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"Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector" One Day Workshop Jointly Organised by GCPC & GIZ The Indian textile industry is one the largest and oldest sectors in the country and amongst the most important in the economy in terms of output, investment and employment. Its importance is underlined by the fact that it accounts for around 4% of Gross Domestic Product. The textile manufacturing process is characterized by the high consumption of resources like electricity, fuel, water and a variety of chemicals in a long process sequence that generates a significant amount of waste and emissions. Hence, the textile sector can benefit by making improvements targeting resource efficiency, process improvements, energy efficiency and reduced negative environmental impacts. By employing appropriate technologies, both environmental and economic gains can be achieved. With this background, the Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre (GCPC) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) organized a one-day Workshop on “Environment Friendly Techniques in Textiles Industry Sector” on March 1, 2013 at the Center of Excellence (COE), Plot No. 511, Phase – IV, Mahemdabad Highway Road, Vatva GIDC, Ahmedabad. Through such workshops and interactions with all the stakeholders, GIZ aims to identify follow up actions needed for enabling improved environmental performance in the textiles sector in India. We are providing below the post-event report as well as summary of various presentations made during the Workshop. Mr. Lalit Sharma, Senior Technical Expert of GIZ –IGEP (Indo-German Environment Partnership), welcomed all the Dignitaries, prominent speakers and participants of the workshop and gave brief of the working of GIZ worldwide and in India. According to him, Germany has been cooperating with India by providing expertiseing through GIZ for more than 50 years. To address India’s priority of sustainable and inclusive growth, GIZ works jointly with many Indian partners in almost all states in the country. Key partners in India include Various Ministries of the Government of India and subordinated authorities, State Departments and their Authorities, Industry Associations, Universities, other academic and training institutes and NGOs. Mr. Sharma said the services delivered by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH were drawn on a wealth of regional and technical expertise and tried and tested management know– how. As a federal enterprise, GIZ supports the German Government in achieving its objectives in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development. GIZ is also

Mr. Lalit Sharma, Senior Technical Expert of GIZ –IGEP delivering the introductory speech engaged in international education work around the globe. GIZ currently operates in more than 130 countries worldwide. Mr. Sharma informed that the overall objective of IGEP (Indo-German Environment Partnership) was to motivate the decision makers at NCM-MARCH 2013 47

national, state and local level to use innovative solutions for the improvement of urban and industrial environmental management and effectively involve them for the development of an environment and climate policy that targets inclusive economic growth de-coupled from resource consumption.

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector The Indo German Par tnership Programme (IGEP) is a partnership programme between the Ministry of Environment and Forests(MoEF) of the Government of India and the Detshce Gesellschaft f端r International Zusammenarbeit of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The overall objective of IGEP is that the decision makers at national, state and local level use innovative solutions for the improvement of urban and industrial environmental management and for the development of an environment and climate policy that targets inclusive economic growth de-coupled from resource consumption. Mr. H.D. Shrimali, Addl. Industries Commissioner, Gujarat, who was one of the special guests at the Workshop, described the scenario of textile industries in Gujarat and gave details of the various incentives schemes available for industries to get benefitted by implementing environment friendly techniques. He advised enterprneures to take full advantage of various schemes of the Gujarat government that has been following friendly policies that promote strategic growth. Government's incentive schemes include : Interest Subsidy, Venture Capital Assistance, Quality Certification Scheme, Training Centres for Skill Enhancement, Technology Acquisition Fund, Patent Assistance, Energy and Water Conservation, Assistance to Critical infrastructure Projects, Assistance to Professional Agency, Assistance for Obtaining Carbon Credit and Reducing Carbon Footprints, Strengthening the FRegulation and Environmental Compliance, Scheme of Assistance for Environment management to MSMEs and Scheme for Assistance to Encouraging Green Practices and Environmental Audit to MSMEs. Besides these, the government has also announced specific policy for the development of the Textile Industry. Mr. Shrimali highlighted the roles being played by Ahmedabad as a Denim City

Mr. H.D. Shrimali, Addl. Industries Commissioner, speaking at the Workshop and Surat as the Silk City. He also mentioned Jetpur which has evolved as an important cluster having nearly 1500 units. According to Mr. Shrimali, the textile and clothing industry in Gujarat forms 25% of the State's MSME sector and there is a massive trend for setting up of Industrial Textiles manufacturing units. Nearly 1000 units are estimated to be in the process of establishment. However, Mr. Shrimali cautioned that Industrial Textile sector was capital intensive requiring high investment, skilled manpower as well as considerable Research and Development inputs along with right market information. In this regard, he appreciated the roles of ATIRA in Ahmedabad and MANTRA in Surat as Cenres of Excellence for Technical Textiles - Composites and Coating & Laminating - respectively. Mr. Shankar Patel, President of the Vatva Industries Association, in his speech shared his experience of running the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) set up by his Association at a cost of Rs. 74.4 crore. The 16 MLD capacity CETP is run by the Green Environment Services CoNCM-MARCH 2013 48

op. Soc. Ltd.- promoted by the association - and it caters to more than 600 members. Mr. Shankar Patel informed that the CETP inlet norm which used to be 3000 mg/l COD initially has been gradually reduced to 800 to 1000 at present and efforts are being made to bring it further down to achieve the target of 400 - 500 mg/l COD. Mr. Patel appreciated the co-operation being received by the Gujarat Pollution Control Board authorities. He said : "It is unique to observe that the GPCB authorities have come to us and are raising our problems in order to help us to solve them." "It was like Doctor coming to the Patient", he added. Mr. Patel advised all the factory owners of the Ahmedabad Textile Processors' Association to take the environmental issues very seriously. He was frank enough to admit the fact that in nineties the polluting units never bothered to provide the correct data concerning their discharge water to the Gujarat Pollution Control Board authorities who wanted to come out with proper solutions to solve the problem based

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector

Mr. Shankar Patel President Vatva Industries Association

Equalisation tank of the CETP set up by the Vatva Industries Association

on those data. The polluting units were unduely worried about the cost factor. He shared his observation that the cost of controlling pollution which comes to around 7% of the total cost is more than compensated by increase in the productivity which is as high as 30%. According to him many of his association's members have reported an increase in the overall profitability from Rs. 5/- per kg. to Rs. 15/- per kg. of the product (mainly dyestuffs). Vatva Industries Association CETP : Aeration tank As a general rule, the member units are required to adhere to the inlet norms of 2000 mg/l COD. The quality of the effluent received at CETP is monitored and extra penal charges are levied from the member units violating these norms. Mr. Patel also gave information about the new concept introduced for his members which allows them to trade the COD on the lines of Carbon Trading practiced world wide. Under this the association levies a penalty on those units that send discharge water having more than 2000 mg/l COD but rewards those that send less than this limit. Hence, units discharging cleaner water can sell it to those units that are pollution intensive. Mr. Patel felt the need to recycle waste water as far as possible and reduce

Vatva Industries Association CETP : Secondary clarifiers the consumption of fresh water. The cost of recycling was in the range of 2 to 3 paise per litre. Mr. Patel said there were a number of large dyestuff units having very huge water consumptions besides 400 units in the textile and dyes sector. NCM-MARCH 2013 49

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector Mr. A.A. Dolti, Regional Officer at the Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB), speaking on the occasion, wanted factory owners to install some very basic kind of equipment to check the air pollution. In fact, he listed the major areas of concern for the industry and asked them to look into those issues on a priority basis. He assured that all the co-operation and assistance from GPCB in implementing best practices for curbing the pollution. Mr. Dolti wanted factory owners to explore the use of back filters, autofilling of fuel, fly ash utilization among other measures to reduce the pollution. He said there was a need to set up a brick manufacturing facility in order to utilise the fly ash generated to the tune of 3MT/day. Mr. Dolti was of the opinion that the industry should focus on certain key areas such as : recycling of waste water, caustic recovery in mercerising, ways and means to ensure very effective washing off process and the use of eco-friendly dyes and chemicals. Mr. Dolti gave details of the CCTVs installed by Narol processors on top of their chimneys and how those CCTVs are connected via the internet with the GPCB's monitoring center. Whenever there is dark smoke coming out of any chimney, the GPCB is able to send an alert to the concerned factory because the name and contact number of that particular unit pop up on the GPCB monitor. Mr. Dolti stressed the need for curbing the air pollution caused due to the cummulative effect of all such chimneys. Mr. Dolti informed that units were facing difficulties in operating secondary ETP, particularly for maintaining MLSS. Due to space constrain, new technology with minimum land area for treatment was, therefore, required. He asked units carrying out mercerizing operation to install Caustic Recovery Plant or find out any other source where it can be

One of the participants seen here taking part in the Q&A session

Mr. Bharat Jain, Member Secretary, Gujarat Cleaner Production Center (GPCB) offering vote of thanks. used. He also advised them to go for modern technology for washing at various stages to reduce water consumption. He strongly suggested the use of auto feeding fuel system into boiler (capacity 3 TPH or more) as well as the use of Thermic Fluid Heater irrespective of fuel. Mr. D.S. Kharat, Sr. Environmental Engineer, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi spoke on NCM-MARCH 2013 50

"Environmental Policies, Standards and Regulatory Aspects in Textile Industries". Mr. Kharat described certain basic data related with the textile industry and the pollution impact of the industry. Some of these are highlighed below : Textile Industry in India‌ •

Installed capacity: 43.13 million spindles & 52,000 looms.

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector •

Woven cloth production: 88,745 lakhs meters.

Knitted cloth production: 3,40,100 tonnes.

Consumption of dyes : 6,01,225 tonnes (17 % in composite sector).

Consumption of chemicals : 24,36,412 tonnes & 13,20,643 KL.

GIZ –IGEP Cooperation Activities in Gujarat

The steps involved in the Effluent Treatment Technology for Textile Industries are : •

Chemical treatment.

Biological treatment (Anaerobic/ Aerobic).

Activated carbon adsorption.

Oxidation (Ozonation/Chlorination).



Membrane filtration: UF/NF/RO

- Evaporation: Multiple effect evaporation; Mist evaporation and Mechanical Vapour recompression

Participants are seen here listening the presentation made by Mr. Lalit Sharma, Senior Technical Expert of GIZ –IGEP

General Activities


Solid waste aspect

1. Planning of new industrial parks – co-operation with GIDB, GIDC

Solid waste from spinning mills

2. Waste water management – cooperation with VWEMCL


Cotton mills: 2-4 % of raw fibre wt. Woolen mills: 3-6 % of raw fire wt.

3. Environment friendly techniques in pulp & paper sector and textiles sector – cooperation with industries and industries associations

Hazardous waste aspect •

Primary ETP Sludge Quantity of sludge (Cotton) = 0.60- 1.20 kg/m3 of effluent. Quantity of sludge (MMF) = 0.4-0.6 kg/m of effluent

CETP Scheme Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) scheme is operated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India for financial and technical support to SSI industries located in clusters. Under the scheme assistance up to 25% of total cost of the CETP is provided as a grant to the CETP society on the condition following condition : The State Government will give a

4. Capacity building of GPCB to promote state-of-the-art environmental management and pollution control in the state of Gujarat – cooperation with GPCB 5. Cooperation with GCPC Activities in Textile Sector 1. Identify the environmental issues related to pulp & paper sector (perspectives of the industry, regulatory agencies, people, government...) 2. Highlight the immediate need of the sector in order to do their business in sustainable manner 3. Identify best available environment-friendly technologies and techniques (most effective – e.g. reduces pollution, allows implementation technically feasible, economically) 4. Demonstrate the use in selected pulp & paper industries 5. Develop an up-scaling strategy and supportive policy documents/ instruments. 6. To prepare Best Available Techniques (BAT) reference document for the Indian Textile Industry. NCM-MARCH 2013 51

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector matching contribution (up to 25%). The remaining 50 % of cost is to be met by equity contribution by the industries and loan from financial institution. Under the scheme 90 CETPs have been constructed. (682.57 MLD installed capacity). Mr. Devang Thaker of the Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) highlighted several actions that can immediately help in the reduction of air as well as water pollution. Some of these are : Air Pollution •

Ensure Complete Combustion.

Air to Fuel Ratio is the key.

Automatic Feeding of Fuel System instead of manual feeding of the fuel.

Coal/ ignite – Blending for the optimum efficiency.

Common state of the art coal analysis laboratory- proximate and ultimate analysis.

Use of flue gas for the neutralization of the alkaline wastewater- (SO2 & CO2 of the flue gas should be used – low sludge generation).

Water Pollution •

Huge Water Consumption – Water profusely used in each step.

No bench marking has been done so far for each of the process.

State of the art water conserving machines are required to use • Segregation of wastewater is the key- TDS alongwith the COD shall be made basis for the segregation – eg. dyeing, washing, mercerizing etc.

No single technology is penecea – No cocktail of the effluent but cocktail of the technology to treat wastewater.

Effluent Discharge Standards notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 Parameter

Concentration not to exceed mg/l, except pH



Total suspended solids


Boi-chemical oxygen demand (BOD)


Chemical oxygen demand (COD)


Total residual chlorine


Oil an d grease


Total chromium as Cr


Sulphide as S


Phenolic compounds as C6H5OH


Notes : 1. Where the treated effluent is discharged into municipal sewer leading to treminal treatment plant, the BOD may be relax to 100 mg/l and COD to 400 mg/l. 2. The quantity of effluent (liter per kilogram of product) shall not exceed 100, 250 and 80 in composite cotton textile industry, composite woolen textile industry and textile processing industry, respectively.

Hazardous waste disposal standards Class/Limit


Class A/ Conc. limit: 50 mg/kg

Arsenic & arsenic compounds. Cadmium & cadmium compounds, Chromium (VI) compounds, Mercury and Mercury compounds, Inorganic cyanide compounds

Class B/ Conc. limit: 5, 000mg/kg

Chromium (III) compounds Cobalt compounds Copper compounds Lead and Lead compounds Nickel compounds

Class C / Conc. limit: 20, 000 mg/kg

Sulphides Zinc compounds Acid amides

Class D/ Conc. limit: 50, 000 mg/kg

Total Sulphur Inorganic acids Nitrides

Common Caustic Recovery PlantThis not only recovers the raw material but reduces the load on ETP. NCM-MARCH 2013 52

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector •

Wastewater Trading Scheme: Flow, COD.

Good House keeping is the key.

Use of Membrane Technology in wastewater treatment so as to reuse more water.

Space is a constraint- PurgatorSAVE ALL, Vertical tank for better settlement can be experimented.

Colour Kitchen to Wastewater generation.

Use of chemicals/dyes which have lower contribution to COD – BOD and are easily bio degradable.


Mr. Devang Thaker concluded his talk by saying : "Regulator alone can not achieve the results. Let us join hands to increase our 'Hand Prints' and to reduce our 'Foot Prints'." Mr. Lalit Sanghavi - a senior textile consultant with more than forty years of experience in chemical processing - gave his presentation on "Conservation of Water in Textile Industry". Mr. Sanghavi, stressed for the need to focus on key processes that were major waste water generation sources. "For example, bleaching, dyeing, washing and cooling processes involved extensive usage of water. In most cases, the waste water was coloured", he said. Mr. Sanghavi advised the textile processors to go for the bi/poly functional reactive dyes instead of mono-functional dyes in order to get greater fixation of the dyestuff thereby reduced water consumption in washing off process. Enhanced fixation of the bi/poly functional dyes reduces the no. of after washes required. According to him, minimum two after washes can be saved. One wash requires minimum 800 liters water per batch per jigger of 1000 meters. Hence 1600 liters of water per batch of 1000 meters can be saved. If we dye or print 10,000 meters of the fabrics with bi-poly functional dyes then 1600 x 10,000 ÷ 1000 = 16000 liters of water can be saved and the resulting pollution load also is reduced.

Mr. Lalit Sanghavi is seen here making presentation on "Conservation of Water in Textile Industry" Mr. Sanghavi strongly recommended the use of Cold Pad Batch Dyeing process due to the following advantages it offers : 1. Significant cost and waste reduction as compared to conventional method. 2. Total elimination salt and other specialty chemicals like anti migrants, leveling agents, thereby reducing the chemical cost and waste load in effluents. 3. Optimum utilization of dyes. 4. Excellent wet fastness properties. 5. Cuts energy cost (no steam required), Temperature is not required for fixation. 6. Cuts water consumption due to low bath ratio. 7. A uniform dye quality in terms of even colour absorbency, fastness, high shade reliability and repeatability. No batch to batch variation of shade unike one sees in exhaust dyeing. Mr. Sanghavi gave detailed recipes for the Cold Pad Batch Dyeing process for NCM-MARCH 2013 53

the benefit of those present. He also advised to be careful in the selection of right machinery like jet dyeing machine etc. and one should go for machines that require low liquor ratio. He emphasised on 3Rs namely, Reuse/ recycle, Recover and Replace. He gave following examples from his practical bulk experience which can lead to more than 50 % water savings. 1. Reuse acid wash water in chemick wash. 2. Reuse chemick wash water in kier/ desize. 3. Recycle cooling water from rubber belt cooling. 4. Recycle cooling water of jet dyeing m/c. 5. Recover printing blanket wash water and use in straper & screen washing. 6. Recover rubber blanket cooling water and recycle or use in other process. 7. Recover caustic wash liquor (mercerising) and use in kier or dyeing.

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector 8. Recover steam trap water and use in dyeing or printing paste preparation or as boiler feed water. 9. Place side scraper on blanket of printing m/c. to collect extra color paste and use it for black shades. "Apar t from above in-house techniques, one can also go for replacement of several basic chemicals - like acetic acid and citric acid - by more efficient and environment friendly properietory substitute products available in the market at a lower price. Similarly, the use of advanced technological processes and equipment (such as electrochemical dyeing technology, plasma technology and super critical carbon dioxide fluid tecnology or waterless dyeing technology) can go a long way in achieving the goal of green environment", Mr. Sanghavi concluded giving technical details of these emerging technologies. Dr. Chandan Chatterjee - Director of the Center for Entrepreneurship Development (CED) and Advisor, iNDEXTb, govt. of Gujarat - gave details of various schemes of the Sate government for the promotion of the textile and clothing industry. The topic of his presentation was "Emerging Opportunities & Policy Initiatives for the Growth of Textile Industry". He said these schemes were directed at R & D and Quality Assurance; Skill Development; Achieving Competitiveness; Power Tariff Subsidy; Market Development; Encouraging Environment Friendly & Energy Efficient Technology; Assistance for Energy Audit and Water Audit (for processing units)/Envio Assistance up to 20% of cost of equipments and Support for Environmental Compliance. Dr. Chatterjee expressed the confidence that with China showing signs of slowing down and neighbors (Bangladesh and Pakistan) battling with energy shortage, besides dependency on raw material, Young India was going to dominate the textile world.

Mr. Shankar Patel, President of the Vatva Industries Association (1st from left) seen here in conversation with Mr. Bharat Jain (2nd from left), Member Secretary, Gujarat Cleaner Production Center (GPCB) Dr. Chatterjee's optimism was based on his analysis of India's working population. According to him : "By 2020, US will be short of 17 million people of working age, China by 10 million, Japan by 9 million and Russia by 6 million. On the other hand, India will have a surplus of 47 million working people. Over 35% of our population is estimated to be below the age of 20 by 2020. India is forecast to have 350 million people of working age…largest in the world. China, on the other hand, is aging faster than most other countries". Dr. Chatterjee urged the industry leaders to adopt modern technologies such as waterfree dyeing technology and Toray silicon technology by having collaboration, technology transfers and joint ventures in order to grow with green and to cash on the opportunies that are expected to emerge in the coming years. He concluded with the slogan : "Think Big, Start small, Scale Fast. But, with Green Technology". Ms. Sarika Singh of Ahmedabad Textile Industry’s Research Association NCM-MARCH 2013 54

(ATIRA) gave her presentation on "Sustainable and Eco Friendly Alternatives in Textile Wet Processing area - ATIRA Developments". According to ATIRA, the conventional wet-processing requires use of salts and alkalis, which results in increase in pollution load in terms of T.D.S, color, C.O.D. and heavy metals. Ms. Sarika described a novel process developed by ATIRA which reduces the pollution load significantly at various stages of processing. The details are as under : Chemicals used Developed process



Desizing cum scouring : Enzymes, Wetting agents, Acetic acid Peroxide Bleaching : Hydrogen peroxide (60 % reduction in qty); Wetting agent, Sequestering agent, Peroxide, Stabilizers (60 % reduction in qty), Caustic Soda (90% reduction in qty) etc. (All chemicals are used in significantly less quantity). Mercerization : Caustic Soda, Acetic Acid.

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector Ms. Sarika highlighted the benefits of ATIRA's Ecofriendly Textile Processing (ETP) process as under : 1. Quality of fabric produced is similar to conventional one. 2. Contribution to Total Suspended Solids : In conventional process, 78 % fibre loss In enzymatic process-2-3 % fibre loss 3. Fibres (going to ETP) which is considered as Total Suspended Solids (TSS) will be reduced up to 5% considering Fiber loss only. 4. Less times of neutralization, less TDS 5. Almost neutral process, Less Wash Off water. 6. Enzymes are Bio-degradable , less load to ETP 7. Reduced waste-water volume and pollutant load, reduces cost of Wastewater treatment. Ms. Sarika summed up by highlighting the key advantages of ATIRA process as under : 1. High productivity : Due to no reaction time for salts & less neutralization due to very low alkali in dyeing process, less times is required for dyeing. 2. Benefits to ETP are more in terms of Total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, COD, BOD etc. 3. ATIRA Developed process is economical due to less use of chemicals & auxiliaries. Mr. Hiren Bhendwal, Project Engineer at Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre (GCPC) talked on "Core Environmental Issues in Textile Sector�. According to him the core issues related with pollution control are : 1. Salt concentration in waste water of the textile is high that can be removed only with very expensive and sensitive treatment technique called Reverse Osmosis (RO).

2. Dearth of trained and skilled professionals to manage the high technology equipments such as the RO plant for waste water treatment. 3. Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) or Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) which are mostly failed to provide zero discharge. NCM-MARCH 2013 55

4. Conventional method of dyeing and engaged in irresponsible effluent discharge without taking into account the parameters to be maintained. 5. No major efforts have been taken in this direction for selection of appropriate technologies for the

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector recycle of the treated effluent, and disposal of membrane rejects.

Case studies : Arvind Mills Ltd.

6. Conventional mechanical evaporator was flawed and there were difficulties in evaporating the requisite quantity of effluents. Mr. Bhendwal felt the need for ecofriendly substitution in textile processes. For example, desizing accounts 40-50 % of the total pollution load from preparatory processing. Substituting starch with acrylates as a size material can reduce the BOD, due to the recovery of size. Starches can also be partially substituted by PVA, CMC to reduce pollution in effluents. Similarly, the use of newer enzymes, which degrade the starch size to ethanol of anhydro-glucose, enables the recovery of ethanol by distillation, thereby reducing the BOD load in the desized effluent considerably. Mr. Bhendwal also noted that combining and scheduling processes can reduce the number of chemical dumps. He suggested the use of One-step desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton fabric instead of the conventional three-stage pre-treatment process comprising desizing, scouring and bleaching. "New auxiliaries’ formulations and automatic dosing and steamers allow the so-called “Flash Steam” procedure which telescopes desizing, alkaline cracking (scouring) and pad-steam peroxide bleaching into a single step", he said. "Combining three operations in one allows significant reductions in water and energy consumption", he added. Mr. Bhendwal recommended that the sizing agents should be recovered and re-used by ultrafiltration. Sizing agents are applied to warp yarn in order to protect it during the weaving process and have to be removed by a textile pre-treatment which contributes 40 – 70 % of the total COD load of a fabric finishing mills. Water-soluble synthetic sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylates and carboxymethyl cellulose can be recovered from

Unit produces 5 million meter of fabrics per month with different product mix as per the customer requirement.

Average water consumption of 24.3 litres per meter of different type of product mix.

Generates 10 MLD of process effluent.

Caustic recovery plant is a multiple effect evaporator followed by condenser.

Recovered caustic is reused and water (effluent) is recycled.

It saves approximately 30% of the raw material (caustic soda) cost even after considering the operating cost of the caustic recovery unit.

Caustic requirement for this unit is approximately 10 MT/day on 25 % concentration basis.

Out of the 10 MT of caustic, 0.5 % are retained by the fabric, rest goes to the effluent.

Total cost of treating the effluent for the said unit is approximately Rs. 45/ cu.m. of effluent including RO plant cost.

washing liquor by ultrafiltration. Recently, it has been confirmed that modified starches such as carboxymethyl starch can also be recycled. Mr. Arun Baid, MD of Ahmedabad based Aura Herbal Textile Limited, shared his company's experience of promoting textiles in a totally natural, organic and environment-friendly way popularily termed as "cradle to cradle approach". According to Mr. Baid, in the present scenario, several advantages conferred by natural dyes make them an attractive option over synthetic dyes. These are as follows :

Limitations of Natural Dyes 1. No assurance repeatability.



2. Extraction process laborious and not economical. 3. Variability in the quality and quantity of extraction depending upon the age and season of the plant, tree, leaves or fruit and hence standardization is difficult. 4. Most dyes need a mordant to fix the colour.



Mr. Baid also shared the working philosophy of his company and how they manage the production challenges and provide highest quality as per the global standards. He described the alient points of Aura as under :

Environment Friendly.

Aesthetically appealing resulting in employment generation and utilization of wasteland.

Easy extraction of colours by boiling the plants, berries, leaves, bark or flower heads in water.

Unlike the other natural dyeing processes which use solvent extracted dyes ,the Aura Process is based on using Powdered Herbs .Only Bio-composting treatment for the purification of water and total recycling made possible.

The sludge from Herbal Dyeing is totally bio-compostable.

Process patented in US and India.

The capacity of the plant has been

Mr. Baid also described limitations of natural dyes due to which their growth has been quite slow. These are listed below. NCM-MARCH 2013 56

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector

A view of the dyeing facility of Aura Herbal Textiles Limited Aura uses only medicinally rich herbs, plant material, minerals & oils like, turmeric, Myraballam, castor oil, sea salt etc for dyeing fabric or yarn. Aura has aspired to achieve and retain the medicinal qualities of the herbs by immersing the plant material directly in the dye bath for the same reason. increased from 1000 meter earlier to 10,000 meter a day using normal machines •

Works on all natural fibers like Cotton, Wool and Silk. Some colors work on synthetic fibers like Nylon and Polyester also. Capacity of Aura Herbal Textiles



Fabrics 2,50,000 (Woven, knits, Mtrs/month Yarn dyeing Silk, Towels) Printing

50,000 Mtrs/month


1,00,000 Mtrs/month


25,000 pieces/month

Aura Herbal Textiles Ltd is certified by Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) for their all natural/herbal dyeing process. Certified organic fabrics, textiles and yarns are used as

the raw material. Dyeing, weaving, printing all is done under keen supervision to maintain quality standards. Dyeing of fabrics up to 120" width has been achieved. Even lengths of up to 1000 meters in different fabrics like voiles, poplins, twills, flannels, corduroys, denims, knits, silks is now achieved at Aura. Aura Herbal Textiles Ltd has beautiful color palette of earthy shades & various prints ensuring no waste is generated. All the solid & liquid waste is used as manure & irrigating their farms. Mr. Baid, describing the herbal dyeing process being followed at Aura, said : "Contrary to the exotic feel of the term "herbal dyeing", it is in fact a simple process; simpler in its form than its synthetic counterpart. What can be more straightforward than extracting colour present in the environment and fixing it on cloth? This is exactly what we at Aura manufacture: cloth that is pure nature in its true essence. Using NCM-MARCH 2013 57

organic cloth, we treat it to colour that has been extracted from herbs in ecofriendly processes. These are herbs that are renowned for their medicinal values, and are a gift of nature. Not a newfound process, it was a common practice in ancient India. Historically done by hand and on small scale, we here at Aura offer our innovations with large scale manufacturing on a varied range of cloth with several shades and prints. To make the colors bright and fast natural mordents such as Myrballams, rubhabsleaves, oils, minerals, alum, iron Vat etc are used. We do not use heavy metal mordents like copper, chrome, zinc, tin etc." “Our understanding of toxic chemicals that run into water bodies and put health of several innocent people at risk, made us determined to make something eco-friendly. This passion led to the birth of Aura Herbals, where we are equipped to naturally dye textiles on a large-scale,� he added.

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector

Concluding Session (L-R) : Mr. Lalit Sharma, Senior Technical Expert of GIZ 窶的GEP (Indo-German Environment Partnership), Mr. Naresh Sharma, Vice President, Ahmedabad Textile Processors' Association (ATPA), Mr. Shankar R. Patel, President, President, Vatva Industries Association (VIA), Dr. K.U. Mistry, Chairman, Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB), Mr. Bharat Jain, Member Secretary, Gujarat Cleaner Production Center (GCPC) and Mr. A.A. Dolti, Regional Officer, Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB). In the concluding session, the organisers invited Dr. K. U. Mistry, Chairman, Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for a Face2Face meeting with all the stakeholders in order to have an open house of Q&A session with him. Mr. Shankar Patel, President of the Vatva Industries Association, took this opportunity to urge Dr. Mistry to liberalise the effluent discharge norms for the dyes and textile industries. He said that the current norm of 250 mg/l COD was practically impossible for the CETP being run by the industry associations. However, 800 to 1000 mg/l COD was possible. He also appealed, on behalf of the industry, to allow them to release their wastewater from CETP's outlet to the AMC's sewer system which was capable of treating the resultant combined wastewater. He also appreciated the cooperation and assistance being received by the industry from Dr. Mistry and also from all the GPCB officials in fulfilling the pollution control norms set up by the Board. In his Address, Dr. K. U. Mistry, Chairman, Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB), advised the industry owners to use cleaner and greener fuel instead of coal wherever available and possible. He emphasised on reusing waste water and also to avoid wastage of water which was becoming rare and precious raw material day by day. He also stressed that the industrial units should follow self discipline and not to pollute the environment. "If any body thinks that the present norms were not achievable then either they should go for upgradation of their treatment plants or change their product mix to achieve the desired norms", he said. Dr. Mistry said that the environment was a central government controlled area but Gujarat has been very accomodative to the industry by working with the industry and helping them to achieve the set targets. Dr. Mistry warned polluting industries to become serious about the environmental issues because there was global pressure also on buyers to source their goods from green producers who care for their workers as well as about the environment. Dr. Mistry informed that the GPCB has installed CCTV cameras for observing blackness of smoke from chimneys in main industrial clusters and black smoke emitters are continuously monitored to run their boilers properly. Dr. Mistry cautioned industry leaders to be prepared for more stricter rules and monitoring as well as for more severe penalties for not adhering to the Board's norms. Dr. Mistry said that GPCB would take very strict action against illegal discharges or bypassing of hazardous wastes or effluents and units found doing such things would be closed down permanently. According to GPCB chairmain, long-pending issue of coloured water from Jetpur textile units has been resolved by breaking illegal washing ghats, insisting for legal washing ghats, directing for two new CETPs and opening new GPCB office for Jetpur area exclusively. GPCB has also issued directions to Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation to stop waste throwing in kharicut canal and providing new pipeline for Danilimda and Narol area for effluent and sewage disposal. NCM-MARCH 2013 58

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector

GPCB Initiatives During Last 3 Years Dr. K. U. Mistry Chairman, Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) highly polluting industries were punished by closure orders till compliance and deposition of bank - guarantees before revocation.

GPCB and its all activities are reenergized during last 3 years. It is firmly determined to eradicate pollution from our State. Therefore strong decisions are taken and strong policy is implemented against polluters. Pollutant bypassers now do not dare to do so. Awareness and pressure is created to run plants properly, to follow correct practices and to implement appropriate control measures. It is realised that now past will not be repeated. Industry people and GPCB staff are motivated to march toward clean and green Gujarat. Following new initiatives are taken in this regard.

12. New CETPs have been sanctioned at Narol, Palsana, Sarigam, Jetpur etc. 13. By fast action plans and their implementation and presentation at New Delhi, moratorium on new projects at Vapi, Junagadh and Bhavnagar was lifted and pollution level at Vatva, Ahmedabad and Ankleshwar is effectively reduced.

Pollution Control Measure : 1.

At CETP levels, by action plans and strict monitoring, treated effluent parameters -COD, BOD & NH3N- have been reduced by more than 60% at many places. Effor ts are continued to further reduce the pollution.


Acidic effluent discharge is mostly controlled and it is made neutral at almost all the places.


Effluent flow is regulated. Overflowing of khadis (ditches) is stopped. All flow is regulated through pipelines or channels.


At individual ETP levels, hundreds of ETPs have been upgraded to improve their treatment results. Their pollution parameters are also reduced. More efforts are going on.


Air Pollution in industrial clusters is reduced by more than 60%.


For observing blackness of smoke from chimneys in main industrial clusters, CCTV cameras have been installed. Black smoke emitters monitor their boilers.


Directions are issued to install online continuous monitoring system consisting of sensors and transmitters for water and air parameters like flow, pH, COD,

Dr. K. U. Mistry Chairman, GPCB TOC, NH3N, SOx, NOx etc. As beginning, such directions are issued to all common treatment facilities, all Govt factories, cooperative giants and having high hydraulic or pollution load. We hope that gradually all polluting units will be monitored on-line . 8.

Forms are designed and monthly information is required to be uploaded on online XGN system by Municipalities and Municipal Corporations regarding municipal solid wastes (MSW)

9. Similarly information form is designed in respect of Bio-Medical Wastes (BMW) treatment sites. 10. Acute problems of polluting Gasifiers at Morbi, Ammonical nitrogen at Ankleshwar, Vatva etc. and illegal discharges or bypassing of hazardous wastes or effluents at many places have been dealt with strictly and controlled effectively. Some units are closed down permanently. 11. Implementation policy is made strict. Habitual offenders and

NCM-MARCH 2013 59

14. Policy of taking bank-guarantee for compliance from BMW treatment units and issuing closure to defaulting health care units is introduced. This helps in getting implementation of BMW Rules. 15. Industries using unauthorized fuel (chindri, plastic, jari wastes tyredust, petcoke etc) are issued closure orders for strict compliance and they were directed to use authorized fuel only. 16. Strict monitoring of surprise sample checking of polluting industries on ECP channel at Padra compelled them to comply. 12. To help small industries for pollution, Engineering colleges were involved in pollution sampling and analysis in addition to the Monitoring by GPCB staff. This has driven many polluting industries to upgrade their ETPs. 18. Bypass pipelines were detected and eradicated from ground to stop such type of malpractices. 19. Many units are asked to send their incinerable waste to cement mills for co-processing. Cement mills are also convinced to come forward for more and more coprocessing of waste in their kilns Plastic waste from paper mills at Vapi is also sent for coprocessing in kilns.

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector 20. Problem of Ammonical Nitrogen from CPC blue pigment manufacturers was handled technically and they were directed to send their effluent at Bhavnagar for reusing to make their product. 21. For problem of high COD effluent from many industries at Vatva, Ankleshwar, Vadodara, Vapi etc was handled by suggesting use of MEE and other control measures. 22. Problem of spent solvent and its illegal discharge solved by diverting it to consented reusers only.


Use of Gujarati language (instead of English only) is inducted in office files and all correspondence with the general public.

is increased. Industries now feel that they are ‘under camera’ and they cannot run their industry without effective pollution control.


To reduce waiting or detention time of visitors fixed time between 3 to 6 pm is fixed.


Online reporting system -XGN-is upgraded and is now more informative and more useful.

16. Many programs have been conducted with GCPC in different GIDCs to train workers for operating ETP & APCM efficiently.


23. Dahej industry association and GIDC are advised to go for CETP before discharging effluent in common pipe conveyance. 24. Insistence is continued to use natural gas instead of coal to control air pollution. Rising price of natural gas is creating difficulty for industries & their resistance. 25. GPCB received National awards for its best effor ts for egovernance. ISO 9001:2008 and 14001:2004 certificates are also achieved from BIS besides NABL certification for central Laboratory. 26. More and more industries are directed for ‘ zero discharge’ or to opt for non-polluting product. 27. Common treatment facilities are inspected by newly designed inspection form for minute details. Administrative Control Measures : 1.


GPCB infrastructure expanded during last 3 years. New offices opened at 9 places to control pollution from shorter distance and to serve the society at their district places. 49 new officers and 68 data entry operators recruited and 21 new vehicles purchased. Concept of Help desk, Environmental Clinic and proactive programs is introduced in all (22) GPCB offices. People can upload their applications and compliance problems are resolved to avoid closure of units and ensure legal compliance through cooperative efforts.

Many forms are designed to get exact information of production, resource and energy utilization, waste generation, treatment and disposal and various types of statutory compliance. This helps all officers in their planning and getting fast compliance.


Wastes data bank is expanding for their reusers and recyclers.


Laboratories at HO and other offices are being expanded and equipped with latest instruments for fast sampling and analysis.


212 officers were sent for training during last 3 years in India and abroad to upgrade environmental protection capability & know-how.

10. GPCB is helping project proponents for MoUs for new common facilities for pollution reduction. New applicants are being provided know-how for Cleaner production. Also, guidelines for preparation of EIA reports was revised in 2012 and freely given to new project proponents. 12. CSR monitoring cell is formed at HO to check compliance of environmental clearances issued. 13. Detailed compliance is now called for in specified format under MSW and BMW Rules. This will make Gujarat more clean and green. 14. System of receiving all payments to GPCB is now made through bank. No person is required to come to our office to give cheque or draft. Direct payment through Bank facility is made effective. 15. By requiring on-line information for pollution control and display of pollution parameters, awareness

NCM-MARCH 2013 60

17. Complaint receipt, inquiry & reply system is also now made on-line for good governance/transparency. 18. The Board is publishing more and more informative literature and circulating it for public awareness. Environment awareness programs are held for students also for their co-operation in pollution control. 19. Bank guarantee policy is revised to get good response from industries ready for compliance. 20. New HO building of the Board was inaugurated on 6-4-2012 by Hon. Chief Minister Shri Narendrabhai Modi. This is a unique green building in the country running totally on solar energy of 80 KW. Visitors feel more comfort and best environment in this new office. 21. Monthly meetings of regional and other officers are made more interesting, interactive, knowledge sharing, fruitful and inspiring in addition to statistical monitoring for disposal of pending work. 22. It is planned to give por table pollution parameter sensors to the Board officers so that important parameters can directly be measured. This will give instant results for quick decision. 23. Board staff is motivated to act as friend, philosopher and guide toward industry people and properly guiding them for necessary control measures and to run their plants effectively. 24. More output of work performance is being achieved by nonbureaucratic, fearless and homely atmosphere at Head Office. Officers come forward to say or report truth and work fearlessly.

Environment Friendly Techniques in Textile Sector  

One Day Workshop Jointly Organised by Gujarat Cleaner Production Council & GIZ at Ahmedabad. Published in the March 2013 issue of NEW CLOTH...

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