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BUILDING DESIGN, COMFORT AND HEALTH: an urban refuge for heat waves Bianca Bonachela de Oliveira (Diploma student) Professor Denise Helena Silva Duarte (Advisor) Research: Diploma Project Research period: 2020/08 - 2021/08 2021/APRIL


Reason for interest in the subject: URBAN CLIMATE & ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM Research Group: Study of the positive impacts that vegetation (evapotranspiration process and shading) provides to the urban microclimate 2 years of scientific initiation: Urban Plans Regulations for land use and occupation

How do cities around the world plan to implement the vegetation of the densest urban environment? Do the plans or policies mention any relationship between green and the microclimate, urban climate or climate change?

Image Font: GEIRINHAS et al (2017) modify. Available in < https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340950896_Linking_ observation_modelling_and_satellite-based_estimation_of_glob al_land_evapotranspiration >. Access in 04/21/2021.


Reason for interest in the subject: URBAN CLIMATE & ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM Research Group: Study of the positive impacts that vegetation (evapotranspiration process and shading) provides to the urban microclimate

Cities Master Plans Climate Change: HEAT WAVES

2 years of scientific initiation: Urban Plans Regulations for land use and occupation

How do cities around the world plan to implement the vegetation of the densest urban environment? Do the plans or policies mention any relationship between green and the microclimate, urban climate or climate change?

Adaptation minimize impacts ( in a short term)

“Cooling centres”

changing habits and adapting to the new reality (long term) + green infrastructure


The problem

Heat waves and its reflection in human health:

Frequency of heat waves in the city of São Paulo

Image Font: GEIRINHAS et al (2017) modify. Available in < https://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/026-029_on das-de-calor_262.jpg >. Access in 04/07/2021. Reference Font: DINIZ, F. R.; GONÇALVES, F. L. T.; SHERIDAN, S. Heat Wave and Elderly Mortality: Historical Analysis and Future Projection for Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Atmosphere, Agosto de 2020.

What is considered a “heat wave”? - 3 consecutive days with maximum temperatures above the expected for a certain region during a certain time of the year. (GEIRINHAS et al, 2017) How does it affect the human body? (“Heat related illness”) - Intense heat affects the thermoregulatory system, aggravating cardiovascular and respiratory diseases or causing deaths by hyperthermia, especially among the elderly and children. (DINIZ et al, 2020) Increase of deaths - France (2019): Agnès Buzyn, French Minister of Health, reported the was increase of 9.1% on the average of deaths during the summer (heat waves).


Green Corridors

Adaptation I Link between remnants of native vegetation

the insertion of vegetation is defended through more “technical” arguments

"Breathe" / Urban "Empty" (wind currents)

Plano Municipal Diretor de Lisboa (2012) Lisbon Master Plan (Free Translation) 1 - Proposed Green Corridors (yellow) 2 - Map of wind currents 3 - Map of thermal daytime surface temperature

Identification of urban hotspots (thermal comfort)

1

2

3


Adaptation II

“Cooling Centers” What is it ? - network of public or private buildings with air conditioning systems that allow free access to the public during heat waves events.

Image Font: CBC News (2018). Available in https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-southern-ontario-heat-war ning-1.4774863 >. Access in 04/07/2021.

Questions: - Why not encourage public equipment projects that are intertwined with green area projects? - Why not try to develop of an architecture with a good thermal performance basing in the choice of its materiality, design or natural ventilation instead of encouraging the use of air conditioning systems?


Diploma’s project idea: Why not propose a “cooling center” for São Paulo connected with a green corridor?

References Maps (City of São Paulo)

Map of average daytime temperatures of the dry seasons from 2015 to 2017.

Green Corridors proposed by “Plano Municipal da Mata Atlântica” ( free translation “Atlantic Forest Municipal Plan“) Font: PMMA (2017)

Font: Public consultation document about the “Plano de Sistemas de áreas protegidas, áreas verdes e espaços livres” (free translation “ Plan for Protected Areas Systems, Green Areas and Free Spaces”), (2020)

21º

34º


Methodology Theoretical Stage:

● ● ● ●

basic concepts about urban climatology; heat waves & human being; concept of environmental & city building; bibliographical and project references.

Propositional Stage I:

● ●

Choice of the intervention site through maps: thermal and green areas; Elaboration of study of the surroundings of the land; Closing of the building program.

Propositional Stage I:

Design exercise of “environmental building” with a focus on its thermal performance;

Objectives THEORETICAL STUDIES ON THE TOPIC

09/2020 up 12/2020

CHOICE OF INTERVENTION LAND AND PROPOSAL OF CONNECTION WITH A “URBAN GREEN CORRIDOR”

10/2020 up 01/2020

DESIGN EXERCISE OF A PUBLIC EQUIPMENT THAT FUNCTIONS AS “COOLING CENTER” (PRE-PROJECT) 02/2021 up 08/2021


Choice of the intervention space

21º Mapa corredores verdes.Fonte: PMMA (2017) Mapa temperatura média diurna. Fonte: PLANPAVEL (2020)

34º

Densidade populacional (hab./ha) e infraestrutura verde. Fonte: elaborado pela autora com dados do Geosampa (2020).


Choice of the intervention space Parque do Carmo

“Green Corridor”

Ma teo

Legenda:

i Be e Av e nu

Proposal: Afforestation of Av. Mateo Bei aiming to connect the “green spaces” of Parque do Carmo with the places indicated as parks by the PDE + connect the cooling center with the green infrastructure Mapa de Infraestrutura Verde e Hierarquia de Vias. Fonte: elaborado pela autora com bases do Geosampa. (2020)


“URBAN REFUGE” or “COOLING CENTRE” Posto Ipiranga UBS I

Restaurante Estacionamento + mecânico

CEI/Creche Profª Eunice

5 lojas de roupa

Proposal: redesign the block


Definição de Cooling Centers

Architectural program

(...) ” is a location, typically an

air-conditioned or cooled building that has been designated as a site to provide respite and safety during extreme heat. This may be a government-owned building such as a library or school, an existing community center, religious center, recreation center, or a private business such as a coffee shop, shopping mall, or movie theatre. Some counties have set up cooling sites outdoors in spray parks, community pools, and public parks. Sometimes temporary cool spaces are constructed for events such as a marathon or outdoor concert. “ “Center for Disease Control and Prevention” (CDC) - USA https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/do cs/UseOfCoolingCenters.pdf

SESC Program is based in 5 premisses:

educação cultura lazer saúde assistência

Why not try to create :

Culture House Community pools and public park Health Basic Unit (UBS) Mental health clinics, dentist, nutritionist etc. (support to UBS)


Contact: biancabonachela@uol.com.br / bianca.bonachela.oliveira@usp.br

Profile for Gabriel Novaes

BUILDING DESIGN, COMFORT AND HEALTH: an urban refuge for heat waves  

BUILDING DESIGN, COMFORT AND HEALTH: an urban refuge for heat waves Bianca Bonachela de Oliveira (Diploma student) Professor Denise Helena S...

BUILDING DESIGN, COMFORT AND HEALTH: an urban refuge for heat waves  

BUILDING DESIGN, COMFORT AND HEALTH: an urban refuge for heat waves Bianca Bonachela de Oliveira (Diploma student) Professor Denise Helena S...

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