

A STRONG CITY IDENTITY AN INVITING STREETSCAPE DIVERSE, INCLUSIVE AND LIVELY CITY A STRONG CITY IDENTITY AN INVITING STREETSCAPE A DIVERSE, INCLUSIVE AND LIVELYACITY A STRONG CITY IDENTITY A DIVERSE, INCLUSIVE AND CITY A STRONG CITY IDENTITYAN INVITING STREETSCAPEAN INVITING STREETSCAPE A LIVELY DIVERSE, INCLUSIVE AND LIVELY CITY A STRONG CITY IDENTITY AN INVITING STREETSCAPE A DIVERSE, INCLUSIVE AND LIVELY CITY A STRONG CITY IDENTITY AN INVITING STREETSCAPE A DIVERSE, INCLUSIVE AND LIVELY CITY water water

water water

water

Identity

water

Identity

George Street Concept Design

Identity Identity

Identity

Cycling Cycling

Identity Cycling Cycling

Cycling

Cycling

RECOMMENDATIONS 77 RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDAT RECOMMENDATIONS 779 RECOMMENDATIONS


Sydney Harbour Project Idea 2: Sydney 05 THREE LINKED CITY SQUARES Harbour 05 THREE LINKED CITY SQUARES

Summary __

Sustainable Sydney2 2030

Linked City Squares for Public Life Few cities in the world enjoy a natural setting as spectacular as Sydney’s. The series of peninsulas and coves and inlets provide a unique Linked City Squares for setting Public Life for a major city with views to the Few the worldbeyond. enjoy a natural watercities and in landscape setting as spectacular as Sydney’s. The series City Centre positioned oncoves two The of peninsulas and hills offers constant surprises. A and inlets provide a unique setting long narrowcity Citywith Centre for a major viewsmeans to theshort distances to cross from east to west, water and landscape beyond. while moving south from Circular The City Centre more positioned on two Quay presents challenges. hills offers constant surprises. A long narrow City Centre means short distances to cross from east to west, while moving south from Circular Quay presents more challenges.

Walsh Bay Walsh Bay Millers Point

City of Sydney 2008 2

Millers Point

Darling Harbour

The Rocks

City Centre

Potts Point

Woolloomooloo

140

Darlington Chippendale

SUSTAINABLE SYDNEY 2030 : THE VISION

Darlington

Elizabeth Bay

Darling Point

Rushcutters Bay

Darling Point

Now

St James

Woolloomooloo Kings Cross East Sydney Museum Kings Cross Darlinghurst East A network of newthat public space unifies the great A network of new public space unifies thethat great Sydney monuments Museum monuments

Rushcutters Bay Concept by Tony Caro, 2008

Create well scaled for the monuments Create well scaled settings for thesettings monuments

Taylor Paddington A place where pedestrians Town Hall Square is proposed as a new civic meeting place creating a civic centre Railway Square A place where pedestrians have priority have priority Square Darlinghurst

TOWN HALL SQUARE - TONY CARO ARCHITECT TOWN HALL SQUARE - TONY CARO ARCHITECTURE

AA network oflarge newthat public space unifies the greatin the European tradition. The plaza would be dominated by the Victorian architecture of A network of new publicfor space unifies thethat great place public gatherings and celebrations A place for large public gatherings and celebrations monuments monuments the Town Hall, Queen Victoria Building and St Andrew's Cathedral, but new development Improve the design quality of the transport interchange Improve the design quality of the transport interchange of sustainable buildings would create a contemporary edge. Redesign of the station and Create well scaled settings for the monuments Create well scaled settings for the monuments P TOWN HALL SQUARE - TONY CARO ARCHITECT TOWN HALL SQUARE - TONY CARO ARCHITECTURE Primary traffic corridors to become a shared pedestrian a light rail stop would make Town Hall Square a gateway to the southern entertainment Primary traffic corridors to transport become a shared pedestrian Aand place where pedestrians have priority public environment Hay Str Town A place where pedestrians have priority eet is proposed as a new civic meeting place creating a civic centre precinctHall and Square Chinatown Haymarket to the south. The square would be a focal point midway and public transport environment in the European tradition. The plaza would be dominated by thethe Victorian A place for large public gatherings and celebrationsalong the City’s pedestrian thouroughfare—George Street—in centre architecture of the City. of A place for large public gatherings and celebrations

Taylor Square

Woollahra

Paddington

the Town Hall, Queen Victoria Building and St Andrew's Cathedral, but new development buildings would create a contemporary edge. Redesign of the station and Primary traffic corridors to become a shared pedestrian a light rail stop would make Town Hall Square a gateway to the southern entertainment Primary traffic corridors to transport become a shared pedestrian and public environment Surry precinct and Chinatown Haymarket to the south. The square would be a focal point midway and public transport environment P Hills P alongP the City’s pedestrian thouroughfare—George Street—in the centre of the City. P

Improve the design quality of the transport interchange Improve the design quality of the transport interchange of sustainable

P

Surry Hills

ue

P

Sta

tio

n

Railway Square

P P

Av en

P

Ce n

tra l

P

Woollahra

Belmore Park

Ed dy

P

SUSTAINABLE SYDNEY 2030 : THE VISION

Elizabeth Bay

Llightra il

Chinatown

Forest Chinatown Lodge • Five Big Moves Railway Glebe Ultimo Square Forest Camperdown Broadway • Ten Strategic Directions Central Lodge Railway Square • T en Project Ideas Camperdown Broadway Central 140

Circular Quay

2030 Vision The spine CIRCULAR QUAY - FJMT Circular Quay open front gateway to the city Circular Quay open front gateway to the city Circular Quay could be renewed as a new harbour gateway to the City with the design ofCIRCULAR a QUAY Town hall high point and pivot new public square with better access and views to the water. Customs House Square would be 2030 Vision Town hall high point and pivot Central southern gateway celebrated as a natural gathering place in a harbour City, renewing Sydney’s image nationally The spine 2030 Vision Central southern gateway Concept by FJMT Architects, 2008 The spine and internationally. Concepts for Circular Quay propose removal of the Cahill Expressway Peripheral car park, possible bus layover and intersection CIRCULAR QUAY - FJMT Circular Quay open front gateway to the city Peripheral car park, possible bus layover and intersection with cross city tunnel and celebrating the station as an arrival and interchange to a proposed light rail city loop. CIRCULAR QUAY - F Circular Quay front gateway to the city with cross cityopen tunnel Circular Quay could be renewed as a new harbour gateway to the City with the design of a Town hall high point and pivot new public square with better access and views to the water. Customs House Square would be Town hall high point and pivot Central southern gateway celebrated as a natural gathering place in a harbourTown City,Hall renewing Sydney’s image nationally Central southern gateway Square Now and internationally. Concepts for Circular Quay propose removal of the Cahill Expressway Peripheral car park, possible bus layover and intersection Peripheral car park, possible bus layover and intersection with cross city tunnel and celebrating the station as an arrival and interchange to a proposed light rail city loop. with cross city tunnel

Wynyard

Cockle Bay

Chippendale

Garden Island

Potts Point

Town Hall

Ultimo

Circular Quay

City Centre

Town Hall

Glebe

Garden Island

Wynyard

Darling Cockle The traffic on George Harbour Bay Street should be simplified

and changed into a public transport street with zones for public transport, cyclists and traffic pedestrians only. The on George Street Jan Gehlshould be simplified and intoLife, a public Publicchanged Spaces Public 2008 transport street with zones for public transport, cyclists and pedestrians only.

Circular Quay

St James

Pyrmont

Jan Gehl Public Spaces Public Life, 2008

The Vision

The Rocks

CITY SQUARES 05 THREE LINKED CITY SQUARES Now Point

t

The George Street transformation is fundamental to the ideas and aspirations described in Sustainable Sydney 2030. Sustainable development is not just about the physical environment, but about the economy, society and culture as a whole. To address each, Five Big Moves, Ten Strategic Directions, Ten Project Ideas, coupled with strong governance, will result in better outcomes for current and future communities. One of the Ten Project Ideas relates directly to the George Street transformation, to create and connect three city squares on the George Street thoroughfare.

Dawes 05 City THREE Three SquaresLINKED

2030 Vision The spine

Sustainable Sydney 2030 has a vision of a Green, Global, and Connected City.

Pyrmont

Now

tre e

THREE CITY SQUARES THREE CITY SQUARES

Balmain

Point

Pit tS

Balmain

Three Linked City Squares

Dawes Three City Squares

SUSTAINABLE SYDNEY 2030 :

P P

Concept by Gehl Architects, 2008 RAILWAY SQUARE Strengthen the public domain in the area around Central Station by upgrading Railway Square, Eddy Avenue and Belmore Park. Credits: Cleveland Rose (base drawing) & Gehl Architects (photoshop rendering)

George Street Concept Design

11

long term strategy

SUSTAINABLE SYDNEY 2030 :


Summary __

George Street Urban Design Study

What makes a great street? Memorable streets have common features. They are places for people and are designed with them in mind. Typically, a good pedestrian street features:

City of Sydney with Gehl Architects 2012

• Generous footpaths • Lighting for people • Trees and shade

The George Street Urban Design Study sets design principles for transforming George Street into a pedestrian boulevard.

• Active and open facades • Street furniture • Human scale • Artworks and cultural markers

DRAFT GEORGE STREET URBAN DESIGN STUDY

January 2012

Figure A George Street Concept Design

13


Footpath 18.5 mwidth: 30 m Street 22-30width: m Street width:Street 30 m width: 30 m Street width: 30 m width: 26 Street width: 2 Footpath 18.5 m width: Street Street width: 22-30 m width: Street m Stree Status: street width: 8Footpath Footpath width: m width: 8 m width: 8Footpath width: 8 m width: 6-9 Footpath width Status:4-6 Pedestrian streetPedestrian Footpath width: 4-6 m Footpath m Footpath m Footpath m Footp dominated by retail. Status: Main street with Status: Main street Status: Shopping street Status: Main sh Status: Main street with dominated by retail. Status: Main street Status: Shopping street Status: Main shopping Statu shopping and heavy dominated by for pedestrians and Pedestrians street. shopping and heavy dominated by shopping. forshopping. pedestrians and street. and Pedestr domi traffic. Trams, taxis and bicycles. public transportation. public transpor traffic. Trams, taxis and bicycles. public transportation. public transportation. archit

Case study comparison

What do we have now?

Footpath width and pedestrian numbers at a single location

Circular Quay

Circular Quay

Circular King Street Quay

King Street

ria

28,650

98,916 87,834

87,834

104,772 99,372 6pm-10am

24,180

Bourke Street

Flinders Street

Flinders Street

116,484 28,650 87,834

116,484

Federation Square

Federation Square

Liverpool Street

Liverpool Street Castlereagh Street

Castlereagh Street

George Street

George Street

Central Station

Central Station

Central Station

Broadway

Broadway

Broadway

a decrease 87,834 in pedestrian flow during the day 28,650

2012

Marble Arch

George Street, Sydney

Swanston Street, Melbourne

Oxford Street, London

Total length 2,550m

Total length 1,270m

Total length 2,000m

Street width 22.30m

Street width 30m

Street width 26m

Footpath width 8m

Footpath width 6-9m

Number of weekday pedestrians: 57,280

Number of weekday pedestrians: 126,360

Footpath width 4-6m

George Street, SydneyGeorge Street, Sydney

2012

99,372 99,372 24,180

Oxford Circus

Oxford Circus

Marble Arch

2007 vs 2012 Pedestrian Study 2012 2007

Macquarie Street

Macquarie Street

part of the City Centre network

day time

2007

Bourke Street

Flinders

Oxford Street

28,650 25,974

Swanston Street

Oxford Street

time

8am-6pm

116,484

Bourke

Flinders Street

2012

116,484 124,890

Sct. Giles

Sct. Giles

Oxford Street

192 bus routes Liverpool Street

6pm-12am night

Elizabeth Street

Oxford Street

Market Street

arrive in the City Centre every week day.

2012 2007

Swanston Street

Total length: 450 Total m length: 450 m Street width: 30 m Street width: 30 m Status: Pedestrian Status: Pedestrian street dominatedstreet by dominated by Market Street Market Street office buildings. office buildings.

6,000 buses

• No cycling facilities

Swanston Street

Swanston Street

place martin place martinMartin Place

Facts

• Closed frontages and facades

Elizabeth Street

Martin Place

Martin Place

• Noise

Str eet

Bridge Street

Bridge Street

George Street is overloaded. It no longer functions efficiently for either pedestrians or vehicles. George Street is characterised by:

• Poor pedestrian amenity

ria

Market Street

Market Street

• An overload of buses

Vic to Str eet

Bourke Street

Bridge Street

• Low pedestrian priority

Vic to

cours

Number of weekday pedestrians: 39,780 George Street Concept Design

99,372

Swanston Street, Melbourne Swanston Street, Melbourne

Oxford Street, LondonO

15


How do we fix it? __

Seven key principles Circular Quay

Bridge Street

Circular Quay

Bridge Street

Wynyard

Bridge Street

Market Street

Wynyard

Circular Quay Bridge Street

Circular Quay

Market Street

Town Hall

Liverpool Street

Town Hall Town Hall Square

Liverpool Street Liverpool Street

Town Hall Square

Liverpool Street

Hay Street Hay Street

Central

Central Station

Central

01 02 03 04 01 02 03 04 An efficient A pedestrian A legible An iconic transport spine

An efficient transport focused spine boulevard

A pedestrian focused spine boulevard

A legible spine street

An iconic street

05 06 05 06 07 A 24-hour Linking the Connecting street

A 24-hour street city to the

harbour

Linking the citythree to thegreat harbour squares

Central Station

07 Connecting three great squares


George Street Concept Design City of Sydney with Gehl Architects This document sets out the design principles that will guide the detailed design of George Street. It outlines strategies and concepts for improving the public realm in concert with the State Government’s light rail project. The ideas and images in this document have been tested to ensure that the City’s $220 million investment is spent wisely and can achieve the public benefit that we strive for.

18

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

19


How we deliver on the vision __

Eight elements 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

Light Rail

1

Light Rail Stops 2

Paving Trees Furniture

3

4

Lighting Art The Edges

5

6

7

8

George Street Concept Design

21


Light rail Principles

220 buses an hour will be relocated from George Street

1.01

Create a legible and functional transport route

1.02

Maintain all private property and delivery access

1.03 1.03

Create a safe shared environment for light rail and pedestrians

1.04

Minimise the visual impact of light rail infrastructure


Network

Pedestrianisation

Strategy

Strategy

The Transport Network

Pedestrians and Light Rail

Light rail will complement Sydney’s existing mix of private and public transport.

Light rail is critical to the idea of a thriving pedestrian boulevard. An efficient and accessible transport system can provide activity and connectivity along the the street. The City’s vision is that George Street will be closed to traffic between Liverpool and Bridge Street, eliminating kerbs and creating a continuous paving surface free from cars and noisy buses. (See note below on extent).

Circular Quay

The George Street light rail spine is a key part of a wider network, giving passengers from areas such as Kensington, UNSW and the SCG direct access to the heart of Sydney. It will also connect our major hotels to Circular Quay, and to the new Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre.

Bridge Street

Wynyard

Alfred Street

Bridge Street

Hunter Street

Market Street

Taxi ranks will be located close to intersections to ensure that people who choose this mode are not disadvantaged.

This idea preserves alternative northsouth traffic routes (e.g. Kent St), maintains the efficiency of traffic flows in the northern part of the City, and passes by only six building driveways, all of which will remain accessible.

Town Hall

Liverpool Street

As the coordinating body for public transport, TfNSW is developing plans for an improved bus network integrated with light rail. Road changes will also be planned to maintain an efficient City Centre traffic network.

Hay Street

Rawson Place

Indictaive Light Rail Stop

Detail

Bathurst Street

Liverpool Street

Pedestrianisation will help alleviate footpath congestion and will allow George Street to transform into a place for outdoor dining, late night shopping, art and culture.

Existing Light Rail Line

Traffic

Barangaroo Link

Pedestrian

UNSW Light Rail Line

Future Pedestrian Opportunity

George Street Light Rail Line

Detail

City Centre route

Stop locations

Barangaroo link

Extent

Safety

Footpath width

The planned light rail corridor joins George Street at Rawson Place and continues through to Alfred Street in Circular Quay, where the service will terminate and return southwards. Crossovers along the route allow for vehicle turnback if required. This route is ideal in that it connects the key precincts of the City Centre, aligns with interchange opportunities and maximises the access to transport choice.

The proposed stop locations are:

A link to Barangaroo via Millers Point and Walsh Bay will serve a key tourism and cultural precinct, and help connect Barangaroo and the Headland Park to Circular Quay. While the NSW Government has indicated that it does not consider the Barangaroo light rail link a priority, the City continues to support the project as part of its Sustainable Sydney 2030 vision.

TfNSW propose pedestrianisation of George Street from Bathurst to Hunter Streets. The City advocates an extension of this area from Liverpool to Bridge Streets but notes that this is not included in the project’s current scope. The Concept Design requests that the State’s design does not preclude this from being achieved in the future.

Across the world, modern light rail often features in pedestrian squares and streets. The City is working with light rail experts and studying international examples to ensure that George Street is safe and attractive for pedestrians, and convenient and reliable for light rail passengers.

By international standards, the footpaths on George Street are narrow. Recent pedestrian counts and observations indicate that they are at capacity. It is important that the light rail project does not impact on this and the footpaths outside of the proposed pedestrian-only area should not be reduced in width.

24

• • • • • • • •

Rawson Place Hay Street Liverpool Street Town Hall Market Street Wynyard Bridge Street Circular Quay

TfNSW will finalise the stop locations in consultation with the City.

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

25


Keeping the city open

Power supply

Strategy

Strategy

Driveways and deliveries

Minimising clutter

The City proposes that access for tenants, residents and emergency services will be maintained at all times:

By world standards George Street and its footpaths are considered narrow. Compounding this, our footpaths are punctuated by Smartpoles, signage and infrastructure. With the introduction of light rail and the reclamation of road space we have the opportunity to review and redress this situation.

• Local access vehicles will be permitted to drive on the light rail tracks at low speeds. The design will ensure they do not block the light rail at intersections • Timed restrictions will be used to limit heavy vehicle access to George Street at busy times such as lunch hours • Loading will be permitted on George Street in the evenings and early mornings, ensuring delivery access for older buildings such as the Strand Arcade

Martin Place 1.

King Street 2. 3. 4.

Market Street 5. 6.

Park Street

Driveways 01. GPO 02. 420 George Street/ Mid City Centre 03. Dymocks 04. Myer 05. State Theatre 6. Hilton Hotel

Alfred Street

Bridge Street

Hunter Street

Signage, power and lighting could all easily be incorporated into a new pole. In the pedestrian zone, however, the City propose a wire-free zone for the light rail. This will ensure that there is minimal infrastructure in the street and that space is preserved for pedestrians. It will also reduce the visual impact of the system, respecting the streetscape of George Street and its heritage buildings.

Bathurst Street

Liverpool Street

Driveways Intersections

Intersections

East-West Streets

Wire-Free Operation Possible Future Wire-Free Extension

Detail

Light Rail priority

Power storage

Smartpoles

Overhead wires

George Street must read as a continuous unified street, not a street cut up into sections by eastwest roads. The surface treatment of George Street will continue across all intersections emphasising light rail and pedestrian priority. Cars will ramp up and onto the new paving to cross George Street. The paving texture will indicate a slower zone in which cars should show caution, improving safety for all.

An increasing number of modern light rail systems use batteries and advanced power electronics to operate for short distances (up to 2km) without overhead wires. This technology removes the need for wires in the pedestrian zone and can even extend beyond to Alfred Street.

The City’s existing Smartpoles are not capable of supporting the load of overhead light rail wires. To avoid the need for an intrusive second set of poles in the street, the City and HUB are developing a new, stronger pole which can carry lighting, overhead wires, signage and signalling.

In addition to wire-free technology or more traditional pole-mounted wires, overhead power supply could be attached to existing buildings. Building-attachment is already used on Hay Street (Capitol Theatre), and was a feature of Sydney’s former tramway. It is also commonly used in Melbourne and European cities to reduce the impact of overhead wires and their supporting structures in historic streetscapes.

26

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

27


Light rail stops Principles

Making it easy to get around

2.01

Minimise clutter and consolidate infrastructure

2.02

Maximise permeability and accessibility

2.03

Provide a protected and comfortable waiting environment

2.04

Create a consistent and identifiable suite of elements


Light rail stops

Design

Strategy

01. Canopy To minimise clutter in the street, canopies are conceived as a light, floating plane that complements building awnings, street trees and the city public domain furniture suite. A canopy 15 metres by 2.5 metres will provide shelter for up to 100 people (one third of a full light rail vehicle). The shelter design should promote permeability and not act as a barrier for pedestrians. It should be in keeping with the design of the City’s public domain furniture palette.

Three Elements: Canopy, Separation Device and Wayfinding Three elements are envisaged for the light rail stops. These will perform the following functions: • Weather protection • Comfortable seating • Traffic protection

• Wayfinding • Departure and route information • Electronics housing

02. Separation Device The separation devices will perform multiple functions. They will keep cars and people apart, they will conceal light rail electronics and they may also act as seats. Their detailed design will build on the ideas of the paving and public domain furniture palette. Rather than being completely solid, these elements should be designed as permeable to ensure the streetscape is visually open and accessible. The City does not support fencing in the city centre

1 3

2

Data Precedent

Recommendations

03. Wayfinding

The City has reviewed light rail stops from around the world and believe that the most successful stops are the ones with the least infrastructure. Rationalising the location and number of bins, bollards, fences and electronics will ensure an uncluttered stop and streetscape.

In considering the best stops from around the world, the City recommends the following:

An information marker will be the primary wayfinding device at each stop. These will indicate stop locations and names, timetable information and landmarks. The marker design will be co-ordinated with the City’s wayfinding system described in the Public Domain Design Codes - Sydney Signs Code.

30

• • • • • • •

No advertising A lightweight canopy over only part of each stop Real-time travel information provided by LCD screens No vending machines Smart ticketing, avoiding machines at the stops No fences or solid walls Signage integrated with the design of the City’s wayfinding system

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

31


Typical Pedestrian Zone Stop In keeping with the City’s commitment to maximising space for people, light rail stops in the pedestrian zone should be simple and uncluttered. Where there is an awning in close proximity to the stop, consideration should be given to not providing a shelter. Where there are no awnings, a lightweight shelter should be carefully integrated into the streetscape. One marker on each side of the platform will indicate the stop and provide real-time travel information.

Key 1. Canopy 2. Separation Device 3. Wayfinding

2 3

1

Plan 32

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

33


Typical Pedestrian Zone Stop Key 1. Canopy 2. Separation Device 3. Wayfinding

3 1 2

Elevation 34

Platform Length 45m George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

35


Typical Vehicular Zone Stop In the sections of George Street where traffic lanes are retained, pedestrian amenity and safety should be the priority. At each stop, multifunctional separation devices should run along the rear side, providing physical separation from traffic. Cars should ramp up to the level of the stop and footpath, creating a slow, shared zone marked by a rougher textured paving. Light rail stops should be accessed from ramps at each end, or across the shared zone, allowing free, safe access for passengers boarding and alighting from light rail.

Key 1. Canopy 2. Separation Device 3. Wayfinding

2 1

3

Plan 36

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

37


Typical Vehicular Zone Stop Key 1. Canopy 2. Separation Device 3. Wayfinding

3 1 2

Elevation 38

Platform Length 45m George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

39


Paving Principles

25,000m² of road space will be reclaimed for pedestrians

3.01

Retain and elaborate on the existing City Centre palette

3.02

Use paving to define the light rail corridor and enhance safety

3.03

Reinforce George Street as a unique boulevard

3.04

Use Australian stone with a reliable supply


Paving

A lighter street

Strategy

The paving pattern is an abstraction of light reflecting on the water of Sydney Harbour. Different shades and textures of stone serve to enhance safety and to lighten the feel of the street.

Design

A unique avenue

01

The new paving design for George Street will build on the existing palette of Austral Black granite, embellishing the light rail corridor with a lighter, more detailed design. The new design will introduce different sized granite pavers, with varying surface finishes and tones. LED lights and stainless insets will play with reflection and recall the sparkling light on Sydney Harbour.

Countersunk LEDs and stainless steel insets. Highest reflectivity and sparkle.

02

Higher reflectivity than the base.

03

Detail

Lower reflectivity than the base. 04

04 Deep Water Austral Black granite. Exfoliated. Building Line

Existing Paving Pattern

New Paving

Light Rail Corridor

New Paving

Existing Paving Pattern

The existing base palette.

Building Line

New paving will comply with Sydney Streets Code 2013 and Sydney Streets Technical Specifications 2013

Space for people

A proven palette

Safety and accessibility

25,000m2 of road space will be reclaimed for pedestrians in the City’s extended scheme; providing opportunity for tree planting, outdoor dining, new public domain furniture and events. This new surface will tie into our existing paving palette and will be a special design that sets the street apart from others by simply building on the pattern and layout of the existing.

The existing CBD paving palette has proven to be a robust and elegant solution. The design intent is to retain this pattern for most of the street, embellishing it towards the centre. We have researched stone types, suppliers and quarries and identified alternatives which we can draw on to provide the contrasting colour shown in the design.

One of the challenges of this project is ensuring the safety of pedestrians without resorting to fences or kerbs. Working with access experts, our paving design will address these issues through changes of luminance and texture. Rough textures indicate the light rail corridor and sparkling, light elements reinforce the visual message to stay clear.

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03 Ripple Austral Black granite. Scratched.

• A lighter paving stone will help visually define the light rail corridor, reinforcing pedestrian awareness and assisting with safety.

• The central light rail corridor should have fewer underground services than footpath areas. More detailed paving in the central location is therefore less likely to be disturbed by future maintenance works.

02 Reflection Grandee granite. Blasted.

The logic behind this is threefold:

• An embellished paving pattern will help to create a distinct boulevard.

01 Sparkle

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

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George Street Proposed Paving Design 44

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

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Trees Principles

The City’s target is a five-fold increase in tree canopy area

4.01

Create a unique and iconic avenue

4.02

Create a light and deciduous canopy

4.03

Provide a high quality growing environment

4.04

Select a species with proven urban performance


Trees

Species

Strategy

Cultivar ‘Green Vase’

Zelkova serrata

Summer Foliage

The recommended street tree for George Street is the Zelkova serrata (Green Vase). This recommendation is based on independent arboricultural advice and has been endorsed by the City’s arborist. This tree has been chosen because it is a proven street tree suited to our climate. The shape of its canopy lends itself to the constraints of a narrow street confined by both infrastructure and built form. It is deciduous with a light canopy providing winter sun and summer shade. The trees specified will be planted at a root ball size of 400 litres, which is over 5 metres in height. As these trees are not currently used in the city, it will contribute to the principle of a unique and iconic streetscape.

A unique avenue Street tree selection will be part of what makes George Street unique. The species chosen must be uncommon within the City Centre, yet be a proven, robust street tree. Trees will be placed at a regular interval along George Street, creating a strong visual alignment. With the removal of traffic lanes, we have the opportunity to place trees in a location where they will be physically unimpeded and have better access to sunlight. By moving the trees away from buildings we can ensure that they will be healthier and more vigorous than their existing counterparts.

Autumn Foliage

01. paving on slab 02. existing compacted soil 03. telecoms 04. existing water main/gas with root protection 05. 3.5m wide, 0.65m structural cell trench 06. drainage to trench 07. drain to trench below 08. existing stormwater

07

03

Natives

We also believe that we can increase the number of trees on George Street by around 30%, making George Street a more attractive and comfortable walking environment. Regular planting with spaces where infrastructure is required.

A unique and legible avenue of trees through the city.

01

05

A number of native trees were assessed for their suitability, however given the complex and tough conditions, none met the selection criteria.

04

06

02

08

H: 10 - 12m W: 8 - 10m

Detail Existing Plane trees

Greening Sydney

Tree pits

Most of the existing Plane trees on George Street have failed to thrive. This is because they generally have a poor underground environment and are squeezed between roadways and overhead awnings. With the removal of traffic lanes, we have the opportunity to move trees to a more healthy location where they will be physically unimpeded and have access to sunlight.

The City of Sydney’s aim is to increase the canopy coverage of the LGA by 50% by 2030. Our project easily exceeds this target. In order to avoid a dark street, however, with too much overshadowing in winter, we are recommending a deciduous tree with a light and open canopy. The changing colour of this canopy will add to the legibility and visual appeal of George Street.

The underground environment is the most critical factor in a street tree’s success. The City proposes to introduce high quality structural cells in each tree pit (these prevent soil compaction and root damage) as well as increasing soil volumes to 55-65 m3 per tree. This will give the trees a high-quality growing environment and their best chance of reaching their maximum size. Figure B

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George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

Figure C

Figure D 49


Furniture Principles

New seats, lights and bubblers

5.01

Produce a co-ordinated public domain suite

5.02

Create new zones for outdoor dining

5.03

Create comfortable places for people to linger

5.04

Allow for festivals and temporary events


Furniture

Design

Strategy

A more comfortable street George Street today has little to offer pedestrians. There is nowhere to sit, no bubblers, few trees and no pleasant spots in which to linger. The reclamation of traffic lanes for people coupled with the rollout of our new furniture will create desirable places for people to stop.

replace

Figure F

Outdoor dining Today there are only 12 outdoor dining licences on George Street, with just over 200 seats in total. This equates to just nine seats every 100 metres. By world standards, we also have relatively few restaurants. Sydney has only 99 restaurants per 100,000 population. Tokyo has 1,144. New York has 295. The transformation of George Street offers great opportunity for increased dining, both indoor and out. The City is now studying how much dining is appropriate and where it should occur. We are working to update our policies to encourage this positive change. Figure E

Figure G

A new public domain suite The Sydney Streets Code 2013 identifies the need for a coordinated suite of public domain furniture to unify the diverse public domain elements of the former City of Sydney, South Sydney and Leichhardt areas.

Event furniture The City has engaged Tzannes Associates, with ABUD, to design and deliver a co-ordinated suite of public domain furniture that can work with the existing Smartpoles and JC Decaux elements. A consistent palette of public domain furniture will contribute to a high quality public domain and assist in long term asset management.

The final public domain furniture designs have been incorporated into the Sydney Streets Code 2013, giving certainty to developers at Barangaroo and Green Square and greatly improving the appearance of city streets.

A pedestrian-friendly street also offers the potential for temporary furniture associated with events. The 2012 Crave Festival shows how successful this can be. The City will identify the best places for these events and determine the types of furniture and infrastructure that would be appropriate to make these types of events a success.

Figure H

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George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

53


Lighting Principles

Lighting for people

6.01

Implement the George Street Lighting Masterplan

6.02

Reinforce George Street as the spine of the city

6.03

Enhance the pedestrian experience

6.04

Introduce smart lighting


Lighting

Design

Strategy Lighting for people George Street is currently lit predominantly for cars and buses. Lighting has not been considered specifically for pedestrians nor has it been designed to enhance the positive aspects of the street. Our vision is to create a pedestrianfocused boulevard that has a distinct night-time identity. The lighting design will satisfy all the statutory requirements for vehicles and safety, but will re-focus the street as a place for people. Street tree foliage will be highlighted to give scale and texture. Heritage buildings will be accented, places to sit will be made more inviting and squares and lanes will be celebrated. In-ground lighting in the light rail corridor will enhance safety and warn pedestrians of approaching vehicles. New pedestrian-scaled light poles will transform into celebratory lighting during events and special occasions. All this will help to reinforce George Street as a world class pedestrian boulevard.

Figure K

Figure I

Figure L

Figure N

Figure M

Figure O

All lighting will comply with the George Street Lighting Masterplan and Sydney Lights Code.

Detail Lighting Masterplan Steensen Varming have completed the George Street Lighting Masterplan, which uses international benchmarks and data and provides strategic direction on both functional and aesthetic lighting. This masterplan will inform the City’s future Sydney Lights Code.

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Smartpoles The Masterplan describes three ideas; the spine of George Street, the public rooms (squares) that occur along its length and the backdrop of buildings. Each element is treated with a different light brightness and colour temperature, clearly articulating each to create a memorable nighttime street.

Structural engineering advice indicates that the Smartpoles are incapable of supporting overhead wires to power the light rail. We have engaged HUB to design a new Smartpole, a ‘kit of parts’ that can do everything we need. It will sit comfortably with both the existing Smartpoles and the City’s new public furniture.

George Street Concept Design

Figure J

George Street Concept Design

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Art Principles

World class art enlivening city spaces

7.01

Embed world class cultural experiences and art into the streetscape

7.02

Include adventurous and challenging works by local and international artists

7.03

Address the length of the street to enliven the city as a whole

7.04

Holistically define a sequence of unique spaces


Art

Precedent

Strategy Public Art Plan The City of Sydney’s Public Art Policy and Public Art Strategy support key directions of Sustainable Sydney 2030. Curator Barbara Flynn has been engaged as Curatorial Advisor, City Centre, and in collaboration with the City has developed the City Centre Public Art Plan.

Alfred Street

The plan advocates new permanent works of art that are future-oriented, inspiring, singular, and possessing of a gravitas and landmark quality equivalent to that of Sydney’s great civic buildings and spaces. There is a role for both monumentalscale works of public art that are strong and bold and effective tools for place-making, and small, even delicate, works of art that will add texture
to the urban experience. An emphasis on the permanent does not preclude the engagement with artists creating temporary works of art. In the short-term, during the lightrail construction period, temporary art and events will help relieve any inconvenience caused by the infrastructure works and nurture the audience for the exciting permanent art works to come.

Bridge Street

Hunter Street

4.

Figure P

Figure R

2. 1.

3. Bathurst Street

Liverpool Street

The plan outlines major art projects for the City Centre; 1 - The George Street Spine 2 - The East/West Connectors 3 - Public Squares 4 - Laneways 5 - Temporary Projects The City will manage the procurement of artists and development of the works and will work closely with TfNSW to integrate the work into the light rail project. 60

Laneways

Pedestrian zone

Future pedestrian opportunity

Public spaces

East-West streets

Traffic with footpath widening

Figure Q George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

Figure S 61


The Edges Principles

Connecting buildings to the street

8.01

Review planning policy to protect and enhance the potential of George Street

8.02

Investigate opportunities to open up inactive facades on to the street

8.03

Encourage outdoor dining and seating


The Edges Strategy Connecting buildings to the street The experience of George Street will be shaped by its edges and the activities they offer. Today the street has a number of ground floor uses that do not contribute to an active, people-focused public domain. With buses and traffic removed from George Street, façades that are currently closed to the street and inwardly-focused can be transformed into engaging and lively frontages. Widening footpaths and removing clutter and traffic will not only make George Street a more functional and pleasant place to walk, but will provide many more places to stop, rest, eat and drink. The City will identify opportunities for outdoor dining, trading and increased public seating. Outdoor dining furniture, along with lighting, trees and public domain seating will be located in a ‘flexible zone’ between the light rail and the building line, creating a defined area for activity whilst preserving clear pedestrian movement along the street. To achieve the engaging public domain that George Street deserves, a public domain plan for the length of George Street will be prepared. The plan will study George Street block-by-block, considering existing and potential ground and first floor uses, façade quality and treatment, awnings, signage and fixed furniture and kiosks. Activation zones along the edges of George Street and in the laneways and squares immediately adjoining will be identified and a range of potential uses examined.

George Street today

George Street proposed

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Figure T

George Street Concept Design

George Street Concept Design

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non-motorized artery approx. 60,000 pedestrians and

A world class street approx. 2,000 bikes daily

Swanston Street Walk. Melbourne, Australia

Citizens want

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Sydney Founded

The Champs Élysées becomes city property. Footpaths, lighting and fountains are added. The last footpath widening occurred in 1994.

The famous plane trees are planted on La Rambla.

George Street is photographed with trams and pedestrians criss-crossing its length.

Strøget is closed to vehicular traffic. It is the first pedestrian street of the modern era and remains successful today.

Swanston Street is closed to daytime traffic and a number of improvements are made along its length. In 2012 it was permanently closed to cars and upgrades were made for trams, cyclists and pedestrians.

Sections of Broadway (including Times Square) are closed to vehicular traffic and are immediately popular.

Light rail is re-introduced to George Street and a large section is dedicated to pedestrians. The street becomes Sydney’s walkable spine and a legible link between Central Station and Circular Quay.

Designs are currently being finalised to make these changes permanent.


Supporting documents Image references City of Sydney Public Domain Design Codes:

Figure A:

Buchanan Street, Glasgow Scotland; http://archlandblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/buchanan-street.jpg

Figure B:

Zelkova serrata; http://66squarefeet.blogspot.com.au/search?q=zelkova

Figure C:

Zelkova serrata; http://66squarefeet.blogspot.com.au/search?q=zelkova

Figure D:

Zelkova serrata; http://66squarefeet.blogspot.com.au/search?q=zelkova

Figure E:

Concept images by Tzannes Associates in association with Australian Built Urban Designs

Figure F:

Sant Joan Promenade, Barcelona; Paisea 021: La Calle 2

Figure G:

Cafe Furniture, Madrid, Spain; http://www.flickr.com/photos/sol33/148874045/

Figure H:

A Moveable Feast, Crave Sydney International Food Festival, George Street Closure

Figure I:

Exhibition Street, London; http://www.behance.net/jnphotographs/frame/3131803

Figure J:

Regent Street London; http://www.behance.net/jnphotographs/frame/5286587

Figure K:

Placa de Guidi, Vinci, Italy; http://www.urban-solutions.it/progetti_23.asp.htm

Figure L:

Fermata in Herning, Denmark, AF Lighting; http://www.afconsult.com/no/Tjenester/Infrastruktur-og-byplanlegging/Lysdesign/ Design/Referanser---design/Grafiske-projeksjoner/

Figure M:

Helsingborg Waterfront, Sweden, ÅF – HANSEN & HENNEBERG; http://www.iald.org/about/awards/details.asp?ID=122

Figure N:

Frederiksberg New Urban Spaces, Copenhagen (DK), ÅF – HANSEN & HENNEBERG http://www.afconsult.com/en/sectors/ infrastructure--urban-planning/lightning/urban-landscape--architecture/references-urban-landscape/frederiksberg-new-urbanspaces

Figure O:

Devonshire Square, London; http://www.viewpictures.co.uk/Details.aspx?ID=155686&TypeID=1

Figure P:

Pipilotti Rist and Carlos Martinez. Stadtlounge (City open-air living room), 2005. Rubber granulate and halogen metal vapor lamps, dimensions variable. St Gallen, Switzerland. Photos Tim Carr. ©Pipilotti Rist and Carlos Martinez. [Plan, p 37 top]

Figure Q:

Doris Salcedo, 1,550 chairs stacked between two city buildings, 2003. Found timber chairs, dimensions variable. Exhibited: 8th International Istanbul Biennial, 2003, Istanbul, Turkey. ©Doris Salcedo. [Plan, p 28]

Figure R:

Circle/s in the round’ for (Miles and Miles +1) Newell Harry, Temperance Lane

Figure S:

Caroline Rothwell, Youngsters, 2012. Bronze. Barrack Street, City of Sydney. ©Caroline Rothwell. [Plan, p 4]

Figure T:

http://sandratblog.com/2013/07/07/catalonias-vibrant-barcelona/

Sydney Streets Code 2013 Sydney Lights Code (currently being updated) Sydney Signs Code (currently being updated) Sydney Parks Code (currently being updated) Sydney Landscape Code (currently being updated) Sydney Streets Technical Specifications 2013

City of Sydney City Centre Public Art Plan 2013 George Street Lighting Masterplan 2013 (Steensen Varming) Tree Species Investigation Report 2012 (Arterra)


George Street Concept Design  

George Street Concept Design by Gehl Architects in collaboration with City of Sydney.

George Street Concept Design  

George Street Concept Design by Gehl Architects in collaboration with City of Sydney.