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Lessons by Chris Morris-Lent • GHS ‘06 • Columbia ‘09

Math • English • ACT/SAT • College Apps

Guaranteed gains:
 +200 SAT • +4 ACT • 1 academic letter grade

Our daughter’s SAT score soared by 500 points!

—Jyoti N., parent of Karisma, accepted to the University of Washington

We called Chris, and the next time my son took the ACT his score was high enough to earn the scholarship we were hoping he’d earn—worth every penny and more!

—Connor G., parent of Alex, accepted to Colby and 4 other colleges

Chris combines brilliance with a patient, supportive, and insightful nature that together make him the ideal mentor. —Jay Spenser, popular and critically acclaimed aviation writer

Learn more at • 206-551-7843



These contributions help make the production and publication of The Garfield Messenger possible. If you would like to support The Messenger, please contact us at

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Now’s your chance to show your Garfield pride. The Garfield High School Foundation is once again selling Garfield Bricks. Funds generated go towards programs such as the Summer Bridge Program. You can choose to commemorate yourself, parents, siblings, teacher or group. You can choose to put your message in stone for generations to come. What a great gift this can be! Be one of the

individuals at Garfield’s Centennial Celebration on June 6, 2020 who can proudly say, “I’ve purchased my brick, have you?” All brick orders received by the deadline will be engraved before the end of 2020. Be sure to get your brick order in before the deadline of March 6, 2020. This may be your last chance; we don’t know if additional brick orders will be available in the future. We reserve the right to approve any engravings. Brick cost is indicated on the order form as well as the accepted forms of payment. Complete the

BENEFACTORS Noel Treat Lisa Richmond and Steve Burke The Van Loo Family

PATRONS Delong - Johnson Family Helen Brophy Holly Batt Catherine and Scott Henson Elana Jassy Heidi Unruh and Steven Abrahams Tammy and Maureen Shadair George and Lisa Chrysanthakopoulos Phebe O’Neill Roger Tubby Carol Rava Anonymous x3

FRIENDS Mark Boyar Amy McCue Nancy and Joe Treat Zinta Smidchens Ilana Guttman Suzanne DuRard Law PLLC Portia Maisano-Torres Madolyn Frockt Dana Armstrong Wil & Patty Dutt Frank Lawler and Ann McCurdy Jorji Knickrehm and Jason Rich Cathy and Joe Frisino John & Susan Rava Mike and Prances Frantum Nancy Peterson Bev Reusser Penelope West Katharine Angell Janet Blanford Barbara and Gerald Klebe Mara Ferguson Margaret Sullivan Anonymous x8

included form and mail it with your payment to: Bulldog Bricks GHS Foundation P.O. Box 22344 Seattle, WA 98122-0344 Don’t miss out on this fantastic opportunity! Order your brick today!


Wynsome Burke

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Annabelle Frockt & Grace Chinowsky




Ava Klubberud Editor in Chief Mena Bova NFO Millan Philipose NFO Sara Javkhlan A&E Valerie Barreto Sports Jefferson Ashby Graphics Sophie Reichert Layout Clara Neville Business


Angelina Lopez




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Sam Treat

Nat Beaumon







Khassim Diakhate





Angelina Lopez Annabelle Frockt Audrey Abrahams Ben Thomas Caroline Ashby Corinna Singer Devon Ling-Efird Dominic Sullivan Grace Chinowsky Irya Bland

Simone Cielos

Devon Ling-Efird


Irya Bland

Cover by Audrey Abrahams






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Izzy Lamola Kai Craig Khassim Diakhate Liam Hyde Matt Lord Molly Chapin Nat Beaumon Ria Maisano-Torres Sam Boyar Sam Treat











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Tova Gaster

Izzy Lamola & Ben Thomas

Irya Bland

WINTER SPORTS PREVIEW Liam Hyde & Audrey Abrahams


Simone Cielos Sophia Chrysanthakopoulos Téa Fortune Tova Gaster Wynsome Burke



n the past months, you have made it your mission to make the district more equitable by ending the Highly Capable Cohort (HCC). We know from firsthand experience that the HCC program has its flaws, and we appreciate that you want to make it equitable for all. However, we don’t believe that your approach to this issue is appropriate. Despite your good intentions, The Messenger feels that your perspective on the issue and the words you have used have alienated the people you are attempting to help. By using terms like “slave ship” and “Apartheid High” to describe the most racially diverse high school in Seattle, you not only disrespect and belittle the students of Garfield, you also oversimplify the effects of a complex issue that the district created in the first place. The term “Apartheid High” was born out of a history of segregation and racial conflict at Garfield — and the student body is very aware of this. However, this language is extremely outdated. Today it sounds less like a word that a Garfield student would use, and more like a slogan that has been dug up to garner public support for your agenda. Your efforts to turn the public against HCC has taken a toll on the students at Garfield. By unjustifiably targeting Garfield and using our school as an example for everything wrong with HCC, you are contradicting your mission of serving us, the students. Talking about us, rather than with us, will do little to fix the district’s mistakes. We are not another piece of evidence for your campaign. We are not the sole example of what a racist school looks like. This narrative you are perpetuating simplifies broader racial issues and paints an inaccurate, black-and-white depiction of our diverse community. Instead of working towards unity and pushing for true reform, your loaded language overlooks the many ways Garfield is impacted by HCC. It also overlooks the other schools and families that are impacted by HCC. If you are truly urging the community to pay attention to the voices of students, please do so yourself first. Instead of relying on snippets from the few students you spoke to, take the time to truly connect with our student body. Instead of visiting our school on Purple and White, come in on a regular school day and talk to us. Garfield is not a slave ship — it is a school. A school which brings together students from all walks of life to learn together under the same roof. A school that we are proud to attend. And it’s time you begin to treat it that way.



SEATTLE SOUNDERS MONUMENTAL WIN Seattle Sounders fans came from across the state to watch them play against Toronto FC in the MLS Cup final. On Sunday November 10, over 69,000 fans attended the match at CenturyLink Field, which is more than the amount of fans that attend a typical Seahawks game. With all goals made in the second half, the Sounders pulled through with a 3 - 1 win. Though this is the Seattle Sounders’ second MLS Cup title in history — their first one being in 2016 — it is their first win at home. This victory makes the team one of only six in MLS history to win the MLS Cup two times or more.

LAS VEGAS HOMELESS BAN In an attempt to reduce the city’s homelessness population, Las Vegas has banned the homeless from sleeping on the streets. It will now be considered a misdemeanor to sleep on city streets, if there are shelters available. This law went into effect November 10 but will not be enforced until February of 2020. Those who violate this law will either face up to six months in jail or be fined $1000. Amidst the controversy, City Attorney Brad Jerbic clarifies that although the law will be enforced, those without homes are at liberty to reject assistance. If they choose to reject help, they can continue to sleep on the street, but the streets have to be outside of downtown Las Vegas.

CHILE’S POLITICAL PROTESTS The people of Chile have been protesting their local government for about a month out of dissatisfaction with the government’s enforcing of a Pinochet-era constitution. Their frustration has resulted in protests in the streets, riots, and vandalism. Citizens are demanding either the president’s resignation along with major governmental reforms or a new constitution altogether. With over 10 civilians dead, the President of Chile has agreed to rewrite the constitution and put up the new constitution as a public referendum.


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NEWS Garfield’s ever changing ethnic studies class. By Angelina Lopez

Who am I? What is ethnic studies? And what does ethnic studies have to do with me?” These are some of the many questions students work to answer in Garfield’s ethnic studies classes. Until this year, these questions were asked by Jesse Hagopian, author of Teaching for Black Lives and Garfield grad. This year, however, the ethnic studies curriculum was taken over by Alekzandr Wray due to school-wide budget cuts last year. The school offered Hagopian, who was only teaching part-time last year, the opportunity to remain at Garfield only if he agreed to switch to a full-time position. Due to conflicting agreements and overstretched hours he was forced to turn down the offer. “I didn’t want to leave,” Hagopian said, “but I had already committed to writing another book.” Nonetheless, ethnic studies at Garfield continues. The ethnic studies class focuses on dispelling master narratives (widely agreed upon but often biased accounts of history) taught in previous classes and challenging students to reflect on how and what they’ve been taught. Under Wray’s guidance, students are exploring First Nation cultures in a whole new way. “[My history classes] never brought in that [native] people are still here today,” recounted Natalie Clemans, a current student of Wray’s. Clemans, along with her classmates, is among the first students to experience Wray’s curriculum. “I’m really lucky to pass the course on to someone with his passion and vision,” Hagopian said. The two worked together extensively to create Wray’s curriculum, drawing from Hagopian’s old lessons and Wray’s new ideas. Wray’s class incorporates various new texts and draws from different inspirations such as religion

and life experiences. Both teachers, however, have focused on passing on certain ideas to their students. The class teaches students to think about the forces that drive people to behave the way they do. It explains the roots of ethnic studies in schools and the struggles that drove students to fight for their education in a hope to inspire students to stand up for their own beliefs and interests. “Ethnic studies taught me how to view the world through the lense of inclusivity,” former ethnic studies student Chardonnay Beaver stated. “I learned that everyone has a background that includes trauma and triumphs. As a result we acquire a worldview based around identity.” Not only has ethnic studies changed hands this year, but it has spread from an isolated course to being incorporated in many seemingly unrelated classes. One of Garfield’s math classes has incorporated ethnic studies by highlighting math’s roots in Africa. Hagopian, who was hired back by Garfield to teach literature, is bringing ethnic studies into his classes. “I’ve been teaching about how master narratives can impact the literature we read and the way we view what literature is important,” Hagopian said. His class is evaluating classics of Western literature for their biases while they read them. The ethnic studies twist to a literature class helps students think more critically about their education. Hagopian hopes to extend inclusive curricula throughout the school and hopefully create more classes focused on ethnic studies in the future. Wray and Hagopian have both contributed extensively to the development of this course. Though the ethnic studies program is going through changes, it is far from dying.


Art by Wynsome Burke



THE GREAT SPODIE DIVIDE Taking a hard look at Garfield’s social scene. By Sam Treat


t’s Friday, and school just got out. You’re a Garfield High School student. You meet up with your friends in the courtyard. You agree on splitting an Uber, and you all pile into a blue Toyota Camry bound for Seward Park. Once dropped off at your destination, you hurry to the Seward Park Amphitheater. The senior class has provided a keg (as is tradition). You’re eager to get a cup before the alcohol runs out. You see your friends, and you run over them to them, careful not to spill your beer. They’re sharing a blunt and laughing at the kid that already had too much to drink, and is violently vomiting into the bushes next to you. Someone brought vodka, and they offer you a pull. Now that you’ve got a good buzz going, you’re ready to socialize. You mingle in the crowd of purple-clad teenagers, trying to ignore the 45-degree weather. Things are dull, until, suddenly, you hear yelling from below the stage of the amphitheater. You see two skinny white boys trying their best to pummel each other’s faces in, and you think to yourself, “Ah yes, another good Garfield spodie.” This is the reality of the social scene for many Garfield students. For those who don’t know, spodies are alcohol-fueled gatherings in public areas of the city — most commonly parks. Generally, spodies have a keg, or a concoction of alcohol and fruity juice (a drink known as “spodie” or “jungle juice”). The alcohol is provided by the seniors. This may sound fun and exciting to a certain group of readers, but, believe it or not, not everyone finds joy at spodies. Many students feel that the social scene is uncomfortable and dangerous, but they have nowhere else to turn. Others feel that the spodie culture is exclusive. “It is specific friend groups,” said one senior I interviewed. “It does not include every member of the community that is Garfield.” Garfield Principal Ted Howard, a longtime critic of Garfield’s drink-

ing culture, agrees with this assessment. “Drinking and drugs is an access issue,” Howard said. “Who has that access?” Traditionally, spodies are planned by wealthier, white students. The population who attends usually represents that demographic. However, it is not just a socioeconomic divide. A social scene based around alcohol and drug use alienates those who feel uncomfortable around drugs and alcohol. “I think the social scene is too focused around [drinking culture],” said another senior. “It creates a divide between those who drink and those that don’t.” The idea of “tradition” permeates every aspect of Garfield’s culture. In sports, we have a tradition of winning. In academics, we have a tradition of excellence in the classroom. Our social scene, infamously, holds the traditions of spodies, froshing, and binge drinking. These “traditions” have been handed down from senior class to underclassmen. As at all high schools, underclassmen look to the seniors to lead. At Garfield, however, “leading” seems to translate to the planning of spodies and other alcohol-centric events. “It is something that freshmen and sophomores feel they should be going to, and that absolutely breaks down to the perpetuation of the culture by the senior class,” said a senior who helps plan many of Garfield’s spodies. While some seniors view spodies as an outlet to blow off steam and enjoy oneself at the end of the week, others view them as a way to continue on the legacy and tradition of previous senior classes. “[Seniors before us] wanted us to extend this tradition of Garfield that they thought was important,” said another senior I spoke to. Clearly, that legacy has continued. As time



has passed, though, some traditions have gone by the wayside. Froshing and hazing has decreased in general, and certainly in severity; more students are realizing the negative impacts and poor choices that a hazing culture promotes. Garfield wasn’t always this way. Tradition used to center around channeling school spirit into outof-school activities such as sports games and dances. Ted Howard views this as a major loss to the school. “Over a period of time the seniors really brought the school together,” Howard said. “The classes left a legacy. I don’t see that happening anymore.” Many students wish to help bring back that unity, but are unsure where to turn. The class of 2020 is grappling with that question right now. A recent survey revealed that 64% of Garfield students said they would be more likely to go to a party or spodie than a Garfield sports game on a Friday night. The new Dawg Pound club is trying to remedy this issue by encouraging more attendance at sports games, but even still, the culture is slow to shift. Garfield High School lacks sober events that people want to participate in. While ASB tries their best, they seem to fail to attract large numbers of students. Only 6% of respondents to a recent poll said they had attended the homecoming dance. Compare that with the 48% of students that said they attended the homecoming spodie. It isn’t just this year’s homecoming events that didn’t draw a large population. 51% of students have attended 0 ASB-endorsed events in the past year, and over 92% have attended less than 2. The reason? “Kids are going to want to be out of adults’ eyes, that’s just going to happen,” said a Garfield student. “There need to be student-led organizations. As valuable as they can be in school, when ASB puts their mark on something, it’s still being staff-led.” Others believe that the problem lies in

ASB’s planning and execution. While it could be said ASB does not do everything in their power to make events accessible or inviting, that does not mean they are responsible for the under-attendance. “ASB should be in charge of planning events, but it falls on the people [who plan drinking events] to realize that they’re being exclusive and unsupportive of ASB,” said a Garfield senior, “ASB can’t force people to attend.” To help change and improve the social scene, it will take work from every group and person at GHS that considers themselves to be a leader. The Class of 2020 has the chance to start instilling a culture of support of sports, attendance of ASB events, and expression of school spirit outside of spodies. ASB has a chance to change policies regarding ticket purchases, increase student voice, and attract more students to its events. And we all have the chance to help. We can all make the effort to promote and attend dances, games, and any other opportunity to represent Garfield. Mr. Howard seems to agree. “Garfield has fallen off and stopped being the lead dog,” Howard said. “I want us to lead. We are the leaders. We see what is happening. I need student voice. This is why GHS is GHS. That is what is missing.”


Art by Molly Chapin



Taking inspiration from expert Periodic Table haiku writer Mary Soon Lee, I proffer my own, regarding astrology:

Has the College Board gone overboard? By Nat Beaumon he College Board plays a huge role here at Garfield as the educational organization behind AP classes, AP testing, and the SAT. But is it purely a force for good? The answer is complicated. Garfield undeniably has an “AP Culture,” a fact that was agreed upon by all the Garfield faculty I interviewed for this article. “When a student is in college, with a quarter system they’ll take three courses and in a semester system they’ll take four,” said Gary Thomas, who teaches Marketing and AP Macroeconomics at Garfield. “We have kids here taking 6 APs per semester because they feel that the only way that they can be competitive enough to get into an elite institution is to take the highest level of rigor that’s offered at their school.” While there are definitely benefits to taking AP classes, the AP teachers added that taking too many can make things really difficult for students. “The AP test has these concrete benefits for college admissions and for credits once you’re in college, and also for the experience of sitting through the test,” said Mark Lovre, who teaches AP Lang and grades the test. “But then, it gets really dicey because should any student be taking five AP classes? If you take five or whatever number and you get an ulcer and you’re burned out before you even get to college then that’s not so good.” As for the tests, most of the AP teachers believe their respective AP test assess relevant skills, even if taking it can be stressful for students. “I hope that I teach students how to think critically and how to approach questions in ways that benefit the way that they think,” said Dr. Rachel Finley, who teaches AP Environmental Science. “But overall it tends to be a lot of pressure.” “The APUSH test is intended to sort


students,” said Daniel Young, who teaches AP U.S. History and also grades the test. “It definitely accomplishes that. It’s not a test that just allows you to show whatever your strength is. I think if you had a test like that, it could be really good, but it wouldn’t let us understand who has a better and lesser understanding of U.S. history.” However, the College Board’s relentless expansion of AP classes and testing have left some wondering where its true motives lie. “I see pros and cons [to the expansion],” Thomas said. “The pro side is it’s a known entity in terms of the quality of instruction that’s going

Art by Caroline Ashby

on. That has some weight to colleges, and as long as colleges value that, it’ll continue to be a driver for students. However, at times I do wonder if pushing students into courses they’re not necessarily prepared for — or are overwhelmed with — is always in the best interests of a student.” “In the nine years I’ve been scoring the AP Lang test, the number of students taking it has increased by 30 to 40 thousand kids a year, and the scores they’re getting aren’t distributed evenly across the range of scores,” Mr. Lovre said. “[This] comes from places where an entire class or an entire school is made to take this test, because the College Board pushes research that says

that kids who take the class take the test and do better in college. That is true, but my fear is that school districts see the correlation and choose to interpret it as causation, and force all their juniors to take the class.” The College Board’s other main offering is the SAT. Though the test is required at many schools, including Garfield, it isn’t without its own share of problems. “Institutionally it is an exam specifically made to benefit white male privileged students,” said Tiffany Bigham, the College and Career Specialist and AP Testing Coordinator at Garfield. “It’s not about aptitude, it’s not about intelligence, it’s about how well you know how to take this particular test.” The College Board is a not-for-profit organization, which is different than a forprofit company, but isn’t the same thing as a nonprofit, which further complicates things. “Think about some of the not-for-profits that deal with students,” Mr. Thomas said. “For example, the NCAA. That’s a not-for-profit organization, yet coaches make millions of dollars. Just because an organization is a notfor-prof it d o e s n’ t mean that individuals who work for the organization can’t make a lot of money.” But Ms. Tiffany doesn’t think this means that the College Board should be vilified. “I think like anything, the College Board is a tool,” she said. “Because they have cornered the market on [what they do], I think it’s really important to look at it like a tool instead of making it an enemy or a martyr. If playing by these particular rules is how you have to navigate it, then by all means do, but just know that AP, SAT, and the College Board as a whole are all just feeding off a particular narrative, and I think it’s time that we look a little bit more outwardly on that.”

looking to the sky for your various fortunes stars ambivalent -Mr. Shaw

ASTROLOGY EDITION Shout out to the moon, stars, and planets that have all aligned to make my day spectacular! The divine intervention of the solar system allows this Gemini diva to flourish through my allegiance to the cosmos. Seriously, without astrology how else would I be able to figure out what my future holds or what outfit goes with a solar eclipse that aligns with Aries rising in my 2nd sun? Astrology is a therapist, a life coach, and that old, loose lipped grandmother who keeps telling you you’re getting fat when no one asked for her crappy opinion; always giving you the unwanted advice that you never knew you needed. Also, my daily horoscope is always on point, it’s a perfect way to confirm and justify my mood swings. I mean, it may be as accurate as a weather report but if I’m having a bad day or catching an attitude, blame it on the planets! Astrology is amazing - don’t @ me Shaw (He must be a Capricorn) And to all the non-believers, I get it, that retrograde in Mercury is not letting you live your best life, so I’ll give you a pass. -Ms. Minor



beef and mushroom

broccoli and cheddar

chicken noodle

clam chowder







Our next topic will be:


Have strong feelings about this topic? Send in your 100-150 word Rant or Rave about the topic to by December 13 for the chance to be published in the next issue!


NEWS Licton Springs : A mineral spring sacred to the Duwamish people, named in Salish for the red mud of the water. Licton Springs K-8 School used to be the site of Urban Native Education Alliance, before their recent eviction by Seattle Public Schools. “Licton Springs was an important place of origin for our youth because of the historical significance and the cultural memory. The Licton spring is an important site. We were really looking forward to revitalizing it and restoring it and bringing more signage that’s respectful of the history, and provides the history in Lushootseed.” -Sarah SenseWilson


“UNEA received an email from John Halfacre (the area director) saying that they were terminating our partnership. So as things stand right now, there is a lawsuit against the Seattle Public Schools for lack of due process discrimination. We just recently were able to establish a partnership with the North Seattle College. So we relocated. It was a huge disruption.”

The Chief Seattle Club is a 501(c)3 registered organization dedicated to physically and spiritually supporting American Indian and Alaska Native people. At our center in the Pioneer Square district of downtown Seattle, we provide food, medical support, housing assistance, the Urban Indian Legal Clinic, a Native art program and gallery, frequent outings to tribes, pow wows, and museums, and much more.” -Chief Seattle Club website

“Our native students already have disadvantages and a lot of complicated issues that stem from historical trauma, and intergenerational transmission of unresolved grief and loss, and poverty and homelessness and a whole number of challenges, so to not have the Clear Sky [tutoring and mentorship program] as a resource twice a week has really had a big impact on our community and on our students.” “The thing is, [as urban Indians], we don’t have ownership. A lot of us don’t own a home. I don’t own a home. I grew up here, am a white-collar professional, a licensed therapist, and I’m not a homeowner. A lot of us, we don’t own anything. That’s what made the termination and eviction at Robert Eagle Staff such a traumatic experience for our community.”

Duwamish Longhouse: ”The longhouse is super important. It’s something the tribe has wanted since the early 70’s. When we were fighting for federal recognition, the number one priority besides that was always a place to gather and have a home for the Duwamish people.”-Jolene Haas, Duwamish Longhouse Director

“A lot of our families are homeless and it felt like they were being double-evicted. A program that serves a holistic approach for supporting native students was being evicted without legitimate reason. This is Duwamish territory, Suquamish, Snoqualmie, Muckleshoot, Tulalip, and yet our communities are urban Indians and we experience so much struggle and strife and displacement. The invisibility is still there. Having a festival or activity or event, that’s great and all, but a one day thing doesn’t necessarily have an impact.”

T-107 Archeological Site:


Art by Sophia Chrysanthakopoulos

Interview with UNEA cofounder Sarah Sense-Wilson

“We are a grassroots volunteer-based 501c3 nonprofit. It’s a native lead and student centered organization. We are grassroots and we haven’t diverged from that at all. Our focus is to advocate and to support our native learners through our programs, the Seattle Clear Sky Native Youth Council and Native Warrior Athletics.”-Sarah Sense-Wilson, UNEA cofounder and board member

Chief Seattle Club:

“They found an archeological site next to the river, across the street from where the longhouse is now, and they dug a bunch of artifacts up from the ground. Since that’s known to be the site of a Duwamish village, we came forward to get those artifacts, but they said, these belong in the Burke museum, you can have them when there’s a cultural center. So we had to get a longhouse built to display those artifacts and interpret them. We succeeded in not letting them build anything on that site, and now it’s on the National Register of historic places.” -Jolene Haas

Urban Native Education Alliance (currently based at North Seattle College)

Sarah Sense-Wilson. UNEA Cofounder: “Learning to be a good ally [means] imRobert Purser III, Suquamish Elder: mersing in our community. That might “Visit reservations and attend their events mean volunteering, it might mean some that are open to the public. Seek more kind of mentorship, stuffing envelopes, knowledge then what your school cur- showing up at rallies and demonstrations, riculum offers. Learn about our struggles or donating money. There’s a variety of and triumphs and all that we have had to ways people can lend their support beyond overcome since we signed the treaties with the land acknowledgement. A lot of nonthe United States.” natives get caught up in the romanticized view of natives and they want to go to a longhouse or a museum as observers but they don’t want to actually help cook for a community event.“

HOW CAN NON-NATIVES BE BETTER ALLIES? Jolene Haas, Duwamish Longhouse Director: “It would be nice if the city of Seattle recognized the Duwamish tribe, so we would have a voice. If the federal government won’t honor our treaty rights, it would be nice if at least the city would so we could have a seat at the table. This would cause the city to have a government-to-government relationship with the tribe.”




How college counselors are limiting social mobility By Dominic Sullivan arlier this year, news broke that at least fifty people had been a part of a ring of college admissions cheating, ranging from falsified varsity sport records all the way to fraudulent SAT and ACT tests. While this was a shock to everyone, what isn’t a shock is that the most privileged in our nation, and here at Garfield, get huge advantages over those without the resources to keep up. As the stress around college applications hits its peak, the journey of every applicant has differed tremendously. On one end of the spectrum, some students are just beginning, working tirelessly every night in their room to be the first in their family to go to college. In my world, a weeklong essay writing camp with my college counselor allowed many of my applications to be done over the summer. I applied to almost all of my schools via early action. Instead of stressing over balancing January 15th deadlines and semester finals, I will be able to focus solely on academics. When people talk about college essays, they rarely mention having a college counselor. Because of this, it is easy to think that they are not common, or even that they don’t exist. Many students are aware of the advantage their counselor brings, and as a result, are reluctant to reveal their privilege. The reality is that many stud e nt s hire private college counselors to help them with test prep, essay writing, and the search for financial aid opportunities. These tutors can make all the difference in a college application — and by getting their clients into a better school, they can set them up for a more successful future. My brother completed his college applications without the help of a private counselor. Why? Because nobody talked to him about their college counselor, he was under the false assumption that it was a service rarely used. Further, he felt that a private counselor would give him an


unfair advantage over his less privileged classmates. When colleges compared him to his friends who used counselors, the difference in their application likely was the essay. My brother, and his counterparts who couldn’t afford the service, had an extra obstacle to overcome. Without the help of an experienced essay editor, his application was put at a competitive disadvantage. This is the newest form of class privilege that keeps the wealthy on top and the disadvantaged at the bottom. Now, the American dream of social mobility and working hard for a better future looks further and further from the truth. The process is not getting better for people of color and lower income students — in fact, the percentage of bottom-fifth earners going to Ivies has stagnated in recent years. While colleges love to stress their racial d ive rs it y and their range of incomes, the demographics are not backing up their claims. The top 1 percent of America is 77 times more likely to go to an Ivy than the bottom 20 percent. College counselors play a significant role in creating this divide. Wealthy parents who look in disgust at the headlines of last year’s admissions scandals need to look at themselves in the mirror. Are they also buying their kids into college, just to a lesser extent? Every parent should want their kids to be prepared for the future, but they shouldn’t game the system to give their kids unfair advantages. We need to get rid of the roadblocks in our path to an equal and socially mobile society, and we can start by making college admissions an equal playing field.

Private trauma as public commodity.

By Corinna Singer n 2018, UPenn admissions officers read (a quick poll of twenty-five people on The a touching essay about an applicant’s re- Messenger’s Instagram found that 40% of cently deceased mother. Moved by the the respondents write about trauma) or story, the admissions office accepted the why some students feel that writing about student. But when a school representative their trauma is a go-to avenue to get into happened to call his home, his mother, college. However, the utilization of trauma very much alive, was the one who an- in this way whittles it down into a palatswered the phone. This anecdote illustrates able anecdote that is viewed as a net posia troubling trend in our college application tive. While people assert that overcoming culture. College essays were once a place to trauma made them stronger in the end, display a student’s highlights, but in recent real-world trauma hinders peoples’ abilyears they have morphed into a place to ity to function in daily life. In fact, trauma exhibit a student’s trauma — whether real may decrease a student’s ability to perform or fabricated. well in college. Many personal Furthermore, in statements are prethe short span of dictable stories of tri650 words, students umph over hardship. don’t have time to A familiar example is meaningfully reflect the “sports injury stoon their trauma. ry”: a narrative feaInstead, they are turing a student who forced to oversimsuffers a “devastatplify. A typical essay ing” injury, yet comes begins with a harsh, back stronger. Through extraordinary per- vivid description of the most difficult severance, they learn important lessons event in a student’s life. It leads to how that about recovery, themselves, and the world. student overcame their struggle. And of But why are students fixated on trauma course, it would not be complete without in their college apps? ending in a nice little bow of implications, Students have internalized the notion tying up how the author is a great candithat trauma is what gives them an edge. date for college. After all, the college application While trauma can be an process is getting more seintrinsic part of somelective; students with stelone’s identity, and lar grades and extensive consequently a extracurriculars are powerful thing now a dime a dozen. to write about, In some twisted fashwe should not ion, the way we portray consider trauma to our individual suffering simply be a strength. has become how we judge All too often, our society our essays, and therefore our views trauma as an asset and chances of getting into college. a marker of identity, disregarding It is important to recognize that trauthe deeply personal and horrendous ma is specifically defined in the American aspects. Especially in the context of an Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and impersonal college application, students Statistical Manual (DSM-5). Trauma is not should not feel pressured to disclose their just any negative experience. The DSM-5 trauma. Trauma should be for us to prodefiniton requires “actual or threatened cess, not college admissions offices. death, serious injury, or sexual violence.” Although writing about negative experiences can create an effective personal state- Art by Sophia ment, students should not feel pressured to Chrysanthakopoulos divulge their trauma. Of course, I can’t know for sure what portion of students are writing about trauma




By Grace Chinowsky and Annabelle Frockt


A look at Seattle Public Schools through the e On Work Ethic and Intensity: For many students at Garfield, it is safe to say that one can expect the amount of homework they get every night: if there are variations, they can be attributed to class difficulty or grade level. If one steps outside of the United States, however, a lot can change. Phaedra Mcardle realized early in her childhood in Hong Kong that tutors outside of school were central to maintaining exceptional grades and getting assistance with the 3+ hour homework load a night, starting in fifth grade. “I was relatively good in school,” she said. “But I didn’t realize that it’s just part of the culture there that everyone has tutors and everyone has their parents helping them with homework, and your kids’ schooling is the most important thing in your life.” The experience of international students also amplifies the difference in pace and difficulty of American schooling. It’s a big switch for international students, used to working at a different level of intensity, to adjust to American schools. “Tests and projects and homework here are way easier than in Mexico,” Jason Edwards said about his Veracruz private school. “Normal tests there are like seven to eight pages long, and projects...they give you like a week to finish them, and they’re like really big.” It came as a surprise to Mcardle as well, taken aback at how slowly classes moved and the significant difference in the standards of work in the States. “The first year I was here, it was sophomore year, and I was like ‘I read that book four years ago, where is everyone?’ which I think speaks a lot to the quality of the education system here,” she said. While unsurprisingly yielding higher quality work among students, these intense classroom environments have drawbacks on mental health. “We didn’t know how much we were oppressed by school before I came here,” said Felix Stpierre, who worked vigorously under the French Canadian school system. “We were robots. It’s like do you work, do your work, do your work, and there are no other options for you.”

On Social Sphere : School is often associated with tests and books, but in truth, a large portion of a students’ educational experience is the social aspect: making new friends, learning to deal with conflict and working in teams. That being said, what one does outside of school with friends is equally as useful as culture within to understand the social differences between other countries. Like any other high school in the world, partying is a pronounced part of free time, but it’s not the same as American parties. Sotelo credits this to drinking age, which in Mexico is 18. Mcardle had a similar experience: kids starting to experiment with drinking and drugs sooner, and with more intensity. “A big part of my middle school experience was sitting in ambulances with people,” she said. “If you have people who don’t have consequences lined up, and they have the money to do whatever they want, it just will happen, so it was definitely more drug and alcohol-heavy sooner.” Inside of school however, the unpleasant baggage of cliques and drama follows students, even when one steps outside of the US. Jason Edwards says a lot of it can be credited to the size of the school. “There was a lot of stereotypes and social groups and it was definitely like less of a friendly environment,” said Edwards about his experience at his small school in Mexico. “...Since everybody knew everybody, it was easy to not get along with someone so a lot of people didn’t.” There were social divisions that ran deeper than just small schools, though. Exclusion was brought on in many forms. Sebastian Sotelo described his experience with social groups as one attributed to wealth or status, at the American school he attended. In Hong Kong, divisions were obvious and racially-based. As a newcomer, Mcardle felt isolated in social groups: the two options being white, expatriate students and native Chinese students. She felt that she fit into neither, as she was fluent in the language and comfortable in the culture, but also white. “Of course there are still many aspects of white privilege that carry through to China, but Chinese prejudice and racism is different than it is here,” she said. “[My friends] nickname for me [was] this old Hong Kong derogatory term for white people, which is 鬼佬 (White Devil) just kind of became part of my identity.”

On Graduatio tions:

At Garfield, s presented with high-school opt tending a four-y munity college, apprenticeships opportunities often viewed as impressive. Outside of t post-high-schoo more dependen school one atte can school Seb to, “the expect colleges in Mex es abroad.” Co schools in Mexic cent of people workforce, and t college,” he said At these colleg of people study ment because a to open up res nesses,” Jason E In Felix Stpier bec, however, fo most students ta “We can’t go s sity because w (due to the pro we get to go to jour, where you working on wh when it’s time to can know what do,” he said. But even thou this opportunity they want to do upon them is o more, oppressiv “[The expect are] to go to co tense [than her like, ‘go to colleg like it you can ies or do someth said. “But there, college as soon with sejour, you able, you are g less… People sa and take the t don’t come back

“Th American Ex p er i e


Graphics by Sophia Chrysanthakopolous and Sam Boyar

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There is much to be learned from the public and private education systems in other countries, as well as the personal experiences of the students who are able to compare those schools with American institutions. One ma jor takeaway from Garfield’s international students is that a government’s investment in public education is the one thing that has the greatest ability to make ma jor and lasting change for a country’s youth. “In general, China invests more in their public schools than the US does...I feel like the US should take a lesson from that,” Phaedra Mcardle noted. In Quebec, public education funding has eliminated most educational inequity. “Before, you could get a better education in a private school. But now, the government invests way more money and time in public schools. So now, all that a private school can offer you, a public school can do it. All you need is good grades,” Stpierre said. “There is no such privilege for rich people in school. Everybody starts there, and everybody finishes there, rich or poor, you decide how far you can go.” And yet, while there is room for improvement in American public education, it is incredibly important to not neglect the privilege American students have, solely by being able to be in this system. “There’s lots of resources here... everything is online...the Source, you can check your grades, everything’s like neatly organized,” said Jason Edwards. “A public school in Seattle, or in the US, is a pretty nice private school in Mexico,” added Sebastian Sotelo. Sotelo encourages American students who don’t value this relatively high-quality education they automatically receive, to look outwards, and think about the state of public education in Mexico, and other countries all over the world.

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ugh students have y to figure out what o, the pressure put often just as, if not ve than here. tations in Quebec ollege, but more inre]. People here are ge, and if you don’t change your studthing else,’” Stpierre , if you don’t go to n as you are done u are not employgoing to be homeay ‘choose very well time, because you k.’”

On American Education:


the United States, ol expectations are nt on the type of ends. At the Ameribastian Sotelo went tations were good xico City, or collegompared to“ public co, basically 65 perjust went into the the rest would go to d. ges in Mexico, “a lot y business managea lot of people want staurants and busiEdwards added. rre’s home of Queollowing high school ake a different path. straight into univerwe miss senior year ovincial system), so o a thing called sespend three years hat you’d like. So o go to college, you you really want to

The prevalence of school shootings in the news and the regularity of lockdowns have had a numbing effect to the American student population. So numbing, in fact, that it is easy to forget that school safety is rarely a concern, let alone a partisan political issue, in other countries. At Sebastian Sotelo’s school in Mexico City, safety precautions were only for natural disasters, as opposed to a human threat. In Veracruz, Jason Edwards had a similar experience. “In Mexico, [school shootings] weren’t really a thing at all...the most that can happen is just people getting in huge never really goes to the point where [your life] is threatened…” he said. Although designed to keep students safe, new rules like the hall pass vests and door restrictions have made Garfield students hyper-aware of this looming, unspoken threat. While schools in other countries may have similar regulations, they are for alternate causes. “There are a lot of rules, like taking the jacket when you go to the bathroom there [Quebec], but it is for very different reasons. There we have very good gun safety, so they don’t tell us what to do during a mass shooting, because they just don’t happen,” Felix Stpierre explained. “The reason why they control us like that is to make sure we are following all our classes. Here at Garfield, I feel safe now. But during the first weeks I was always stressed...I was like ‘they don’t have gun safety here, am I going to get shot?’ but now I am okay.” This being said, for students like Sotelo and Phaedra Mcardle, both of whom went to private schools, the presence of security officers at school is nothing new. “The American school I attended had a lot of cops because there were a lot of very important kids, like kids of politicians,” Sotelo said. “So the politicians either had security outside of the school, or private security inside the school. It was really wild.”


students are rarely h any viable posttions other than atyear college. Com, vocational school, s, and other work are unfortunately s lesser, and not as

On School Safety:


on Expecta-


Phaedra was shocked at how bad the school lunch is


student submissions By Nina Tran ‘21

By Siena Draher ‘23 By Anonymous

By Jasmin Park ‘21


If you are a writer, artist, or photographer and want to see your work featured in the Student Submissions page, email!


A new movement among music educators in the Central District. By Matt Lord


n October 10th, student and alumni The new policy mandates that all new stumusicians of Garfield High School and dents must take a music class in sixth grade, Washington Middle School came to- and that they all be placed in the same startgether at Seattle City Hall to engage with the ing ensembles, regardless of prior experience. community in a benefit concert named Jazz “Taking that component of what we were Up Jackson Street. Over $45,000 were raised doing with the school, we started talking to go towards making Central District school about fundraising, because having every music programs more equitable. sixth-grader take a music class means we The two lead organizers of the event, Gar- need a lot of instruments that we don’t have.” field jazz and band director Jared Sessink and The new policy was controversial. “We Washington and Garfield choir director Blake hear this argument from some people, adults Saunders, explained the purpose of the event and children, that say, ‘there are going to be and their plans going forward. kids who don’t want to do this, so why are “It was an idea that started as an alumni you forcing them?’” Sessink said, “and my concert, and originally it was going to only response to that is ‘we don’t say that about involve Washington,” said Sessink, who math, we make them take math’.” taught music at Washington before coming Saunders and Sessink believe that it is imto Garfield this year. “Once I got to Garfield portant that everyone at least try music. Alin June, it was sort of like, ‘well, to keep this though they do not plan on advocating manthing going, I’m going to have to get Garfield datory music for Garfield freshmen, they still involved’.” believe Garfield students As a primary feeder should find some way to school for Garfield, Washparticipate. “We want to ington plays a key role in see music be the commushaping Garfield’s student nity,” Sessink said. body. Recognizing this, “There’s a whole group Sessink and Saunders deof people—a large per-Jared Sessink cided to focus their attencentage of the school— tion on Washington first. that never enters a music room,” Saunders “We implemented a policy change with said. “Jimi Hendrix went to Garfield, and he [Washington] admin last year that all sixth- was never in the music department. That’s graders were going to be in an integrated crazy. Like how did he get missed?” model,” Sessink said. Sessink and Saunders outlined some of

their plans to make the music department more accessible. “Doing the same thing that has been going on for 40 years is not going to work,” Saunders said. “We can’t just do the same music that has always been done; we have to be updating, we have to be changing, we have to be reacting to what the students want to do.” Both teachers agree that allowing students to decide on how to approach music class could lead to greater student involvement. “Both Sessink and I are -Blake Saunders very into project-based learning, which, in my opinion, invites a lot more students to be successful,” Saunders said. “If it’s project-based, that means it’s student-driven, studentchoice, student-empowered. That will bring many more students into a situation where they feel like they’re part of the music department.” Both Sessink and Saunders recognized that the demographics of Garfield and Washington music programs are not representative of the Central District. “My whole jam is decolonizing the classroom, and making it so that it looks similar to the whole school,” Saunders said. Changes are being made to address this issue.

“We’re trying to get coaches and clinicians into the school and the priority is to ensure that they represent the community,” Sessink added. Some of the changes in Garfield music are already taking place. This month’s Veterans Day assembly had performances from Garfield’s choir and orchestra, and Sessink and Saunders plan to involve Garfield ensembles in future assemblies. It’s not just Sessink and Saunders who are working to make their vision a reality. Bryan Kolk, Washington and Garfield orchestra director, and Michael Sundt, Washington jazz and band director and partial Garfield jazz band director, are working to bring about change as well. “We’re all collaborating at a level that has probably never happened in the district,” Sessink said. “If Mr. Sundt is teaching sixth grade band and he has a bad day, he’s going to call me.” The October 10th concert may be over, but it is only the beginning of a larger movement. Music teachers at Washington and Garfield, as Saunders put it, are trying to make it so that “every single student that wants to should be able to play music at the level they want to.”

Sadow-Hasenberg said. “There are four seperate scenes with peoOriginally performed in 1982, Noises Off ple entirely in their underwear [while] the is a comedy written by Michael Frayn about entire set rotates around. It gets over the top a group of actors reand crazy,” Sadowhearsing for a show Hasenberg added. called Nothing’s Each characOn. It shows the ter ultimately has backstage experitwo personalities ences of the actors which makes the in a humorous way. plot much more “It’s a comedy, fascinating. The the show is a show character Dotty within a show.” seOtley, played by nior Marisa Viola senior Sophia Photo Courtesy of Jude Sullenzino said. “It’s a funny Mitchell, is a way to look at what real theater is like.” good example of the show’s perplexing as-

pect. Dotty plays the clumsy housekeeper, Ms. Clackett, in the play-within-the-play. Mitchell described Ms. Clackett as a “middle-aged diva”. On the other hand, Dotty is a lot more dramatic and uncivil- making this play a whole lot more interesting. Noises Off had their first performance November 14th, and it received a lot of positive feedback from the community. “It was just a delight to work with such a small cast and work with Mr. Anderson one-on-one a little bit more,” Sadow-Hasenberg said.



Art by Ria Maisano-Torres


Garfield’s theatre department’s latest project. By Khassim Diakhate


very fall, the Garfield theater department puts on a play for the community, and this year’s show, Noises Off, has been entertaining audiences with its compelling plot and hilarious gags. This year is excitingly different, with this being the first show with Isiah Anderson as the new theater director. The Garfield theater program is thrilled for the positive changes Anderson has made to the program. “The show is ridiculously fun, and I’m also really excited about Mr. Anderson who is making changes in a really positive way and shifting the dynamic in Garfield theatre in a super positive direction,” senior Eli



A home away from home (but with better popcorn). By Molly Chapin


ith your first steps off the streets of Columbia City and into Ark Lodge Cinemas, you will be engulfed by the smell of perfectly buttery popcorn, and the sense that there’s something special about this theater. The old historical building that houses the cinema, which has been a staple of the Columbia City Neighborhood for nearly 100 years, perfectly conveys the theater’s role in the neighborhood. In recent years, gentrification and development occurring in Columbia City has taken a toll on businesses like Ark Lodge Cinemas. People who were once invested in these businesses are now being pushed out of the neighborhood, so maintaining community involvement has become more important than ever. Miguel Martinez, the current Director of Operations at Ark Lodge Cinemas, has worked in the industry for 25 years, in both Chicago and Seattle. “We rely on the community to come in and watch movies. Sometimes we show blockbusters like Avengers: Endgame,

while other times we show indie films like Midsommar or The Last Black Man in San Francisco,” Martinez said. “While we might change the types of films we play week to week, the people of Columbia City will always have a home here.” In many ways, it’s that sense of community that continues to breathe life into Ark Lodge. Jose Gonzales and Lisa Halpern have lived in the Columbia City neighborhood for 20 years, and frequently attend screenings at the cinema. “Many times we’ll get into a conversation with somebody who is sitting next to us, even if it’s just for a few minutes. That’s such a sweet thing, it’s a throwback to the old days when people talked to each other,” Halpern said. “There’s something really lovely about meeting your neighbors in this

space and getting to have a laugh or say hello.” The Ark Lodge is truly one of a kind, a fact that long-time residents of the area will reiterate time and time again. “It’s a great alternative to some of the giant multiplexes that are around that are just kind of faceless. This one feels like it’s our neighborhood’s,” Gonzales said. Many Garfield students have grown up going to the Ark Lodge Art by Caroline Ashby as well, including junior Emily Wills. “It’s always been there, and I have so many good memories attached to the building and people,” Wills said. “It feels like you’re watching a movie with all of your neighbors instead of just strangers.” But as Seattle gentrifies and develops, historical neighborhoods like Columbia City

risk losing their sense of home and familiarity. “Often what happens, and what’s happening in Seattle, is that the land is becoming more valuable than the businesses that are on it,” Gonzales said. This is where we come in, both as members of the greater Seattle community and a new generation of movie-goers. “Come by, watch films, and buy gift cards for the family. If you’re not too sure about a certain film, drop by on $6 Wednesdays and watch something a little different,” Martinez said. “We show films from around the world and small independent films you might not see anywhere else.” So head down to Ark Lodge Cinemas next early release Wednesday. Go watch a movie in the prestige room, which is filled with cozy chairs and velvet couches instead of your average movie theater seats. Either way, buy a bag of delicious buttery popcorn, and settle in. For more information, visit


In search of Seattle’s sexiest soups. By Tova Gaster

RANCHO BRAVO Pozole is a Mexican soup which comes in red and green varieties. Both versions feature a hearty broth with stewed hominy and chunks of pork or chicken. I got Rancho Bravo’s pozole rojo, which came bright red and steaming with a side of corn tortillas. The heartiness and heat of pozole make it an ideal fall soup, with its passionate crimson hue ranking it high in terms of presentation. However, the extremely salty broth and the sheen of orange oil floating on the top of Rancho Bravo’s version of pozole rojo left me and my co-tasters feeling dehydrated and dazed— not particularly sexy. Rancho Bravo, with locations in Capitol Hill and Wallingford, is a tasty and affordable option for anyone looking for a quick and filling stew to put meat on their bones against the November chill.


Art by Molly Chapin

PHO BAC Thinking of taking her swimming on a first date? Don’t, that’s sexist and weird. The only thing you should be swimming in is an extra large pho at Pho Bac. Last time I went to Pho Bac 10ish years ago, it was a casual Vietnamese eatery in a building shaped like a big red boat on the east side of the International District. It has since moved across the street and embraced a more Instagrammable aesthetic, with cursive neon wall art and wine menus on those black boards with stick-on white letters. Consistent with the new decor, it is kind of pricey, but the portions are huge. I got a small vegetarian pho and spring rolls to share with my friend, which was more than enough food for us (costing a total of $15). The vegetarian pho was….decent. The vegetable broth was flavorful and light without being thin, and the rice noodles seemed fresh and weren’t limp to the chopsticks. Huge vegetable chunks— cabbage, broccoli, carrots, mushrooms— floated in the broth. The unevenly cooked crunch of the carrots created bland obstacles to smooth sipping. Soup is often considered an ideal food for chew-challenged people, but if you’re a toothless king, this is not the bowl for you. The broth was crowned with slivers of crisp roasted garlic, a savory redeeming detail which elevated the soup beyond your average veggie pho.

VIENTIANE DELI Vientiane Deli, a grocery on MLK named after the capital city of Laos, is easy to pass by at first glance. The windows are papered with photos from their selection of Thai and Laotian dishes, including a solid range of warming and flavorful soups. Most fall in the $7-10 range for a huge bowl. We ordered the Khao Piak, which arrived as a large bowl of fragrant chicken soup. Khao Piak translates to “chewy rice strands”, and the thick fresh noodles, made from a blend of rice and tapioca flour, were a highlight– chewy and soft for easy slurpability. The chicken broth was cloudy and hot, with an almost gelatinous texture perfect for soothing a sore throat. The strands of chicken included both light and dark meat, which added gamey depth to the flavor profile, although the soup may have benefitted from more of both meat and noodles. Without hot sauce, the Khao Piak was a little bland, but it was immediately improved with a spoonful of deep red chili oil. Vientiane’s Khao Piak may not be a “sexy” soup, but the nurturing grandmaenergy of the steaming hot broth makes it worth the stop for anyone in need of nourishment, physical or spiritual.


rag spent decades relegated to the underground, but in our post-RuPaul and more queer-friendly world, drag has hit the mainstream. The side effect? Losing touch with the culture that makes Seattle’s drag scene unique. “The performers that ended up on RuPaul’s Drag Race from Seattle are all very traditional, when in reality Seattle’s drag scene is more artistic and rooted in counterculture,” said Brendan Mack, a local playwright and queen who performs as Butch Alice. “Seattle doesn’t give a flying f*** about mainstream,” Mack added. “Queens are doing their own art and they aren’t trying to imitate other people.” Mack’s art is playwriting: in original works like The Fog Machine Play (written to justify a 2013 purchase of a fog machine) Mack aims to create an experience “where you don’t know what [the play will be like but] you know you have to be there.” Drag’s sprinkled in for fun rather than any particular reason. “The coolest part of drag is that you can slap it onto anything,” said Strawberry Shartcake, another local queen and 2017 winner of the Miss Bacon Strip drag pageant. “There’s so much drag you can see in Seattle: the more stereotypical pageant, ‘beauty parlor’ drag, or the queer genderfluid drag,” said Rainbow Gorecake, one of Seattle’s youngest professional queens. Genderfluid drag is part of what makes Seattle’s scene stand out. Neither Strawberry Shartcake nor Butch Alice present in a traditionally “feminine” way like RuPaul’s queens; Strawberry sports a magnificent mustache and Alice bares her beard proudly. This kind of drag is called “genderf***.” The purpose of genderf*** is to transgress traditional notions of “masculinity” and “femininity” and open spaces for alternative expression. “Drag queens are always at the forefront of queer change” said Issa Man, a local Alaska-raised queen. Visage “Legs” Larue challenges the relationship between sex assigned at birth and drag. “A lot of times people think I’m a man, or I’m trans, but I’m assigned female at birth and I’m a drag queen,” Larue said. Larue deploys drag to explore hyperfemininity. “[Drag]’s an artform that’s over the top, it’s taking things to the extreme,” Larue

said. Strawberry also employs hyperexpression to challenge norms about gender and sexuality. Through drag, Strawberry expresses queer hypermasculinity to create a space where people feel comfortable with nonnormativity in artistic expression and public spaces. That expression can involve crossdressing, heels, and mascara; it can involve mustaches, beards, and lashes; or it can involve something else entirely. “[People have preconceptions] like ‘if you’re not wearing nails you’re not doing drag’ or ‘if you’re not wearing lashes you’re not doing drag,’” Larue said. “[Yet] if people were to take a step back and look at it as an art form they could see we don’t compare Picasso to Michaelangelo.

ality, has played an important role in their lives. Strawberry thinks that one of the exciting parts about being a queen is being a leader in that community – a “matriarch.” Mack divides queens into three categories. First, there are the kind-hearted queens that will take thirty minutes to sit in the corner with a complete stranger and be their ally whether they’re going through a breakup, an identity crisis, or just having a rough day. They’ll say all the right things to make that person feel great. Then there are the spokesperson queens. “Not every [queer] person is super extroverted,” Mack said. “Sometimes they need someone to get on stage, in a costume and wig, and say things because someone else in the community

By Izzy Lamola and Ben Thomas. Art by Wynsome Burke. They’re two totally different styles but they both created beautiful pieces.” Spaces where people express gender and sexuality in nonnormative ways help queer people feel like they have a community and a home, especially when they don’t have a [] otherwise. “I felt like I had finally found my place,” Larue said. Seattle’s scene also stands out for its inclusivity. “Seattle is a safe space because people are brave here — there are people saying ‘you know what, we’re just going to go out and be ourselves and dress [how] we want, we don’t care’,” Issa said. All the queens we talked with shared the same sentiment: a community that celebrates you, no matter your gender or sexu-

can’t.” These queens hone in on important issues like safe sex, allyship, and support for art in gentrifying communities. Finally, there are the activist queens who put their voice behind politicians, charities, and social issues. “Any mayoral campaign in Seattle has a bunch of different drag queens that are behind them and supporting them,” Mack said. “As drag queens we have platforms. People come see us perform and they know our names; they listen to us. When people listen to you, you have a platform and with platforms come change,” Issa said. That platform has grown as drag has branched out to new spaces not traditionally associated with drag. “Lately, the coolest thing I’ve been noticing is a lot of straight-


oriented bars are hiring [queens] – almost as ‘douche-repellent,’” Strawberry said. Larue noted that queens are performing at all kinds of new spaces, like a beer shop in Greenwood. Although drag has become accessible to more audiences, age remains a barrier. Some venues, like Copious, host all-ages shows, but spaces like these are rare. During the two-week process of interviewing local queens for this article there were no all-ages shows to attend. The age restriction makes sense for some shows, like “draglesque” (a portmanteau of “drag” and “burlesque”), but age restrictions bar young people from family-friendly drag because (pun intended), most drag is at bars. As drag goes mainstream it faces the same challenge as Grunge did in the nineties: pulling in enough cash that queens can pay their bills without sacrificing drag’s counter-culture integrity and, as Strawberry put it, “turning it into a big gross capitalist corporate nightmare.” How can drag balance artistic integrity and paying the bills? All the queens suggested the same idea: stop the competition between bars. “There’s a lot of fighting between the [bars] – not the queens – but it’s still affecting where they get booked,” Strawberry said. “A lot of venues tell performers that they can’t perform at other places, because you can imagine, if I belonged to a specific show and I got booked in a different show on the same night, [then] there’s a bunch of followers leaving the show I’m usually in to come see something else,” Mack explained. Fights between bars hurt the community. Casts have become so solidified that there’s little cross-over between different styles, and queens get blamed for issues that have nothing to do with them. These fights run counter to everything Seattle’s drag community stands for: inclusivity, allyship, and nonnormativity. “I would really love it if there was more crossing between the venues and the styles of drag [...] casts get pretty solid for most of the main shows [...] but opening up doors for more drag kings and female drag artists like myself [would be great],” Larue said. “I want there to be more venues for us to perform at. I think drag should be everywhere. I want twice as much drag as we already have because it’s such an integral part of the queer community,” Issa said.




A sneak peek into Garfield’s first-ever bowling team. By Téa Fortune


ome know bowling as a game played with friends and family Friday night or over the weekend, but for others, it’s played during the week as a competitive sport. This year, for the first time ever, Garfield will have a women’s bowling team called the Garfield BowlDogs. The Garfield BowlDogs will be joining the winter lineup and be coached by Garfield’s Athletic Director Ms. Lynch. Before bowling came to Garfield, there were conventions between schools deciding if they would introduce bowling to their schools. “Eight of Metro’s schools said, ‘Yes, we’ll have a bowling team,’. There are two private and six public schools [participating in bowling this year],” Lynch said. Garfield is a part of both the Metro League and the Washington Interscholastic Activities Association. The WIAA is an organization that creates rules for middle and high school sports in Washington, while the Metro League is a conference who holds 18

schools. “Bowling has been a part of the WIAA for girls for 12 to 15 years, but the Metro League didn’t have [bowling],” Lynch said. Since the Metro League didn’t have bowling, most schools created clubs that were co-ed or the schools went to other leagues. Coming this spring, Lynch hopes to bring a co-ed bowling club to Garfield since boys can’t play the sport due to WIAA regulations and because it is a women’s sport. “It will be a co-ed


thing because there are other schools that have co-ed teams, so we can make a league and it could be fun” Lynch said. The way bowling works as a school sport is that there are five people on each team, and the team who scores the most amount of points wins. This year since seventeen girls signed up, there will be both a JV and Varsity team. One person on the team is Rachel Anderson. “I want to further de-

velop my bowling skills and I think it will be really fun to be on a sports team again,” Anderson said. This will be Anderson’s last year at Garfield and is excited to see more girls teams come to Garfield during the winter season. “I like that there’s an all-girls sport. Girl’s sports teams are very under-supported and we give a lot of our support to the boy’s teams, but we don’t show up the girl’s team. If you look at the number of people that show up to boys varsity basketball versus girl’s varsity basketball there’s this huge disparity.” Anderson said. In the past, at Garfield, there hasn’t been a lot of support for girl teams even when there is an equal amount of both boys and girls teams. “I’m hoping fans will come to matches sometimes and cheer us on,” Lynch said. Information about when the girls play or how one can sign up for bowling next year can all be found on Garfield’s website.

Art by Caroline Ashby

Grappling with Garfield’s issues with wrestling By Kai Craig


ompetition day. In a sea of matching elastic jumpsuits, it can be hard to stand out, that is, unless you are one of the few female competitors on the team. Last year, Garfield’s “co-ed” wrestling team had seven girls participating, and over twenty boys, a fact very apparent in last year’s photo, where you can hardly tell its a co-ed team at all. This fact has not gone unnoticed by those on the team, and this year’s recruitment has been a huge priority for them. Though the season has only just begun, pre-season workouts and rosters show that this year there are already enough members to qualify for an official women’s team, rather than operating under the umbrella term “co-ed”. This year’s coaches Jolynn Wynn and John Williams hope to continue to expand and grow the program into something Garfield as a whole can be interested in and proud of, as we are with so many other sports. Many members of the team feel that part of this disparity has much to do with how


receptive the Garfield community is towards the sport. “In past years I feel like when folks on varsity cross-country or track go to State or Metros, it hits GTV and students’ Instagrams immediately,” junior Binh Vo said, “whereas with a more stigmatized sport such as Wrestling [those achievements] get swept under the rug.” “With sports like cross-country, most of the students come from a very similar background, social class, neighborhood, [etc], and so many of them are POST kids and stuff, so of course people hear about that and support the team,” Vo said. Wrestling is an inherently intimate sport, and some feel as those this may also contribute to the lack of support and attention the team receives. “I feel like people tend to avoid [talking about] wrestling because it’s seen as such a gay sport,” Vo said. Another issue that arises with wrestling versus other sports is that it is so easy to

sexualize it, especially when talking about female wrestlers. There is the prevalent stereotype of women performing some form of “sexy wrestling” in order to please a male gaze, and it can be hard to move past that when trying to increase participation. As a woman, it is easy to veer away from a sport with so much social baggage and opt for

something more straightforward. However, that should not have to be a factor in one’s choice of activity. Garfield can begin to correct these factors by simply openly supporting the teams, getting the word out about it, and allowing it to function and prosper as so many other sports do. “The hope is that with the creation of [groups] like [the Dawg Pound], students can begin to participate in and support teams that may otherwise remain an underdog at such an activity heavy school,” Vo said.

Photo by Sam Boyar


UNSUPRISINGLY UNSUPPORTED A Fundamental Flaw in Womens Sports.

By Simone Cielos *This is an opinion piece and does not necessarily reflect the views of The Messenger.*


hat do STEM, bodily autonomy, adn Sports have in common? Excluding women. Sports have been deemed the national past time of American culture, yet time and time again femme athletes are overlooked. Women in sports spend their entire lives striving to achieve their dreams, and are granted little support and funding. Comparing the highest paid female and male athletes, Lionel Messi is paid 1.5 times more than the highest paid female athlete of 2018, Serena Williams, who already makes 50 million more a year than almost any other femme athlete in the world. More recent inequity is evident in reporting about the National American Soccer League. According to the Wall Street Journal’s reporting on a lawsuit filed by the National US Soccer League, the women’s team events made 50.8 million in revenue as of 2016 compared to the men’s 49.9 million. It was later found that the women’s team made $99,000 ($4,950 per game) maximum, compared to the men’s team’s maximum of $263,320 ($13,166 per game). The only explanation here is gender inequity. People attempt to explain this by saying that women are naturally worse or less talented compared to male peers. Although body mass may be different between assigned genders, the individual ability of a person: agility, mental coordination, and most other things needed in sports, are indistinguishable by gender. Sports have historically been perceived as an important part of male adolescence and have grown to be a pillar of toxic masculinity, creating social pressure for straight men to prove themselves. On the other hand, women’s sports have struggled to be afforded the same importance. Leagues specifically centered around femme players are a new phenomenon. It is alarming that the foundation and growth of this industry is only at its beginning. How can a womens league be expected to have the same development as men’s leagues which have been present for nearly double the amount of time? In the specific example of basketball, it is undeniable that all basketball players were not at the same caliber as they are now. It is

not the natural superiority of men, but rather the aging and growth of a league in general that improves performance. Women are expected to do things and prove themselves for the validation of men. Women are told to beat the impossible or not try at all. From a young age, women in sports are given few resources and even less support. In many of Garfield’s own girls teams, players have to pool money together to purchase necessary gear to be able to compete. This cannot be blamed on any individual Athletic Director or school program. Much of the issue can be attributed to an additional party, the donors, who often make the biggest impact on the players and team through funding. Many women’s teams see an intense disparity in donorship, receiving hardly enough funding. This aspect does not change, even for state champions such as the Garfield softball team, who previous to last year had reused the same gear so many seasons there were holes on their uniforms and the numbers peeling off. This makes it unsurprising that only upper-class students can afford to play sports, especially those with costly gear requirements. When athletes are part of the free and reduced lunch program and their teams don’t even have basic resources, they can’t afford to pay hundreds of dollars on sports like soccer just to play. There just isn’t the opportunity for them. With ASB, gear, transport, and other necessary expenses, poor young women cannot afford to play a sport even if they wanted to. Additionally, communities of color struggle with historical economic disparities. Unable to pay for these sports, many individuals will not try, leaving the teams made up of majority upper and middle class white women. Black and Brown students especially, who are lucky enough to afford to play, are often pressured into assimilation and conformity to white peers in order to fit in and be accepted. This economic, racial, and social domino effect is a visible problem that many can relate to, especially in sports that are already dominated by wealthy white women, spaces that already foster ignorance and a lack of diver-



Low income and race are a crossroad of unfortunate athletic circumstances, and the path of Trans and non-binary athletes is part of it. Trans men and women, and any other athlete in the gender spectrum, are refused spots on teams for “unfair” disadvantages or advantages, simply because of their assigned gender. Casual transphobia turns into unfair treatment and reporting. Athletes such as Taliah Johnson (Crossing Into Court: page 18) are forced to go to court to be able to compete, and they are excluded from sports altogether. There is avid racism and transphobia in sports settings. Among teammates, many marginalized players are faced with intense bigotry while being shoved from the spotlight, facing microaggressions and systemic racism that has been reflected onto their own teammates. This matters most. The systems are already put against players with little to no financial support, crowd support, or institutional support. To personally choose not to show up and support because the games “aren’t as entertaining,” is only reinforcing damaging narratives. Sports have proven to be one of the biggest sources for empowerment and community for those in the margins. When these sports are unreachable or inaccessible, people essentially wipe away that possibility for women. Sports can help create friendships, livelihoods, and passions, and people are practically refusing these opportunities to women, trans folks, brown folks, disabled folks etc. It is our job to rise above a generation that swims in misogyny and other systems meant to work against us. As a student body, it can be done. We can prove that we can do better than we

have in the past, understand our own ignorance, and overcome it. We can grow above the issues that we were raised in, the waters we have waded in. This kind of change doesn’t happen on its own. These are your classmates, friends, and peers. It’s about support. That means if you plan to head to the boy’s varsity game at 9, show up at 7 for the girl’s varsity team. Make these women proud to play for their schools. We need to cheer them on at their best, and pick them up at their worst. Those who have the ability should donate to local girls sports. Talk to those around you about supporting!




Cross-Country Star Posy Vogt

The Struggle of a Non-Binary Cross-Country Runner

By Irya Bland


onstant pressure to perform your best in front of crowds of people? From high school to the major leagues, that’s what being an athlete means for most people. For Torben Johnson, it was more like painting a target on their back. Johnson, a junior this year, is a non-binary member of the Garfield cross-country team. This year, they made a choice to run in the women’s race under the name Taliah. This choice wasn’t an easy decision, however, as they described, “I was having a battle in my mind,” Johnson said, “thinking do I go off of a biological basis or do I do this for myself.” Coaches and members of the team reached out and provided support and encouragement, Johnson recalls. “They had my back and were very helpful.” Johnson said. They then went on to run with the girls varsity team and eventually qualified for Districts. Although Johnson ran through the season with the team’s backing, that wasn’t enough to prevent further problems. Right when Metros came around, two opposing teams decided to anonymously challenge Johnson’s decision to run in the women’s race. “They were saying because I was born biologically male, I had a clear advantage,” Johnson said. The argument these teams were proposing was undeniably ridiculous because, as Johnson pointed out, this was simply not true. “There were people in the top varsity races running at least a minute faster than me who were biologically female,” Johnson said. Johnson was left with two options: appeal or abide by the ruling. They decided to appeal. “I had to go through a legal hearing,”


Johnson said, “which involved multiple people including my mom, Coach Derek, and people from the WIAA.” In the end, with the help and support of those around them, Johnson was given the approval to continue running in the women’s race. “What that means is that no other schools

can challenge me,” said Johnson, “and I will not have to deal with this for track or any other cross-country season.” Even if Washington’s laws against LGBTQ discrimination weren’t enough to stop the challenge from happening in the first place, something seems to have gone right in this legal situation. “I’m lucky to be in a state that has so many legal protections,” Johnson said, “if I was

in a state where this was not the case I think this would’ve been worse.” Unfortunately, legal protection won’t guarantee that Johnson’s future running career will be free of problems. “I will always have a fear of people talk-

ing behind my back,” Johnson said, “and I have to remember that that’s totally normal and what matters is me and the team I’m on now.” Not standing down and making a public decision to run in the women’s race creates the possibility of harassment, something Johnson also fears. In terms of harassment, Johnson’s case, unfortunately, isn’t unique. “Suicide rate is higher, depression and anxiety rate is higher in LGBTQ people,” Johnson said, “especially youth.” It’s not hard to believe that parts of society are still having a hard time accepting non-hetero/ cis narratives and individuals. Mainstream education systems don’t do much to help this either. “Schools don’t really have a lot to help us,” Johnson said, “and people can become ostracized and isolated very quickly.” In an environment where LGBTQ literature and history is not a common topic, it is no surprise that there’s no push for widespread acceptance of LGBTQ communities. This lack of acceptance is a factor in why Johnson was such an easy target for these opposing teams to challenge. Sports are an activity institutionally defined and categorized by only two genders, so when Johnson chose to go against this strict binary, it was inevitable that problems would arise. However, one doesn’t have to become a public target to face these acts of discrimination. For those who are encountering problems much like Johnson’s, they have advice: “Don’t settle. You need to fight for yourself and find those who will support you. Nothing else should matter.” Photos courtesy of Jack Holt


osy Vogt’s extraordinary skill and the supportive welcoming, welcoming nature of the team is what keeps her coming back to cross-country every year. A senior on the varsity team, Vogt initially joined the summer before her freshman year after her sister, a former Garfield runner, encouraged her to try cross-country out. Cross country can be a very intense sport with 2-hour practices every day after school, but Vogt says the close community is what helps her and her teammates remain cool under pressure. “Everyone takes it light-heartedly even though the actual meets are stressful,” Vogt said. Along with high-intensity comes competition. It’s quite common to find yourself competing with your teammates in a sport like cross-country, but the team here at GHS is nothing but encouraging according to Vogt. “Everybody supports everybody no matter what.” Unfortunately, Vogt had to unexpectedly cut her senior season short due to recurring hip pain . However, she was determined to heal by doing physical therapy and crosstraining two or more times a week. It wasn’t the same not being able to practice with her team and there were times where she felt like she wouldn’t run in the season at all, but her team made her feel like she was with them every step of the way. “I still felt like I was a part of the team even though I wasn’t going on runs with them every day .” Vogt said. Continuing her strengthening training diligently, she knew it would only be a matter of time before she would be prepared to run alongside her teammates again. Once Vogt was eligible to run again, it was a pleasant surprise when she found out she would get to run in Districts. Despite being out for the majority of the season, Vogt was nothing short of excited to run with her team again. “I was really lucky, and it was such an awesome experience to have with my team.” Vogt said. The team did not qualify for State this year but it didn’t phase her. “It ended up being worth it to run with my teammates even if we didn’t go to State.” Photo By Jefferson Ashby

By Devon Ling-Efird


WINTER SPORTS PREVIEW By Audrey Abrahams and Liam Hyde


he girls’ basketball team this year is motivated and full of Garfield spirit. Dalayah Daniels, a team captain this year is extremely passionate about basketball and has ambitious plans to make the team the best it can be. “My goals for this season are to win State and hopefully get to Nationals,” said Daniels

Daniels is confident in her team’s abilities and excited to go into the season. “I know we have a very talented group of girls and we are very capable of reaching every goal we put our minds to,” said Daniels. Garfield’s basketball team has had a big impact on Daniels herself and she wants to share that with all of the

players. “Basketball makes me feel like I can do anything and it’s also an outlet from the real world. I have been able to grow in every aspect of my life through this game. Basketball has turned me into a leader on and off the court, something that the classroom cannot always teach.”


arfield’s Wrestling team, has been doing pre-season practices since the beginning of the year, and according to one team leader, Mia Carlson, Garfield wrestlers are fired up for a super exciting season ahead of them. Carlson started wrestling during her freshman year at Garfield and loves the sport. ”My favorite part about wrestling is the matches. When


his year the Garfield Boys Swim and Dive Team is ready to dominate the competition. Senior captain Remy Freeman is excited about the opportunity in front of him and the other captains. “Of course we want to swim fast and have fun, but we also want to make swim team more friendly to [newbies],”

said Freeman. Building an inclusive community is particularly important to Freeman, who has been on the swim team for his entire high school career. “Being able to meet new people of all different ages and making that connection between upper and underclassmen that rarely is able to happen in class is the best part,”

you get on the mat, you’re just really focused on what’s happening, you become really involved in what you’re doing, and it’s just a really great experience, especially if you win.” Carlson said. Wrestling has meets after school most Thursdays where students can watch Garfield’s wrestlers take down the competition.

said Freeman. If you want to support the team, Freeman has a few ideas. “While we’d love to see everybody to come out to meets, even just saying good luck to swimmers before they leave is a great boost.”


s the Garfield gymnastics team goes into its 3rd year since it’s return, they’re ready to compete with the best in the state. Margot Morris, senior, captain, and founder of the team is ready to make this year the best one yet. “My goal is to make sure that the whole team feels welcomed and like


arfield’s “Bowl-dogs” are excited to be bowling for the sport’s first year at Garfield. The coach, Ms. Lynch, who once considered becoming a professional bowler, plans to take the bowling team to State this year. One member or the team, Cecilia Dunbar, says the girls on the bowling team are very supportive

“It would be great to see more people coming out and s u p p o r t ing the team,” Carlson said. Carlson says that the wrestlers at Garfield are very dedicated and enthusiastic about helping the team. ”Garfield’s wrestling team has a really great community, it’s very close and we’re all very passionate about the sport.” Carlson said.

a family,” said Morris. One thing Margot thinks contributes to this is how easy Garfield gymnastics is to get into. “We’ve have a huge range of people from those unable to do a cartwheel all the way through doing a double backflip,” said Morris “That wide range of talent makes it

a lot more fun because everyone is so supportive no matter where you are.” Morris is betting her team’s strong community bond will lead to success in meets, which are Friday nights, so make sure to come out and support!

Art by Sam Boyar

and while she has never bowled in school before, she is excited to learn more about the game. “We have practice twice a week and pretty much what that is, is just going to the bowling alley, and playing 1 or 2 frames and working on just techniques and finding what works best for us,” said Dunbar.

As the sport has not been at Garfield in past years, bowling is a unique experience because everyone starts out around the same level. “There’s no intimidation of like ‘Oh, they’ve been here longer, they probably know more than me,’ so it’s a lot more relaxed cause it’s like everyone is doing it for the first time,” Dunbar said.


Backpage By: Sam Treat and Oscar Fleet

At the Backpage, we pride ourselvs on being the moral compass of Garfield High School. We believe we have a great amount of intellect and advice to share with the community at large. That is why we have spent the last few weeks seking out the most desperate members of GHS, in the hope we can help them with their respective issues. So, without further adue, we present, our brand new advice column, “Dear Backpage.”

Dear Backpage,

Dear Backpage,

How do you avoid being friendzoned? Asking for a friend.... - Definitely Not Friend-Zoned

One of my teachers smells really bad, and I don’t know how to tell them that they need to get some deodorant. - Grossed Out

Dear Definitely Not Friend-Zoned, Neither of us have ever experienced this so-called “Friend Zone,” so we had to bring in the Messenger’s resident expert on getting friend-zoned, Liam Hyde. Liam informed us that the only way he knows to avoid being friend-zoned is to have no friends at all. He says the method is fullproof, and then started crying pathetically. Hope this helps! - The Backpage

Dear Backpage,

I don’t know how to poop at school. I get embarrased every time someone walks into the bathroom right before I am about to drop a deuce. - Scared Pooper Dear Scared Pooper, The first step to pooping with confidence is practice. What you need to do is go into the stall and make the sounds of pooping, without actually doing it. Second, you need to be open with your habits. Leave the stall door wide open and make intense eye contact with anyone who walks by. That is the only surefire way to assert your dominance. With time, your bathroom confidence will skyrocket. Keep on pooping on! - The Backpage

Dear Backpage, Why are you guys so hot? -Your Number One Fan Dear Fan, In Sam’s case, the secret ingredient is a 50% meat and 50% pure SUPER CREATINE protein powder diet, with just a touch of repressed rage and buried emotional trauma. Oscar was made inside of a lab, and his software is updated regularly. -The Backpage

Dear Grossed Out, We think it is clear that your teacher is initiaiting a competition. Stop complaining and defeat them. The trick is to increase your pheromones to levels that will stifle theirs. We recommend a two step approach: no showers for two weeks, followed by two weeks of using AXE body spray every class period. That is the only way to beat them. -The Backpage

Dear Backpage, Is vaping cool? - A Sophomore Dear Sophomore, Many people consider us the experts on “coolness.” We consider this an honor, and we have noticed several cruicial elements of coolness that every vaper exhibits. It seems every person who vapes has the unique ability to humidify any bathroom they use. Vapers have the power to make themselves black out just by standing up too fast! People who vape are known to take respitory breaks every flight of stairs. Plus, they are the only people we know that always have great smelling breath! And if that’s not cool... I guess we don’t know what is! -The Backpage

Dear Backpage, Who do you like? -Inquisitive Admirer Dear Admirer, We both have enormous crushes on the idea of equal pay. -The Backpage

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Garfield Messenger: Volume 98, Issue 2  

Garfield Messenger: Volume 98, Issue 2