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Delivered to the City and County of Denver February 2016

DOWNTOWN DENVER TH

16 ST MALL

Small Steps Towards Big Change


GEHL STUDIO / SAN FRANCISCO Delivered to the City and County of Denver - FEBRUARY 2016 Jeff Risom - Project Leader Eric Scharnhorst - Project Manager Camilla Siggaard Andersen - Project Architect & Graphics Photo Credits: Gehl Studio and Mark Englert


DOWNTOWN DENVER TH

16 ST MALL

Small Steps Towards Big Change


Executive Summary


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Executive Summary / “16th Street Mall - Small Steps Towards Big Change”

Small Steps Towards Big Change 16th Street: From a Space To Go Through, To a Place to Go To Denver’s 16th Street has seen tremendous change since it opened in 1982. It serves as a mile-long main street in Denver’s historic downtown core, as well as a high-volume pedestrian corridor. However, research shows that although thousands of people pass through on a daily basis, only one percent of 16th Street’s pedestrians stop to spend time on the street; 16th Street is a thoroughfare - not a destination. Today, a strong economy, an influx of new residents to Downtown Denver, and transit improvements at each end of 16th Street, stand to bring even more change. Now is the time to elevate 16th Street to become a better place for people - to help it reach its full potential as a welcoming place for everyone, in the heart of a vibrant Downtown Denver. The 16th Street Mall Experience

Measure-Test-Refine

First Steps

“Activate Denver’s Urban Core: The Mall Experience” is a project to help the 16th Street Mall section reach its potential as a welcoming place for everyone. As part of that project, Denver Community Planning and Development, in collaboration with the Downtown Denver Partnership, enlisted Gehl Studio to draft a guide to changing 16th Street for the better. Gehl’s report, delivered in late 2015, is entitled “16th Street Mall: Small Steps Towards Big Change”. The report content is summarized in this executive summary.

This more democratic, inclusive and transparent approach is characterized by a “Measure-Test-Refine” process, which emphasizes the importance of incremental improvements, to avoid major changes that later prove to be unsuccessful. Learning from incremental actions is both efficient, by focusing investments we have tested and know will be successful, as well as inclusive, as it “shows” the vision in 1:1 tests, and thereby facilitates a platform for larger user involvement.

In 2014 and 2015, the first steps of the “Measure-Test-Refine” approach were carried out, in the form of the event “Meet in the Street”. For five Sundays in 2015, the usual shuttle traffic on 16th Street was diverted off the street, while the blocks between Tremont Place and Arapahoe Street were programmed with many varying special activities, ranging from extended cafe seating arrangements to art installations.

New Outcomes Require New Processes

II

An action-oriented process can “show” rather than “tell” what is possible in a space. Gehl Studio’s report and studies are based on an action-oriented planning approach. Where a traditional planning process only engages a few people, and usually off-site, an actionoriented process reach out to all users, on site. In this case, the action is focused on 16th Street, with the goal of showing all of Denver the potential of a welcoming, people-friendly, activity-rich Downtown corridor.

Through an iterative process of measuring people’s use of 16th Street, testing changes that activate the street, and refining initiatives (rejecting or making permanent those changes), we can begin to make short, medium- and long-term improvement to the downtown experience. This process of decision-making relies on a constant feedback-loop between city, stakeholders and citizens. These tests and measurements are already informing our next steps.

During the event, pedestrian counts and observations of stationary activities were carried out and compared to similar data collections from three normal Sundays (“Baseline Sundays”) and to two normal weekdays (“Baseline Weekdays”)*. The findings generated from these tests have informed “8 Guiding Principles” as well as the “Next Steps” for the continued process. *See the full overview of survey dates and locations in the appendix on page 87 in the report


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

MEET IN THE STREET 2015: FINDINGS SUMMARY Increased Pedestrian Use

Increased Stationary Use

Increased Stickiness

Increased User Diversity

Increased Economic Potential

More pedestrians were attracted to pass through 16th Street because of the overall liveliness and activities

More people spend more time on 16th Street for leisure reasons, hanging out in cafes and at activities

More of the pedestrians passing through 16th Street were attracted to also spend time doing activities

More children and women were attracted to the lively environment created on 16th Street

More life, more people and more diversity also increased the commercial activity on 16th Street

There were 30% more pedestrians overall on 16th Street

The amount of people engaged in staying activities increased by as much as 60%

The ratio between people “spending time” and people “moving through” increased by 48%

The share of women to men increased by 65% and the share of children to adults increased by 77%

90% of businesses testified that sales seemed better or about the same

A lively commercial environment attracts more pedestrians

All findings are MITS 2015 Sundays compared to Baseline Sundays. For more information, refer to the appendix in the report, starting on page 87.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

GUIDING NEXT STEPS

The Meet in the Street 2015 event has taught us more about how city life in Downtown Denver and on 16th Street might be generated. Based on this new knowledge, a series of “8 Guiding Principles” were developed. Future pilots and permanent changes for 16th Street should align with the project’s guiding principles.

Gehl Studio recommends short- to long-term pilots to be applied, refined or discarded in an ongoing effort to improve 16th Street. The full list of next steps can be found in the report and operate on both a practical, strategic and political level.

1. Provide a Series of Experiences Objective: To appeal to different uses and user groups

2. Provide Transport Choices Objective: To make it easier for all to get to and move around Downtown Denver, as a multimodal destination

3. Create Invitations for People to Spend Time Objective: To make better places and facilities for spending time on 16th Street

4. Encourage Lively Edges Objective: To create a strong relationship between the commercial life in the buildings and the public life on 16th Street

5. Support a Wider Network of Investment Objective: To facilitate strong collaborations between different Downtown Denver destinations and institutions

6. Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street Objective: To consider political and legal restrictions/opportunities for the future development of Downtown Denver

7. Create a Strong and Integrated Network Objective: To think holistically about Downtown Denver as a network of public spaces

8. Continue to Evolve

In 2016, examples of projects to test, measure and refine could be (but are not limited to): Meet in the Street 2016: Expanded dates and activities for a pedestrian-centered street activation.

Prototyping Festival: A festival that invites the community to events and activities that engage people and improve a public, or potentially private, place in Downtown.

Activation of Cross Streets: Public space or mobility oriented project incorporating either Wynkoop Street/ Plaza, Glenarm Street, Curtis Street at DPAC, or other.

All projects must be carried out with a strong emphasis on data collection, evaluation, findings and refinements.

Objective: To ensure the continued development of 16th Street Read the full descriptions of the “Guiding Principles” in the report, pages 15-79

Read the full list of “Next Steps” in the report, pages 81-85

III


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Contents Introduction

Pg

03

Opportunities and Processes

Pg

05

Guiding Principles

Pg

15

Pg Pg Pg Pg Pg Pg Pg Pg

18 26 36 44 52 58 64 72

Roadmap Going Forward

Pg

81

Data Appendix

Pg

87

1. Provide a Series of Experiences 2. Provide Transport Choices 3. Create Invitations for People to Spend Time 4. Encourage Lively Edges 5. Support a Wider Network of Investment 6. Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street 7. Create a Strong and Integrated Network 8. Continue to Evolve

1


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AURARIA CAMPUS DENVER PERFORMING ARTS COMPLEX

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CHERRY CREEK

CONVENTION CENTER CIVIC CENTER PARK

DENVER ART MUSEUM

2


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Introduction The Process of 16th Street 16th Street has all the potential to be a lively and vibrant heart in Downtown Denver, but the corridor is currently only attracting people to move through the space, not to spend time there. This report outlines the first steps of an action-oriented planning approach with the goal of turning 16th Street into a true destination. The work embodied here aspires toward a new planning paradigm based on an iterative process of measure, test, and refine. Since 2014, and in collaboration with the Downtown Denver Partnership and the City and County of Denver, we have been measuring people’s use and behavior in public space to understand public life. Meet in the Street (MITS) and other efforts are a continuation of this approach, using evidence of what works and what does not, to formulate action-oriented test pilot projects. The results of the temporary projects and events are evaluated to inform subsequent tests that together can be synthesized into a broader strategic vision. While these tests are informing future design decisions, they are also positively influencing the quality of life in the city. Yet, successful pilots are only the little steps towards the broader end-goal: a better Downtown Denver for people. This action-oriented approach to planning provides opportunities for shared experience to form a common purpose across city agencies, citizen groups and private stakeholders, while simultaneously

making positive progress that improves the quality of life in the city. It is different from a traditional planning method by engaging the users on-site and by inviting for many small ideas to be tested rapidly. In traditional planning, the user engagement usually takes place off-site and relies on drawings or visual representations of the ideas. In an action-oriented approach, the feed-back and decision-making relies on real experiences. These 1:1 tests have the advantage of being able to point to challenges, opportunities or reactions that can be difficult to foresee in a traditional planning process. Furthermore, the flexible evidence-based approach ensures that the public realm can adapt to the rapidly evolving urban culture of Denver in the short-, mediumand long-term. This promotes effective and efficient use of public and private resources and investment that is vital to the longterm sustained economic growth of the city, while ensuring decision-making is in synch with every day needs of a diverse and growing population.

Principles for a people-first actionoriented planning approach: 1. Evidence-based – based on analysis of human behavior, habits and routines in public space. We need to measure what we care about and react to what we learn.

2. Experience-focused – rather than about objects or aesthetics alone, it is about creating invitations for various forms of people and cultures to flourish.

3. Iterative – based on a feedbackloop of measure, test, and refine. The city is never finished and we need to constantly be evaluating and recalibrating design, planning, and policy with this in mind.

4. Inclusive – this is about the process – there is no “silver-bullet” or single form or policy answer. The new process reaches out to a part of the population that traditional planning processes tend to exclude.

5. Multi-disciplinary – created and defined by citizens and a larger variety of professions beyond the usual engineering, architecture and planning professions.

3


Opportunities and Processes


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Opportunities and Processes

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PLANS FOR DOWNTOWN DENVER SINCE THE 1980s: HIGHLIGHTS

“2007 DENVER DOWNTOWN AREA PLAN”: HIGHLIGHTS (prepared by the Denver Downtown Area Plan Steering Commitee, p.8)

6

Identified major changes since “1986 Denver Downtown Area Plan”:

Identified remaining challenges in the “2007 Denver Downtown Area Plan”:

“Designation of Lower Downtown as a Denver Landmark District (...) resulted in a highly successful mixed-use district.”

“Downtown lacks a cohesive pedestrian environment and strong connections to adjacent neighborhoods.”

“Emergence of a regional transit system that is centered on Downtown.”

“Infrastructure and assets such as the 16th Street Mall (...) are 25-30 years old and in need of reinvestment.”

“Growth of dining and entertainment as an economic engine (...)”

“Underutilized sites contribute to an inconsistent street environment.”

“Development of major new venues for sports and culture, along with two major expansions of the Colorado Convention Center, resulting in the emergence of Denver as the top visitor destination in the state.”

“Named streets throughout Downtown lack distinction.”


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Opportunities and Processes

Current Opportunities for Downtown Denver GREAT MOMENTUM IN DOWNTOWN DENVER Source: Downtown Denver Partnership, “State of Downtown Denver”, 2015

11%

$ 2 bil

26%

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5.6%

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Occupancy of Office Space

(Next 5 years)

(Since 2010)

US average

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Investment

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(Since 2010)

(Since 2010)

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• Employment is up 11% since 2010 and up over 3% in the past year • Investment is increasing with 2 billion currently being invested in Downtown through development projects • Downtown Denver’s projected growth rate in the next five years is over four times the national rate • The City of Denver is one of the fastest growing cities in the U.S. Net migration of millennials to the Denver Metro Area since 2006 is the highest in the country, with Denver gaining an average of over 11,000 25-34 year olds each year. The Downtown population has grown by 26% the past 5 years • The occupancy rate of office space in Downtown Denver has risen from 85.5% to 90.3% in the last five years. That is a growth rate of 5.6%

7


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Opportunities and Processes

Future Visions for Downtown Denver River River North North Art Art District District

River River North North Art Art District District

The The Highlands Highlands Five Five Points Points

The The Highlands Highlands Five Five Points Points

Downtown Downtown Denver Denver

Downtown Downtown Denver Denver

Cheesman Cheesman && Cherry Cherry Creek Creek

South South Platte Platte River River Golden Golden Triangle Triangle && Washington Washington Park Park

From a space between other places with 16th Street as a thoroughfare...

8

South South Platte Platte River River

Cheesman Cheesman && Cherry Cherry Creek Creek Golden Golden Triangle Triangle && Washington Washington Park Park

...to a heart at the center of the city with 16th Street as the spine


16th Street: A space to go through...

... waiting to become a place to go to

9


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Opportunities and Processes

First Steps Meet in the Street 2015 “MITS” SUNDAY ON 16TH STREET

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Free shuttle on 15th and 17th Street between Civic Center Station and Wynkoop Street - 16th Street pedestrianized along this stretch

Programmed activities on street: 17 extra activities registered, ranging from extended patio seating to public art to entertainment like live music and interactive art

Physical changes included added lawn areas, shade structures, lounge chairs and added public furniture in general

“MITS Sundays”: June 28, July 5, July 19, August 2 and August 9 (2015)

NOTE: For more information on the Meet in the Street (MITS) programs, refer to the appendix starting on page 87


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Opportunities and Processes

Next Steps The Process Build partnerships around common challenges

Invite new actors to test ideas

PROTOTYPING

CITY GOVERNMENT

Learn and adopt solutions for a better city

A BETTER CITY

STANDARD PROCESS

Prototyping works particularly well for challenges of creativity or vision, in which anyone has the potential for great ideas. The prototyping platform could be the missing link between these ideas and the implementation of pragmatic solutions.

11


A normal day on 16th Street Meet in the Street 2015

12


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Opportunities and Processes

New Knowledge From Meet in the Street 2015 Increased Pedestrian Use More pedestrians were attracted to pass through 16th Street

Increased Economic Potential More life, more people and more diversity increased the commercial activity on 16th Street

Increased Stationary Use More people spend more time on 16th Street for leisure reasons

more generates more

Increased User Diversity

Increased Stickiness

More children and women were attracted to the lively and safe environment created on 16th Street

More people walking and hanging out on 16th Street attracted more people to walk and hang out on 16th Street

NOTE: Comparison of Baseline Sundays to MITS Sundays / MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 / Baseline Sundays: July 12 & 26, August 16. For more detailed information and data, refer to the appendix starting on page 87.

13


Guiding Principles


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Guiding Principles

Overview of Guiding Principles

1

Provide a Series of Experiences

2

Provide Transport Choices

5

Support a Wider Network of Investment

6

Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street

Apron at Coors Field

21st St

Civic Center Station

Wynkoop St at DUS

promote density

multi-functionality

SHOP

OFFICE

HOUSE

14st St Performing Arts Complex

16

relax outdoor serving regulations

Convention Center

program adjacent underused sites

NOTE: The “Guiding Principles” have been created based on the knowledge collected during MITS 2015 by the “measure-test-refine” method.

encourage street vending


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Guiding Principles

3

Create Invitations for People to Spend Time

4

Encourage Lively Edges

7

Create a Strong and Integrated Network

8

Continue to Evolve

NOTE: The “Guiding Principles” have been created based on the knowledge collected during MITS 2015 by the “measure-test-refine” method.

17


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

1

Provide a Series of Experiences GUIDELINES

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

• Different experiences attract a larger diversity of users > There were both more women and more children on 16th Street during MITS 2015

• More things to experience, attract more people 1.1 Make a series of Experiences of Uses along the street and throughout the day and evening 1.2 Make use of the different Experiences of Streetscape that already exist in the street layout changes 1.3 Promote different Experiences of Characters related to the Downtown neighborhoods 18

> Stationary activities on 16th Street increased significantly during MITS 2015 > Twice as many people asked felt strongly positive about 16th Street for MITS 2015

• Experiences of different kinds create liveliness throughout a larger portion of the day > For MITS 2015, 16th Street was most busy in the middle of the afternoon - a time of day when it is normally less busy

• Changing the experience of the street, changes the use > During MITS 2015, the street layout was completely pedestrianized which especially had a positive impact on the use of 16th Street’s median


How can we invite all user groups to 16th Street?

19


Denver 16th Street Mall

1

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide a Series of Experiences

1.1 On normal days, the experiences of uses of 16th Street are mostly utilitarian PEDESTRIAN ACTIVITY LEVELS ON 16TH STREET MITS Sundays

lunch

Baseline Sundays Baseline Weekdays

general leisure

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NOTE: For more detailed information and data, refer to the appendix starting on page 87.

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19

20


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide a Series of Experiences

1

1.1 MITS 2015 introduced new uses to 16th Street, expanding the daily activity hours SUNDAY USE OF 16TH STREET

On Weekdays, 16 Street is a great lunch destination

On Sundays, 16 Street attracts people for dinner

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2 pm

On MITS days, 16th Street is active all afternoon

6 pm

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MITS USE OF 16TH STREET

PEAK 2

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WEEKDAY USE OF 16TH STREET

21


Denver 16th Street Mall

1

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide a Series of Experiences

1.2 The four layouts of 16th Street already create different streetscape experiences UTILIZE THE DIFFERENCES The geometry of 16th Street can be split into four portions that each have unique characteristics

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It is important to keep these variations of the streetscape as it makes for a more interesting overall stretch, but there are also considerations to be made for the usability of the different segments


1.2 The four streetscapes of 16th Street

sidewalk

sidewalk

bus

bus

sidewalk

Benefits

Shuttle traffic is centered on 16th Street, focusing the pedestrian movements and activity along the edges of the buildings

Shuttle traffic is centered on 16th Street, focusing the pedestrian movements and activity along the edges of the buildings

The streetscape varies from the original 16th Street Mall design to show that the section is part of a new neighborhood (LoDo)

The iconic paving surface and street lamps give the street its unique 16th St Mall character

The iconic lamps do not provide sufficient light for pedestrian feeling of safety and visibility Welton St >

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Shuttles are centered on 16th Street, focusing the pedestrian movements and activity along the edges of the buildings

The iconic paving surface and street lamps give the street its unique 16th St Mall character

The iconic paving surface, street lamps and median give the street its unique 16th Street Mall character

Challenges •

The shuttles are wearing down the paving in the shuttle lanes

The iconic lamps do not provide sufficient light for pedestrian feeling of safety and visibility

The median separates the pedestrian activity into three segments that have limited options in terms of usability and program due to their constrained layouts

Challenges •

The shuttles are wearing down the paving in the shuttle lanes

The iconic lamps do not provide sufficient light for pedestrian feeling of safety and visibility

23


Denver 16th Street Mall

1

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide a Series of Experiences

1.3 16th Street can be a series of experiences of the Downtown neighborhood characters DOWNTOWN NEIGHBORHOODS And their connections to 16th Street

Central Platte Valley Prospect

Central Platte Valley Commons

Ballpark

Lower Downtown

th

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Golden Triangle

24


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide a Series of Experiences

1

Next Steps

to Provide a Series of Experiences • Collaborate with historic preservation interests to explore the possibilities of treating 16th Street differently along the different segments of the street • Consider options to reinterpret paving, trees and lights in some sections and preserve and repair them in others

• Test how the experience of uses 16th Street change in relation to other reoccurring situations • Program 16th Street on a weekday to test the opportunities for raising the everyday (baseline) level of activities and visitors • Test the impact of Rockies game days on the overall street experience by creating pilots in collaboration with Coors Field, 21st Street and Wynkoop Street • Test the street experience in the winter by testing the performance of different programs between November and March

• Test piloting on a named street with special focus on connecting 16th Street to the surrounding neighborhoods • Pilot at least one named street/transverse streets with a focus on enhancing the street’s unique character and link to 16th Street

25


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

2

Provide Transport Choices GUIDELINES

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

• Many users of Downtown use alternative transport to driving a car > 60% of Downtown Denver employees use alternatives to driving their own car for getting to work (“State of Downtown Denver”, 2015)

• Diverse and balanced transport options make it easier for all users to move around 2.1 21st century mobility is about choice - Provide Transport Options 2.2 Accommodate Pedestrians and Cyclists for more lively and safe streets 2.3 Be prepared to Optimize Public Transport options and consider changing current systems 26

> The pedestrian activity on 16th Street went up for MITS 2015 while the overall satisfaction with the shuttles still stayed the same

• Inviting pedestrians and cyclists increases the overall safety of the streets > There was an increase of +50% of people who felt 16th Street was safe for children on MITS Sundays compared to Baseline Sundays > The study shows that bicycling traffic was 29% greater on two-way streets versus oneway streets


How can we make it easier to be a pedestrian and cyclist in Downtown?

27


Denver 16th Street Mall

2

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide Transport Choices

152 a

164.3% population growth 2000-2015 25,000

21,624

18,914

20,000

15,044 15,000

7,157

152 acres of parks and open space

164.3% population growth 2000-2015

Average age 34.1 years

2.1 People in Downtown Denver already use many different transport modes 1/4 5,000

2000

25,000

2015

2020 (estimate)

21,624

18,914

20,000

2010

of the households have no vehicles (23.1%)

15,044

15,000

7,157

1/4 of the Downtown Denver 2000

2010

2015

TRANSPORTATION MODES 2020 (estimate)

households have no vehicles (23.1%)

1/4 of the households have no vehicles

(Coldwe

60% of the Downtown Denver employees use transit, bike or use carpool towalk, workbike or carpool 60%walk, of employees transit,

HIGH rankings in many different fields

(23.1%)

1st

2nd

Transit retail Single Driverbest US city Bicycle commercial to market in the US launch a startup 43.4% 38.3% 6.6% (Coldwell Banker 2015) business

60% of employees use transit, walk, bike or carpool

Source: Downtown Denver Partnership, Inc., “State of Downtown Denver”, 2015

6th

Carpool Walk most creative city 4.6%in the US4.5%

(Forbes 2015)

(MOVOTO 2015)

43%

increase in bicyclists going into Downtown Denver from 2014-2015

Source: Downtown Denver Partnership, Inc., “State of Downtown Denver”, 2015

120,871

RETHINKING THE HIERARCHY BETWEEN TRANSPORT OPTIONS INemployees ALL OF DOWNTOWN DENVER in Downtown Denver Transit

Single Driver

Bicycle

Carpool

Walk

43.4%

38.3%

6.6%

4.6%

4.5%

43%

increase in bicyclists going into Downtown Denver from 2014-2015

Some users have priority to the streets

28

1

comme marke

Average age 34.1 years

VEHICLE OWNERSHIP 5,000

HIGH

X 1,000

All users have an equal right to the streets

120,8


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

2

Provide Transport Choices

2.2 People walk in Downtown Denver when the streets feel welcoming and safe

+30%

PEDESTRIANS ON 16TH STREET Average per hour 10am-4pm NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 (2015) Baseline Sundays: July 12 & 26, August 16 (2015) Baseline Weekdays: July 9 & 23 (2015) For more detailed information and data, refer to the appendix starting on page 87.

pedestrians overall during MITS compared to Baseline Sundays

+33% +33%

+2% +2%

2522 2465 2522 2465

+25% +25%

1112 1112

MITS MITS

Weekday Weekday

Baseline Baseline

Weekday Weekday

Court &Tremont Court &Tremont Unprogrammed Unprogrammed

< Tremont < Tremont St St

< Glenarm < Glenarm St St > >

Welton & Glenarm Welton & Glenarm

MITS MITS

< Cleveland < Cleveland Pl Pl > >

Baseline Baseline

Court Court Pl Pl > >

Weekday Weekday

Champa & Stout Champa & Stout

< Arapahoe < Arapahoe St St

Lawrence & Arapahoe Lawrence & Arapahoe

MITS MITS

Welton Welton St St > >

Baseline Baseline

< California < California St St

Weekday Weekday

Stout Stout St St > >

MITS MITS

< Champa < Champa St St

Baseline Baseline

Curtis Curtis St St > >

Weekday Weekday

< Blake < Blake St St

< Wazee < Wazee St St > >

1544 1544

771 771

Wazee & Blake Wazee & Blake Unprogrammed Unprogrammed

< Wynkoop < Wynkoop St St > >

+39% +39%

1731 1731 +44% +44%

Lawrence Lawrence St St > >

MITS MITS

2198 2217 2198 2217

1325 1325

< Larimer < Larimer St St

Baseline Baseline

1195 1195

Market Market St St > >

820 820

+23% +23%

968 968

1848 1848

1721 1661 1721 1661

+1% +1%

< B < ro B a r oadwa dw y ay St St

+18% +18%

+4% +4%

+27% +27%

29


30

8 feet of walkable space can carry 32 pedestrians per minute


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide Transport Choices

Effective walking area on 16th Street Mall: 20 feet out of 80 feet total street width General street capacity guidance: 4 pedestrians/foot/min

(calculated from meters: 13pl/meter/min. Source: Jan Gehl, Cities for people, Island Press 2010)

2

CAPACITY OF SECTION BETWEEN CHAMPA ST AND STOUT ST

2.2 With the increasing popularity of 16th Street, pedestrians need more space

The capacity study is using pedestrian counts from MITS to envision the best possible future scenario for the usage of 16th St Mall. Naturally during MITS, the actual walking area was more than 20’ as the busses had been taken off the street during the event.

MAX capacity/hour: 4800 people

100% capacity

(Calculated with 20’ walkable area)

PEAK pedestrians/hour: 4296 people

90% of capacity reached

(July 19th, 3pm during MITS)

AVG pedestrians/hour: 2465 people

51% of capacity reached

(Average for MITS)

CURRENT SPACE DISTRIBUTION: 20% WALKABLE AREA FOR PEDESTRIANS

8’

15% 17.5% 25%

8’

edgezone

sidewalk (walkable)

2’

10’

transit lane

4’

14’

median (staying activities)

4’

10’

transit lane

2’

8’

9’

sidewalk (walkable)

edgezone

20%

transit lane s

9’

22.5%

walka ble

median

walkable area

e on

8’

walkable area

edg ez

s rb cu

CAPACITY REACHED ON PEAK MITS DAYS AND ON PEAK WEEKDAYS (pedestrians/hour between Champa Street and Stout Street) NOTES: Effective walking area on 16th Street (original Mall segment): 16 feet out of 80 feet total street width Capacity guidance: 4 ped./foot/min (calculated from meters: 13 ped./m/min) Source: Jan Gehl, “Cities for People”, Island Press 2010

5000

112%

4000

maximum capacity 3840 ped/hour

101%

3000

51%

2000

39%

1000

4296 0

3870

2465

1848

peak MITS

peak weekday

average MITS

average baseline

Sunday July 19th, 3pm

Thursday July 23 noon

All MITS Sundays

All Baseline Sundays

31


Denver 16th Street Mall

2

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide Transport Choices

2.3 Rethinking the traffic layout could also optimize the usability of the street section TRAFFIC, STREET LIFE AND STREET LAYOUT The diagram shows the median at the center of the symmetrical blocks, enclosed on both sides by lanes of traffic. Frequency of Shuttles on a Weekday - 45,000 people use the Free Mall Ride every day. Panhandling - 88% of all panhandling along 16th St takes place on the symmetrical median blocks*. *16th Street Mall Panhandling Surveys conducted by the Downtown Denver BID Downtown Ambassadors between March 22 - August 29, 2015

1 90 shuttle every

seconds

The median at the center of 16th Street’s symmetrical blocks, is enclosed by heavy traffic flows

(during peak times, 6 hours per day)

32

9’

8’

edgezone

sidewalk (walkable)

2’

1 90 shuttle every

seconds

(during peak times, 6 hours per day)

10’

22’ (14’)

10’

transit lane

median (useable space)

transit lane

2’

8’

sidewalk (walkable)

9’

edgezone


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Provide Transport Choices

2

2.3 The median experienced a surge of activities while the shuttles were redirected USE OF THE MEDIAN / BASELINE VERSUS MITS The diagram shows the average amount of people engaging in “Stationary Activites” at any point in time.* Street Life - These preliminary studies suggest a correlation between shuttle traffic, street layout, activities on offer and the usability of the median for stationary activities. Further studies (prepared for Summer 2016) will be aimed at investigating this relationship further. *Stationary Activity studies conducted on MITS Sundays: August 9 (2015) / Baseline Sundays: August 16 (2015)

Activities on the median went up

+240%

during MITS when the shuttles were redirected onto 15th and 17th Street That improvement is significantly higher than on any of the sidewalks 51

+86%

-17%

26

23 15

14

Baseline

MITS

Baseline

MITS

Baseline

19

MITS

29’

22’

29’

south sidewalk + transit lane

median

north sidewalk + transit lane

33


16th Street is normally a busy shuttle route...

34

... but during MITS 2015, the potential for a pedestrian corridor showed


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

2 Next Steps

to Provide Transport Choices • Collaborate with the Regional Transportation District (RTD) to identify future transit needs within the corridor and explore possible sustainable long-term solutions • Work with the Department of Public Works (DPW) to create pilots • Tie the initiative into the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP) • Pilot dedicated shuttle lanes on 15th Street and 17th Street • Clarity on what constitutes fixed guideway service according to the Federal Transportation Administration (FTA)

• Do test programs with shuttle service staying on 16th Street • Program median blocks and non-median blocks while keeping the shuttle on 16th Street and measure the impact to staying activities • Program transverse blocks

• Find out more about the opportunities for changing the shuttle routes and/or schedules • Test shuttle rerouting to 15th Street and 17th Street on weekdays and/or off-peak hours as a temporary project and measure the impact to both commuters, pedestrians and drivers • Test shuttle rerouting to 15th Street and 17th Street on Saturdays and Sundays for a full summer • Explore testing of other shuttle configurations with key stakeholders • Test shuttle rerouting to emphasize a smaller zone of pedestrian experience

• Survey how both commuters and non-commuters get to and from Downtown Denver and 16th Street • Identify and pilot multi-modal connections along Arapahoe Street

35


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

3

Create Invitations for People to Spend Time GUIDELINES

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

• When more people spend time outside, the feeling of safety increases

3.1 Improve the Conditions for Staying by creating a safe and lively public realm 3.2 Increase the Variety of Activities to attract a larger quantity and diversity of users 3.3 Keep testing the resilience of the public spaces with Temporary Projects include adjacent underused sites (like surface parking lots) in this strategy 36

> Studies show that a high amount of women and children signal that a public space feels safe - for MITS 2015, there was an increase of both

• Invitations for spending time improves the social diversity > During MITS 2015, the distribution of people spending time on 16th Street was more diverse than on non-MITS days

• Public spaces perform better when they are programmed > There were more people spending time on 16th Street during MITS 2015 than normally

• Temporary projects can have an important long-term impact > Intercept surveys show that the general perception of 16th Street was more positive during MITS than normally


How can we make better places for spending time on 16th Street?

37


Denver 16th Street Mall

3

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create Invitations for People to Spend Time

3.1 Activities improve the conditions for staying, making more people linger longer INCREASED â&#x20AC;&#x153;STICKINESSâ&#x20AC;? OF 16TH STREET Ratio of people moving through (pedestrian counts) per person spending time (staying activites)

Baseline Weekday 2015

125:1

125 pedestrians moving through per 1 person staying (3,870 pedestrians moving through per 31 people staying)

Baseline Sunday 2015

36:1

36 pedestrians moving through per 1 person staying (2,200 pedestrians moving through per 60 people staying)

MITS Sunday 2015

25:1

25 pedestrians moving through per 1 person staying (2,718 pedestrians moving through per 110 people staying)

The stickiness for MITS Sundays went up

+48% +400%

from Baseline Sundays from Baseline Weekdays

Comparison:

NYC Broadway at 44th St

5:1

NOTES: MITS Sundays, peak counts, 16th Street at Champa / Baseline Sundays, peak counts, 16th Street at Champa Comparison: Broadway at 44th Street, peak counts at noon. For more detailed information and data, refer to the appendix starting on page 87.

38


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create Invitations for People to Spend Time

3

3.2 More women and children during MITS implies the street felt safer and attractive AGE DIVERSITY

GENDER DIVERSITY Baseline Weekdays

65+ 31-64 years

9%

Male

2% 3%

15-30 years 7-14 years 0-6 years

Baseline Weekdays

58%

28%

Female

Baseline Sundays 10%

40%

Baseline Sundays

3% 3%

51%

37%

33%

63%

MITS Sundays

There is a larger share of children on MITS Sundays than normally

60%

8%

6%

5%

26% 55%

MITS Sundays

There is a larger share of women on MITS Sundays than normally

39% 61%

NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 (2015) / Baseline Sundays: July 12 & 26, August 16 (2015) / Baseline Weekdays: July 9 & 23 (2015) For more detailed information and data, refer to the appendix starting on page 87.

39


Denver 16th Street Mall

3

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create Invitations for People to Spend Time

3.3 The most popular temporary programs are also the easiest to make permanent MITS 2015 PROGRAMS In order of success

USE OF PROGRAMS Compared to Baseline Sundays

Everyday Commercial Activities

Twice the normal use

Street Hardware and Public Furniture

More than normal use

Entertainment and Culture

Less than normal use

1. Expanded Patio into Street

+ 133%

2. Expanded Patio on Sidewalk

+ 108%

3. Live Music

+ 85%

4. Water Tank

+ 70%

5. Interactive Art

+ 60%

6. Water Zone

+ 58%

7. Games

+ 33%

8. Lawn Furniture

+ 33%

9. Extra Public Seating

+ 19%

10. Sand Box

+ 17%

11. Entertainment Dance Theater

+ 17%

12. Kids Block

+ 15%

13. Street Vendors

+ 13%

14. Sod in Median

+13%

15. Recorded Music

+ 2%

16. Real Horses in Street

- 2%

17. Public Art

-8%

The expanded cafe seating options during MITS 2015 doubled the amount of people staying on 16th Street

Notes: For more details refer to the appendix, p. 98

40


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create Invitations for People to Spend Time

3

3.3 With the knowledge from MITS, projects can target specific demographics TOP 3 MITS 2015 PROGRAMS Organized by age categories 0-14 years old 1. Waterzone (37%) 2. Sandbox (29%)

Kids want to play

3. Kids Block (27%) 15-30 years old 1. Expanded Patio on sidewalk (30%) 2. Expanded Patio all the way into street (30%)

Young adults enjoy talking and dining

3. Sod in Median (29%) 31-64 years old 1. Watertank (58%) 2. Live Music (57%) 3. Expanded patio all the way into street (54%) +65 years old 1. Expanded patio all the way into street (8%) 2. Expanded patio on sidewalk (8%) 3. Water tank (7%)

Adults are attracted by entertainment

The elderly like sitting and watching

NOTES: Since the activities “Horses” and “Passive Art” attracted fewer people than average, these have not been included in this study - see appendix p 100 for full overview.

41


Normal invitations for staying...

... MITS 2015 invitations for staying 42


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

3 Next Steps

to Create Invitations for People to Spend Time • Test having more consistent programming • Make longer-term temporary projects throughout the seasons to measure the impact over a longer period of time; this will help determine which programs are more resilient

• Create a Prototyping Festival • Take inspiration and learn from San Francisco’s Market Street Prototyping Festival • Promote community stewardship

• Investigate whether the creation of an “Entertainment District” might strengthen the daily invitations for people to spend time • Host a second MITS event in the summer of 2016 to find out more about what makes people spend time on 16th Street and in Downtown Denver

43


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

4

Encourage Lively Edges GUIDELINES

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

• Lively edges create a more pleasant street environment which attracts more visitors • Edges with a high level of transparency make the street feel safer by creating visual links outside to inside 4.1 Guide retailers to Create Interesting Frontages towards the street with a high level of transparency 4.2 Promote Business and Retail along the edges to go hand in hand with public life 4.3 Allow for Extensions of Outdoor Serving by restaurants and cafes 44

• There is a strong link between lively edges, a lively street and the retail potential > 90% said business was better or about the same during MITS 2015

• More space for people at cafes mean more people along the edges of the street > The extended patio seating areas for MITS 2015 were almost always full, revealing a definite potential for permanently increasing the activity along the restaurant facades


How can we create a strong relationship between the edge of the buildings and the street?

45


Denver 16th Street Mall

4

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Encourage Lively Edges

4.1 Active facades and functions contribute to lively edges along the street FACADE QUALITY MEASURES

FUNCTION TYPE CATEGORIES

A – active (visible groundfloor, many doors, lots to see)

1. Shops/Retail

B – pleasant (visible groundfloor, many doors, some to see)

2. Bars/Restaurants

C – mixed (some view of groundfloor and still some to see)

3. Leisure (cinema, fitness, etc.)

D – plain (little view of groundfloor and little to see)

4. Hotel

E – inactive (no view of groundfloor and nothing to see)

5. Services (banks, car rentals, etc.)

F - no facade (empty lot, vacant building or parking facilities)

6. Residential 7. Institutions 8. Offices 9. Parking (surface and garage) 10. Vacant Building 11. Empty lot/Under construction

7%

18%

11%

13%

4%

15%

15% 17%

27%

19% 17% 25%

20%

46%

of the facades have active and pleasant facades

of the facades have active functions

(Categories A and B)

(Shops/Retail, Bars/Restaurants, Leisure and Hotel)

NOTE: The detailed facade study has been included in the appendix, p. 104-107

46

6% 3%


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Encourage Lively Edges

4

4.1 There is great potential to encourage more lively edges by the active functions A - ACTIVE

Of the 46% active facade functions (shops/retail and restaurants/bars) B - PLEASANT

11,000 feet or 70% also have active or pleasant facade qualities

= well-performing facades

C - MIXED

Of the 46% active facade functions (shops/retail and restaurants/bars) D - PLAIN

4,000 feet or 30% have mixed or plain facade qualities

= facades with improvement potential

NOTE: The detailed facade study has been included in the appendix, p. 104-107

47


Denver 16th Street Mall

4

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Encourage Lively Edges

4.2 Business is better when the street is more lively and people stay around longer BUSINESS TESTIMONIALS Question asked: “Do sales seem better, about the same or worse during Meet in the Street Sundays compared to other summer Sundays?”

“Absolutely increased beyond belief” Shift Lead Manager at Red Robin

“Touch better; We love the 80’s cover band you have out there; 20% increase in sales on average” Personnel Manager at Marlowe’s

“MITS draws more of a patio crowd at our cafe” Anonymous host at Rialto Cafe

“Sales have really suffered, especially when there’s more entertainment vs. just food on the street. Let’s strategize on how to promote retail with MITS for next year” Department Manager at H&M

“Definitely better” Cashier & Food Runner at Corner Bakery Cafe

“It varied for each MITS but definitely a spike” Barista at ink! Coffee

“Probably on average no difference, but MITS influences a change in when we get hit by customers. Up till 2pm, below average/dead, and at 4pm we got hammered.” Shift Lead at Jamba Juice

48

“Little better; if MITS were on a regular basis, might be even better” COO at Paramount Café


4.2 Business sales impact 90%

said sales were better or about the same during MITS 2015 compared to normal Sundays

“If MITS was more regular, we’d likely get an increase in sales”

Barista at ink! Coffee

Assistant Manager at RadioShack

29

28

t>

“Definitely better” St

<

Host at Earl’s

a

25 24 23

ni

Worse

26

lif or

27

St ou

1.

Noodles & Company

2.

Starbucks

3.

Yard House Downtown

4.

Euflora Marijuana Dispensary

5.

Corner Bakery Café

6.

Earls

7.

Protein Bar

8.

Hard Rock Café Denver

9.

H&M

10.

Marlowe’s

11.

Paramount Cafe

12.

Where the Buffalo Roam

13.

IT’Sugar

14.

ink! Coffee

15.

Jimmy John’s

16.

Red Robin

17.

RadioShack

18.

Starbucks

19.

Jamba Juice

20.

TJ Maxx

21.

Obento

22.

Wild West of America

23.

Ross Dress for Less

24.

Chili’s Grill & Bar

25.

Caribou Coffee

26.

Rialto Café

27.

Starbucks

28.

Rock Bottom Restaurant and Brewery

29.

Tokyo Joe's

better

30.

McDonald’s*

(17 businesses)

St

>

Ca

22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14

to n

> < St m ar

12

6

OVERALL RESPONSES worse

>

4 Pl

5

rt

7

3

2

Co u

8

t<

10

tS

9

on

11

Tr em

13

Gl en

About the Same

tS

Better

W el

RESPONSES BY LOCATION

Ch

am

pa

St

<

Cu rt is

St

>

“I feel like we’ve had more sales on MITS”

1

(3 businesses)

10%

about the same (10 businesses)

33%

30

57%

*McDonald’s did not participate in the survey, but they reached out to us later.

49


Denver 16th Street Mall

4

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Encourage Lively Edges

4.3 MITS 2015 revealed a great potential for expanding the outdoor cafe seating areas 3 DEGREES OF CAFE EDGE ZONES Diagrams of lively edges by cafes/restaurants

TOP 3 PROGRAMS FOR CAFE SEATING MITS 2015 compared to Baseline Sundays

+242%

Weak Edge - only visual connection

+187%

Only Visual Connection

Indoor Service

Walk

Traffic

+129%

BASELINE Outdoor Zone

Walk

Traffic

Strict Edgezone Strict Edgezone

Very Lively Edge - soft transition in to out

Soft Transition Between Spaces

Indoor Service

Outdoor Zone

Soft Edgezone

50

Walk

Traffic

Baseline Sunday

Indoor Service

Live Music

Physical Connection

Expanded Patio on sidewalk

Medium Lively Edge - restricted by barrier

Expanded Patio all the way into street

No Edgezone

1

2

3

Expanded patios = More cafe seating activities


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

4 Next Steps

to Encourage Lively Edges • Extend patio seating by restaurants and cafes on a more permanent basis and measure the impact • Consider linking this initiative into the investigations of the possibilities for creating an “Entertainment District” • Streamline the permitting process to make it easy for restaurants/cafes to participate in and test the effects of this initiative

• Share information with retailers about the importance of having transparent and active edges • Start a dialogue with retailers and shop owners along 16th Street about the shared vision for lively edges along the street • Include Denver Office of Economic Development (OED) and Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) in a facade improvement program • Measure the impact of outreach both with on-street studies and via dialogue with retailers

• Focus on the economic impact in future surveys to validate the benefits of changes along the edges for businesses on 16th Street • Set up collaborations with a wide range of shops along 16th Street to create an ongoing evaluation of the different initiatives’ impact on business

51


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

5

Support a Wider Network of Investment GUIDELINES

Apron at Coors Field

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

21st St

Civic Center Station

Wynkoop St at DUS

14st St Performing Arts Complex

Convention Center

5.1 Build upon Existing Initiatives and promote complementary programming to create long-term results 5.2 Invite Public Institutions to take part in the shaping of Downtown Denver 5.3 Make a system for catalyzing and incorporating Civic Innovation in the overall strategy 52

• Many great initiatives working together create a collective impact > By tapping into other existing and ongoing initiatives the overall results will seem more coherent and possibly also have more impact

• Leveraging the potential of existing people magnets can benefit all of Downtown > Downtown Denver already has many great destinations and if these work together all of Downtown will have more visitors and a better quality of experiences

• A city for people should be created in collaboration with the people > If people are invited to partake in innovation regarding their own city they are also more likely to take ownership of the public spaces


How can we include and collaborate with more of Downtown Denver?

53


Denver 16th Street Mall

5

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Support a Wider Network of Investment

5.1 Many great existing investments in Downtown can be leveraged for bigger impact SELECTION OF ONGOING INITIATIVES

I

te Priva or t c Se ent tm nves

n ntow Dow urity Sec Plan n Actio

er Cent Civic ansit Tr lan ict P i D str

koop Wyn treet tS /21s an Urb lan gn P Desi

entio Conv nter e C

n

3 PLANNED FOCUS POINTS TO ACTIVATE DENVER’S CORE

54

The Mall Experience

The Next Stage

The Outdoor Downtown

The Future of Denver’s 16th Street Mall

The Future of Denver’s Performing Arts Complex

The Future of Denver’s Parks & Public Spaces

Invite people to better enjoy 16th Street by encouraging more visits and longer stays. Identify ways to help 16th Street reach its full potential as a welcoming place for everyone and as the heart of a vibrant Downtown Denver.

The Next Stage is a planning project that reviews both the highest and best use of spaces at the Denver Performing Arts Complex and the integration of the Colorado Convention Center into the neighborhood that comprises the Denver Theatre District in Downtown Denver.

The 20-year plan will focus on investment in Downtown’s parks and public spaces to enhance the quality of life and create a sustainable, vibrant downtown that is economically healthy and growing.


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Support a Wider Network of Investment

5

5.2 There are many opportunities for investing in wider network collaborations AURARIA CAMPUS has many daily users that could contribute to Downtownâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s liveliness

DENVER ART MUSEUM & LIBRARY attracts people south of Civic Center and has open public spaces

COORS FIELD is a great opportunity for collaboration in the neighborhood on game days

WYNKOOP PLAZA is already linked to 16th Street and the space has many great assets

55


acres of parks and open spacespace 152 acres of parks and open 152152 acres of parks and open space Denver 16th Street Mall

5

1,62421,624

e age ears

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Support a Wider Network of Investment

5.3 Denver has a great potential for investing in civic participation and innovation

2020 2020 stimate)(estimate)

HIGH rankings in many different fieldsfields HIGH rankings in many different HIGH rankings in many different fields

1%)

st1st nd th 1st 2nd2nd 1st 2nd 6th6th6th

commercial retail retail commercial commercial retail USbest city to US city to best USbest city to most creative city most creative city most creative city in the US market in the US market market in the US alaunch startup a startup in the US launch alaunch startup in the US in the US (Coldwell 2015)Banker 2015) (Coldwell (Coldwell Banker 2015)Banker business business business (MOVOTO 2015) (MOVOTO 2015) (MOVOTO 2015) (Forbes 2015) (Forbes 2015)(Forbes 2015)

rpool carpool lor

120,871 employees in Downtown Denver 120,871 employees in Downtown Denver 120,871 employees in Downtown Denver

Walk

“Denver has (...) moved into expansion mode with positive Walk market absorption in every market segment. (...) With the recent grand opening of the new Union Station/Central transit hub, it is anticipated that the market could see its first $1,000 or more per square foot investment sale in the Central Business District”

4.5%4.5%

“Colorado? Creative? You bet! This place is all about its love for all things innovative and expressive. (...) Denver was just super solid across the board. It had the 10th most art supply stores, the eighth most galleries, the sixth most art schools, and the 15th most performing arts. All that makes sense, seeing as the 15th highest percent of arts and entertainment workers live there.”

X1,000 1,000 X X1,000

Ben Gilliam, Vice President, Commercial Sales of Coldwell Banker Commercial Alliance Denver

56

“The city’s small businesses are heavily concentrated in projected high-growth industries – specifically real estate, computer systems design and related services, support activities for mining and personal and household goods repair and maintenance. They’re also highly likely to have websites, and are well-reviewed online.” Forbes.com, Tom Post

Movoto.com, Laura Allan

Source: Downtown Denver Partnership, Inc., “State of Downtown Denver”, 2015 / cbcworldwide.com (Nov.2015) / Forbes.com (Nov.2015) / Movoto.com (Nov.2015)


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

5 Next Steps

to Support a Wider Network of Investment • Work with and use special events to create more impact • Collaborate with the Office of Special Events (OSE) • Create a streamlined, collaborative permitting process to ensure ease of activation for desired programming for the summer 2016 (to encourage civic participation and innovation) in collaboration with the Office of Special Events (OSE) • Explore the opportunities for creating an “Entertainment District” in collaboration with local partners • Make pilots on 16th Street related to Rockies game days at Coors Field - take inspiration from The Yard in San Francisco

• Outreach to cultural institutions to program and activate collaboration pilots • Emphasize connections and events at the Denver Performing Arts Complex • Designate Curtis Street for a pilot special event and street closures - work with Arts and Venues and Denver Theater District as a partner for events and visual displays • Explore partnerships between various events/activities and institutions/venues

57


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

6

Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street GUIDELINES

promote density

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

multi-functionality

SHOP

relax outdoor serving regulations program adjacent underused sites

OFFICE

HOUSE

encourage street vending

• Public space sometimes needs fewer restrictions for good initiatives to flourish • A diversity of uses and of users create more life

6.1 Analyze Policies regarding commercial activities in and around the public realm 6.2 Create a diverse environment to attract more Downtown Residents 6.3 Program adjacent Underused Sites, like little used surface parking lots and private plazas 58

> Residents normally use the public spaces in the morning and in the evening, offices are active during the day and retail is mostly active in the afternoon and in the weekends

• Any gaps in programmed space weakens the overall experience of Downtown > The many underused sites and parking areas adjacent to 16th Street also influence the performance of 16th Street itself


How can we influence political decisions and requirements for new development?

59


Denver 16th Street Mall

6

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street

6.1 Think beyond current restrictive policies for outdoor serving to create more life FINDINGS FROM MITS 2015

• More cafe seating = more life There was a 3 times increase in cafe seating when the patio was expanded into the street

• Patio seating = most effective The programs “expanded patio all the way into the street” and “expanded patio on the sidewalk” were the two most successful pilots in terms of staying activities with an average of twice the amount of normal Sunday activities

• Cafes = places for adults The users of the expanded patio programs were mostly 31-64 years old, the working age population

• Street vending = more sales The commercial activities more than doubled when street vending was encouraged and lawn furniture was placed in the median

Consider removing barriers around outdoor cafe serving areas

For more information, refer to the appendix starting on page 87.

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24

te)

ool

Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street

152 acres of parks and open space

6.2 Imagine all of Downtown as a diverse neighborhood with a variety of uses RESIDENTS IN DOWNTOWN DENVER population

164.3%

LEISURE IN DOWNTOWN DENVER acres of parks

152

growth 2000-2015

along 16th Street

25,000

21,624

HIGH rankings15,044 in many different fields 18,914

20,000

15,000

7,157

1st

5,000

Average agecity most creative 34.1 years in the US

best US city to launch a startup business

(Coldwell Banker 2015)

2010

2015

2020 (estimate)

Source: Downtown Denver Partnership, Inc., “State of Downtown Denver”, 2015

1/4

of the households EMPLOYMENT IN DOWNTOWN DENVER

arts & culture

(MOVOTO 2015)

(Forbes 2015)

2000

entertainment

6th

2nd

commercial retail market in the US

and o

189 shops and restaurants

164.3% population growth between 2000-2015

have no vehicles (23.1%)

120,871 employees in Downtown 120,871 employees in Downtown Denver Denver

lk

%

6

dining

HIGH rankings in man cafe life

1st

commercial retail market in the US (Coldwell Banker 2015)

X 1,000

60% of employees use transit, walk, bike or carpool

shopping

2

best launc bu

(

green spaces

Source: Downtown Denver Partnership, Inc., “State of Downtown Denver”, 2015

61


Denver 16th Street Mall

6

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street

6.3 Consider how to leverage the opportunities of adjacent underused sites SURFACE PARKING AREAS Selection of Downtown Denver parking areas

Surface parking

SAMPLE PICTURES From potential activation sites 1

1

W

yn

ko o

p

St

Denver Union Station

Bl

ak e

St

Sunday market on Game Days?

im

er

St

2

La r

2

re

a

St

et

lif or ni

h

tP

Can a lively edge be built here?

on Tr em

3

l

Ca

16 t

St

Cu

rt is

St

Skyline Park

3

Civic Center Park

Perhaps a nice green space?

62


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

6 Next Steps

to Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street • Start a process to change the restrictive regulations to outdoor serving areas • Make a move to remove barriers and fences around outdoor serving areas related to restaurants and cafes along 16th Street • Consider overlapping these tests with the investigations for creating an “Entertainment District”

• Explore ways to encourage street vending and other activation opportunities on named streets crossing 16th Street • Encourage street vendors to add to the life in the public spaces and private plazas/parking lots adjacent to 16th Street

• Start conversations with the property owners of underused surface parking areas and private plazas based on data of usage • Include underused sites in the pilot project strategies and plans for Downtown Denver

63


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

7

Create a Strong and Integrated Network GUIDELINES

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

• Complete streets are safest and most pleasant > Two-way streets slow traffic by discouraging high-speed, high-volume through traffic > Slower traffic gives more priority to pedestrians and improves the quality of their experience > More people in the streets enhance the vitality and increase the levels of economic activity

7.1 Make a network of Complete Streets where it is possible to walk, bike, drive, access transit and spend time 7.2 Connect People Magnets and leverage the public spaces by the surrounding destinations 7.3 Upgrade the priority Named Streets, especially where they intersect 16th Street 64

• Connecting destinations encourages more people to walk and bike between them > The intercept studies revealed that more people were willing to walk longer during MITS 2015 than on a Baseline Sunday

• Intersections are important nodes for both wayfinding and as meeting places > For 16th Street to perform as the main connector in Downtown, it must have priority and coherency at intersections with the cross streets


How do we make it easy to get to and around Downtown Denver?

65


Denver 16th Street Mall

7

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create a Stong and Integrated Network

7.1 Downtown Denver could be a network of public spaces with 100% complete streets POTENTIAL TYPES OF STREETS IN THE FUTURE NETWORK 16th Street Pedestrian Heart The Pedestrian Heart comprises 8 blocks in the center of 16th Street. In this area, alternative shuttle operations make way for more space on 16th Street for pedestrian activities.

“COMPLETE STREET” CHARACTERISTICS A Strong Identity enhanced through street design and functions

16th Street Connection The length of 16th Street, from Commons Park past Denver Union Station to Civic Center Station, steps up as Downtown’s spine via upgrades of the street’s program, design and connections.

Priority Named Streets The priority named streets are 16th Street’s most important cross streets that connect the 16th Street Downtown artery to the surrounding destinations and neighborhoods.

Primary Connection Streets These streets complement the Priority Named Streets by connecting to some of the destinations that are a bit further from 16th St. They also run parallel to 16th Street on 14th Street, 19th Street and 21st Street, where they offer an alternative link across Downtown.

Secondary Connection Streets The Secondary Connections Streets are important alternative routes within the Downtown network as well as important links from Downtown to the surrounding neighborhoods.

Pedestrian Priority with two-way streets, safe sidewalks and strong intersections

Bicycle Lanes or designated bicycle zones along streets going in both directions

Invitations for Staying created by providing public furniture and activities along all major routes

Alleys The pedestrian connections through and between buildings should be utilized to enhance the pedestrian network in Downtown Denver. This includes upgrading the spaces with lighting and wayfinding.

River Walks The paths along the river and creek are primarily recreational routes that supplement the intensity and urban vibe of the Downtown commercial and business districts.

66

Connections to Transit and good waiting facilities with access for all


7.1 Mapping of the future network South Platte River

Coors Field

21

st S

Broadway St

ko o W

yn St

Cu

rt

is

St

La r

im

er

St

th

St

Denver Union Station

16

th 19

p

St

t

Ca

lif or

ni

a

St

Pepsi Center

14

th

St

Denver Performing Arts Complex

Tr em

on

Convention Center

tP l

Gl en ar

m

Pl

Auraria Campus

Civic Center Station

Colfax Ave

STREET HIERARCHY Cherry Creek

16th Street Pedestrian Heart 16th Street Connection Priority Named Streets Primary Connection Streets Secondary Connection Streets Alleys Path by River/Creek

67


Denver 16th Street Mall

7

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create a Stong and Integrated Network

7.2 The Downtown network is a strong web connecting all major Downtown destinations THE NETWORK CONNECTS ALL DESTINATIONS

Commons Park

Coors Field

21st Street

DUS

Sonny Lawson Park Market Street Station

Pepsi Center

Tabor Center

Benedict Fountain Park

Larimer Street Skyline Park 16th St Mall Denver Performing Arts Complex

Uptown Convention Center Auraria Campus

Denver Pavilions Civic Center Station

Civic Center Park

State Capitol

Denver Art Museum

68


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create a Stong and Integrated Network

7

7.3 The great pedestrian conditions on 16th Street can welcome people at intersections From intersections that prioritize cars... CHALLENGES •

When the street is broken up, every portion of the street has to be strong enough in itself to convince people to cross the heavy traffic

The coherency of the street experience is constantly broken

There is no sense of arrival at the cross streets and it is too easy for drivers to pass 16th Street without being enticed to slow down or enter

...to a strong pedestrian connection across 16th Street OPPORTUNITIES •

Mark each intersection to enhance pedestrian safety

Show people that they are crossing Downtown’s most important street

Make clear arrival nodes in the intersections to invite people onto 16th Street

Make it easy for people to move across the entire length of 16th Street to experience the changes of the street’s character

69


7 Normally a purely utilitarian street...

... but during Meet in the Street people also used the street for general leisure 70


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Create a Stong and Integrated Network

7

Next Steps

to Create a Strong and Integrated Network • Test better intersection connections by changing signals to flashing red (forced stops) on selected streets that intersect with 16th Street • Pilot at least one named street crossing 16th Street • Designate at least one named/transverse street adjacent to 16th Street as a pilot “festival” street for 1-2 blocks • Coordinate named streets activation with other activation strategies and activities • Collaboration between Denver Community Planning and Development (CPD), the Office of Special Events (OSE), the Department of Public Works (DPW), the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) and the Regional Transportation District (RTD)

• Activate 1-3 alleys along 16th Street • Identify at least two alleys with willing partners adjacent to 16th Street for enhanced activation efforts • Work with private sector partners and with the city on cleaning, dumpsters and physical enhancements to alleys - consider engaging a local art group for a lighting design scheme

• Activate plaza space(s) adjacent to 16th Street • Determine feasibility of short-term activation of Market Street Station Site - also consider Republic Plaza or similar sites for activation • Prepare a list of potential activities on the chosen plaza(s) and determine feasibility and costs

• Confirm activation strategies with Denver’s Outdoor Downtown at key public parks and gathering spaces • Confirm strategies for all three blocks of Skyline Park, collaborating with the private sector for sponsorships and with the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) for events and longer term changes to the physical environment

71


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

8

Continue to Evolve GUIDELINES

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

• An iterative approach ensures are more resilient solution > MITS 2015 revealed which types of programming is more likely to attract people to Downtown Denver and also what projects to refine or discard - this knowledge enhances the prospects of creating successful permanent change

8.1 Develop an evidencebased Decision Making Framework 8.2 Keep Testing and Learning from temporary projects even when the process is long or difficult 8.3 Be ready to Discard Projects that aren’t working and prepare to Implement Projects that prove their worth 72

• Learning from the performance of public spaces allows us to better understand the public > The data collected during MITS 2015 suggests who might be attracted to what this demographic information can be used to ensure inclusive public spaces for all

• A measure-test-refine method is invaluable to identifying both right and wrong projects in the city > MITS 2015 clearly showed that extending patio seating on 16th Street is likely to draw more people, whereas other projects - like passive art - need to be developed further


What can we think of for MITS 2016?

73


Denver 16th Street Mall

8

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Continue to Evolve

8.1 Steps towards an evidence-based decision making framework easur m measuree

Our An Evidence-based Approach Approach

2 / Test

1 / Measure

74

tetesst t

r

e reefifinne

1 / Measure

Approach

3 / Refine

2 / Test

3 / Refine

1 / MEASURE

2 / TEST

3 / REFINE

Public Space Public Life Survey

First test: Meet in the Street 2015

Things to do in 2016 and beyond

Studies of public life and of the performance of the public spaces were carried out on 16th Street prior to the 2015 Meet in the Street event. These calculations allow us to compare future initiatives to baseline numbers to analyze and determine their specific impact.

The event carried out during the summer of 2015 was the first test of how different programs and initiatives influence the performance of 16th Street. The event was evaluated using varying tools, from people counts to questionnaires to studies of the social media impact.

The steps forward build upon the learnings form the 2014/2015 PSPL and from the Meet in the Street 2015 test project. The next round of test projects should refine and target specific goals that have come out of MITS 2015.


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Continue to Evolve

8

8.2 The continued evolvement through testing and learning has many benefits 5 REASONS TO PILOT PROJECT

Shorten the distance between citizen and decision-maker

Shorten the distance between idea and implementation

Com

... ... ... ...

Us e

ity Need un m

Inte

r v e n ti o n

25% Public Realm 75% Buildings

Unlock the potential of civic assets

Envision the unimaginable

Create a feedback loop between community need, intervention and use

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Denver 16th Street Mall

8

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Continue to Evolve

8.3 Possible project areas for the next steps of Downtownâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s continued evolution POSSIBLE FUTURE PROJECTS Coors Field Commons Park

DUS

21st St

Wynkoop St Wynkoop Plaza

Market Street Station Alley (Market / Larimer) Pepsi Center

Skyline Park

Alley (Curtis / Champa) 16th St Mall (Tremont Pl to Lawrence St) Curtis St

Alley (Welton / Glenarm)

Denver Performing Arts Complex

Entertainment District Republic Plaza

Auraria Campus Convention Center

Glenarm Pl Civic Center Station

Priority 16th Street Blocks Priority Streets Priority Alleys

Civic Center Park

Priority Public Spaces Other Destinations

76

Denver Art Museum


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Continue to Evolve

8

8.3 The next range of projects can continue evolving the evidence-based approach PRIORITY 16TH STREET BLOCKS

PRIORITY ALLEYS

8 blocks along 16th Street

Activate Alleys along 16th Street

Plan for a second prototyping festival along 16th Street from Tremont Place to Lawrence Street. In the meantime, investigate the opportunity for planning smaller interim projects along the stretch.

Identify at least two alleys with willing partners adjacent to 16th Street for enhanced activation efforts. Suggested alleys are between Welton Street and Glenarm Place, Curtis Street and Champa Street, Market Street and Larimer Street.

Pursue Pilot “Entertainment District” Review definition of the “Entertainment District” and see if pilots can be tied especially to this initiative during future MITS weekends.

PRIORITY STREETS Pilot a Named Street / Transverse Street Designate at least one named street/ transverse street adjacent to 16th Street as a pilot “festival” street for 1-2 blocks. Suggested street segments are Curtis Street from 16th Street to 14th Street and Glenarm Place from 17th Street to 15th Street.

PRIORITY PUBLIC SPACES Activate Plaza Spaces Adjacent to 16th Street Determine feasibility of short-term activation for Market Street Station Site, Republic Plaza or similar. Activate Skyline Park Identify projects and goals for each block, both more interim initiatives and more longer term changes that require design, public input and construction.

Connections to Coors Field The main streets that connect to Coors Field, Wynkoop Street and 21st Street, already have incentives for creating better street conditions. Leverage these initiatives to improve the overall coherency and connectivity of Downtown Denver.

77


Parklet in Mar del Plata, Argentina

Crossing in Ipanema, Rio

Plaza Design - Largo S達o Francisco, S達o Paulo

Carlos Cruz-Diez crossing at Wynwood, Miami

Interim Road Redesign

Embarcadero Pilot Plaza, San Francisco

The Porch, Philadelphia

The Porch, Philadelphia

78 Event in Largo S達o Francisco, S達o Paulo

Prototyping Market Street, San Francisco

Lighting Design, Solbjerg Plads, Copenhagen


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Continue to Evolve

8

Next Steps

to Continue to Evolve • Create Meet in the Street 2016 (MITS 2.0) • Identify necessary shared median tables and seating/railing/shade elements per block • Work with Downtown property owner(s) to find storage/staging area for median items • Investigate MITS partners and specific strategies for specific days and develop outline of activities, including kids’ activities, shade sails and lawn furniture/seating • Focus on recurring events • Investigate prototyping festival alternatives for specific areas • Invite new user groups • Engage with start-ups and young professionals who want to invest in their community

• Use the “Public Space Public Life” process and the “MeasureTest-Refine” method to observe and report on the performance of all new projects and initiatives • Define a network of pilots that engages all of Downtown throughout the entire year - both long-term and short-term effects of projects should be considered • View map on page 78 for further inspiration (entitled “Possible Future Projects”) • Create a prototyping festival - take inspiration from “Market Street Prototyping Festival” in San Francisco

79


Roadmap Going Forward


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Roadmap Going Forward

Next Steps: Overview of the First 6-9 Months Principle 1 / Make a Series of Experiences p.25 • Collaborate with historic preservation interests to explore the possibilities of treating 16th Street differently along the different segments of the street •

Consider options to reinterpret paving, trees and lights in some sections and preserve and repair them in others

Principle 2 / Provide Transport Choices p.35 • Collaborate with the Regional Transportation District (RTD) to identify future transit needs within the corridor and explore possible sustainable long-term solutions • Work with the Department of Public Works (DPW) to create pilots •

Tie the initiative into the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP)

Pilot dedicated shuttle lanes on 15th Street and 17th Street

Clarity on what constitutes fixed guideway service according to the Federal Transportation Administration (FTA)

Identify and pilot multi-modal connections along Arapahoe Street

• Do test programs with shuttle service staying on 16th Street •

Program median blocks and non-median blocks while keeping the shuttle on 16th Street and measure the impact to staying activities

Program transverse blocks

Principle 3 / Create Invitations for People to Spend Time p.43 • Test having more consistent programming •

Make longer-term temporary projects throughout the seasons to measure the impact over a longer period of time; this will help determine which programs are more resilient

• Create a Prototyping Festival •

Take inspiration and learn from San Francisco’s Market Street Prototyping Festival

Promote community stewardship

Principle 4 / Encourage Lively Edges p.51 • Extend patio seating by restaurants and cafes on a more permanent basis and measure the impact

82

Consider linking this initiative into the investigations of the possibilities for creating an “Entertainment District”

Streamline the permitting process to make it easy for restaurants/cafes to participate in and test the effects of this initiative


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Roadmap Going Forward

Principle 5 / Support a Wider Network of Investment p.57 • Work with and use special events to create more impact •

Collaborate with the Office of Special Events

Create a streamlined, collaborative permitting process to ensure ease of activation for desired programming for the summer 2016 (to encourage civic participation and innovation) in collaboration with the Office of Special Events (OSE)

Explore the opportunities for creating an “Entertainment District” in collaboration with local partners

Make pilots on 16th Street related to Rockies game days at Coors Field - take inspiration from The Yard in San Francisco

• Outreach to cultural institutions to program and activate collaboration pilots •

Emphasize connections and events at the Denver Performing Arts Complex

Designate Curtis Street for a pilot special event and street closures - work with Arts and Venues and Denver Theater District as a partner for events and visual displays

Explore partnerships between various events/activities and institutions/venues

Principle 6 / Think Beyond the Boundaries of 16th Street p.63 • Start a process to change the restrictive regulations to outdoor serving areas •

Make a move to remove barriers and fences around outdoor serving areas related to restaurants and cafes along 16th Street

Consider overlapping these tests with the investigations for creating an “Entertainment District”

Principle 7 / Create a Strong and Integrated Network p.71 • Test better intersection connections by changing signals to flashing red (forced stops) on selected streets that intersect with 16th Street • Define a network of pilots •

Pilot at least one named street crossing 16th Street

Activate 1-3 alleys along 16th Street

Activate plaza space(s) adjacent to 16th Street

Principle 8 / Continue to Evolve p.79 • Create Meet in the Street 2016 (MITS 2.0) •

Identify necessary shared median tables and seating/railing/shade elements per block

Work with Downtown property owner(s) to find storage/staging area for median items

Investigate MITS partners and specific strategies for specific days and develop outline of activities, including kids’ activities, shade sails and lawn furniture/seating

Focus on recurring events

Investigate prototyping festival alternatives for specific areas

Invite new user groups

Engage with start-ups and young professionals who want to invest in their community

• Use the “Public Space Public Life” process and the “Measure-Test-Refine” method to observe and report on the performance of all new projects and initiatives

83


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Roadmap Going Forward

Roadmap of the Ongoing Process ...to do right now RTD to review MITS 2.0 request for 13 consecutive summer weekends

Prototyping Festival

Micro Pilots on 16th St

(like CollaborEATS in September)

Evaluate

Idenitify Named Street to include in MITS 2.0

SUMMER 2016 AUTUMN 2015

Learn

Promote Community Stewardship Launch Prototypes Challenge: Community, Connecting, Capacity

MITS 2.0 (option 1A)

Contribute to Regulatory Processes e.g. - study concept for an â&#x20AC;&#x153;entertainment districtâ&#x20AC;? - evaluate a flexible process for innovative projects along 16th Street

84


Guiding Next-Steps Matrix The Matrix suggests possible scales and scopes of the next steps - each step can be chosen and modified according to the opportunities/challenges of the process.

MEDIUM-TERM

LONG-TERM

1B Pilot Projects on 16th St

1C A World Class Street

WHEN: 9-13 weekends. Summer. Saturday + Sunday.

WHEN: 2-4 months, Summer, All Days.

WHEN: Always, Permanent Project.

WHERE: On a stretch of 16th St, e.g. between Tremont Pl and Lawrence St, and also on at least one named street and/or in an alley.

WHERE: On a stretch of 16th St, e.g. between Tremont Pl and Lawrence St + on at least two named streets + 1-2 alleys.

WHERE: On 16th St between Tremont Pl and Lawrence St, including end-nodes by Civic Center Station and on Wynkoop Plaza.

WHAT: Pilot projects that enhance the urban environment either through design or through activities, adressing all socioeconomic groups. The pedestrian facilities are upgraded with urban furniture that give the street a unique identity. Collaboration with retailers to activate the building edges. Collaboration with RTD to sync initiative with shuttle routes and frequency.

WHAT: Re-design and rebranding of 16th St with custom urban furniture and upgraded pedestrian facilities, also at intersections. Design of welcome nodes in either end by Civic Center Station and by Wynkoop Plaza. Strong collaboration between retailers to create pleasant and active street edges. Align initiative with a design- and wayfinding upgrade of important named streets.

This is

now

WHAT: Design and art interventions/ installations and activities for all socioeconomic groups, building on learnings from MITS in 2015. Collaboration with local retailers to measure business impact and with RTD to measure the impact on public transit.

2B Prototype the Neighborhood

2C A Strong Network

WHEN: 6-8 weekends. Summer. Friday + Saturday + Sunday

WHEN: 2-4 months. Summer. All Days

WHERE: 16th St between Civic Center Station and Denver Union Station + on vacant areas along the important cross streets + at end-nodes by both Civic Center Station and Wynkoop Plaza. Synergy projects with the Convention Center and the Performing Arts Complex.

WHERE: On 16th St between Civic Center Station and Denver Union Station + on vacant areas along the important named streets + at the end-nodes by both Civic Center Station and Wynkoop Plaza. Collaborate with other downtown destinations and with local community groups/stakeholders.

WHEN: Always, Permanent Project until further development.

WHERE: On 16th St between Civic Center Station and Denver Union Station + on vacant areas along the important named streets + at the end-nodes by both Civic Center Station and Wynkoop Plaza + connect to all major Downtown destinations

WHAT: Pilot projects by local designers, artists and makers on 16th St and in adjacent parking-lots/in parks. The pedestrian facilities are upgraded, e.g. with movable and reusable urban furniture and better wayfinding. Collaboration with downtown retailers and public destinations to create pleasant and active building edges.

WHAT: Same as concept 1C + named streets are strenghtened by an upgrade of underused parking lots and parks, including a general upgrade of the streetscape and of intersections with 16th St. Wayfinding between destinations is enhanced. Collaborate with retailers to activate network of streets along all important cross streets. Collaborate with RTD to boost capacity while improving street life.

MEDIUM

2A Meet On the Block (MOB)

LARGE

SHORT-TERM

1A Meet in the Street 2.0 (MITS)

SMALL

scale

time

WHAT: Special events, interventions and activities with ‘speciel permits’ issued to local stakeholders. Test enhancing the connections to, and intersections with, important named streets. Plan synergy activities with the Convention Center, the Performing Arts Complex and at Wynkoop Plaza.

3A Downtown Days

3B Prototyping Downtown

3C Network of Complete Streets

WHEN: 2-4 months, Summer, All Days.

WHERE: On 16th St from Civic Center Station to Commons Park, including the named streets and the streets that link to surrounding major destinations and local anchors. Activate end-nodes of 16th St and named street intersections with 16th St.

WHEN: Always, Permanent Project (developed over several years)

WHERE: In all of Downtown with a focus on 16th St between Civic Center Station and Commons Park, Wynkoop Plaza, the identified important cross streets and the streets that link into the surrounding major destinations.

WHAT: In addition to concept 2C. A network for all traffic modes with a strong This pedestrian corridor on 16th St (with is the or without the shuttles on that same street) and two-way streets on the parrallel streets (15th, 17th, 18th and 21st St) that prioritize pedestrians, cyclists and staying activities. Strong collaboration between downtown destinations and local stakeholders to activate street edges and underused/vacant public spaces.

WHEN: 4-6 Sundays (or Weekends) of extended events in addition to either MITS or MOB (concept 1A and 2A).

WHERE: On 16th St from Civic Center Station to Commons Park, including the named streets and links to the surrounding major destinations and local anchors.

WHAT: A series of pilot projects spread out across all of Downtown - special permits are issued for local designers/makers. Special events/open days at the surrounding major and local destinations, e.g. the Convention Center and the Performing Arts Complex. Festival-like activities and atmosphere in all of Downtown Denver, bringing in people from a far reach. Collaboration with RTD to ensure good public transit options between suburbs and Downtown. Collaboration with retailers to sync event with promotions.

WHAT: Pilot projects/installations by local designers, artists and makers on 16th St and along the named streets, to enhance activities and increase downtown’s interest as a destination. Collaboration with major destinations, like the Convention Center and the Performing Arts Complex, to promote their activities in all of downtown. Special events and open days at the destinations. Enhance pedestrian facilities and wayfinding along the cross streets that link 16th St to both destinations and to other neighborhoods.

goal

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Data Appendix


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Data Collection Overview & Method Public Space & Public Life Survey

Staying Activities

Gehl Architects has based the analysis in this report on both available data from the City (desktop analysis), as well as on observational and intercept survey data collection in the form of a “Public Space Public Life Survey”.

The longer each person stays in the public realm, the more city life accumulates. We conducted registrations of what kind of activities people engaged in to observe what people were doing, where they were doing it, and when. The stationary activities give a picture of the activity levels and types at any given time of day.

The data has enabled a clear understanding and provided an overview of how Downtown Denver works for people staying and moving through, and has illustrated the use and structure of the public spaces. This information has helped focus the strategic recommendations and suggests ways of improving the mobility, quality, connectivity, and livability of Downtown.

Pedestrian Counts The street is the frame in which pedestrians flow through the city. The movement patterns of people throughout the day and week can reveal much about the character of urban life. The pedestrian counts were carried out every hour within a specified timeframe, and they help us understand the rhythm of the streets.

Demographics The demographic study has focused on mapping people’s ages and genders. This data reveals how inclusive a space is at different times of the day.

Pedestrian Counts 17 Locations

Stationary Activities 12 Locations

Demographics 21 Locations

MITS 2015 Program The Public Space Public Life survey was carried out especially by each MITS program to give a sense of how the different pilots affected the use of the public spaces along 16th Street.

Hardware Study The hardware study is a qualitative survey of the ground floor facade functions and qualities.

SURVEY DAYS MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5, July 19, August 2, August 9 (2015) Baseline Sundays: July 12, July 26, August 16 (2015) Baseline Weekdays: July 9, July 23 (2015)

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FINDINGS CATEGORIES

MITS 2015 Program 7 Blocks

Hardware Study 16th Street


Mapping of the survey sites

21

st S

t

th 19 St St ah

Ca

lif or

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St

St ou

tS

t

Ch

am

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Ar ap

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W

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St

M

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St

Bl

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St

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16

14

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Tr em on tP

Gl en

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W el to n

St

Broadway St

th

Colfax Ave

SURVEY TYPES Locations for Pedestrian Counts / Total Locations: 17 Areas for Stationary Activities Registrations / Total Locations: 12 Places for Demographics Survey (Age & Gender) / Total Locations: 21 Programmed Blocks for MITS 2015 / Total Blocks: 7

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Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Survey by Location Pedestrian Counts PEDESTRIAN COUNTS ON 16TH STREET Average counts every hour in four locations along the street

MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 (2015) Baseline Sundays: July 12 & 26, August 16 (2015) Baseline Weekdays: July 9 & 23 (2015)

PEAK 12PM

PEAK 12PM PEAK 4PM

PEAK 4PM PEAK 6PM

4,000

4,000

3,000

3,000 Pedestrians/hour

2,000

2,000

1,000

1,000

0

0 9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

7

20

8

9

90

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

< Larimer St

Market St >

Time of Day

< Blake St

< Wazee St >

< Wynkoop St >

Time of Day

Curtis St >

8

< Arapahoe St

7

Lawrence St >

Pedestrians/hour

PEAK 1PM


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix DATA FINDING On Weekdays 16th Street is a destination for

DATA FINDING

DATA FINDING

On Sundays 16th Street is a destination for

On MITS Sundays 16th Street is a destination to

dinner

lunch

stay

PEAK 12PM

PEAK 12PM PEAK 3PM

PEAK 2PM PEAK 5PM

4,000

3,000

3,000 Pedestrians/hour

4,000

2,000

1,000

2,000

1,000

0

0 12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

< Tremont St

< Glenarm St >

Time of Day

Welton St >

< California St

Stout St >

< Champa St

Time of Day

< Cleveland Pl >

11

Court Pl >

10

Br oa

9

<

8

t

7

dw ay S

Pedestrians/hour

PEAK 4PM

91


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Survey by Location Stationary Activities STATIONARY ACTIVITIES ON 16TH STREET Average amount of people at any given time between 10:00 - 16:00 Physical Activity

150

146

146

Cultural Activity Commercial Activity

135

Children Playing People Lying Down Movable Seating Secondary Seating

111

Cafe Seating Bench Seating Waiting for Transport

100

Standing 86

81

48%

48%

45% 76

44%

75

77

64

58 52

51

50

48

32

< Larimer St

Market St >

92

MITS Weekday

Skyline Park

Baseline

MITS Weekday

Baseline

Arapahoe & Curtis

MITS Weekday

Baseline

Curtis & Champa

MITS Weekday

Champa & Stout

Unprogrammed

NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 and 19, August 2 and 9 / Baseline Sundays: July 12 and 26, August 16 / Baseline Weekdays: July 9 and 23

Stout St >

Wynkoop Plaza Unprogrammed

Baseline

< Champa St

MITS Weekday

Curtis St >

Baseline

< Arapahoe St

0


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix DATA FINDING

DATA FINDING

DATA FINDING

On MITS Sundays Glenarm and Tremont was the place for a

On MITS Sunday Welton and Glenarm had the largest increase in staying activities at

On MITS Sundays Stout and California became a place for

coffee

60%

kids!

150

114

100

44%

41%

44%

69

41% 77

71

39%

39%

79

37%

68

63

59

50

48

43

39 30

28

41

37 25

22 12

Glenarm & Tremont

Baseline

MITS Weekday

Baseline

MITS Weekday

Tremont & Court

Court & Cleveland

Unprogrammed

Unprogrammed

0

< Cleveland Pl >

MITS Weekday

Court Pl >

Welton & Glenarm

Baseline

< Tremont St

MITS Weekday

< Glenarm St >

California & Welton

Baseline

Welton St >

MITS Weekday

< California St

Stout St >

Stout & California

Baseline

t

MITS Weekday

ay S

Baseline

93


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Survey by Location Age Demographics AGE DISTRIBUTION 16TH STREET Average between 10:00 - 16:00 100% 3 3 100% 3 3 6 6 65+ 31-64 y 17 17 15-30 y

8 8 6 6

5 5 8 8

7 7 8 8

51 51 55 55

40 40

24 24

7-14 y 0-6 y

48 48 56 56

56 56

55 55

49 49

39 39

50% 50% 62 62

26 26

31 31

30 30

3 3 7 7

19 19

4 4 2 22 2 5 5

1 1 1 12 4 2 4

Baseline Baseline MITSMITS

Baseline Baseline MITSMITS

Baseline Baseline MITSMITS

Baseline Baseline MITSMITS

Arapahoe Arapahoe & Curtis & Curtis

Curtis Curtis & Champa & Champa

Champa Champa & Stout & Stout

Stout Stout & California & California

Baseline Baseline MITSMITS

Skyline Skyline ParkPark

8 8

29 29

Curtis St >

6 6 5 5 5 5 3 3

36 36

43 43 32 32

< Arapahoe St

0% 0%

42 42

32 32

5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3

94

NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9/Baseline Sundays: July 12 & 26, August 16

< California St

< California St

Stout St >

Stout St >

< Champa St

< Champa St

Curtis St >

< Arapahoe St

Lawrence St >

Lawrence St >

Unprogrammed Unprogrammed


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

10%

3% 3%

51%

4

52

OVERALL MITS SUNDAYS 8%

33%

6

55%

8

50

6%

58

8

19

54 47

DATA FINDING

5%

The share of 0-14 years old children increased

+77%

26%

on MITS Sundays compared to Baseline

100%

7

60

14

11

55

66

13 23

55

87

29

30

40

MITS

Glenarm & Tremont

Court Pl >

< Glenarm St >

< Tremont St

Baseline

5

1

9

MITS

Baseline

0%

MITS

Tremont & Court

Court & Cleveland

Unprogrammed

Unprogrammed

Court Pl >

Baseline

4

< Cleveland Pl >

MITS

Welton & Glenarm

Welton St >

< Glenarm St >

< California St

California & Welton

5 2

7 3

< Tremont St

Baseline

4 5

<

22

5 4

Br oa

MITS

9

t

Baseline

21

26

d w ay S

6

26

19

9 21

30

50%

< Cleveland Pl >

OVERALL BASELINE SUNDAYS

95


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Survey by Location Gender Demographics GENDER DISTRIBUTION 16TH STREET Average between 10:00 - 16:00 100%

32

31

40

41

43 55

68

52

65

70

50% 69

68

60

0%

Baseline

45

35

32

MITS

Baseline

Skyline Park

57

59

48 30

MITS

Baseline

Arapahoe & Curtis

MITS

Baseline

Curtis & Champa

MITS

Baseline

Champa & Stout

MITS

Stout & California

96

NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 / Baseline Sundays: July 12 & 26, August 16

< California St

Stout St >

< Champa St

Curtis St >

< Arapahoe St

Lawrence St >

Unprogrammed


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix OVERALL BASELINE SUNDAYS

63%

OVERALL MITS SUNDAYS

37%

39%

DATA FINDING The share of women increased

+65%

61%

on MITS Sundays compared to Baseline

100% 21 39

42 44 62

56

39 55

53

78 50% 80

61

56 44

38

61

58 47

45 22

Baseline

Baseline

0%

MITS

Court & Cleveland

Unprogrammed

Unprogrammed

< Cleveland Pl >

Tremont & Court

Court Pl >

Court Pl >

Glenarm & Tremont

MITS

< Cleveland Pl >

MITS

< Tremont St

< Glenarm St >

< Tremont St

Welton & Glenarm

Welton St >

< Glenarm St >

< California St

Baseline

Br oa

California & Welton

MITS

<

Baseline

t

MITS

d w ay S

Baseline

97


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Survey by MITS Program Stationary Activities STATIONARY ACTIVITIES AT THE MITS 2015 PROGRAMS Average amount of people at any given time between 10:00 - 16:00 Organized by program popularity 112

Physical Activity Cultural Activity Commercial Activity Children Playing People Lying Down

100

100

89

Movable Seating Secondary Seating Cafe Seating Bench Seating

49%

Waiting for Transport

48%

48%

48%

82 45%

77 45%

44% 76

Standing

64

50

48

BASELINE

52%

52%

52%

55%

56%

55%

98

er at w

ct ra te in

es m ga

zo

ar iv

e

ta er at w

NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 / Sum of all Baseline Sundays locations: July 12 & 26, August 16. An example of public art is a sculpture. An example of interactive art is face painting.

ne

t

nk

ic us m e liv

BASELINE SUNDAY

ex th pa e nd w e ay d in pa ex to tio pa st al nd re l ed et pa tio on si de w al k

0


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix DATA FINDING

DATA FINDING

DATA FINDING

88%

3X

+157%

of all MITS activities resulted in an overall increase in staying activities

increase in cafe seating when the patio is expanded into the street

increase in commercial activities when lawn furniture was placed along 16th St

100100

41% 41%

44% 44%

44% 44%

44% 44%

39% 41% 41% 39 39 39%

41% 42% 42% 42 4241%

39% 39%

37% 37%

44 44 64 64 57 57

56 56

56 56

55 55

54 54

54 54

47 47

49 49

44 44

63% 63%

61% 59% 59%61 61 61%

58% 58 58 56% 56%56 56 56% 56% 58%

BASELINE BASELINE 50 50

bl i pu c a bl rt ic ar t

pu

rs ho es rs es

co

ho

ed rd mu ed si m c us ic

d

rd co re

re

d

so

so

nd ve ors nd or s

ve

ds ki blo ds ck bl oc k

ki

te r sa en tai nd te nm rt sa bo ai ent nd x nm d bo en anc x td e an the ce at th er ea bm te r x bm x

en

a p tr ubl a i pu c s bl ea ic tin se g at in g

tr

ex

ex

n w

w la

la

n

fu rn i fu tur rn e itu re

0 0

99


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Survey by MITS Program Age Demographics AGE DISTRIBUTION AT THE MITS 2015 PROGRAMS Average between 10:00 - 16:00 Organized by attendace of 0-14 year olds 65+ 31-64 y

100%

15-30 y

4%

6%

6%

7%

5%

6%

6%

36% 54%

49% 44%

48% 43%

48%

48%

45%

45%

53%

49%

47%

22% 52%

26%

55%

28% 55%

9%

8%

7%

11%

11%

12%

9%

7-14 y 0-6 y

48%

58%

50%

23% 21%

NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 / Sum of all Baseline Sundays locations: July 12 & 26, August 16. An example of public art is a sculpture. An example of interactive art is face painting.

100

es m ga

r

en

te

rt

ai

nm

en

td

an

ce

th

w

ea

at

ds

er

bl

ta

bm

x

nk

k oc

x bo nd

16%

or

20%

ki

w

at

er

zo

ne

BASELINE SUNDAYS

sa

0%

3% 3%

21%

BASELINE 0-14 YEARS

nd

6%

32%

ve

52% 7%

51% 8%

46%

te

37%

13% 52%

s

23%

5%


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix OVERALL FOR MITS ACTIVITIES 6%

DATA FINDING

11%

more

7%

51% 25%

7%

DATA FINDING

kids love

water

activities needed for the 65+ age group

4%

6%

5%

49%

48%

53%

5%

4%

9%

6%

8%

8%

57%

53%

54%

100%

44% 46%

44

51% 56%

66%

50%

0%

re

al

st

w ed

to lt

he

pa

w

tio

ay

on

in

si

e liv

a tr ex

BASELINE 0-14 YEARS

et

5% 3%

k

ic us m

rs

e iv ss pa

se ic bl pu

ho

ar

t

g in at

itu rn fu n

5% 4%

6% 3%

de

10% 2%

30%

ex

pa

nd

ed

ex

pa

pa

tio

nd

al

9% 3%

30%

28%

es

18%

9%

re

ic m od ip

61

58

23% 7%

9%

us

d so

ar e

28%

9%

9%

8%

iv ct ra te in

24% 56

10%

11%

t

12%

27%

w

7%

29%

la

28% 56%

101


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Survey by MITS Program Gender Demographics GENDER DISTRIBUTION AT THE MITS 2015 PROGRAMS Average between 10:00 - 16:00 Organized by attendace of women 100%

41% 54%

49%

48%

48%

48%

45%

45%

44%

51%

52%

52%

52%

55%

55%

56%

BASELINE

50%

59% 46%

0% k al de si

se

on

ic bl

rd

ex

pa

nd

ed

ex

tr

pa

a

tio

pu

co re

w

in at

us m ed

sa

NOTES: MITS Sundays: June 28, July 5 & 19, August 2 & 9 / Sum of all Baseline Sundays locations: July 12 & 26, August 16. An example of public art is a sculpture. An example of interactive art is face painting.

102

g

ic

x nd

ar e iv in

te

ra

ct

te ea th ce

en

te

rt

ai

nm

en

td

an

bo

t

x bm r

bl ds ki

w

at

er

zo

oc

ne

k

BASELINE SUNDAYS


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix OVERALL BASELINE SUNDAYS

59%

OVERALL MITS SUNDAYS

41%

DATA FINDING

71%

44%

56%

of all MITS activities saw an increase in female attendance compared with the Baseline

100%

44%

44%

42%

44%

39% 39

41% 42 41%

37%

39%

44 BASELINE

50%

56%

56%

56%

56 58%

61% 61

59% 58 59%

63%

61%

nk w

at

er

ta

ar ic bl pu

itu rn fu n w

t

re

s or nd

d so

es m ga

es rs ho

ic us m e liv

ve

la

ex

pa

nd in ed to pa st tio re et

0%

103


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Street Hardware Study Facade Quality FACADE QUALITY MEASURES A – active Small units, many doors (15-20 doors per 100 m/328 feet) Large variation in function Lots of character in façade relief Good details and materials

B – pleasant Relatively small units (10-14 doors per 100 m/328 feet) Some variation in function Façade relief Many details

1 IN 5 FACADES ARE CATEGORIZED AS “ACTIVE” OR “PLEASANT” • The treatment of the ground floor facades is key to an attractive and successful pedestrian environment. • Currently, ground floor facades vary significantly with several stretches of 16th Street offering an unattractive, inactive pedestrian environment including blank walls and under-programmed open spaces. • The most consistent concentration of active to mixed facades feature between Tremont Pl and Curtis St. The sections of the street towards Civic Center Station and between Larimer St and Blake St have the most inactive and dull facades.

C – mixed Large and small units (6-10 doors per 100 m/328 feet) Some blind and passive units Modest façade relief Few details

D – plain Large units, few doors (2-5 doors per 100 m/328 feet) Almost no variation, uninteresting units Few or no details

E – inactive Large units, few or no doors (0-2 doors per 100 m/328 feet) No visible variation in function Blind or passive units Uniform façades, no details

F - no facade Vacant areas, fences, large open units No variation in function nothing to look at

104

Active and Pleasant Facades There are some active ground floors on and around 16th Street that add positively to the street’s status as Downtown’s spine. These are characterized by having see-through facades and spill-out uses that animate the street life. The pleasant facades may not have such a strong presence on the sidewalks but they still contribute to a good street environment by being open and inviting towards the public space.

Mixed and Plain Facades Many of the buildings in Downtown Denver, which are currently categorized as “plain,” actually have the potential to contribute to a lively and attractive public space, with transparent facades and entranceways

towards the street. However, to positively influence the public realm, these buildings also need open and public or semi-public functions that make use of the transparency to create a connection between the life inside and outside the building.

Mixed and Plain Facades The remaining categories of inactive or no facades are assigned to a relatively large amount of Downtown plots. These are either used as on-surface parking or parking structures with non-active facades that do not contribute to the public realm. These types of facades also create a feeling of an unsafe environment, as they are usually dark with little or no activity along the edges.


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W el

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a

ni

lif or

Ca

St

<

t>

tS

St ou

pa

am

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St

<

is

rt

Cu

St

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oe

ah

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<

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w

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St

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er

rim

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<

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Bl ak e

St

<

e

W az e

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W yn ko

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Mapping of facade qualities

FACADE CATEGORIES

A - Active

B - Pleasant

C - Mixed

D - Plain

E - Inactive

F - No Facade

105


Denver 16th Street Mall

February 2016 // Gehl Studio

Data Appendix

Street Hardware Study Ground Floor Functions FACADE QUALITY AND FUNCTION Quality

Function Active

Shops/Retail Bars/Restaurants

Category A + B Active + Pleasant

Leisure (cinema, fitness, etc.) Hotel Services (banks, car rentals, etc.) Residential

Category C + D Mixed + Plain

Institutions Offices Parking (surface and garage)

Category E-F Inactive or no facade

The ground floor functions have a strong impact on how the street is performing The frontage types study varies from the facade quality study in that the ground floors are only analyzed by their indoor functions, not by the function’s specific connection to the street. The tendency is that shops/retail and bars/restaurants are also the most outwards and active functions, whereas offices and institutions tend to be more introverted. Empty lots, blank facades and parking services are completely inactive facades. By mapping the groundfloor function it is possible to see how well a street can be expected to perform, based on the offers that are available.

Blank/Vacant Empty lot/Under construction Inactive

46% OF THE FACADES HAVE ACTIVE FUNCTIONS • The largest part of the predominantly active functions, such as shops and restaurants, are present between Tremont St and Curtis St • 30% of the frontages are taken up by parking, empty lots or facades with no functions • Less than 50% of the frontage types surrounding 16th Street fall into the more active categories of shops/ retail and bar/restaurant • There are almost 2 restaurants/bars per 1 shop/retail function NOTE: In the western part of 16th Street, towards Commons Park, there is currently a lot of new development, which is difficult to properly categorize yet.

106


Co

ur

tP

l>

Tr em

on

tP

l<

Gl en

ar

m

St

<

>

W el

to n

St

>

Ca

lif or

ni

a

St

<

St ou

tS

t>

Ch

am

pa

St

<

Cu

rt

is

St

>

Ar ap

ah

oe

St

La

<

w

re n

ce

St

La

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rim

er

St

<

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St

>

Bl

ak e

St

<

W az e

e

St

<

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W yn ko

op

St

<

>

Mapping of groundfloor functions

FUNCTION CATEGORIES Shops/Retail Bars/Restaurants Leisure (cinema, fitness, etc.) Hotel Services (banks, car rentals, etc.) Residential Institutions Offices Parking (surface and garage) Blank/Vacant Empty lot/Under construction

107


108


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