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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan Main Issues Report September 2010


GCVSDP MIR 20/10/2010


Main Issues Report

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan September 2010

Contents

page

Foreword Using this document

3

Introducing the Issues

4

Section 1 Introduction

6

Section 2 Legacy of the existing Metropolitan Development Strategy

10

Section 3 Strategic drivers of change for the Strategic Development Plan

14

Section 4 Vision and principles

16

Section 5 Main issues and key challenges

22

Section 6 The Main Issues ■ Issue 1 Breaking down distance to economic markets

26

■ Issue 2 Supporting a sustainable economy

30

■ Issue 3 Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity

34

■ Issue 4 Promoting sustainable locations for development

42

■ Issue 5 Tackling risk - strategic development priorities

50

Next stages

53

Glossary

54

Background Reports

57

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Contents


Main Issues Report

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan September 2010

Figure 1 Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region local authorities

6

Figure 16 Glasgow International Airport strategic planning role

27

Figure 2 Scottish governmental context for the GCV Strategic Development Plan

7

Figure 17 GVA and employment change to 2020

31

Figure 18 GVA, productivity and employment change to 2035

31

Figure 19 Strategic Economic Investment Locations

32

Figure 20 City-region environmental context - role and function

35

Figure 21 GCV Green Network strategic opportunities

37

Figure 22 Biomass woodfuel production opportunities

38

Figure 23 Wind farm search areas

38

Figure 24 Private sector housing requirements 2008 / 25

43

Figure 25 Network of strategic centres

44

Figure 26 Network of strategic centres - assessment of role and function

45

Figure 27 West of Scotland Conurbation Public Transport Study proposed network at 2025

48

Figure 28 West of Scotland Conurbation Public Transport Study proposed outcomes at 2025

48

Figure 29 Preferred strategy

50

Figure 3 Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan publication and approval timeline Figure 4 Main Issues Report structure and flow Figure 5 The legacy of the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan Figure 6 Vacant and derelict land and index of multiple deprivation (top 15%) Figure 7 City-region strategic drivers of change to 2035 Figure 8 Key components of the spatial vision to 2035 Figure 9 Spatial vision and strategic drivers of change Figure 10 Development principles of the spatial vision to 2035 Figure 11 Greenhouse gas emissions by sector 2005

8 9 11 12 14 16 18 19 20

Figure 12 Population change 2008 / 25

22

Figure 13 Household change 2008 / 25

22

Figure 14 Adopting a demographic Planning Scenario Figure 15 Glasgow International Airport air routes

Illustrations

23 26

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


Foreword by Councillor Graham Scott Chair, Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority The Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic

outcome is a statutory Strategic Development Plan -

response to change through the SDP process and a

Development Planning Authority (GCVSDPA) and its

but the real subject is all about people and a vision

new enhanced focus and responsibility for their local

eight constituent local authorities have been tasked

for the future of the city-region. The Plan, which

development planning function.

by the Scottish Parliament to look long into the future

will emerge from this process, will shape their living

The vision in this document is for the Glasgow

of Scotland’s foremost city-region area to vision and

environment over the next twenty-five years and

and Clyde Valley city-region to be a competitive and

plan its development to 2035 and beyond. As you

beyond. However, we do not start from scratch – we

attractive European city-region which is tailored to

can imagine, that is a complex task. The first real

already have a highly sustainable long-term strategy in

fit changing global circumstances and which will

step is the publication of this Main Issues Report. A

place – what we are on is a journey to delivering that

not be left behind in the process of global change.

lot of people and organisations have been involved

strategy and ensuring that it remains relevant to the

It will develop an economy increasingly less reliant

in pulling together this document and the GCVSDPA

future. That future will see further global pressures in

upon carbon, with a real focus on urban life, a high-

is grateful for their help and commitment in thinking

terms of economic change, petroleum consumption

quality environment and an integrated urban-rural

long about the Glasgow city-region. At the same time,

and prices, shifts to new sources of energy, to new

relationship. The vision aims to stimulate population

it has been impossible to have everyone contribute

forms of transport and a new emphasis on sustainable

growth to support the city-region economy.

to shaping the document, but this next process of

transport, a continued renewal of interest in cities as

I encourage everyone to get involved with the

publishing the Main Issues Report is designed to

economic engines. Competition between cities and

Authority, its councils and partners in helping to shape

provide an opportunity for all those who wish to make

city-groupings will intensify. We are already seeing this

the future of Glasgow and the Clyde Valley.

an input, to so do. We are designating a consultation

accelerate across Europe and beyond.

period of eight weeks to allow for these inputs. We

The Glasgow and Clyde Valley city-region will

also will provide, for those interested, a wealth of

not be excluded from these pressures and it is vital

technical material which informs this Report.

that we continue to think long and plan long with a

Whilst the subject of the Main Issues Report is

focus on the big picture vision rather than on local

inherently physical - where we build new businesses

interests. We need not focus on that level in this

and homes, new shopping complexes and new

SDP process - that level will be addressed fully by

Councillor Graham Scott

transport systems; how we improve the environment

the individual constituent local authorities within the

Chair

in which we live and play; how we manage our

big picture framework resulting from this strategic

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development

connections with our economic markets and the

visioning process. The new legislation under which the

Planning Authority

rest of the UK, Europe and the world - the primary

Authority operates envisages a more focused strategic

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Foreword


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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


Main Issues Report Using this document Aims and purpose

The content and purpose of a Main Issues Report (MIR) are clearly laid out in legislation. It is to explain the Strategic Development Planning Authority’s overall vision for a long-term future, in this case to 2035, and the development strategy needed to deliver that vision for the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region, in essence, where new strategic development should and should not take place. This MIR is intended to emphasise vision and the long term. How that vision and development strategy are fleshed out at the detailed level is the responsibility of the eight local authorities of the GCV area through their local development plans (LDP) and through a range of their corporate operations. The Strategic Development Plan (SDP) and its MIR is about creating the long-term framework for action and setting the direction of travel for developing the GCV area into the long term.

The current Development Strategy and its legacy are under constant monitoring and review; the maximum interval for review being five years, thus keeping strategy up-to-date and attuned to those forces which are driving change within the wider economic, social and environmental context. Legislation makes clear that MIRs are not draft versions of plans, but are Issues documents which highlight key changes from previous plans and which highlight the Strategic Development Planning Authority’s big ideas - the Vision - for future development, including preferred and alternative locations, where reasonable, and be underwritten by a sound evidence base. The MIR is effectively an engagement and consultation document which is designed to provide a vehicle for all stakeholders through which they can engage with the GCVSDPA and its constituent local authorities in shaping the long-term future of the Glasgow and Clyde Valley area, Scotland’s largest and primary city-region complex.

An MIR can highlight elements of current strategies and plans which remain pertinent to the long-term future. In that case, Glasgow and the Clyde Valley has the benefit of a widely acknowledged Metropolitan Development Strategy (MDS), put together between 2000 and 2008 and approved throughout that decade by the Scottish Ministers.

Sections and questions This document is written in sections and at the end of each section the reader will find a set of questions relating to its content. These questions are intended to focus the reader’s thinking and provide a framework for their responses. A glossary of terms is included to assist the reader. The GCVSDPA would be grateful if readers could use these questions to engage with the MIR and the Authority when responding to the MIR. How to respond Responses can be made in writing to: Dr Grahame Buchan Strategic Development Plan Manager Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority Lower ground floor 125 West Regent Street Glasgow G2 2SA by email to: mir@gcvsdpa.gov.uk

The MDS provides a strong foundation for the SDP upon which to build future strategy and its substantive components. But the SDP and its MIR is about a more focused direction for strategy.

or through the consultation section of the GCVSDPA website at: www.gcvsdpa.gov.uk/mir

It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the MIR does not seek to replace the previously approved strategy and its land allocations which continue to have relevance. These locations are integral to ongoing local planning and their role in delivering the strategy and giving confidence to investors. The purpose of this MIR is to map out the future direction of that strategy and be more focused on those locations and development priorities that will meet future strategic challenges and drivers-forchange, allowing the on-going development plan process to promote, safeguard and/or deliver relevant locations from previous strategic plans.

Engaging with the MIR and the GCVSDPA

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Using this document

Area covered by the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan

Once approved by the Scottish Ministers, the SDP will replace the previous generation of Structure Plans.

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Introducing the Issues

The five primary strategic planning issues facing the city-region to 2035

For the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley cityregion to achieve its longterm vision by 2035, a number of issues need to be addressed, ranging from external economic connections to regional regeneration and economic positioning and the creation of a high quality living environment to attract and retain a highly-skilled population.

4

1

Breaking down distance to economic markets

The Glasgow and Clyde Valley area is a city-region economy on the northern edge of its UK and European markets. Tackling this marginal location through improved sustainable transport connectivity, in the form of High Speed Rail (HSR), is essential for long-term competitiveness. However, air travel remains an essential, if less sustainable, economic linkage for the cityregion and must remain even after HSR connectivity replaces short-haul air travel. International routes and increased penetration of such, can only be achieved through air travel and will remain a key aspect of the long-term economy. In addition, the scale of the regional economy is a related issue and increased critical mass through greater collaboration with the Edinburgh city-region is equally essential for competitiveness.

2

Supporting a sustainable economy

Growing the regional economy is vital to the long-term vision for the city-region area - creating new jobs and attracting new migrants and stimulating population growth - but this growth needs to be achieved within our environmental capacity. Promoting sustainable development locations which help to reduce carbon consumption and reduce our greenhouse gas emissions will help to address climate change and help achieve sustainable economic growth. A key requirement will be the need to improve accessibility by sustainable transport modes to our key economic locations.

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3

Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity

Environmental quality, green infrastructure and improved connectivity between urban and rural spaces are vital components in city-region competitiveness. The drive for sustainable economic growth needs complementary action to realise these objectives.

4

Promoting sustainable locations for development

Sustainable economic growth will require long-term development capacity to support it, new business and employment, new homes, investment in sustainable transport, and community facilities. The key challenge is in identifying and securing development locations that are accessible by public transport and which reduce reliance upon travel by private car. Minimising the carbon footprint of the city-region through identifying sustainable locations and recycling land will be central to these objectives.

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5

Tackling risk strategic development priorities

Capital investment will be in limited supply throughout the first half of the Strategy. Identifying and phasing our development and investment priorities will be central to maximising returns on that limited investment. There is a need therefore to minimise the risk to the long-term vision by focusing on our key priorities.

5


1

Introduction

1.1

The Scottish Government’s planning legislation, the Planning etc (Scotland) Act 2006, which came into force in February 2009, introduced into the statutory planning legislation, the need for a Strategic Development Plan (SDP) to replace the previous generation of Structure Plans in Scotland. The preparation of an SDP applies only to the four city-regions of Scotland, of which Glasgow and the Clyde Valley is the most significant in economic and demographic terms.

Figure 1

1.2

Two additional pieces of Scottish Government legislation, the Town and Country Planning (Development Planning) (Scotland) Regulations 2008 and Planning Circular 1, 2009 Development Planning provide further legislative detail as to the process by which such Strategic Development Plans are to be prepared and submitted to the Scottish Ministers.

1.3

The Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority (GCVSDPA), comprising the eight local authorities of the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region area namely East Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire, Glasgow City, Inverclyde, North Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, South Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire, has been established and tasked by its above-mentioned authorities to co-ordinate and facilitate the preparation and publication of an SDP for the city-region.

1.4

The initial key step in the new SDP process - the publication and submission to Scottish Ministers of a Development Plan Scheme (DPS) which sets out the GCVSDPA’s timetable of publications leading to the SDP itself - has been prepared with copies of the DPS being made available through public libraries, local authority offices and through the GCVSDPA’s website. In the DPS, the Authority identified September 2010 as the publication date for what is the second key stage in developing an SDP - its Main Issues Report (MIR).

1.5

This publication fulfils the requirements of the above legislation in producing an MIR for public consultation. A wide range of professional staff from the GCVSDPA and its constituent authorities, as well as from the Key Agencies, from professional planning consultancies, from the development sector and from a wide range of interested stakeholders, have been instrumental in shaping the MIR and its content.

1.6

It is important that readers understand the significance of the SDP and what it means for the future of the cityregion. The SDP sets the overall direction or strategy for development and investment in the city-region for the next twenty-five years - it sets out the big picture - and by doing so, when approved by the Scottish Ministers, creates the principle for development in the key strategic locations set out in the Plan. The related detailed land use designations and policy context is the remit of the Local Development Plan (LDP) process and other related governmental legislative provisions. So engagement at the SDP level is essential for all interested parties if they wish to influence the overall shape of the city-region to 2035. More downstream detail is added to the SDP and LDP processes by the Development Management process through individual Planning Applications.

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region local authorities

West Dunbartonshire

East Dunbartonshire

Inverclyde Renfrewshire

Glasgow City North Lanarkshire

East Renfrewshire

South Lanarkshire

6

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Legislative background


1

Introduction

Content of the Main Issues Report

SDP governmental planning context

1.7

This MIR comprises three components:

1.8

Component One The MIR itself is designed to highlight the main issues of change surrounding the future preferred geography of development across the city-region to 2035 and to highlight any reasonable alternatives to that development strategy and its locational priorities It includes significant legacy elements carried forward from the current approved GCV Joint Structure Plan, 2000 and 2006.

Component Two The evidential base and all relevant process activities are set out in a range of accompanying Background Reports.

Component Three The MIR is accompanied by a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the form of an Environmental Report and fulfils a set of requirements established under relevant SEA legislation.

Figure 2

The MIR is not prepared in a policy vacuum. The Scottish Government has published the National Planning Framework 2 (NPF2), 2009, which sets out a number of key strategic development priorities for the next twenty-five years at the all-Scotland level and must be taken into account in preparing the MIR - several of these national developments relate to the city-region. Additionally, the Scottish Government has published the Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR) which sets out its transport investment priorities for the period 2012/22, of which a number relate to the city-region and which equally provide a framework for the transport priorities within the MIR. Further to these key documents and their declared priorities, the Scottish Government has published Scottish Planning Policy (SPP), February 2010, which sets a clear planning policy direction within which the MIR must be prepared.

1.9

These key documents will be referenced throughout the MIR where their provisions have a key role to play in shaping the Vision and Spatial Strategy of the MIR.

Scottish governmental context for the GCV Strategic Development Plan

Governmental and legislative context to 2035

Submission of Proposed Plan in 2011

National Planning Framework reviewed every 5 years

Strategic Planning Policy SPP

Strategic Transport Projects Review STPR 10 years

The development strategy for Glasgow and the Clyde Valley to 2035

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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1

Introduction

The Current Strategic Plans for Glasgow and the Clyde Valley

Taking Strategic Planning for Glasgow and the Clyde Valley forward

1.10 The

1.11 The

GCVSDPA’s predecessor organisation, the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Structure Plan Joint Committee (GCVSPJC) published a number of strategic (Structure) plans, each of which has been approved by the Scottish Ministers. In 2000, the GCVSPJC submitted its first Joint Structure Plan which was subsequently approved by the Scottish Ministers in 2002 and in 2006, the same organisation, based upon a five-year monitor and review programme, submitted the 2006 Joint Structure Plan which was subsequently approved in 2008. In between, where necessary, the same organisation prepared and submitted a number of Alterations to the approved Structure Plans, with the intention of keeping its strategic plans up-to-date. This suite of Structure Plans and Alterations, the most recent of which was approved in 2009, provides a strong legacy for the SDP.

GCVSDPA has therefore inherited a legacy of upto-date approved strategic plans. Planning Circular 1, paragraphs 11 and 12, stipulates that the SDPA is to monitor any existing strategic plan and to publish a Monitoring Statement alongside the publication of any MIR. Background Report 01 to this MIR comprises the necessary Monitoring Statement. Consequently, the GCVSDPA does not start from scratch in this process - clear long-term thinking and sustainable planning is already in place with significant commitment from the local planning process. The task now is to shape that thinking to meet changing global pressures and new and emerging drivers of change. This MIR is designed to present how the city-region should respond to such change drivers and how the future SDP should accommodate new thinking and development to 2035.

1.12 Two

aspects of the SDP approach need stressing firstly, the SDP, when published in 2011, will take a long-view of the city-region, looking to 2035, although many of the quantitative projections and forecasts look only to 2025, because of the inherent uncertainty associated with such long-term calculations. The period 2025 to 2035 is therefore all about a clear direction of travel for strategy rather than detailed planning.

Figure 3

Secondly, the Metropolitan Development Strategy will be under constant monitoring, and reviews will take place every five years to ensure its continuing relevance to key drivers of change. This review programme will allow the GCVSDPA the ability to anticipate and respond to any changes in that wider environment and10/or respond to actual observed changes.

1.13 It

is also important to be aware of the Scottish Government’s desire to see SDPs as more strategic action-oriented plans and their consequent stipulation that the SDP, when submitted, be accompanied by an Action Plan setting out how the proposals of the Strategy are to be implemented and by whom. This provision has implications for stakeholder buy-in to the Strategy and for the process of deciding priorities and sequencing thereof. It is important therefore that the MIR be clear in this respect and provide the basis for collective delivery of the development strategy.

The logic and flow of the Main Issues Report 1.14 Figure

4 sets out the structure and flow of the Main Issues Report.

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan publication and approval timeline

document

Legacy prior to 2010

submitted approved

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan 2000 First Alteration Ravenscraig Second Alteration Glasgow International Airport Third Alteration Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan 2006 Fourth Alteration Commercial Centres Retail Locations

2000 2002 2003 2006 2004 2005 2006 2008 2008 2009

The current Metropolitan Development Strategy

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1

Introduction

Figure 4

Main Issues Report structure and flow

Legacy prior to 2010

The current Metropolitan Development Strategy

The current Metropolitan Development Strategy and key drivers of change to 2035 Framing the Development Vision

Economy and population

Sustainable economic growth and development

Looking to the future

Climate change mitigation

Environmental legislation and action

Scottish Government’s planning and policy direction

Public expenditure situation

The development vision to 2035

Main issues and challenges for the Strategic Development Plan Economic and demographic context to 2035

Submission of Proposed Plan in 2011

Issue 1 Breaking down distance to economic markets

Issue 2 Supporting a sustainable economy

Issue 3 Promoting environmental action

Issue 4 Promoting sustainable development locations

Issue 5 Tackling risk strategic development priorities

The development strategy for Glasgow and the Clyde Valley to 2035

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2 Legacy of the existing Metropolitan Development Strategy

Introduction 2.1

2.2

A

B

10

The Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan 2000 and 2006, the predecessor strategic plan, was built upon a rolling twenty-five year Metropolitan Development Strategy (MDS) geared to the sustainable regeneration of the city-region and reviewed on a five-yearly basis. The MDS has enjoyed significant buy-in and ownership from a broad range of stakeholders. Most significantly, its core components have been recognised by the Scottish Government in terms of their significance and thus feature in the National Planning Framework (NPF2) as national developments.

C

Ravenscraig Utilising the former site of Ravenscraig steelworks, sitting at the south-eastern edge of the Clyde Corridor (NPF2) a mixed-use longterm regeneration engine to drive forward the restructuring of central Lanarkshire by providing a new central focus and strategic town centre for the communities of Motherwell and Wishaw. This project has been through legal processes to establish its strategic role and is in its early stages of delivery.

D

Green Network A multi-objective integrated environmental enhancement project linking urban, peri-urban and rural areas designed to place-set economic competitiveness, develop woodlands and carbon sinks, promote biodiversity and healthy lifestyles and generally improve the living environment of the city-region. This project has its own Partnership Board and Executive Team working closely with a wide range of environmental partners and key agencies. Developing and incorporating this strategic project is the Central Scotland Green Network, a national development within NPF2. In common with the other strategic projects, it is still in its relative infancy although it has been instrumental in developing green network and infrastructure thinking throughout central Scotland.

The MDS was designed to be generational in nature and transformational in aim. In consequence, it is still early in the life of the MDS and many components remain in their infancy in terms of delivery and impact. Given its focus and design around a sustainable development strategy, much of the MDS is a legacy for the inaugural SDP. The following pen pictures highlight its key structural components which are also illustrated in Figure 5. Clyde Waterfront (including Riverside Inverclyde and Clydebank Re-built) Major mixed-use long-term regeneration designed to reintegrate the river with its various communities and provide a new central focus for the city-region. Development is on-going and continues. It is designed as a twenty-five year project, and whilst progress has been significant, it remains in its infancy. It is one part of the Scottish Government’s Clyde Corridor national development set out in NPF2. Clyde Gateway Mixed-use long-term regeneration centred on restructuring the East End of Glasgow and western Lanarkshire, a key aim of successive strategic planning efforts over the last thirty years. The Gateway is a further component of the Clyde Corridor in NPF2. The 2014 Commonwealth Games will be central to this project. The infrastructure requirements of the Games also feature as a national development in NPF2. In addition, an Urban Regeneration Company (URC) has been created to drive forward the development of the geographical core of Gateway. Whilst the organisational infrastructure is in place, and key developments underway, the project remains in its infancy.

E

Community Growth Areas A series of thirteen communities, identified in the 2006 Structure Plan, with the capacity to develop sustainably to 2018 through their public transport linkages, and which have been the focus of intensive mixed-use development master-planning and framework planning by the constituent local authorities. These communities are central to facilitating long-term sustainable growth in the city-region. Few of these communities have yet seen substantive development related to their long-term growth and their capacity therefore remains significant in terms of the SDP beyond their initial programmed period to 2018.

F

Glasgow City Centre The core and heart of the city-region economy with both national and international recognition. The health and future development of the City Centre is central to the business and tourism sectors, the academic and research and development sectors, the retail sector, the transport sector and employment. This central role and related investment in the City Centre is a fundamental component of the MDS. In the context of a service-sector economy, and given the pivotal role of public transport in terms of accessibility at the core of a sustainable strategy, the City Centre will take on an even higher profile within the long-term vision for the city-region.

G

Key Infrastructure Priorities There are a number of key infrastructure priorities including the Metropolitan Glasgow Strategic Drainage Plan (MGSDP) which deals with water and drainage across the city-region. On the transport front priorities include strategic rail investment in the city centre and to the west of the conurbation, including Glasgow International Airport links and major road investment to address capacity constraints. The MGSDP and the strategic rail and road investment schemes have been supported as national developments in the NPF2, whilst the various transport priorities have been included in the Scottish Government’s Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR). Substantive progress has been made by the Scottish Government and Transport Scotland in delivering strategic road schemes. However, rail schemes, fundamental to long-term sustainable development, remain largely at the planning stage.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


Figure 5

The legacy of the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan

Riverside 11 Inverclyde

Inverclyde Riverside

Bishopton

Clydebank Riverside

10

7 Glasgow Airport (Inchinnan)

14

Glasgow Airport (Westway)

Glasgow Airport (Linwood)

6

Robroyston

West of Scotland Clyde Science Park

Waterfront

14

14

Pacific Quay

2

Hillington / Renfrew North

15

12

City Science

3 18 IFSD

Gartcosh

8 Clyde

Gateway

9 Clyde Gateway

17 Eurocentral

1

4 Peel Park North

5

Hamilton International Technology Park

Ravenscraig Motherwell 13 Wishaw

Ravenscraig

Scottish Enterprise Technology Park

16 Poniel

Community Growth Areas Green Network Metropolitan Flagship Initiatives

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Figure 6

Vacant and derelict land and index of multiple deprivation (top 15%)

Riverside Inverclyde

6.4

Clyde Waterfront Clyde Gateway

The nature of the most appropriate sustainable link remains to be solved. At the same time, improvements to its current road-based accessibility from the M8 motorway, as identified in the 2006 Structure Plan, remain a significant requirement as GIA is dependent upon roadbased access until such time as more sustainable access options are delivered.

Ravenscraig Motherwell Wishaw

Vacant and derelict land 2009 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2009 (top 15%)

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


2 Legacy of the existing Metropolitan Development Strategy

2.3

A

Despite the progress being made to deliver the MDS since 2000 and the various national level projects in the pipeline, a number of structural spatial characteristics remain high profile in the city-region. Vacant and Derelict Land An enduring urban, peri-urban and rural theme with some 4,753 hectares still identified (Figure 6 and Background Report 02). This land resource is subject to the continuous churn of development and fall-out resulting in a persistent and significant issue with over 20% of sites being vacant or derelict since before 1985. This trend is amplified by the scale of under-used periurban land, often arising from development hope value or from the incursion of urban communities into formerly actively farmed land. Whilst not defined as vacant and derelict land, it is land that is neglected in productive terms and might be considered a peri-urban equivalent of the urban vacant and derelict land. In total terms, however, the combined resource of urban and peri-urban offers a substantive land bank for sustainable development and structured environmental action; for example, the potential to return to active economic use through development for new renewable energies, thus offering landowners an alternative income to that lost from active production or anticipated from expanding often non-sustainable urban development.

B

Deprived and excluded communities An enduring legacy from economic change with the city-region contains 59% of Scotland’s fifteen percent most deprived datazones (Figure 6). These are communities subject to poor quality living environments, poor health, poor skilling, limited accessibility and opportunities to address these issues. These issues continue to impact on the city-region’s image and its economic competitiveness. Whilst many of these issues require integrated governance, particularly at a national level, spatial planning has the opportunity to focus on the environmental and accessibility aspects of their quality of life. The following key messages can be drawn from this Section regarding the major structural components of the existing strategic plan legacy: ■ their continuing relevance to the sustainable development of the city-region; ■ their identification in the Scottish Government’s NPF2 as long-term national development priorities; ■ their relative infancy in terms of their ongoing delivery; and ■ their inclusion within the SDP as continuing relevant components of a sustainable development strategy.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Legacy The aforementioned legacy elements are already key components of strategic thinking at both Scottish and city-region levels and also have been approved by the Scottish Ministers as key to our longterm thinking. As such, they provide a solid foundation upon which to build and the continue the direction of travel of the sustainable transformation of the cityregion. Question 1 Do you agree with the continuing role of these legacy elements in moving from the previous generation of Structure Plans to the new generation of Strategic Development Plans? Question 2 If not, in your view, which legacy elements need incorporation from the previous generation of Structure Plans into the new generation of Strategic Development Plans?

13


3

Strategic drivers of change for the SDP

Figure 7

City-region strategic drivers of change to 2035

The economy and population are inextricably linked - a healthy economy pulls in people to match jobs and stimulates natural growth; a weak economy can lead to population loss as people seek jobs elsewhere. The regional population until the early 2000s had been dominated by outward migration and by aging. The region’s economic performance in the 2003/08 period turned that around, creating a trend of positive net inmigration up to 2011. The recession has dampened the rate of in-migration, yet it remains the key objective if population decline is to be avoided. The key driver of change to 2035 is the regional economy.

are cornerstones of the Scottish Government’s long-term ambition for Scotland. The region’s economy to 2035 will complete its long-term transition from a heavy industrial focus to the services sector. Planning for that economy will need development capacity in sustainable locations. At the same time, energy sources to service that economy will need to shift from carbon-based to alternative energies (by breaking the link between economic growth and carbon usage) and the SDP strategy must look to assist that process and to plan for alternative energies.

Scottish Government’s planning and policy direction

in the face of global environmental pressures, a suite of relevant EU and Scottish Parliament legislation with statutory targets provide a legislative background of drivers for the SDP:

There are already in place, through the Scottish Government, a number of strategic planning and capital investment documents which frame Scottish regional strategies into the long-term - the National Planning Framework 2 - a twenty-five year horizon, the Scottish Planning Policy (SPP), the Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR) - a twenty year horizon.

■ The Flood Risk Management (Scotland) Act 2009 ■ River Basin Management Planning ■ Zero Waste Plan Scotland At the same time, positive environmental action and investment to meet economic, social and environmental imperatives are key drivers of change.

Climate change mitigation Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) resulting from carbon consumption are posing a major threat to the world’s climate systems. 66% of the region’s emissions stem from its urban fabric and from its transport. Making an impact regionally on statutory mitigation targets - the interim by 2020 of a 42% reduction in GHG whilst creating momentum towards achieving the 2050 target of 80% reduction - means the SDP’s spatial planning strategy must focus on these key sectors. Long-term mitigation strategy is therefore a key driver of change for the SDP.

The combination of sustainable locations and alternative energy development are further key drivers of change for the SDP.

Environmental legislation and action

■ The Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009

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Sustainable economic growth and development

The SPP provides the policy umbrella under which the SDP must be framed. The key provisions of the SPP revolve around sustainable economic growth, sustainable development, and climate change mitigation, providing clear policy direction to the shaping of the SDP.

Public expenditure picture The recession since 2008 has had major impact globally particularly in the UK whose financial institutions had significant exposure to the root causes of the recession. In common with equivalents throughout the world, the UK and Scottish governments have been putting in place major fiscal changes to address the causes and the impacts of the recession and reduce exposure to future economic fluctuations. The consequences for the future will be severe public expenditure restraint and a lack of private capital resources to deliver development strategies. The lack of investment capital will drive a prioritisation process which in combination will be a key driver in the SDP.

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3 Strategic drivers of change for the SDP

Introduction 3.1

3.2

Understanding drivers-for-change is fundamental to understanding the strategic direction and focus of this Main Issues Report and the subsequent Strategic Development Plan. These drivers are the forces shaping the long-term future. The city-region must therefore compete in a globalised economy for investment, jobs and skilled people. At the same time, the world is facing untold pressures ranging from terrorism to security to energy to natural resource depletion. In the context of long-term petroleum price rises, debate over peak oil, the shift in global climatic patterns, sustainable growth and development of a low-carbon economy have become key considerations for all city-regions.

3.3

The Scottish Government has committed to that process. However, the global impact of the recession from 2009 has resulted in significantly reduced capital expenditure programmes for investment in sustainable development which appears unlikely to be resolved for much of the forthcoming decade. Together, these various global, environmental and governance pressures shape the long-term future for Glasgow and the Clyde Valley and its long-term planning needs to be shaped within these drivers for change. Figure 7 illustrates how these drivers create a future changing context for the city-region and provide a framework for the new SDP.

Climate change, and all its consequences, is widely quoted as the biggest global issue and the drive to reduce petroleum consumption and related carbon emissions and to find new sources of energy and new strategies to sustain future economic growth. Such growth remains a primary target for all governments - the world’s most pressing human and environmental issues will not be cured without such growth. The key lies in governments passing legislation and adopting strategies that aim to separate economic growth from carbon consumption, whilst minimising carbon emission impacts.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Strategic drivers of change Drivers of change are the shaping forces for long-term strategic thinking and are instrumental in framing the overall long-term vision for Glasgow and the Clyde Valley to 2035 and beyond. It is important to think beyond just the immediate future and the continuing impact of the recession which has the potential to focus on the immediate term at the expense of the long-term. Question 3 Do you agree that the six drivers set out in this section are the key change forces around which revolves the city-region’s future to 2035? Question 4 Can you identify other such key drivers of change that should be taken into account in shaping the future SDP?

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4

Vision and principles of the development strategy to 2035 Introduction 4.1

In 2003 and 2008, the eight constituent local authorities of the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Community Planning Partnership (GCVCPP) published their corporate vision: “…the Glasgow city-region to be one of the most dynamic, economically competitive and socially cohesive city-regions in Europe. A city-region which prospers and through effective public and private sector partnership working at all levels, includes all of its people in its success. A place of quality where people choose to live.”

4.2

This corporate vision remains in place. The SDP’s role is to be the land-use strategy document that delivers the physical foundation of that vision. The SDP’s development vision is subject to its own set of change drivers which require a future geography to support sustainable competitiveness and deliver the quality of place envisaged in the GCVCPP corporate vision.

4.3

Working with a wide range of stakeholders, the GCVSDPA, through its Strategic Futures Group (Background Report 03), addressed future drivers of change (Section 3) and how they would shape the SDP development vision. A range of future development scenarios were generated. What emerged from this process and the testing of the MDS legacy was a consensus around the foundation of current strategic thinking, whilst recognising a need to refine this thinking further to meet future challenges to 2035.

4.4

The Development Vision comprises ■ the Spatial Vision to 2035 which emerges from the consideration of the drivers of change and from the Futures process shown in Figures 8 and 9; and ■ the key Development Principles which will shape the future geography of the city-region as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 8

Key components of the spatial vision to 2035

Economy

Urban fabric

■ Key locations in the city-region, with Glasgow city centre as the central core, and all accessed by a network of sustainable transport, will drive a regional low carbon economy.

■ Recycled brownfield land - the vacant and derelict land resource - will be developed as the development priority and environmental priority and will be central to developing a quality of life needed to attract economic activity, talented people and key investors.

■ Glasgow city centre will be home to a High Speed Rail terminus linking the city-region to wider developments in high-speed rail in the UK and across Europe. Glasgow Airport will be linked to more international destinations through further route developments and will be linked to the HSR terminus by a sustainable transport connection to integrate the city-region’s external economic connectivity. ■ Enhanced strategic rail connectivity - HSR, more frequent trains, more integrated time-tabling will accelerate economic collaboration with Edinburgh city-region and provide critical economic mass so that the two largest Scottish city-regions are competitive with equivalent city-region areas in Europe and beyond.

■ The urban fabric will be renewed, based upon passive carbon-neutral and energyefficient building standards. The built-up area of the city-region will be restricted by developing a selection of sustainable locations within it, focusing investment on maintaining a sustainable compact city-region. ■ Run-down and excluded communities will be regenerated as a central theme of the spatial vision with a focus on healthy urban planning. The Clyde Gateway will provide the model for the regeneration programme and other candidate areas of the city-region will become targets for monitoring and review as part of that approach. ■ Economic agglomeration and higher urban densities will be developed within the cityregion core and its satellite urban areas using existing urban land resources and in sustainable locations. Critical mass to support core services will result from this focus. The city-region Flagship Initiatives of the Clyde Corridor and Ravenscraig will be the key development engines of this process. ■ The City Centre and the city-region’s surrounding urban cities and towns will form a network of strategic centres identified by their key roles and functions. They will be the foci for economic activity and community life, maximising their sustainable accessibility.

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Vision and principles of the development strategy to 2035

Infrastructure

Environment

Energy

■ A network of sustainable transport networks will integrate the rest of the city-region with the city centre’s HSR terminus and shrink the distance between the city centre and its region. Sustainable transport investment will be a key priority for government linked to private capital funding. The STPR will provide the foundation for that programme of investment.

■ Green infrastructure - open space, formal and informal, green corridors and pathways, playing spaces, parks, trees and natural green spaces will be key parts of the urban environment of the city-region. It will be the focus for action to improve the living environment, aid competitiveness, develop new economic and energy developments, enhance biodiversity, provide opportunities for healthy living and integrate the urban rural areas of the city-region. The Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Green Network, linked to and integrated with the Central Scotland Green Network will provide the framework for a wide range of action addressing such myriad objectives.

■ Decentralised distributed power plants, based on alternative technologies, will be located across the city-region exploiting opportunities to develop biomass, combined heat-and-power (CHP) and other forms of renewable energy across the urban, periurban and rural areas.

■ New and upgraded water and drainage networks will underlie the regenerated urban areas driven by the Metropolitan Glasgow Strategic Development Plan (MGSDP), providing a model for co-ordinated action by different sectors and different organisations co-operating to solve strategic investment in such infrastructure. ■ Public transport - integrated mass transit systems - eg trains, trams, buses, will be the key sustainable transport mode, along with promotion of active travel, providing the alternative to the private car with development prioritised to locations accessible by such sustainable transport. The growth of existing communities will be based on this locational policy, as evidenced by the continued focus on the legacy of Community Growth Areas (CGAs) from current approved strategic plans.

■ Woodland will be planted and where existing, will be managed around and within the urban areas, becoming integral to the urban areas green infrastructure planning. It will address a range of key objectives, including economic competitiveness, health programmes, energy development and climate change mitigation in particular. Commercial forests addressing the UK’s timber demand will characterise the rural landscape where relevant. These two roles will complement each other as well as providing increasingly significant carbon sink capacity to mitigate carbon emissions and reduce the potential for continued climate change.

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4

Vision and principles of the development strategy to 2035 Figure 9

Spatial vision and strategic drivers of change

Drivers of change Public expenditure situation

Scottish Government’s planning and policy direction

Environmental legislation and action

Climate change mitigation

Sustainable economic growth and development

Economy and population

Economic growth and the low carbon economy Industrial to service transition Peripherality of economy

The spatial vision

Collaboration Urban quality and brownfield resource Renewal of urban fabric and low carbon Regeneration Agglomeration, density and critical mass City centre and urban centres Sustainable transport and infrastructure funding priorities Modal shift and sustainable transport Green infrastructure Alternative energies

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Vision and principles of the development strategy to 2035 Figure 10

Development principles of the spatial vision to 2035

Agglomeration

City-region service-based economies, as exhibited by competitor areas across Europe and the globe, thrive on the economies of agglomeration of clustering together and exploiting economies of scale and labour market accessibility through mass transit public transport.

Densification, regeneration and renewal Strategies to reduce the developed footprint of the city-region area, and which support healthy urban planning, will serve to reduce the consumption of undeveloped land. These strategies will also reduce the city-region’s carbon profile whilst maximising current investment in the urban fabric and infrastructure.

Environmental recovery and land recycling City-region areas which have seen substantive economic restructuring and transition can have a significant legacy of previously developed land (the brownfield resource), often vacant and derelict, and a legacy of urban fringe or peri-urban land where development pressures have rendered uncertainty and subsequent under-use. Returning such land to productive use reduces the consumption of undeveloped land and the spatial footprint of the city-region.

A multi-objective environment Integration of the urban and rural components of a city-region is an increasingly common strategic goal in city-region development strategies world-wide. At the heart of this principle is the multiobjective role of the urban, peri-urban and rural environments, focusing on placesetting and economic competitiveness, on resource development, quality of life, health benefits, biodiversity development and protection, and a wide range of other roles.

Land-use and transport integration A closer integration between development locations and sustainable transport networks provides the potential for greater modal shift from private car to public transport. In addition, the promotion of active travel will help to reduce transport emissions, mitigate climate change effects and improve health. At the same, such integration addresses some of the basic diseconomies of agglomeration and densification - those effects associated with congestion.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Proximity principle and local supply Where sustainable transport is not a credible option for moving goods and material, in order to reduce the need to travel and / or to limit the distances travelled, the proximity principle will be a legitimate principle in terms of defining development locations. In effect, a local solution to a strategic need may be the most appropriate in terms of a sustainable strategy.

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4

Vision and principles of the development strategy to 2035 Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region greenhouse gas emissions

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region

Scotland

greenhouse gas emissions

55.70

greenhouse gas emissions 2004

15.52

million tonnes CO2 equivalent 2004

million tonnes CO2 equivalent 2004

Residential 34%

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region emissions by sector 2005

Transport 25% Industry 19% Services 10% Fugitive emissions 9% Energy industry 3%

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© Crown copyright and database right 2010.  All rights reserved.  Ordnance Survey Licence number 100032510

Figure 11


4

Vision and principles of the development strategy to 2035 4.5

Alongside the work of the Strategic Futures Group (SFG), a separate body of work, with a wide variety of private and public sector bodies, but including the SFG, was undertaken with the University of Manchester to model scenarios of one of the key drivers - climate change (Background Report 04). The key issue to emerge from this work was the challenge of the existing urban fabric - 44% of all GCV emissions and of transport - 25% of emissions (Figure 11).

4.6

Effectively, two-thirds of the GCV emissions emanate from the working of the urban areas. Since these areas are the primary locations of economic activity, their concentration of emissions levels is understandable. However, it demonstrates the challenge to strategic development planning laid down by the Scottish Government’s emissions reduction targets, and those of the EU and the UK. If economic growth is to be delivered with urban centres as the primary source of emissions, the SDP’s spatial vision must be built upon sustainable development principles to ensure that the urban fabric is renewed and regenerated on sustainable standards and sustainable public transport replaces the private car as the preferred option for the majority of urban-based trips.

Vision and principles This development vision is built around various drivers of change and related scenarios of the future. It specifically seeks a shape built upon sustainable principles and upon a future quality of offer which would attract investment and people to the city-region through a quality of life approach. It is important to look beyond the current recession and its short-term impacts. Question 5 Do you agree with the vision, as set out here, for the future long-term development of the city-region? If not, what coherent spatial vision would you advocate? Question 6 Do you agree that the development principles set out here provide the foundation for framing a sustainable SDP strategy? If not, which principles should the GCVSDPA adopt?

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5

Main issues and key challenges of the development strategy to 2035 Introduction

Population futures

5.1

In order to estimate demand for development to 2035 in the city-region and therefore to identify the main issues and challenges faced in delivering the long-term vision to 2035, it is important to look at the future city-region economy and its impact on the population futures which may emerge. The health and rate of growth of the economy has a correlation with both net migration and natural change within the population and is the key driver of change for the long-term future of the city-region.

5.2

The city-region’s population since the 1970s has been marked by sustained net out-migration in response to restructuring of the regional economy. The net result has been a falling and at the same time, aging population. In the early years of the 2000s associated with strong regional economic growth rates, that trend started to show a dramatic slowing associated with increasing levels of net in-migration coupled with increases through natural change. This demographic shift was reflected in the Joint Structure Plan 2000, Third Alteration 2006, in the form of its Agenda for Sustained Growth.

5.5 Given that there is inherent uncertainty in any long-term forecasts and projections of the economy, two demographic scenarios have been prepared, reflecting differing net migration futures (Background Report 06). Common to both scenarios, however, is an increased level of natural change and an increasing level of aging (60 plus) in the city-region’s population. ■ Scenario 1 Lower migration based upon the General Register’s Office for Scotland (GROS) 2006-base principal projection, but with updated migration assumptions.

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley economy to 2035 5.3

5.4

22

The global recession of 2008 has had major implications for the city-region economy. The GCVSDPA in 2009 and 2010 commissioned Oxford Economics (OE) to analyse the city-region economy and its long-term future (Background Report 05). This analysis forms the basis for reassessing demographic change to 2035. Whilst the economy is considered in greater detail in Section 6: Issue 2, it is important to highlight the key changes in the economy and their links to potential long-term demographic futures. Essentially, the city-region economy is expected to continue its process of restructuring from its former industrial manufacturing base to its current service-based economy in line with other cityregions worldwide. Growth rates in the economy, however, are anticipated to be considerably below those experienced between 2002 and 2008 prior to the recession. Pre-recession growth rates are not expected to be attained until the early 2020s - in effect, a ten-year time-lag in growth, coupled with suppressed demand, has been introduced by the recession. The key effect of these factors on the city-region will be upon net migration figures both inward and outward.

5.6 In the period since work began on developing these scenarios, the GROS has published their latest projections, including both their principal projection and a higher migration variant to reflect uncertainty in migration flows. These are included for comparison with the two scenarios shown. Figures 12 and 13 illustrate the differing population and household projections associated with these alternative futures.

■ Scenario 2 Higher migration based on the Agenda for Sustained Growth from the Joint Structure Plan 2000, Third Alteration 2006, but with updated migration assumptions. Population Figure 12 change Population 2008 /change 25 2008 / 25 Population 2008

Population 2025

Change 2008 / 25

Annual 2008 / 16

Annual 2016 / 20

Annual 2020 / 25

Scenario 1 Lower migration

1,755,310

1,778,181

▲ +22,871

▲ +1,798

▲ +1,397

▲ +581

Scenario 2 Higher migration

1,755,310

1,822,048

▲ +66,738

▲ +3,347

▲ +4,108

▲ +4,706

GROS Low migration

1,755,310

1,719,932

▼ +35,378

▼ +1,119

▼ +2,224

▼ +3,505

GROS Principal

1,755,310

1,772,696

▲ +17,386

▲ +1,838

▲ +890

▼ -176

GROS High migration

1,755,310

1,807,804

▲ +52,494

▲ +3,558

▲ +3,187

▲ +2,257

Household Figure 13 change Household 2008 /change 25 2008 / 25 Population 2008

Population 2025

Change 2008 / 25

Annual 2008 / 16

Annual 2016 / 20

Annual 2020 / 25

Scenario 1 Lower migration

804,708

901,052

▲ +96,344

▲ +6,276

▲ +5,495

▲ +4,830

Scenario 2 Higher migration

804,708

918,408

▲ +113,700

▲ +6,805

▲ +6,576

▲ +6,591

GROS Low migration

795,410

860,130

▲ +64,720

▲ +4,614

▲ +3,735

▲ +2,574

GROS Principal

795,410

882,980

▲ +87,570

▲ +5,810

▲ +5,160

▲ +4,090

GROS High migration

795,405

899,728

▲ +104,323

▲ +6,584

▲ +6,287

▲ +5,300

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5

Main issues and key challenges of the development strategy to 2035 A Planning Scenario for the city-region to 2035 5.7

5.8

As can be seen from Figures 12 and 13, Scenario 2 presents a more optimistic picture of the long-term demographic position in the city-region in comparison to other scenarios. The economic forecasts prepared by OE suggest that Scenario 1, the lower migration trend, most realistically reflects OE’s economic position. However, OE also modelled a higher migration variant scenario of the city-region economy which is similar to Scenario 2, the higher migration trend, but was significantly economy-dependent. In effect, net migration levels which support the Scenario 2 demographics are dependent upon a more optimistic recovery of the city-region economy and a quicker return to past growth rates than those of current advocated forecasts. In terms of selecting a Planning Scenario, the GCVSDPA must address the implications of both scenarios

Figure 14

5.9 In

order to perform its role in supporting the GCVCPP corporate vision (Section 4) and to be consistent with previous decisions on economic growth as set out in existing strategic plans for the city-region, it would therefore be appropriate to select Scenario 2 as the Planning Scenario for the MIR of the SDP as shown in Figure 14. This decision would provide clear direction because: ■ the scenario would provide clear direction and aspiration for sustainable economic growth in line with overall vision; ■ it is developed from and is therefore consistent with the economic growth trajectory of the Joint Structure Plan 2000, Third Alteration 2006, but with reduced net migration and reduced annual household growth. (It should be noted that the projected migration is significantly lower than recent recorded migration);

■ it is based upon the same economic trajectory as the Joint Structure Plan 2000, Third Alteration 2006, but, because of the time-lag caused by the world recession from 2008, is now forecast over a considerably longer time-period from that anticipated in that earlier plan; ■ it very clearly places the city-region economy and its future development as the pivotal driver for the SDP spatial strategy and achievement of associated corporate and spatial vision; ■ it takes forward the logic of increased net inmigration and the need to address the aging trend of the resident population; and ■ it introduces a significant element of flexibility in terms of the demand context for development.

Adopting a demographic Planning Scenario

Demographic scenario 1 Lower migration Rational for selecting a lower migration scenario ■ Aligned to current economic forecasts ■ Realistic and pragmatic ■ Aims lower

Demographic scenario 2 Higher migration Points to consider if selecting a lower migration scenario

Rational for selecting a higher migration scenario

■ Lack of aspiration not in line with the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley vision

■ Visionary in line with the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley vision

■ Pessimistic view of economic growth

■ Aspirational and directional

■ Dampened demand

■ Ambitious

■ Treading water

■ Inherent flexibility in estimating demand for development ■ Aims higher

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Points to consider if selecting a higher migration scenario ■ Demand without economic growth ■ Raises development demand estimates unrealistically ■ Unnecessary development and allocations ■ Constrained public expenditure for delivery

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5

Main issues and key challenges of the development strategy to 2035 Introducing the main issues and key challenges 5.10 If

the city-region economy is to grow more rapidly than forecast by key commentators; if it is to secure population growth as set out in the Planning Scenario, and if it is to deliver the Spatial Vision as outlined in Figure 9, a number of issues and challenges need to be addressed. It should be recognised that spatial planning alone cannot deliver all of the vision - for instance, the breaking the link of economic growth from carbon consumption will require integrated action across all sectors of the economy - but through planning policy, spatial planning can make an effective contribution. The following section introduces these main issues and key challenges.

1

Breaking down distance to economic markets

2

Supporting a sustainable economy

The economy and its external context

The economy and its internal context

Like other city-regions the GCV area exists in a global economic context. Its location is peripheral to its main UK and European markets, whilst in terms of competitive mass, its economy is relatively small in comparison to competitor cityregions. Therefore two key challenges dominate the planning future of the city-region economy:

The city-region economy has seen fundamental transformation from its industrial past to its current service-sector base. It has proven resilient through its transformation yet continues to face a constantly changing and developing competitive context as global and governance pressures drive competitiveness through further step-change this time, the pressure to separate the economy from carbon consumption. Two key challenges exist:

(i) how to improve its wider sustainable connectivity to markets; and (ii) how to enhance the scale of its economy and its ability to compete.

(i) identifying key economic development locations which have the necessary quality, sectoral focus and accessibility to foster sustainable economic growth; and (ii) securing their relevant role and function in line with long-term economic growth sectors.

3

Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity

The economy and the environment

The economy and supporting development

In the modern city-region economy, the environment has many roles to play, including, economic resource development and competitiveness, environmental diversity, health, living environment and quality of life. In addressing this complexity the city-region faces three key challenges:

To support economic and demographic growth in the city-region new capacity will be required - for example, new homes, retail centres and facilities as well as transport, water and drainage infrastructure. In developing future geography for this new capacity three key challenges exist:

(i) securing economic development and investment whilst achieving environmental sustainability objectives; (ii) developing programmes of positive action to integrate multiple economic, social, health and environmental objectives; and (iii) safeguarding and protecting strategic environmental resources.

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4

Promoting sustainable locations for development

(i) identifying development locations which meet these drivers and meet the forecast demand for new development capacity; (ii) maximising existing and planned transport and drainage infrastructure capacity; and (iii) securing, where appropriate, priority for infrastructure investment to support and enhance sustainable locations.

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5

Main issues and key challenges of the development strategy to 2035

5

Tackling risk strategic development priorities

The development strategy, risk and priorities In the context of severe public expenditure restraint, already committed public investment programmes and difficult trading conditions for private sector investors, there is a distinct risk to the delivery of the Strategy in the short to medium term with consequent implications for the longer-term. Therefore prioritisation of the SDP’s strategic proposals is fundamental to ensuring delivery and the best strategic return on limited resources. It will also lay the foundation for the Action Plan component of the SDP. In addressing risk through prioritisation, two key challenges arise:

5.11 The

next Section look at these main issues and challenges in a more focused and structured way. Each section will set out the proposed geography of future development to meet best the development demands raised by these issues and the key proposals which the GCVSDPA regard as priority responses in support of the long-term strategy. Within each section, the question of alternative development approaches and locations will be addressed.

(i) keeping the focus on priorities in the context of competing demands; and (ii) managing the phasing and sequence of priorities in line with available resources.

Main issues and key challenges In order to plan long-term for the cityregion, it is necessary to adopt a demographic Planning Scenario - number of people and households - which supports the overall vision, which sets a clear direction and frames the nature and scale of demand for development. The future performance of the economy is the key to the Planning Scenario and is pivotal to delivery of the corporate and spatial visions of the city-region. Supporting the development of the regional economy is central to the vision. A number of main issues and challenges face the SDP in terms of its future economy. Question 7 Do you agree that the GCVSDPA, in terms of a growth agenda for the SDP, should use the Planning Scenario with its assumptions about higher net in-migration and a faster-growing economy? Question 8 Do you agree that the five over-arching main issues, as set out above, should be the basis of the SDP in terms of longterm sustainable growth and the delivery of the plan?

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6

The Main Issues Issue 1

Breaking down distance to economic markets

Introduction

Connectivity Air

6.1

The GCV city-region, in common with the rest of Scotland, can be defined as a peripheral economy, on the fringe of both UK and European economic markets. Distance from such primary markets has the potential to constrain future growth of both the Scottish economy and its regional economies, which, when combined with the issue of the scale of its economy in comparison to UK, European and internal competitor city-region areas, raise issues regarding future economic competitiveness. If the vision of GCV as a competitive economy is to be achieved, in part at least, these two aspects of external connectivity and economic mass need to be addressed.

Figure 15

6.2

Glasgow International Airport (GIA) is the cityregion’s primary linkage with the external world and thus its key gateway, essential to both business and tourist economies (although it should be noted that both Prestwick Airport and Edinburgh Airport also serve the city-region) Figure 15. The city-region and GIA are fundamentally dependent upon each other. However, with questions increasingly being raised regarding the long-term sustainability of short and medium-haul air travel, that market is transferring from air to high-speed rail across Europe. In the absence of that investment in rail infrastructure in the UK, GIA must continue as the city-region’s strategic economic gateway; it would seem at least until the mid-2020s.

6.3

British Airports Authority (BAA), the current owners of GIA, is in the process, with partner stakeholders, of reviewing the long-term masterplan for GIA’s development. One of the key issues for GIA’s future, at master-plan, SDP and NPF2 level is the continuing question of its accessibility from the rest of the city-region. This has previously been highlighted in the Joint Structure Plans and National Planning Frameworks. In line with the SDP’s long-term sustainability drivers, and its aim to develop the city-region’s economic role to match competitor city-regions where airport rail and bus links are further advanced, significant investment is required in sustainable transport connections between GIA and the wider city-region. Previous proposals to establish a rail-link have been dropped from the Scottish Government’s investment programme. Figure 16 highlights the strategic planning role of GIA.

Glasgow International Airport air routes

Map courtesy of BAA

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6

The Main Issues Breaking down distance to economic markets

The nature of the most appropriate sustainable link remains to be solved. At the same time, improvements to its current roadbased accessibility from the M8 motorway, as identified in the 2006 Structure Plan, remain a significant requirement as GIA is dependent upon road-based access until such time as more sustainable access options are delivered.

Figure 16 Glasgow International Airport strategic planning role

Land designated for airport purposes in the Finalised Renfrewshire Local Plan Areas safeguarded for possible future airport expansion Special Protection Area River Road Motorway Rail

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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6.4

Issue 1


6

The Main Issues Issue 1

Breaking down distance to economic markets

Rail 6.5

6.6

28

Strategic roads High Speed Rail (HSR) provides a sustainable alternative to short and medium haul air travel. HSR is developing rapidly across Europe France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland - linking up partner and competitor economies in a more sustainable way and enabling a shift from short and medium haul air routes with consequent reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In comparison, the UK, to date, has minimal investment in HSR and the time taken by rail from Glasgow to London and Eurotunnel remains uncompetitive with air travel.

6.7

It is recognised in NPF2 that such major infrastructure programmes have substantial lead-in times. Early decisions / action to facilitate such long-term investment are fundamental to ensuring efficient delivery of an HSR network and all its necessary components.

6.8

The key requirement therefore is early action to identify a central accessible and linked location for an HSR terminal so as to ensure maximum economic return from wider integration of HSR with existing and city-region planned transport networks, so shrinking the distance between the HSR terminal and the city-region as a whole.

6.9

Previous city-region spatial plans identified key gaps in the connectivity between the city-region and national road networks - M74 completion and A8/M8 upgrades. Work is nearing completion in respect of the former, whilst the latter remains a commitment in the STPR. In addition, work is ongoing on the M80 completion. When finally implemented, the city-region’s road connectivity to the national strategic road network will be complete although specific issues such as capacity on existing motorways may cause accessibility problems, for example, to GIA.

The UK Government, through its own company HS2; Network Rail, through its New Lines project and Greengauge 21, a campaign group, have all highlighted the need to invest in a UK HSR network. A London - Birmingham HSR link is now programmed to be in place from 2017. Sequential onward extensions to northern England and to Scotland, unless action is taken to enable a southward build from Scotland, are unlikely to be in place before 2025/30. Therefore whilst European and southern UK city-region economies advance with HSR connectivity, the lack of HSR will further impact upon Scottish regional economies and intensify their peripherality.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


6

The Main Issues Breaking down distance to economic markets Competitiveness and scale of the city-region economy

Breaking down distance to economic markets Strategic Planning Proposals

6.10 Individually,

6.14 Sustainable

Scottish city-region economies are of limited economic mass in comparison to many competitor economies, of which many are already collaborating with neighbouring economies to build critical mass and market share. Recognition of this trend led to the formation of the Glasgow Edinburgh Collaboration Initiative (GECI) between the two City Councils and Scottish Enterprise in 2008.

6.11 Both

Glasgow and Edinburgh have similar scale city-region economies in Gross Value Added (GVA) terms, so the GECI has the potential to create a competitive economic presence in European markets comparable to twice the city-region’s current mass. Currently the detailed nature of economic complementarity within GECI has yet to be understood, for example, in terms of economic flows, supply-chain and labour markets. Work has been commissioned by the GECI team to clarify this relationship which will then provide a base for more effective integration and an understanding of how spatial planning within the respective SDPs for the two cityregions can contribute to that integration.

6.12 Current

GECI thinking is focused upon four key areas - connectivity, key economic sectors, internationalisation and cities development www.glasgow-edinburgh.co.uk. Whilst a focal aspect is the issue of HSR connectivity with the UK, there is the issue of improved rail connectivity between the two city regions, an aspect being addressed currently through the Scottish Government’s Edinburgh - Glasgow Improvement Programme highlighted in the STPR.

transport solutions in respect of air and rail infrastructure in the city-region remain fundamental to long-term competitiveness. An integrated transport solution is necessary with the following components:

■ a central location for an HSR terminal; ■ early action to minimise lead-in times to deliver an HSR connection with the rest of the UK and secure attendant economic progress; ■ a comprehensive sustainable transport network which links the HSR terminal to the rest of the city-region to secure wider economic linkages and benefits; ■ within that network, sustainable network links and motorway capacity solutions at GIA; and ■ enhanced rail services between Glasgow and Edinburgh to facilitate more effective collaboration linked to a future HSR UK network. 6.15 The

role of the SDP in supporting the GECI collaboration, through the development planning system, is as yet not fully analysed and the GCVSDPA awaits the outcome of the economic analysis commissioned by the GECI before making any appropriate proposals in the SDP.

6.13 The

potential, as yet, for spatial planning at the SDP level to underpin and develop further the collaboration on key economic sectors, will depend upon the outcome of the research to be commissioned as outlined above. It is hoped that this work will report in time for inclusion, as relevant, in the SDP at its Proposed Plan stages in 2011.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Issue 1

Issue 1 Breaking down distance to economic markets In order to improve our wider economic competitiveness the scale of the city-region economy compared to some of its equivalent competitors and bearing in mind our peripheral location on the north-west edge of Europe, the GCVSDPA is proposing to support: a) continuing and developing air connectivity through GIA for long-haul traffic; b) the development of HSR to provide more sustainable connectivity as a substitute for short-haul air travel; and c) stronger collaboration with Edinburgh cityregion to build a joint economic critical mass so improving Scotland’s ability to compete.

Question 9 Do you agree that early planning for HSR, with a terminus in central Glasgow, connected to an integrated sustainable public transport network, with effective links to GIA and to the rest of the cityregion, is an essential component for the SDP in the period to 2035? Question 10 Do you agree that action needs to be taken to address accessibility to GIA through improved public transport and through improvements to the M8 motorway in its vicinity? If so, what type of action would you suggest? Question 11 Do you agree that in seeking to develop the city-region’s economy, improving its wider competitiveness, stronger collaboration with the Edinburgh cityregion is essential?

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6

The Main Issues Issue 2

Supporting a sustainable economy

The city-region economy 6.16 In

2009 and 2010 the GCVSDPA commissioned an analysis of the city-region economy from Oxford Economics (OE) building upon work undertaken for the Joint Structure Plan 2000, Third Alteration 2006. OE were commissioned to forecast the future of the economy; to take a scenario view of possible changing futures and to identify key strategic issues in the long-term economy. These reports form Background Report 05 and include detailed sector by sector employment projections to 2020, coupled with headline trends to 2035.

6.17 The

following paragraphs summarise both the key outcomes of the OE work for the SDP and the conclusions of work on the strategic key sectors carried out by Scottish Enterprise. This links to the spatial identification of Strategic Economic Investment Locations (SEILs) which the GCVSDPA proposes as the spatial framework for sustainable economic growth, based upon the SEILs role and function at the strategic level. More detail on the SEILs is set out in Background Report 07.

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6.18 The

base forecast from OE relates to a continuation of the ongoing restructuring process in the city-region economy, from manufacturing towards the service sector. In comparison to the 2000/10 growth in financial services, the impact of the recession has been to stabilise that sector onto a more sustainable diminished growth trend in terms of employment. The key driver of the service economy in employment and GVA growth terms is now forecast to be the business service sector, also supported by a focus on GVA and productivity growth in financial services. The other key sector of note is the distribution and logistics sector with employment, GVA and productivity growth. A number of sectors are anticipated to show improved GVA and productivity growth, but with little impact on employment. These key outcomes are illustrated on Figures 17 and 18. The other key trend is the expected impact on the public sector of cuts in public expenditure leading to contraction of that sector. OE concludes that the base forecast anticipates dampened growth rates with a significant time lag, of up to a decade, before pre-2008 growth rates are regained.

6.19 OE

acknowledges that there is a high level of uncertainty associated with any economic forecasts and particularly so during recovery from a major recession, as the rate of economic recovery and future growth is dependent upon a wide range of factors. In order to address this uncertainty, OE looked at various scenarios which might result in different growth rates compared to their base forecast and GVA growth being associated with the rebalancing scenario of economic diversification and growing key sectors such as green technologies, creative industries, tourism and high-tech manufacturing. However, such a scenario does not achieve, in the shortterm, significant additional net in-migration, as the economy absorbs existing labour which raises employment rates. Increasing in-migration levels, under this scenario, would be a medium to longterm consequence as existing labour is absorbed and new labour is required which therefore would support the Planning Scenario in that timescale.

6.20 This

scenario correlates strongly with the thrust of the Scottish Government’s and Scottish Enterprise’s emphasis upon growing the economy through provision for and investment in key sectors and new technologies, for example, green technologies, creative industries, digital industries, life sciences and high-tech, high-value niche industries.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


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The Main Issues Supporting a sustainable economy Figure 17

Issue 2

GVA and employment change to 2020

Sector

GVA change / annum 2010 / 20

Employment change / annum 2010 / 20 -700

Agriculture

▲+0.7%

Extraction

▼-2.9%

Manufacturing

▲+1.6%

Utilities

▲+1.5%

Construction

▲+2.4%

Distribution

▲+2.8%

Hotels

▲+1.8%

Transport & Comms

▲+2.5%

Financial services

▲+4.1%

Business services

▲+4.4%

Public

▼-0.5%

Education

0%

-4,200

Health

▲+1.2%

-4,100

Other personal services

▲+0.7%

-300 -14,300 -1,200 +4,600 +10,300 +2,700 +800 +2,400 +38,800 -5,400

+3,100 Source: Oxford Economics for GCVSDPA

Figure 18

GVA, productivity and employment change to 2035

Sector

GVA change / annum 2014 / 35

Productivity / annum 2014 / 35

Employment / annum 2014 / 35

Employment change / annum 2014 / 35

Agriculture

▼-0.1%

▲+1.5%

▼-1.5%

Extraction

▼-3.3%

▲+0.1%

▼-3.4%

Manufacturing

▲+0.9%

▲+3.5%

▼-2.3%

Utilities

▲+0.3%

▲+2.6%

▼-2.3%

Construction

▲+2.0%

▲+1.6%

▲+0.4%

Distribution

▲+2.1%

▲+1.6%

▲+0.4%

Hotels

▲+1.5%

▲+1.4%

▲+0.1%

Transport & Comms

▲+1.9%

▲+1.9%

0%

Financial services

▲+3.1%

▲+2.6%

▲+0.5%

Business services

▲+3.2%

▲+2.0%

▲+1.2%

Public

0%

▲+0.3%

▼-0.3%

-100

Education

0%

▲+0.2%

▼-0.2%

-100

Health

▲+1.0%

▲+0.6%

▲+0.5%

Other personal services

▲+0.1%

▲+0.1%

▲+0.1%

-100 0 -1,200 -100 +300 +700 +100 0 +200 +2,500

+600 0 Source: Oxford Economics for GCVSDPA

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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Figure 19

Strategic Economic Investment Locations

11 Inverclyde Riverside

Bishopton

Clydebank Riverside

10

7 Glasgow Airport (Inchinnan)

14

Glasgow Airport (Westway)

Glasgow Airport (Linwood)

14

6

Robroyston

West of Scotland Science Park

14

2

Hillington / Renfrew North

Pacific Quay

15

12

City Science

3 18

Gartcosh

8

IFSD

9 Clyde Gateway

17 Eurocentral

4 Peel Park North

5

1

13

Hamilton International Technology Park

Ravenscraig

Scottish Enterprise Technology Park

Strategic Economic Investment Locations Safeguarded locations Opportunity locations

Sector

Spatial requirements

Business and financial services

■ 1  ■ 2  ■ 7  ■ 9  ■ 10  ■ 12  ■ 13  ■ 14  ■ 15  ■ 18 require quality office space in locations with high quality sustainable accessibility to move labour, eg City Centre, town centres and strategically located business parks with access to public transport

Distribution and logistics

■ 2  ■ 9  ■ 14  ■ 16  ■ 17 require large area of land but which generates few person trips. Emphasis upon high road HGV volumes with locations near to strategic road network and freight routes and terminals

Sustainable construction

is a city-region-wide sector. Specific sustainable construction projects within SEILs include the BRE Innovation Park at Ravenscraig.

Green technologies

■ 5  ■ 6  ■ 8  ■ 11  ■ 14 Research and Development function requires a central location with access to universities and higher education facilities eg City Centre and campus-related locations with sustainable accessibility

Creative and digital industries

■ 1  ■ 3  ■ 4  ■ 5 requires a central sustainable location drawing from a highly qualified labour pool with close proximity to related industries

Life sciences

■ 1  ■ 4  ■ 5  ■ 6  ■ 10  ■ 14 require a central sustainable location drawing from a highly qualified and degree level labour pool with close connections to universities and higher education facilities drawing upon incubator and research and development functions eg City Centre and campus-related locations with sustainable accessibility

Tourism

is a city-region-wide sector. Specific tourist attractions within SEILs include Glasgow Science Centre.

16 Poniel

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


6

The Main Issues Supporting a sustainable economy Strategic Economic Investment Locations

Alternative approach

The spatial framework for sustainable economic growth

6.24 The

6.21 The

distribution of the Strategic Economic Investment Locations (SEILs) required to support the economy is illustrated in Figure 19. Each location is identified in terms of its role and function in the future city-region economy. The selection is based upon each location’s contribution to the Scottish Government’s key economic sectors, Scottish Enterprise’s locational priorities and OE’s growth sectors. Figure 19 also sets out the locational requirements of each of the key sectors.

6.22 This

distribution of SEILs constitutes the GCVSDPA’s strategic priority list for promotion to the investment sector. This is based on locational need and the respective roles and functions of each location. The approach is framed by the key drivers of change - maximising sustainable economic growth, maximising the clustering effect of industries and associated functions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, meeting mitigation targets, linking land-use and transport based on accessibility, favouring sustainable transport where the focus is people and strategic roads and rail where the focus is goods and material.

6.23 It

is important to stress that this list comprises the GCVSDPA’s priority locations to support its planning for the long-term economy to 2035 - it does not preclude constituent local authorities identifying additional locations through the Local Development Planning process where they deem them to be appropriate in sustainability terms.

GCVSDPA inherited from the Joint Structure Plan 2000, Third Alteration 2006, an extensive list of designations for economic development and locations. The proposed approach is intended to focus on a reduced number of both designations and locations.

6.25 The

rationale behind this approach is to identify the key strategic priorities; focus the promotion on sustainable locations which, long-term, will meet the key drivers of the SDP, with a particular focus on sustainability. In doing so, it will reduce the number of designations and avoid dilution of the promotional effort, thereby shifting the focus to matching locations to intended use through an analysis of their role and function and support of the key sectors. Background Report 07 sets out this process of strategic selection.

6.26 The

alternatives to the locational priorities as illustrated in Figure 19 would be either:

■ the full inherited list of designations and locations, comprising the Competitive Economic Framework, from the Joint Structure Plan 2000, Third Alteration 2006; or ■ a reduced list of the inherited locations from the Third Alteration 2006. 6.27 Both

stages entail the risk of dilution of focus and of seeking investment in less than sustainable locations, thus undermining the key sustainable locations that would anchor the economy to 2035. Consequently, the GCVSDPA favours its process of arriving at the list of SEILs set out in Figure 19.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Issue 2

Issue 2 Supporting a sustainable economy In order to set a clear strategic direction for future economic development, the GCVSDPA proposes to reduce the number of inherited economic designations and to focus clearly upon its most sustainable strategic locations. Consequently, the GCVSDPA has identified a list of locations, SEILs, to support the key growth sectors of the city-region economy to 2035. These locations are based upon sustainability principles. Question 12 Do you agree that the GCVSDPA should plan for the long-term city-region economy on the basis of a continuing shift to a service sector based economy as forecast by OE and both the Scottish Government’s and Scottish Enterprise’s strategy of rebalancing the economy through supporting new economic sectors? If not, what economic approach would you advocate and why? Question 13 Do you agree with the approach of the GCVSDPA in promoting a list of key strategic, sustainable locations to support the city-region economy for the long-term? If not, what alternative approach would you suggest as more appropriate?

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6

The Main Issues Issue 3

Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity

Introduction 6.28 The

environment of the city-region is a complex mix of interlocking themes of strategic significance to the cityregion’s overall economic competitiveness and social wellbeing. In the context of a low-carbon economy and long-term sustainable future, the environment is a major economic asset and central to economic growth. In the modern service economy, it is as relevant to future economic success as investment in SEILs or in sustainable transport access. It comprises the following themes:

■ context for competitiveness the place-setting agenda and Green Belt;

environment and particularly the quality and accessibility of the environment is therefore a key factor in the economic future of the city-region. 6.31 Tourism

and day-trip destination The city-region has a wide range of destinations which serve both the tourist and the day-tripper and as such contribute significantly to the regional economy. Examples include Glasgow City Centre, Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park, New Lanark, the Campsie and Clyde-Muirshiel Hills, the Forth and Clyde Canal, the Antonine Wall, the Upper Clyde Valley and various Country Parks.

■ tourism and day-trip destination; Recreation and health ■ city-region green lung for recreation and health; ■ natural infrastructure and release valve for environmental stress, for example, flooding; ■ carbon reservoir mitigating greenhouse gas emissions levels; ■ source for alternative low carbon energies; ■ reservoir of biodiversity and sensitive habitats; and ■ supply of natural resources, for example, minerals, forestry, agriculture. 6.29 Many

of these themes are potentially conflicting in terms of, for example, development / conservation; use / non-use; access / nonaccess. It is essential that these conflicting demands are reconciled within the framework of the key drivers of the SDP.

Economic competitiveness 6.30 Place-setting

and economic competitiveness It is now widely acknowledged that the competitive edge of city-regions lies in a complex mix of quality of life factors, of how attractive a community is; its identity; its accessibility; its liveability; its environmental surroundings and other factors. It is this complex mix, which combined with economic offer, helps dictate the ability of the city-region to attract investors, resources and a talented labour market. The

34

6.32 A

city-region green lung Many city-regions have recognised the role of the environment in terms of the health of its inhabitants - in providing a green gym function or simply providing a place to exercise or just to breathe unpolluted air. In many cases, cityregions have put in place standards to ensure that the urban population is within a walkable distance from quality green spaces. In the city-region, given its overall health record, it can be argued that the green lung and green gym functions are even more important to its population than in many other places.

Infrastructure 6.33 Natural

Infrastructure The city-region environment, whilst in many ways engineered and shaped by development, remains a natural environment whose roles include flood prevention and water retention, and the ability to provide a natural defence against flood waters. Knowledge on this aspect is assisted by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency’s (SEPA) flood-risk mapping and is actively being incorporated as part of the design of major cityregion drainage projects, for example, MGSDP.

6.34 Carbon

reservoir The environment and particularly its forestry and woodland components comprise a natural carbon sink for carbon capture and storage. In terms of the climate change mitigation driver and the mandatory targets for emissions reductions, this role will be central to the sustainability basis of the SDP. Therefore the protection of woodland

and forests from felling and the identification and safeguarding of land for new planting is central to the preferred strategy. Energy 6.35 Source

for alternative energies With the advent of the Renewable Heat Incentive programme at the national level, the potential for biomass production and particularly planting for woodfuel has measurably improved. Whilst this has had unforeseen implications for timber growing through the diversion to woodfuel and therefore difficulties in the supply of timber products, there is an opportunity within the cityregion to expand the supply of woodfuel and reduce the pressure for timber diversion. The urban and peri-urban areas have significant areas of vacant and derelict land - created by land-use change - and of under-used land - created by urban and development pressures and such land presents the opportunity to expand woodfuel production and by so doing provide land-owners with the potential for a diversified source of income.

Nature 6.36 A

reservoir for biodiversity The city-region environment is a key reservoir for biodiversity and natural habitats. Strategically important locations are already subject to statutory protection through Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) and do not need further rehearsal in the MIR and SDP. However, the integration, interconnectivity and strengthening of habitats is a central part of the environmental picture of the city-region and the creation of a Green Network.

Resource development 6.37 Supply

of natural resources The environment is a key source of natural resources for supporting the economy and long-term development. It supplies timber crops for timber products; minerals for development; energy from energy crops and from exploitation of wind power.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


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The Main Issues Issue 3

Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity Figure 20

City-region environmental context - role and function

GCV environment role and function

Strategic proposal

Natural resources

Biodiversity

Alternative energies

Carbon reservoir

Natural infrastructure

Green lung

Tourism day trip economy

Placesetting

Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Green Belt Indicative Forestry Strategy Wind farm search Aggregate minerals search Biomass potential

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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6

The Main Issues Issue 3

Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity

Strategic planning proposals 6.38 In

order to integrate the thematic complexities of the city-region’s environment into a coherent strategic area the SDP will include the following set of proposals. Figure 20 illustrates how each proposal meets the multiple themes comprising the environment of the city-region.

6.39 Glasgow

and Clyde Valley Green Network (GCVGN) A legacy element which remains one of the foundations of the MDS. It has given rise to the Central Scotland Green Network, identified as a national development in NPF2, and exemplifies a multi-agency programme of positive action which seeks to integrate the strategic roles and functions of the environment. The scale of the GCVGN is substantial, covering large areas of the city-region. It is transformational in intent and designed as a twenty-five year programme. In order to provide focus and drive to the project, the key spatial priorities of the project have been identified in Figure 21 as the focus for concerted action. These opportunities emerge from spatial analysis where the environmental, social, access and regeneration aspects are integrated giving maximum return for available resources. (Background Report 08) These locations represent the greatest opportunities for delivering:

6.40 The

GCV Green Belt The constituent local planning authorities will define the detailed inner and outer boundaries of the GCV Green Belt. As a strategic tool, the Green Belt provides a useful foil to the more positive action-oriented GCVGN. The Green Belt also has a pivotal role to play in place-setting and ensuring the continuing separation of communities and their identities. It also acts to protect open spaces and the natural role of the environment, whether it be for flood-plain, carbon sink or thermal cooling purposes.

■ the Green Network in association with key development projects; ■ access to greenspace; ■ active travel opportunities (walking and cycling); and ■ expansion of the integrated habitat network.

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


Figure 21

GCV Green Network strategic opportunities

Riverside 1 Inverclyde

2 4 Clyde5 Waterfront

11

3

8 6

7

Clyde Gateway

12

9

10 13 Ravenscraig 14 Motherwell Wishaw

Community Growth Areas Green Network strategic opportunities Metropolitan Flagship Initiatives

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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Figure 22

Biomass woodfuel production opportunities

Biomass woodfuel production opportunities Vacant and derelict land 2009

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


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The Main Issues Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity 6.41 Indicative

Forestry Strategy and Woodland Framework (IFS) Forestry has many strategic roles to fulfil - timber production to meet Scottish Government targets; carbon sink creation and maintenance; woodfuel and biomass production; urban woodlands for economic place-setting, opportunities for recreation and green lung functions, thermal cooling and climate change functions. At the same time, several of these roles have inherent conflict with other demands upon the environment, for example, forestry targets / windpower development or carbon sink loss by de-afforestation / emissions targets. It is clear that forestry has now attained fundamental significance to the city-region economy.

6.42 In

order to address forestry’s roles and potential conflicts with competing uses, the SDP is in the process of preparing an Indicative Forestry Strategy and Woodland Framework with Forestry Commission Scotland (FCS) and other key stakeholders. Figure 22 sets out one of the key sub-frameworks within the IFS which relates to biomass woodfuel production at a potential scale of 3,800 ha. This is based upon an analysis of the vacant and derelict land resource and the amount of under-used land surrounding the city-region core. Woodfuel development may take the form of short-rotation coppicing, up to five years, or short-rotation forestry, up to fifteen years. The latter’s longer time horizon provides the potential to integrate it with the GCVGN and for it to perform a much wider range of functions than simply woodfuel. As carbon-based fuels continue to rise in cost and emissions reductions become ever more necessary, this area could attain increasing significance in land-use terms.

6.43 River

Basin Management Planning In response to the EU Water Framework Directive and through the Water Environment and Water Services (Scotland) Act 2003, the Scottish Government has established river basin management planning as the process to maintain and improve the quality of rivers, lochs, estuaries, coastal waters and groundwaters within the Scotland and Solway Tweed River Basin Districts. The Clyde Area Management Plan supplements this process and the SDP.

Issue 3

6.47 Within

the city region the delivery of the MGSDP, the promotion of Sustainable Urban Drainage and safeguarding the storage capacity of the functional floodplain will be amongst the key strategic land use measures which the GCVSDPA supports as part of the implementation of the Clyde Area Management Plan.

6.44 The

Clyde Area Management Plan aims to improve 91% of water bodies by 2027. To achieve this, water bodies currently at good or high status will be protected from deterioration. Action will be taken to enhance and restore others. Within the city-region there are currently 108 water bodies (67%) at less than “good status”. Of these, 42 water bodies (26%) are designated as “heavily modified”. The objectives for the area are to improve 42% of water bodies to good or better by 2015, 56% by 2021 and 98% by 2027.

6.45 The

key impacts on the city-region’s water environment are urban drainage, diffuse pollution from rural sources and managing the impacts from the areas industrial past.

6.46 Although

SEPA coordinates the development of the river basin management plans, they are produced by a wider partnership of organisations. These include responsible authorities like Scottish Water, SNH, FCS and local authorities who will be required to deliver the desired improvements through a combination of regulation, investment, awareness raising and guidance.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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Figure 23

Wind farm search areas

Broad areas of search

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


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The Main Issues Promoting environmental action - an economic necessity resource search areas The city-region environment is a key source of raw materials for long-term development and renewable energy production. It is therefore important that the SDP provide a strategic context for their long-term role and guide the constituent planning authorities to address the detail of such development within a coherent strategic context.

■ a limited supply within the city-region area;

6.48 Natural

(i)  Surface coal reserves There is a long-term strategic programme of surface coal developments already established within the city-region. These coals are of high quality, characterised by low sulphur and as a result are in high demand. Considerable joint working between the coal industry, GCVSDPA and its constituent local authorities has established that there is no further need to provide a strategic planning context at this time.

(ii)  Aggregate minerals Aggregate minerals, such as crushed rock, and sand and gravel, are fundamental to the development of the long-term city-region economy in that they provide the raw materials for construction, infrastructure and a wide range of other uses. It is therefore essential that there are accessible long-term supplies of such materials to support the economy. Additionally, in the context of the drivers of the SDP, and particularly the sustainability and emissions mitigation drivers, there is a need to minimise long-distance import from elsewhere. The focus therefore shifts to an approach to distribution based upon the proximity principle and, if feasible, upon the concept of local supply. The GCVSDPA, with the aid of the aggregates industry, following the example of the Scottish Government in 2005, has updated to 2010 its view of the city-region supply. It continues to demonstrate a substantive supply and relatively even distribution of crushed rock across the city-region for the long-term when viewed against the future recovery of the long-term economy as set out in Section 5 of this document. In terms of sand and gravel reserves, however, there continues to be:

Issue 3

■ the concentration of supply in the southern parts of Lanarkshire; and ■ a question of quality constraints in the current supply.

These factors result in a potential brake on longterm economic development in the GCV area if not addressed, and / or, substantial import of material from outwith the city-region to meet demand, with consequent negative impact on communities along lorry routes and in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The GCVSDPA favours a search area approach to identifying additional long-term sand and gravel reserves for development. Such an approach would provide the industry and communities with long-term clarity on future developments, once the constituent local authorities have provided the necessary detailed refinement of the areas selected under such an approach. However, there is limited data on reserves with regard to quality to meet the range of potential demands for varying grades of sands and gravels. In the long-term these factors constrain the ability of the GCVSDPA and its constituent local authorities to follow their preferred approach. This leaves a question over how to approach the issue positively rather than on a planning application-led basis.

(iii)  Wind energy The city-region is characterised by significant on-shore wind power potential and has seen considerable wind turbine developments to exploit that resource, for example, the Whitelee Wind Farm on Eaglesham Moor. Given the need to develop alternative low-carbon energies to carbon fuels and meet emission reduction targets, while at the same time protecting sensitive environments and balance competing uses, the GCVSDPA, in line with previous Strategic Plans, has adopted the approach of defining search areas for wind turbine developments (Background Report 09). Figure 23 illustrates these search areas so as to provide constituent local authorities with a spatial framework, within which more detailed local analysis, for example, landscape, character, visual and cumulative impact. Refinement of this potential can be enabled so as to reflect best local requirements.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Issue 3 Promoting environmental action an economic necessity The GCVSDPA regards the natural environment, both urban and rural, as a key economic resource which is central to supporting sustainable growth. It is capable of performing a range of strategic roles and functions and needs therefore to be considered as a coherent whole. Question 14 Should the SDP identify and promote a positive action-based Green Network Strategy, in partnership with a wide range of stakeholders? If not, what alternative focus should the SDP adopt? Question 15 Should the GCVSDPA pursue a strategy of prioritisation to drive forward delivery of the Green Network Strategy? If not, what alternative approaches would you advocate? Question 16 Should the SDP continue with a Green Belt designation? If not, what alternative approach should the GCVSDPA adopt? Question 17 Should the GCVSDPA pursue the search area model: a) to guide the development industry and communities as to potential long-term future development opportunities; and b) to provide local authorities with a strategic framework within which to address detailed local planning issues? What alternative model could GCVSDPA consider in terms of planning for major environmental developments? Question 18 In terms of minerals development, do you agree with the GCVSDPA that the existing programme of surface coal extraction needs no further strategic planning context? Question 19 Should the GCVSDPA seek to define search areas for sand and gravel extraction, in spite of the quality of data available for this approach being questioned? If not, what approach would you advocate? 41


6

The Main Issues Issue 4

Promoting sustainable locations for development

Introduction

Housing sector and land issues

6.49 In

Housing

order to support long-term sustainable economic growth, there has to be sufficient land capacity to meet need and demand in those development sectors which are part of the cityregion’s quality of life, namely: housing, retail, urban centres, transport and infrastructure. 5 sets out the long-term strategic approach to these sectors. More detail is available in a range of Background Reports.

6.50 Issue

42

6.51 The

6.52 Housing

long term strategic planning of housing for the city-region is the concern of the GCVSDPA and is being undertaken through a Housing Market Partnership (HMP), in accordance with the Scottish Government’s Housing Need and Demand Assessment Guidance (HNDA). The HMP comprises the constituent local authorities’ planning and housing functions with links to the Scottish Government, plus a wider network of stakeholders. The HNDA is a detailed technical assessment providing an overall assessment of housing requirements across all tenures and serves both a strategic and local function. It is part of the evidence base for the MIR and Proposed Plan as well as for Local Housing Strategies (LHS) and LDPs. The MIR sets out the broad strategic results of the HNDA that will be examined in greater detail in local authorities LHS and LDPs in turn. The MIR presents a tenure view that is relevant and appropriate for strategic planning purposes.

provision, in the context of strategic planning in the city-region, conventionally has two tenures, the private sector (comprising owner occupied and private rented housing) and the social rented sector. The former operates over housing market areas (HMAs) whilst the latter generally relates to social rented housing provision within local authorities. Under the new planning and housing systems, there is a revised approach to assessing housing need and demand and through the development of this area of work the traditional view of tenure has been reassessed. Recent issues of affordability of housing have focussed more attention on affordable products in the intermediate sector, such as, shared equity and shared ownership which offer an alternative, partly subsidised route onto the housing ladder for those who would otherwise be unable to do so. Together, the social rented and intermediate sectors, form what can be described as the affordable sector.

6.53 The

HNDA has been undertaken on the basis of the above two main sectors and two demographic scenarios: a lower and a higher migration variant, as set out in Section 5. The latter is the Planning Scenario, reflecting the more optimistic assumptions of higher levels of net in-migration and economic performance. This is the preferred basis for assessing need and demand for housing in the MIR. The outcomes of the HNDA by sector are outlined below.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


6

The Main Issues Promoting sustainable locations for development Figure 24

Private sector housing requirements 2008 / 25

Net private sector new housing requirements

102,500

Total private sector completions

113,100

Comparison of new housing requirements and completions

10,500 (surplus)

Average annual private sector completions to 2025

6.54 Private

sector In respect of private sector housing demand to 2025 the combined sources of private housing supply, comprising the existing land supply Housing Land Audit - and potential future supply identified in the GCV Urban Capacity Study 2009, which include the legacy of CGAs, are more than sufficient to meet demand in the private sector up to 2025. Consequently, there is no requirement to expand the supply of land for this sector even under the aspirational Planning Scenario. Average completions of approximately 6,000 per annum are required to meet the private sector demand identified in Figure 24. For the purposes of providing guidance and direction for the preparation of local authorities’ LHS and LDPs. Background Report 10 sets out the supply/ demand position, by HMA, for years 2020 and 2025.

6,000

6.55 Affordable

sector Work for the HNDA has identified the overall level of affordable housing requirements, including the proportion that could afford intermediate products. It is assumed that the remaining affordable housing requirements will be met in the social rented sector. The affordable sector is characterised by the requirement to address backlog need, a forecast of future needs and the provision of housing for those with specific housing needs, such as the elderly and disabled. At this stage the HMP and the local authorities are examining the outcomes of the HNDA for this sector. The Proposed Plan will set out the scale of need in the affordable sector for each local authority but it will be for the respective local authorities’ LDPs to identify any land that is required to meet these needs. For the purposes of providing evidence for the preparation of local authorities’ LHS and LDPs, the HNDA will set out the affordable supply/need position, by LA, for the years 2020 and 2025.

6.56 In

summary the HNDA has identified that there is no strategic requirement for additional land release for the private sector within the city-region. Land currently identified meets assessed private sector housing requirements to 2025 and supports the proposed long-term strategic vision of the SDP. If requirements are identified for the affordable sector at the local authority level, it will be for each local authority to address, having regard to Government policy and advice on the provision of affordable housing.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Issue 4

Alternative approach for the housing sector

6.57 Since

housing development is substantially the origin of the majority of person trips, it is important to ensure that sustainable transport options remain the primary driver of location if emissions reduction is to be achieved. Agglomeration and densification remain the primary strategic means of ensuring critical mass to support sustainable transport whilst reuse of brownfield land remains essential to renewal and minimising land-take.

6.58 The

approach adopted to strategic housing land allocations and supply, as a guide for the emerging LDPs, is to manage growth and develop sustainable locations. An alternative approach would be the identification of additional land which would run counter to these drivers - development of greenfield sites, in the Green Belt, and predominantly car-dependent rather than public transportrelated locations - thus expanding the physical and carbon footprint of the urban area. Whilst such sites and locations may meet a continuing demand for low-density suburban living, and accord better with the market sectors and economic criteria for development of the house-building industry at this time of economic downturn, their selection would be contrary to the long term strategic vision of the SDP.

43


6

The Main Issues Issue 4 Figure 25

Promoting sustainable locations for development Network of strategic centres

6 15 14

16

3

2 5 1

13

9

8

12

10

18 19

7

11 20

4

1 Glasgow City Strategic centres: Retail

2 Braehead 3 Clydebank 4 East Kilbride 5 Easterhouse 6 Greenock 7 Hamilton

17

8 Paisley 9 Parkhead 10 Pollok 11 Ravenscraig

Strategic centres: Other

12 Airdrie 13 Coatbridge 14 Cumbernauld 15 Dunbarton 16 Kirkintilloch 17 Lanark 18 Motherwell 19 Newton Mearns 20 Wishaw

© Crown copyright and database right 2010.  All rights reserved.  Ordnance Survey Licence number 100032510

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6

The Main Issues Issue 4

Promoting sustainable locations for development A network of strategic centres

Strategic planning proposals

6.59 City

and town centres are fundamental to a sustainable strategy in that they are the core of communities and as such are generally better accessed by public transport than other locations. Such centres also support a wide and diverse range of roles and functions such as business, offices, homes, leisure, education, heritage and community facilities. The role that most often characterises centres is retail, but each centre has a different balance in terms of its dominant role and function.

Figure 26

6.60 It

is this diversity of dominant roles and functions that is reflected in the MIR’s approach to centres and that will frame the SDP’s response. Some centres, through scale, diversity, catchment, environment, or other factors, have taken on a more strategic role than others. Yet each remains essential to their local communities. In response to the Scottish Government’s SPP the SDP will identify and promote a network of centres that operate at a strategic scale over the lifetime of the Plan to support the requirements of a sustainable growth strategy. Those centres whose roles and functions that remain local in nature will be addressed through the LDP process in terms of their long-term planning and development. As roles and functions of centres change with time they will require to be managed through local planning, and other processes, so as to ensure their long-term viability and vitality to their communities.

25 and 26 set out the GCVSDPA’s view of a network of strategic centres assessed by their role and function. This MIR seeks to address the network issue through an approach based upon their respective roles and functions. It identifies Glasgow City Centre as primary in all strategic roles, with eleven other centres whose wide range of roles and functions is dominated by their strategic retail role. A further nine additional centres which are characterised by a strategic role dominated by employment, business, leisure and civic uses are also included in this network.

6.61 Figures

Network of strategic centres - assessment of role and function Community and civic

Cultural and heritage

Leisure

Employment and business

Housing

Accessibility public transport

Vacant and derelict land

Vacancies

Leisure floorspace

Service floorspace

Convenience floorspace

Comparison floorspace

Spatial function

Hierarchy

Cross boundary coverage

Geographical dominance

Core catchment coverage

Imported spend

most

Retained spend

average

Core catchment expenditure

least

Core catchment shoppers

Criteria rating

Core catchment population

Assessment criteria

1 Glasgow City Strategic centres: Retail

2 Braehead 3 Clydebank 4 East Kilbride 5 Easterhouse 6 Greenock 7 Hamilton 8 Paisley 9 Parkhead 10 Pollok 11 Ravenscraig Strategic centres: Other

12 Airdrie 13 Coatbridge 14 Cumbernauld 15 Dunbarton 16 Kirkintilloch 17 Lanark 18 Motherwell 19 Newton Mearns 20 Wishaw

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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6

The Main Issues Issue 4

Promoting sustainable locations for development

Glasgow City Centre City Centre, as the focus of the city-region sits apart from all other centres. It offers the widest range of roles and functions, namely:

Network of strategic centres Role and function: Retail

6.62 Glasgow

■ one of the top three comparison retail destinations in the UK; ■ the business and commercial heart of the city-region;

6.63 The

retail sector is now characterised by rapidly changing demands in society by alternative formats such as the internet and mail order and by the retail industry varying their formats to match these different demands. Additionally, the two sub-sectors of retail - comparison (durables, clothing, etc) and convenience (food and basic commodities) - are characterised by different market areas, the latter being effectively local in nature.

■ the employment core of the city-region; 6.64 This

■ one of the top short-stay tourist destinations in the UK;

MIR therefore seeks a different approach from previous plans, its perspective is confined to the more strategic comparison market, including bulky goods.

■ a strong conference and business tourism focus; 6.65 The

■ the cultural and artistic heart of the city-region; and ■ the core of the city-region’s sustainable transport networks, both external and internal. In terms of the SDP, therefore, there is a fundamental need to underpin and maintain these roles and functions of the City Centre into the longer-term.

detail of this approach is set out in Background Report 11. In order to maximise accessibility by sustainable transport and to enable the development industry to create a modern quality retail experience, ten centres, in addition to Glasgow City Centre (Figure 25), will be promoted in the SDP to the investment industry, to Government and to local authorities for investment and management to support their range of strategic roles and functions.

6.66 Whilst

the majority of these centres are defined as town centres, a number are disproportionate in terms of their retail scale so dwarfing their other roles. There is a need, therefore, in the strategic retail centres to promote a sustainable and diverse mix of future retail, business, civic and community uses which will avoid consequent negative impacts on other network centres. It will require LDPs to maintain and improve the balance of roles and functions, including improved public transport accessibility where appropriate. In such cases, there is a danger in their retail role developing to an unsustainable level to the detriment of their diversity of other roles and with possible negative impacts on other network centres and on sustainability targets. It will require LDPs and the development management process to ensure that such centres maintain their strategic retail role, but improve their balance of roles and functions through diversification of landuses and improved sustainable access.

6.67 Braehead,

a key strategic catalyst for regeneration along the Renfrew riverside, is in a similar situation. It is currently identified as a commercial centre whose scale of retail dominates its other roles. However, it is becoming the focus for the development of an emerging new riverside community and, with diversification from its dominant retail role, could assume a future town centre role. In fact, the role and function analysis carried out to define the network of centres for strategic investment may suggest the requirement now to recognise Braehead as a town centre within that defined network.

6.68 In

order to assist the LDP and development management processes, the GCVSDPA, in preparing the Proposed Plan following the MIR stage, will undertake a strategic level capacity assessment of the retail function of the network of retail centres with a view to guiding the need for, and balance of, investment in strategic comparison floorspace during the plan period.

46

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


6

The Main Issues Promoting sustainable locations for development Network of strategic centres Role and function: Other other centres also are identified which are considered to perform a strategic role at the sub-city-region level. The balance of their respective roles and functions is illustrated on Figure 25 and reflects their lesser balance of retail compared to their broader economic and community role. As such, the relevant local authorities will promote and manage their longterm business, employment, civic, education and community roles and functions.

Alternative approach for a network of centres

6.69 Nine

Issue 4

Water and drainage 6.71 The

6.70 The

GCVSDPA, through the approved Structure Plan, inherited an approach founded upon a comprehensive network of 55 town centres, each carrying equal significance, and subject of safeguarding in that role even where their retailing role was minimal and / or local in scale. In terms of a more strategic approach to the SDP and in recognition of the investment industry’s spatial focus on higherorder centres that number of centres has been reduced through a process of analysis of their respective roles and functions. Several scenarios have been tested in order to arrive at the network described above. As with the approach taken to identifying SEILs there are alternative options which include promoting a greater number of centres. Each such option risks dilution and diversion of investment from key centres and a lack of clarity for the development and investment industries. The GCVSDPA’s preferred approach is reflected in a limited number of key centres. Account was also taken of the spatial distribution of the preferred network so as to ensure that gaps did not exist and that the network reflected the potential to reduce trips made by car by offering a sustainable transport option.

question of long-term water and drainage capacity to support long-term sustainable development of the city-region is already addressed in the legacy components of the Metropolitan Glasgow Strategic Drainage Plan www.mgsdp.org - now one of NPF2’s national developments. It comprises a wide range of engineered and natural solutions supporting development across the core of the city-region. It is not intended to rehearse that programme here as it remains a fundamental component of the SDP.

Waste Scottish Government published its Zero Waste Plan (ZWP) in June 2010. The ZWP seeks to deliver a more sustainable approach to waste and its infrastructure across Scotland. The planning system is identified as one of the key delivery mechanisms of the ZWP in identifying appropriate locations for waste management facilities. However, robust data, particularly on commercial and industrial waste, which comprise some 85% of waste-streams, are not currently available to inform the need for and the capacity of new waste facilities.

6.72 The

6.73 Scottish

Planning Policy, February 2010, states that this “need and capacity” is be established in the ZWP. However, the same data issue appears instrumental in the ZWP failing to provide that context. Consequently, in the absence of robust data across all waste-streams, it is not a realistic option for the MIR, at this time, to identify potential locations for waste management facilities and to be able to provide a robust justification for such locations.

6.74 In

an attempt to address this issue, SEPA, the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA) and the Scottish Government are currently piloting a waste and land-use planning project which it is hoped will address the issue and provide greater clarity and certainty for the development plan process. The GCVSDPA supports and will participate in that initiative.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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6

The Main Issues Issue 4

West of Scotland Conurbation Public Transport Study proposed network at 2025

© Crown copyright, All rights reserved.  Strathclyde Partnership for Transport  100023445, 2009

Figure 27

Promoting sustainable locations for development

Key Heavy rail Subway Light rail BRT Possible BRT extension / Alternative routing option Core Bus Map courtesy of Strathclyde Partnership for Transport

Figure 28

West of Scotland Conurbation Public Transport Study proposed outcomes at 2025

Heavy rail  15 minute frequency  Timetable revision and improved infrastructure Subway  4 minute frequency  Modernisation programme and integration Light rail  10 minute frequency  Conversion of suburban heavy rail network Bus rapid transit (BRT)  10 minute frequency  Step change in infrastructure , vehicles and segregation Core bus services  10 minute frequency  Improved strategic bus routing Circular bus services  15 minute frequency  Routes serving orbital movements in the conurbation Supporting measures  Strategic park and ride; integrated ticketing; bus feeder services, etc

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


6

The Main Issues Promoting sustainable locations for development Transport 6.75 The

MIR proposes a city-region development vision and strategy founded upon sustainable development principles (Section 4). These principles reflect the vision, in essence, renewal, regeneration and reinforcement, of the existing urban communities of the city-region with locational thinking based upon sustainable public transport access and the promotion of active travel.

6.78 The

following parts of this section relate to the West of Scotland Conurbation Public Transport Study, WSCPTS, (Background Report 13), a major analysis of public transport options and futures across the city-region. This study was commissioned by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport (SPT). This study is also seen as a key input to Project 24 of the current Scottish Government adopted Strategic Transport Projects Review.

6.79 The 6.76 A

key piece of the strategic thinking is landuse and transport integration, Transit Oriented Development (TOD), wherein locational strategy links to public transport networks and maximises the potential for sustainable travel. 2 and 6: Issue 1 of the MIR rehearsed the road investment issues and their current programming. The shift in focus therefore for the MIR and the SDP is how to promote better public transport investment to support the preferred strategy.

key aim of the WSCPTS is to develop an integrated, fast, reliable, frequent and attractive public transport service across the city-region by 2025. As with the MIR, the strategy is TODbased. The following components are central to the integration of land-use and transport in the city-region (Figure 27):

Issue 4

■ Light Mass Transit, including future tram / train shared running; and ■ City Centre and Cross-city travel and interchange. 6.80 The

GCVSDPA supports and incorporates as its sustainable transport solution for the SDP the strategy reflected in outcomes of the WSCPTS Figure 28. The solution is built around enhancing and developing City Centre core linkages by all public transport modes to the wider conurbation. By so doing, it also provides the necessary infrastructure for capitalising upon an HSR terminal location in central Glasgow, thus linking external, Issue 1, and internal connectivity Figure 27.

6.81 The

6.77 Sections

■ fixed or heavy rail network (building on the existing network); ■ modernised Subway, bus services and multimodal interchanges with other public transport services, supported by integrated ticketing;

outcomes of the WSCPTS and their interaction with the priority development locations of the MIR are the subject of on-going land-use and transport modelling with SPT as a partner and Transport Scotland in peer review and joint working.

Issue 4  Promoting sustainable locations for development In order to support sustainable economic growth of the city-region economy within a coherent long-term sustainability strategy, the GCVSDPA needs to ensure that there is sufficient land capacity to meet need and demand in key areas such as housing, retail, transport and infrastructure. There are already generous land allocations in the pipeline to fulfil need and demand for new homes across all tenures, yet the recession has had an impact on their short-term deliverability. In terms of retail the GCVSDPA, whilst acknowledging the planning need to protect centres’ roles and functions in all communities, favours a focus and investment approach that promotes only those centres that will have strategic roles and functions. Braehead could seem an anomaly in terms of its commercial centre retail designation compared with other strategic level retail centres and perhaps warrants consideration of town centre status. Question 20 Should the GCVSDPA, despite generous allocations of land for future housing, consider release of additional land in less sustainable locations to accommodate the short-term impact of the current economic recession on the housing market?

Question 21 The GCVSDPA prefers an option to identify a limited number of strategic centres; yet there are other options - to focus solely on the City Centre or perhaps to adopt a wide-ranging network of centres, both of which have different implications for investment. Is the GCVSDPA’s approach the most sustainable option?

Question 23 Given the clear need to address waste in a future sustainable city-region vision, but given also the real data difficulties with this subject and its inherent complexity, do you support the GCVSDPA’s view that strategic planning for waste needs a national drive to address the evidence base of that planning?

Question 22 Braehead is not currently identified as a town centre but on the basis of the analysis there is a view that it should be designated as a town centre. Is this a valid view?

The real key to a sustainable future is a fundamental shift in the nature of the city-region’s transport infrastructure from personal transport to sustainable integrated mass-transit systems. Our competitors are considerably ahead of us in that respect with a resulting competitive gap. The GCVSDPA and partners understand the need for an action programme to address this issue and supports the coherent programme of the WSCPTS as the basis of transport investment.

Infrastructure is pivotal to a future sustainable city-region. An investment programme in water and drainage, the MGSDP, is in place to reinforce and modernise the capacity of the conurbation and will be supported. Waste infrastructure in the city-region is a difficult issue in planning terms until there is a more robust basis for defining an investment programme in facilities.

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

Question 24 Should the city-region focus on a step-change in public transport provision of the type set out in the WSCPTS within the plan period?

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Figure 29

Preferred strategy

Key components of the preferred strategy Green Network opportunities Community Growth Areas Community Growth Areas Green Network strategic opportunities Strategic centres Strategic centres Strategic Economic Investment Areas Strategic Economic Investment Locations Metropolitan Flagship Initiatives Metropolitan Flagship Initiatives

© Crown copyright and database right 2010.  All rights reserved.  Ordnance Survey Licence number 100032510

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6

The Main Issues Tackling risk - strategic development priorities Introduction

Strategic planning proposal

6.82 The

6.84 The

Scottish Government, in its redesign of the Scottish Planning system, placed considerable emphasis upon the delivery and implementation of strategic and local development plans. This emphasis is reinforced by the Scottish Government’s adoption of Action Planning as a key part of the new system. Consequently, SDPAs are to submit to Scottish Ministers, with their SDP, an Action Plan setting out how the SDP is to be delivered. Legislation further stipulates that Action Plans be monitored, updated and published every two years to indicate progress on delivering the development strategy.

6.83 In

that context, the GCVSDPA takes forward a legacy, the Metropolitan Development Strategy, built on sustainability principles but within a growth agenda. Integration of future drivers of change into such strategic planning results in an even clearer emphasis upon sustainable growth, upon sustainable development locations and a strategy tuned to meet statutory requirements across a range of environmental issues. The consequence is a SDP with an even firmer foundation for a successful low-carbon economy, focusing on agglomeration for growth and development, on higher densities, on continued regeneration and renewal, and on a need to reduce the city-region carbon footprint.

means to achieve this strategy and minimise risk to delivery is prioritisation, setting out a list of key proposals and actions at the strategic scale that present a clear focus, that minimises confusion about the selection of these priorities and reduces the potential for diversion and dilution of resources to proposals of lesser strategic significance. A focus on strategic priorities also presents the investment industry, the development industry, central government, government agencies and the third sector with clarity as to investment priorities which will support the city-region achieve its long-term development vision. Figure 29 summarises the favoured Metropolitan Strategy to 2035 and its priority proposals.

Issue 5

6.86 However,

both the position regarding the economy and public expenditure present a picture of real uncertainty in the short and medium term which gives rise to two real challenges:

(i) keeping the focus on priorities (Figure 29) in the context of competing pressures; and (ii) managing the phasing and sequence of priorities in line with available resources.

6.85 Two

key drivers of delivery highlight the need to consider prioritisation:

(i) the impact of the current economic situation on private sector investment: and (ii) current and planned public expenditure - which together explicitly suggest prioritisation will be essential through the application of scarce resources to generate maximum return.

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6

The Main Issues Issue 5

Tackling risk - strategic development priorities

6.87 Delivery

of the MDS is multi-agency and multi-sector. The severity of public expenditure restraint, its impact on committed public investment programmes, combined with the difficulty of trading conditions for private sector investors and developers will impact on the delivery of, for example:

■ integrated sustainable public transport (WSCPTS); ■ integrated water and drainage solutions (MGSDP); ■ Community Growth Areas and housebuilding in general; ■ intermediate market affordable housing - HNDA, the Scottish Government’s Firm Foundations and Fresh Thinking initiatives; and

6.89 The

risk to the MDS is not driven by planning strategy and development land proposals, but by a lack of resources and lack of confidence across multiple development sectors.

6.90 A

consequence of this risk is that alternatives to the MDS and its proposals will be promoted which run counter to the key drivers of the Strategy. This potentially results in pressures that strengthen the carbon-economy link rather than reduce it and that push the development of nonsustainable locations. Additionally, the expansion of the carbon footprint of the city-region, the acceleration of the growth of emissions rather than the mitigation of them, and, through a short-term reaction to difficult financial and expenditure conditions, promotes an alternative non-sustainable future that is difficult to control.

6.91 In

■ The Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network and Central Scotland Green Network. 6.88 The

origins of the financial problems and risks and their solutions lie outwith the ambit of the planning system and the SDP, but pose major risks for the MDS, the Action Plan and implementation process. Whilst the SDP is long-term and generational in its vision and will encompass a number of economic cycles, the nature of these cycles presents real risk to delivery in the short to medium term. On the assumption that recovery takes place in the medium to long-term, greater certainty will return to the market and the public expenditure position can be expected to improve. In turn, the delivery of the MDS priorities can be expected to gather pace over time. There is therefore a major challenge to ensure that phasing and sequencing of the MDS priorities are undertaken in the shortto medium-term, to 2020.

52

order to minimise this risk, there must be a common cause between government, its agencies, the GCVSDPA, its partners and its councils, the development industry and other investment and development organisations to secure the necessary resources to manage the delivery of the MDS and the sequencing of its priorities.

Issue 5 Tackling risk strategic development priorities Question 25 What should the GCVSDPA do to mitigate the risk to its sustainability - based strategy in the face of market and financial pressures - do you agree with the process of prioritisation? Question 26 In responding to the current economic situation and expected dampening of demand and growth to 2020 or beyond, should the GCVSDPA adopt a lesser level of sustainable development in its strategic vision and aims, despite all the drivers of change pointing to a need for an even more sustainable future?

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


Next steps

Progressing the Strategic Development Plan

The next stages in the SDP process 7.1

Consultation on this document will run for eight weeks from its publication date.

7.2

Following closure of the consultation period, the sum of the responses received will be collated, analysed and reported to the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority. Following its consideration, a Proposed Plan will then be drafted, taking forward the outcomes from the MIR and its responses.

7.3

Contact details 7.4

7.5

The schedule of action is already set out in the GCVSDPA’s Development Plan Scheme (DPS) as submitted to the Scottish Ministers in March 2010. The timeline is set out below:

Draft Proposed Plan Spring 2011

Consultation on Draft Proposed Plan Spring / Summer 2011

Finalised Proposed Plan GCVSDPA consideration, September 2011

Submission of Proposed Plan to Scottish Ministers, October 2011

7.6

In order to have the maximum potential for influence on the city-region’s long-term development, stakeholders and all interested parties are urged to get involved at this Main Issues Report stage, before the principle of development is established and progressed through to the Proposed Plan stages. Following the submission to the Scottish Ministers in October 2011, if there remain any unresolved objections to the SDP, an Examination of the SDP must be held. This is undertaken by the Directorate for Planning and Environmental Appeals (DPEA). Due to the potential for delay associated with the Examination process and subsequent delay on the Local Development Planning process, it is the hope of the GCVSDPA that any issues can be resolved as early as possible.

Responses can be made in writing to: Dr Grahame Buchan Strategic Development Plan Manager Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority Lower ground floor 125 West Regent Street Glasgow G2 2SA by email to: mir@gcvsdpa.gov.uk or through the consultation section of the GCVSDPA website at: www.gcvsdpa.gov.uk/mir For any enquiries please call 0141 229 7730.

For these reasons, the GCVSDPA Chair and Members would recommend your participation now at this Main Issues Stage.

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Glossary  

Accession countries  Countries which enter the negotiation process to join the European Union (EU) leading to its continuing expansion. Action Plan  A process and document to identify the steps needed to achieve the particular goals and proposals of the Strategy. Agglomeration  Urban agglomeration is a policy process of linking functionally and by transport networks, cities and towns into a coherent interrelated whole, usually based on a central city. By so doing, critical competitive mass can be built, economic benefits can flow between the component parts and the unit cost of infrastructure provision can be reduced. Alteration  Formal change or update to a Structure Plan requiring the approval of Scottish Ministers. Alternative energy  An umbrella term for any source of usable energy intended to replace fuel sources without the undesired consequences of the fuels so replaced - eg fossil fuels and their carbon emissions. Biodiversity  The range and diversity of ecosystems - plants, animals, species and genes, and the ecological processes that support them. Biomass  Biological materials, eg, plant and wood residues which may be used generate energy, normally via incineration. Brownfield land  Land which has previously been developed. The term may encompass vacant or derelict land; infill land; land occupied by redundant or unused buildings; and developed land within the settlement boundary where further intensification of use is considered suitable. A brownfield site should not be presumed to be suitable for development, especially in Green Belt and other countryside areas. Carbon footprint  The total amount of greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalent - given out by an area, structure, event or product. Carbon reservoir  A natural feature which absorbs carbon from the atmosphere but may also exchange that carbon with other reservoirs. Carbon sink  A natural feature which absorbs carbon from the atmosphere but with no outflow of carbon in exchange with other features. City-region  These go beyond individual local authority boundaries and join more than one city or town together in terms of strategic planning for economic development, physical planning or strategic housing - and in terms of governance arrangements, such as through the GCVSDPA itself. The Glasgow city-region comprises eight local authorities in such a governance arrangement. Combined Heat and Power (CHP)  Substantial amounts of heat are one of the by-products of power generation. In conventional centralised power stations, this heat is usually lost. CHP plants are essentially local decentralised power stations whose waste heat is

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captured and supplied locally to a range of users, resulting in a much higher level of efficiency related to the power generation process. Creative industries  Refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information. They may variously also be referred to as the cultural industries, especially in Europe, or the creative economy. Critical mass  The creation of sufficient scale and growth in an area or service such that growth becomes self-sustaining and fuels and sustains increasing growth. Datazones  Developed by the Scottish Government as a base geography for the analysis of Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics and the Scottish Multiple Index of Deprivation, data zones are statistical areas and do not necessarily delineate communities. The key feature of data zones is that they are significantly smaller than previous geographies for which statistics have been available (postcode sector or ward) and are much more effective in identifying small areas with particular social characteristics, and are also more flexible in aggregating to specific areas of user interest. While at the same time data zones are large enough to protect confidentiality and to allow regular updates to be made available. Demography  The statistical study of human populations. It encompasses the study of the size, structure and distribution of these populations, and spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to births, deaths, aging, and migration. Densification  A deliberate process of fostering higher population and building densities within the urban area. Development engine  A specific proposal or project, embedded within a larger project or programme, designed to create drive and momentum to the delivery of that larger project. Development Plan Scheme (DPS)  A formal step, under new planning legislation in Scotland, in the Development Plan process whereby Authorities publish their Development Plan preparation and publication schedules. Digital industries  An umbrella term to describe the wide range of companies involved in digital technology such as digital film, photography, sound, design, graphics and marketing. Drivers of change  Factors and forces, both external and internal, which act to shape long-term thinking and planning, whether in public government or in private business. Their consideration is fundamental to development, business or corporate strategic planning. Glasgow City Centre  Defined by the north and west flanks of the M8, the River Clyde and High Street / Saltmarket. Greenhouse gas emissions  Gases in the atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation, a process that is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere and widely cited as a primary factor in the heating of the earth’s atmosphere and in global warming. The primary greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide,

methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Green gym  Using the outdoors and green infrastructure to provide people with a way to enhance fitness and health while taking action to improve the outdoor environment. Green infrastructure  A strategically planned and delivered network of high quality green spaces and other environmental features, designed and managed as a multifunctional resource capable of delivering a wide range of environmental and quality of life benefits for local communities. Green infrastructure includes parks, open spaces, woodlands and paths. General Registers Office for Scotland (GROS)  Part of the Scottish Government responsible for a range of functions related to the Census, to demographic statistics and other formal recording of the Scottish population. Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Community Planning Partnership (GCVCPP)  A grouping of the political leadership of the eight constituent local authorities of the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley city-region designed to integrate corporate thinking and policy approaches. High Speed Rail (HSR)  Rail passenger transport operating at significantly higher speeds than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions by the EU include 200 km/h for upgraded track and 250 km/h (160 mph) or faster for new track. In Japan, the Shinkansen trains run at speeds in excess of 260 km/h (160 mph) and are built using standard gauge track with no crossings. In China, high speed lines operate at top speeds of 350 km/h (220 mph). In France, a TGV scheduled rail journey can run with a start to stop average speed of 279.4 km/h (173.6 mph). Key Agencies  Under the Planning etc (Scotland) Act 2006, a body which the Scottish Ministers specify as relevant to the preparation of development plans. Life sciences  These comprise all fields of science involving the scientific study of living things - plants, animals and humans. Local Development Plan (LDP)  The more detailed planning layer of the Development Plan process in Scotland within the four cityregions, working within the strategic vision and direction established by the Strategic Development Plan process. Local supply  A sustainable development approach based upon maximising a local supply source and supply chain rather than seeking to draw in supply from a wider geographic area with consequences for environmental and transport costs. Low carbon  A process or activity which seeks minimises its consumption of carbon fuels and seeks to minimise its subsequent output of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Metropolitan Glasgow Strategic Drainage Plan (MGSDP) A formal partnership project established and led by Glasgow City Council and Scottish Water, incorporating GCVSDPA, SEPA, other

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


local authorities, to address long-term investment in water and drainage across the city-region core. It is included in NPF2 by the Scottish Government as a national development.

Service based economy  An economy mostly concentrated in sectors such as financial services, business services, health and education rather than in the production of manufactured products.

National development  A designation of certain projects in the National Planning Framework as a mechanism for establishing the need for these developments in Scotland’s national interest. The Government has indicated that major transport, energy and environmental infrastructure projects may fall within this category of development.

Short-rotation coppicing  High yield fast growing woodland of poplar and willow grown as an energy crop for use in power generation, alone or in combination with other fuels. It is differentiated from short rotation forestry by the nature of the trees grown, and the frequency of cropping, which in coppicing is over a much shorter term - up to four years.

National Planning Framework (NPF / NPF2)  A spatial strategy for Scotland’s future. It guides development, setting out strategic development priorities to support the Scottish Government’s central purpose - sustainable economic growth. The Planning etc (Scotland) Act 2006 puts this and future iterations of the National Planning Framework on a statutory footing. It is intended to play a key role in co-ordinating policies with a spatial dimension and aligning strategic investment priorities. It takes forward the spatial aspects of the Government economic strategy, highlighting the importance of place and identifying priorities for investment to enable each part of the country to play to its strengths. It provides the strategic spatial policy context for decisions and actions by the Government and its agencies. Planning authorities are required to take the Framework into account when preparing development plans.

Short-rotation forestry  Woodland grown as an energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels. It is the practice of cultivating fast-growing trees that reach their economically optimum size between eight and twenty years old. Species used are selected on this basis and include alder, ash. birch, poplar, willow and others.

Natural infrastructure  A term coined to reflect the capacity of the natural environment to act as a piece of non-engineered infrastructure, particularly in an urban area, eg, a river’s natural floodplain to hold and store excess water at times of flood. Peri-urban  The area immediately adjoining an urban area, between built-up land and countryside. Place setting  A policy of improving the physical and environmental setting of an urban area so as to improve its attractiveness and liveability with a view to attracting investors, decision makers and economic migrants and so increasing the area’s economic competitiveness. Proximity principle  A concept initially established in waste planning whereby waste disposal should be managed close to its point of generation, thus aiming to achieve responsible selfsufficiency at regional or sub-regional level. The concept has developed wider application, akin to that of local supply, emphasising the sustainable benefits of reducing environmental costs by seeking to minimise distances over which material is moved. Scottish Planning Policy (SPP)  The Scottish Government’s planning policy on different types of development and environmental issues.

Spatial vision  A broad strategic direction and framework for the long-term geographical development of an area based upon common goals within an understanding of the nature of that area and its needs and demands within the wider drivers of change forces that will influence that area. Strategic Development Plan (SDP)  Under the Planning etc (Scotland) Act 2006, the SDP is the replacement plan for the previous generation of Structure Plans. It is intended to address the overall vision and strategy for the long-term development of a city-region. It requires the formal approval of the Ministers of the Scottish Government and has a number of stages set out in legislation and regulations. Structure Plan  A strategic level physical plan under the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Acts between 1975 and 2009 designed to set out long-term development strategy for large urban areas and guide the more detailed planning of constituent Local Plans. Both types of plan are now superseded by the Strategic Development and Local Development Plans under new Scottish planning legislation introduced in 2006 and made operational in 2009. Strategic Development Plan Authority (SDPA)  In Scotland, a local governmental body comprising more than a single planning authority working with partners to address the longterm strategic development of a city-region. In the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley context, its SDPA comprises eight local authorities. Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR)  A Scottish Government review to define the most appropriate strategic investments in Scotland’s national transport network from 2012. It comprises a portfolio of land-based strategic transport interventions

GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

   

which will establish the basis for the ongoing development of Scotland’s transport infrastructure to meet the demands of the 21st century and complements both the emerging NPF2 and the National Transport Strategy. Sustainable development  Development which is framed in the integration of environmental sustainability by living within the capacity of natural environmental systems; economic sustainability by ensuring continued prosperity and employment opportunities; and social sustainability by ensuring social inclusion, equity, personal wellbeing and a good quality of life. Sustainable economic growth  Economic growth which takes place without depleting non-renewable resources. Sustainable locations  These are accessible by all forms of sustainable transport and which provide the potential for modal shift from car to more fuel-efficient transport and the potential to move proportionately larger numbers of people more fuel-efficiently. Sustainable transport  Any means of transport with low impact on the environment, and includes walking, cycling, urban public transport, carsharing, and other forms that are fuel-efficient, spacesaving and promote healthy lifestyles. Sustainability  Since the 1980s the term has been used in the sense of human activity on Earth and this has resulted in the most widely quoted definition of sustainability and sustainable development - that of the Brundtland Commission of the UN in 1987: “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Transit Oriented Development (TOD)  This generally comprises mixed-use development designed to have maximum access by public transport - typically development would be around a train station, subway station, bus station or tram stop and would be characterised by relatively high-density development. TOD generally would be around 400 to 800 metres walk-time from its public transport core services. Urban Regeneration Company  In the UK, an organisation set up by central government to coordinate targeted regeneration and development in depressed city areas. First introduced in 1981 their aims typically included the improvement of the local environment, making it more attractive to business; to give grants to businesses setting up or expanding within the area; to renovate and reuse buildings; and to offer advice and practical help to businesses considering moving to the location.

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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010


Background Reports

  Publications referred to in this document ■

BR 01 Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan Monitoring Statement

BR 02 Vacant and Derelict Land 2009

BR 03 Futures: Visioning to 2035

BR 04 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the city-region

BR 05 Economic outlook and scenarios for the Glasgow and Clyde Valley city-region

BR 06 Projections of Population and Households to 2025

BR 07 Strategic Economic Investment Locations

BR 08 Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Prioritising Delivery

BR 09 Wind Farm Search Areas

BR 10 Housing Need and Demand Assessment

BR 11 Retailing and the Network of Strategic Centres

BR 12 Urban Capacity Study 2009

BR 13 West of Scotland Public Transport Conurbation Study

Copies of these Background Reports are available to download from the GCVSDPA website: www.gcvsdpa.gov.uk/mir or can be viewed at Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority Lower ground floor, 125 West Regent Street, Glasgow G2 2SA These Background Reports are also available for inspection at the planning offices of: East Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire, Glasgow City, Inverclyde, North Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, South Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire Councils GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN  MAIN ISSUES REPORT  SEPTEMBER 2010

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority Lower Ground Floor, 125 West Regent Street, Glasgow G2 2SA tel  0141 229 7730 email mir@gcvsdpa.gov.uk web www.gcvsdpa.gov.uk/mir

Main Issues Report  

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan Main Issues Report September 2010