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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office: P.O. Box 745, Windermere, FL 34786-0745 Web: General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated

News and Features 4 Miami Beach Takes a Stand on the Edge of a Rising Sea—Bruce A. Mowry and Holly Kremers

10 Next Phase of Green Infrastructure—Nita Naik, Matthew O’Connor, and Julia Spicher 22 Algal Blooms Affecting Many Florida Areas 51 The Journal Wants to Hear From You 52 Veterans of U.S. Operations Challenge Take Home International Win From Open German Championship in Wastewater Technology—Jennifer Fulcher 61 News Beat

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

Technical Articles

Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando


Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 888-328-8448 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Proactive Risk Management: Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Mitigation Support for Climate Resiliency—Lena River, Eric D. Kenney, and Nicole LaRosa 38 Reservoirs: Florida’s Future Sustainable Water Supply—Randall Bushey and D. Edward Davis 46 Integrated Water Resources Planning in Pinellas County—Scott I. McClelland

Education and Training 15 FSAWWA Fall Conference 37 TREEO Center Training 51 Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers 55 FWPCOA Training Calendar

Columns 8 14 20 24 36 43 44 50

FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kunihiro FWEA Committee Corner—Tyler Smith C Factor—Scott Anaheim FWRJ Committee Profile—FWEA Biosolids Committee Test Yourself—Ron Trygar FWEA Focus—Lisa Prieto Spotlight on Safety—Doug Prentiss FWRJ Reader Profile—Mark Kelly

Departments 54 56 59 62

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Volume 67

ON THE COVER: Algal blooms have infested much of southern Florida's coastline and waterways, and several state governmental organizations and other groups are addressing the issue. See page 22 for more information. (photo: Mary Radabaugh)

September 2016

Number 9

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Miami Beach Takes a Stand on the Edge of a Rising Sea

Bruce A. Mowry and Holly Kremers Like many south Florida coastal communities, the City of Miami Beach is experiencing a rise in sea level at a greater intensity than the global average. The fight is already under way to keep streets, businesses, and residents dry on sunny days, let alone during storms. Higher tides, prolonged flooding after storms, and beach erosion are among the major effects being experienced by residents, property owners, and tourists. In addition, this low-lying area’s porous limestone geology makes it exceptionally vulnerable to saltwater intrusion into infrastructure systems. Miami Beach is a barrier island that consists of a coastal dune on the east that composes the famed beaches, and former mangrove swamps on the west that have been filled in for development. In addition, several man-made islands have been created in Biscayne Bay between Miami and Miami Beach. The island is highly impervious due to development, and is now built out, with the exception of three golf courses and some small parks.

Sea-level rise in Miami Beach has contributed to higher groundwater levels, higher tides, increased flooding, and decreased effectiveness of the gravity drainage system. In several areas of the city, the ground elevation is lower than the water level in the adjacent canal or bay during high tides, leaving gravity drainage systems ineffective. Because there is no confining layer in the porous limestone beneath the streets and buildings, solutions that have been effective in other coastal areas, including physical barriers, such as berms, dams, and dikes, may not be viable for the area. It is not unusual to see standing water on the streets of Miami Beach during seasonal high tides without any rainfall.

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As a member of the four-county Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact, the city has teamed with other communities to develop a regional governance approach that coordinates mitigation and adaptation activities among Broward, Miami-Dade, Monroe, and Palm Beach counties. The compact has served to unite, organize, and assess the region through the lens of climate change in setting the stage for action. Specific accomplishments include the development of regionally consistent methodologies for mapping sea-level rise impacts, asContinued on page 6

Tides predicted/observed in Miami Beach during 2015 King Tide.

Photos of Miami Beach flooding.


Regional Coordination

Continued from page 4 sessing vulnerability, and understanding the sources of regional greenhouse gas emissions. A regional climate action plan titled, “A Region Responds to a Changing Climate,” was published in October 2012 to provide the foundation for concerted action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to regional and local impacts of climate change. Recommendations were developed through a collaborative process to accomplish these goals, while also serving to protect the assets of the region’s unique quality of life and economy, guiding future investments, and fostering livable, sustainable, and resilient communities. Recommendations were consolidated into seven categories: sustainable communities and transportation planning; water supply, management, and infrastructure; natural systems; agriculture; energy and fuel; risk reduction and emergency management; and outreach and public policy. Miami-Dade County intensified efforts to respond to sea-level rise in July 2013 with formation of the Miami-Dade County Sea-Level Rise Task Force. The task force is charged with providing a realistic assessment of the likely im-

pacts of sea-level rise and storm surge over time and making recommendations relative to the comprehensive development master plan (CDMP), capital facilities planning, and other priorities. In July 2014, six recommendations were developed to lay the foundation for action and address the flooding risk, reinsurance industry, and potential economic implications. The overarching recommendation is to “accelerate the adaptation planning process by seeking and formally selecting the engineering and other relevant expertise needed.”

Miami Beach Response Miami Beach started implementing many plan recommendations in 2014 by modifying city design and construction standards that address sea-level rise. The city’s stormwater management master plan accounted for sea-level rise, but was inadequate to account for the level of rise that could be expected through the life span of the city’s infrastructure. To address road flooding in susceptible Miami Beach areas, the roads and sidewalks are being raised to reduce ponding, increase longevity of roadways, im-

prove stormwater quality, and enhance safety, particularly during storm events. With the backing of Mayor Philip Levine, City Manager Jimmy Morales, and the city commission, city staff were encouraged to develop design standards that would account for the next 30 to 50 years of forecasted sea-level rise, which corresponds to the estimated life span of utility infrastructure. The mayor’s blue ribbon panel on flooding mitigation was established to advise the city in implementing a management plan to address sea-level rise. Critical to developing new design standards was agreement on a level of service that was realistic for the city to achieve. Keeping the roads completely dry at all times is likely not a realistic expectation for Miami Beach, but maintaining flood elevations below homes and buildings, and keeping roads passable for emergency traffic, was deemed a reasonable level of service. Changes to the standards that have been adopted include: S Design storm rainfall event increased from 6 to 7.5 in. in a 24-hour period. S Design criteria for tailwater elevation increased from 0.67 to 2.7 ft North American Vertical Datum (NAVD). The maximum recorded tide level to date is 2.2 ft NAVD, measured on Sept. 29, 2015. These modifications affect construction of seawalls and elevation of stormwater systems, roadways, and finished floor of buildings. Specific changes to city design and construction standards are summarized in the table at left. Drainage improvements have been made by installing pump stations in areas of the city with the highest susceptibility to flooding. Initial projects have focused on flooding due to reverse flows in gravity stormwater outfalls with the implementation of a pumped drainage system. The city will be looking at addressing seawalls that are overtopped during high tides and adopting new building standards to prepare for the future. The estimated cost to implement a comprehensive pumped drainage system has been projected at over $400 million; the total cost to prepare the city for higher sea levels will far exceed this amount to build seawalls to more stringent criteria, raise streets and sidewalks in low areas to higher elevations, set new building standards to new finished-floor elevations, and continue to address rising groundwater levels that are directly related to sea-level rise.

Sunset Harbour Neighborhood

“Sunny day” flooding in Sunset Harbour prior to improvements.


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Projects incorporating stormwater system improvements and roadway and sidewalk elevation increases are currently underway. Much of the work is being accomplished using design-

Sunset Harbour roadway during elevated roadway construction.

build project delivery to complete the improvements as quickly as possible. In many areas, the roads will be raised to elevations that are higher than finished-floor elevations of adjacent buildings, which offer the unique challenge of harmonizing roadway and sidewalk elevations, such that driveways and building entrances remain accessible. Designs that include sloped, landscaped, drainage swales; short retaining walls; and bi-level sidewalks will be customized in each neighborhood. The first neighborhood to be completed with elevated roadways, sidewalks, and stormwater pumping improvements is Sunset Harbour, one of the lowest-lying areas of the city. The city’s active approach to implementing new standards and stormwater improvements has gained national and international attention. Actors Leonardo DiCaprio and Jack Black both interviewed Mayor Levine and toured the Sunset Harbour neighborhood as part of climatechange and sea-level-rise documentaries that they are producing. On separate occasions in 2015, the project was visited by the president of FEMA; one of President Obama’s senior advisors, Al Gore; and Bill Nye, the Science Guy. Miami Beach’s response to rising sea levels focuses on implementing proven approaches, while continuing to look forward at how to best prepare for future flooding effects from climate change. Management of vertical flooding from rising groundwater remains one of the city’s greatest challenges. The city is actively monitoring steps taken by other communities, as well as advancements in design technologies. A consultant has been commissioned to oversee the program to ensure consistency of new standards in the establishment of new city design and con-

Restaurant patio created by neighborhood flooding improvements.

struction criteria. A series of presentations will be held to inform the public on upcoming improvements, as well as to provide the opportunity to give feedback. As the city’s program continues to evolve, industry experts, firms, and the public are being encouraged to share their expertise and provide input on future infrastructure improvements. A

collaborative approach to adapt and mitigate the many challenges of a rising sea will benefit all of Miami Beach. Bruce A. Mowry, Ph.D., P.E., is the city engineer for Miami Beach, and Holly Kremers, P.E., is a vice president with the water resources group at WadeTrim in Tampa. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016



Florida Section AWWA Turns 90 and We Have a Lot to Celebrate! Kim Kunihiro Chair, FSAWWA

s we prepare for our upcoming Fall Conference, which will be held November 27 to December 1 at the Renaissance Orlando at SeaWorld, we have a lot to celebrate! FSAWWA is 90 years old! I was wondering what was happening in 1926 when the Florida Section was born and here are some highlights: Marilyn Monroe was born, John Coltrane was born, the St. Louis Cardinals beat the Yankees in the World Series, and the founding fathers of FSAWWA got together and held their first independent conference on Nov. 18, 1926. The upstarts were from the St. Pete, Tampa, and Orlando areas. They expected 15 to 20 to attend and they had 60 show up—and so the first Fall Conference was born! This year we will celebrate our 90th anniversary. We will be a having a 90th anniversary gala at the conference on Tuesday evening, November 29, at the Hard Rock Hotel. Our featured entertainer is Grammy award-winner Jimmie


Vaughan, one of the most respected blues guitarists in the world. A ticket is included in each full-conference registration package, and additional tickets for your family and guests are available at the onsite registration page for just $50 each ( Please join us as we celebrate 90 years of working in this great profession that values water and values public health! We are also happy to celebrate our state Top Ops team that went to ACE16 in Chicago and brought home the GOLD!!! Florida Section’s 2016 state Top Ops winner, the Palm Coast Water Buoys, went to ACE this year (the team has gone to the AWWA’s annual conference several times), competed, and again brought home the winner’s trophy. The team consisted of Fred Greiner, Tom Martens, and Peter Roussell, with Jim Hogan as their coach. The team has a legacy of winning at the state and national levels. They have won 10 out of the last 12 years at the state competition and placed in every national-level competition they have entered since 2005, including six first-place wins, four second places and one third place. Top Ops is the "College Bowl" of the water industry. Teams of one, two, or three water operators or lab personnel from all AWWA sections compete against each other in a fast-paced ques-

The Palm Beach Water Buoys team members (left to right): Peter Roussell, Fred Greiner, Jim Hogan (coach), Tom Martens.


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

tion-and-answer tournament. A moderator poses a broad range of technical questions and math problems, and the team scoring the most points in the championship round is awarded the Top Ops championship. The state competition is run by the Operators Council, and in order to enter the competition, each team member must be an active operator member of AWWA, or work for a utility member or an organizational member of AWWA. Questions for the national competition are developed from AWWA publications. The committee compiling the questions is under the oversight of the Operator Involvement Committee of the AWWA Distribution and Plant Operations Division. Every year the questions are pulled from a bank of questions and sent to the Association of Boards of Certification (ABC), which validates the questions and creates rounds for the competition. This year, 18 teams from the United States and Canada competed at ACE16, and the Water Buoys were victorious once again. Competing in this type of competition not only reinforces camaraderie among the team members and pride in their work in the water industry, but the education they obtain in preparation for the competitions is passed on to their co-workers through in-house training sessions. So, it is now time for all utilities to put together the team that will challenge the Water Buoys. The next state Top Ops competition will be held in spring 2017 at the Florida Water Resources Conference. To challenge the Buoys is going to take some preparation, so it is not too soon to start. The FSAWWA has the added bonus of being able to send the Buoys and one other team to ACE17 to compete. The ACE17 will be in Philadelphia next year! In addition to Top Ops, please consider competing at the Florida Section AWWA’s Fall Conference in the Backhoe Rodeo, Tapping Contest, and Meter Madness. Winners of Meter Madness and the Tapping Contest go on to compete at the national level. Details for entry are available at the conference website at Congratulations to the Palm Coast Water Buoys, and we look forward to seeing you all at the FSAWWA 90th anniversary celebration at the Fall Conference as we celebrate, explore, and appreciate the “value of water.” S

Next Phase of Green Infrastructure Nita Naik, Matthew O'Connor, and Julie Spicher Many communities across the Unites States are employing Green Infrastructure (GI) practices as an integrated planning approach for meeting demands on sanitary collection systems, wastewater treatment works, and stormwater management systems. Stormwater runoff and other wet-weather-induced flows, such as combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and erosion, have a negative effect on water quality in receiving waterbodies. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs), GI, and low-impact development (LID) that use vegetation and engineered media are approaches that mimic the natural water cycle to treat stormwater runoff. Simultaneously, these approaches address the triple bottom line of environmental, social, and economic performance of a project. Envision® is a powerful tool for comparing infrastructure alternatives and sustainable features and was created collaboratively by the Institute of Sustainable Infrastructure (ISI) and the Zofnass Program for Sustainable Infrastructure at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The ISI was founded by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Public Works Association (APWA), and American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) to develop and administer one sustainable infrastructure rating

Figure 1. Award Levels

system for all types of infrastructure. The ISI created Envision, and an associated guidance manual and training programs, as planning and design tools for rating projects. This provides a streamlined approach to evaluate a wide range of infrastructure projects, with one tool using comparable standards.

Envision Envision has 60 unique sustainability criteria, called credits, which are divided into five major categories: S Quality of Life criteria address the project’s impact on the health and wellbeing of a community. S Leadership criteria address the collaboration among the project team and the community and stakeholders, as well as infrastructure integration and long-term planning. S Resource Allocation criteria address the quantity, source, and quality of resources used in the project. S Natural World criteria focus on the integration of the project into the local environment and impacts to habitats, geology, and natural resources. S Climate and Risk criteria address emissions and infrastructure resilience. Each credit has up to five applicable levels of achievement: S Improved – Performance that is above conventional. S Enhanced – Sustainable performance that is on the right track, with indications that superior performance is within reach. S Superior – Sustainable performance that is notable. S Conserving – Performance that has achieved essentially zero impact.

Table 1. Envision Credits Associated with Green Infrastructure Projects

S Restorative – Performance that restores natural or social systems. This is the highest level of achievement. Allocation of points is on a nonlinear scale, meaning not all levels of achievement are available for all credits. There are a few reasons that this scale was developed: it achieves recognition of initial efforts, encourages higher levels of achievement, and acknowledges the exemplary sustainable features of certain credits. The guidance manual gives specific definitions and measurement standards of each level of achievement per credit. The Envision rating system includes four tools for measuring a project’s sustainable features: S The guidance manual S The pre-assessment checklist with a simple series of yes/no questions S The online scoresheet for conducting self-assessments and sharing results S The verification and award program Figure 1 shows the award levels, with the percentage of total possible points required to be achieved for each award level. To qualify for an award, at least one person on the project team must be credentialed to use the Envision rating system. Credentialed professionals are called Envision Sustainability Professionals, or ENV SPs. The project team and the ENV SP can submit the project evaluation to ISI for verification and ISI assigns a verifier to review and confirm the points achieved. Project teams must submit documentation to support the number of points requested in the project evaluation.

Envision Credits Envision credits explicitly associated with GI and stormwater management are listed in Table 1 (ISI Guidance Manual, 2015). It is important to note these are only a few among many of the Envision credits that are applicable to GI projects. Essentially, in order for a GI project to be truly sustainable, the project team must consider the triple bottom line of social, economic, and environmental aspects of a project for it to be truly sustainable. Envision guides the project team in selecting further approaches, which could address the triple bottom line and optimize the sustainable features of the project.

Case Study: New York City Department of Environmental Protection Green Infrastructure Program Approximately 60 percent of New York City is serviced by combined sewers. The New York


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) manages 3,337 mi of combined sewers, approximately 2.3 mi of sanitary sewers, and 1.8 mi of storm sewers, and 72 percent of New York City is an impervious area. To address the challenge of stormwater management from this substantial impervious area, DEP, in cooperation with PlanNYC, developed the city’s GI plan. This plan laid the framework to use GI to manage stormwater runoff from 10 percent of the total impervious surfaces in combined sewer areas by 2030. In 2012, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation signed a historic agreement to incorporate a green and grey adaptive management approach into a CSO long-term control plan. In total, $1.5 billion in capital funding was allocated to support the implementation of GI through 2030.

draulic calculations were completed to determine the total amount of stormwater contributing to each catch basin within the drainage area. The ROWBs were then located on a map to optimize the amount of stormwater that would potentially be managed. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping was used to locate ROWBs, taking into account catch basin locations and elevation. The DEP collaborated with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and the Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop siting criteria, which includes minimum sidewalk depths and clearance dis-

tances to sidewalk features, such as ramps, mailboxes, fire hydrants, and bus stops. The DPR assigned a planting plan and tree species, if applicable. If a site was approved by DEP, DPR, and DOT, it would be included as a potential ROWB. The project team studied one of the priority areas in the Bronx off of the Hutchinson River. Field crews walked each block of the drainage area and evaluated the ability of the site to support the installation of preliminary ROWBs (Figure 5). During these initial site walkthroughs, as Continued on page 12

Figure 2. New York City Priority Watersheds

Methodology The DEP’s Office of Green Infrastructure (OGI) initiated a GI program to site GI in designated priority areas. The 38,000 acres were selected based on the total annual CSO volume, frequency of CSO events, planned future system improvements, and the feasibility of implementation. Sites were located in Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn, as shown in Figure 2. Standards were developed for a right-of-way bioswales (ROWB) that could be located within the sidewalk adjacent to the curb line (Figure 3). Stormwater runoff enters the ROWB through a curb cut and the engineered green system captures the volume. Design standards were developed for three types of ROWBs, all 5 ft wide, ranging in length from 10 to 20 ft. Type I and Type II ROWBs included both an inlet and outlet, while the smaller Type III had only an inlet. All ROWBs consisted of porous submedia, engineering soil, appropriate plantings, and a tree guard. The project consisted of several phases: preliminary ROWBs, potential ROWBs, and final ROWBs. During the preliminary phase, hy-

Figure 3. Right-of-Way Bioswales Rendition

Figure 4, Newly Installed Right-of-Way Bioswales Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Figure 5. Map Showing Delineation and Sited Right-of-Way Bioswales

Figure 6. Permeable Pavement Pilot Area Map

Continued on page ??


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 11 many ROWBs were sited as possible. If ROWBs were not able to be sited due to the lack of appropriate walking clearances, tree cover, driveways, entrances, sidewalk obstructions, or other eliminating factors, the block would be assessed for locating a stormwater green street (SGS) installation. The stormwater green street is an engineered system where the curb is extended into the parking lane and engineered soil is combined with appropriate plantings to maximize the amount of stormwater managed. The SGS has a different set of criteria than ROWBs. For example, since the SGS extended from the curb into the roadway, parking spaces would be potentially eliminated. Both the DEP and DOT set a standard maximum 25 ft for a SGS to minimize the disturbance to local residents. It was preferred that a SGS be located along one-way streets and only on one side of the roadway. Also, a SGS allows for a custom design and selection of planting materials. Geotechnical investigations were conducted at all potential ROWB sites. In order to be considered a viable location for ROWBs, the soil characteristics, such as permeability, had to be favorable and bedrock could not be located less than 9 ft below the sidewalk. Of the 656 sited final ROWBs, only 92 met the geotechnical requirements. The project team worked with DEP to develop a new standard design for a shallow right-of-way raingarden, which allowed sites to be approved with only 3 ft of clearance before reaching bedrock. Change of Scope: Permeable Pavement A consent order that was issued was amended to include a study of various alternative permeable roadway and sidewalk material. The citywide study includes the installation of the materials, calculations of the volume of stormwater captured and the development of installation and maintenance guidelines for the material, the effect on utilities, and construction and maintenance costs associated with each type of permeable pavement. Three pilot areas were identified within the project area: two single blocks and a larger 42-acre site. In order to select the proper type of permeable pavement street slope, the amount of tree canopy and location of utilities were considered. Permeable pavement would not be installed on blocks where ROWBs or SGSs had been sited. Three technologies were determined to be viable and suitable options: permeable articulating concrete block/mat pavers, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and precast porous concrete panels. While all three technologies have the same primary function of allowing runoff to pass through either the pavement itself or through the joints, they differ in their performance and applicability. A major concern for permeable pavers is clogging, which is dependent on several factors, including surrounding soil permeability, nearby distributed soil, and frequency and type of maintenance. Preventative maintenance is essential to prevent clogging of the joint space. The industry

standard recommendation for preventative maintenance of permeable interlocking pavers is regenerative air sweeping two to four times per year, and the recommended restorative maintenance is vacuuming every three to five years (Hunt, 2011. “Maintaining Permeable Pavements.” North Carolina Cooperative Extension, Raleigh, N.C.). However, the availability of regenerative air sweepers for maintenance on sidewalk areas may be limited; in this case, standard sweeping with a smaller push-behind sweeper is acceptable. This will require the gaps of the interlocking pavers to be filled with aggregate after sweeping to prevent a tripping hazard. Typical clogging depths occur within the first 1.5 to 2 in. of joint material. Therefore, every three to five years, or as necessary, the top 1.5 to 2 in. of the joint material should be vacuumed and replaced. A summary of the recommended maintenance technologies and frequency is shown in Table 2. Pressure washers are not recommended on permeable pavement installations due to their tendency to drive debris further into the aggregate matrix. For this same reason, vacuum equipment should not use sweep brooms or water-spray attachments while cleaning the permeable pavers. Sand used for traction during the winter months should also be avoided due to its tendency to expedite clogging of permeable pavement installations. Foliage and organic debris should be removed from the surface of permeable pavement installations as soon as possible. The pilot study is currently in the installation phase, with post-construction monitoring and routine maintenance that began in summer 2016. Using adaptive approaches and the team’s GI expertise, the percent managed area increased from 5 to 12 percent by incorporating the ROWBs and SGSs, the rain gardens, and permeable pavements in the program.

assessment earned 21 percent of the points, and a possible bronze award for the project. The project scored well in the Quality of Life (22 percent) and Natural World (28 percent) categories. The Quality of Life, 3.3 Enhance Public Space category scored superior points since the project will alleviate surface flooding and improve the public space aesthetically, providing green spaces in this heavily developed urban area. The involvement of stakeholders from the planning phase and incorporating broad community alignment resulted in a superior level of achievement for the Quality of Life, 1.1 Improve Community Quality of Life credit. Also, the project earned a superior level of achievement for the Natural World, 1.7 Preserve Greenfields category by constructing the bioswales in previous greyfields. Overall, this project, being inherently “green” in nature, resulted in points achieved in most of the applicable categories. While this program is groundbreaking in its approach to stormwater management and successfully achieves measurable sustainability goals, should the project team decide to pursue a higher level of achievement, the Envision rating system could be utilized to aid in identifying the most economical and achievable credits to pursue. The project team could consider the following improvements in the Quality of Life category: S The project team and the client could engage the community by creating a maintenance program to help with bioswales cleaning. Also, the project team can use this as a public education tool. As the program progresses, the

project team may consider incorporating “rain gardens” in place of bioswales to preserve views and local character of the area. S The project team may consider achieving innovation credits in the Quality of Life category. S The project team may consider hiring local firms to expand the skills and capacity of the community workforce to improve their ability to grow.

Conclusion Envision is designed to provide a guidance for GI projects across the United States, and it is a useful tool to help GI projects during planning, design, and implementation phases. The right-of-way bioswales manage stormwater and reduce flows to the combined sewers, protecting water quality while reducing the burden on traditional grey infrastructure. By using design standards and innovative approaches, the project team was able to achieve its percent-capture goals of the program, even under challenging urban soil conditions. The DEP’s GI program is an example of how a large-scale project can be successfully implemented to address stormwater runoff and achieve sustainability goals. Nita Naik, P.E., ENV SP, and Matthew O’Connor, P.E., are project managers with Greeley and Hansen LLC in Tampa. Julia Spicher, P.E., LEED AP, ENV SP, is a project manager with Greeley and Hansen LLC in Philadelphia. S

Table 2. Recommended Maintenance Schedule

Case Study Analysis The Envision online analysis tool was used to evaluate the DEP’s ROWB project. The selfTable 3. Impervious Area Managed

Figure 7. Case Study Analysis

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner ! The Public Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at

Exciting Updates from the Student & Young Professionals Committee Tyler Smith

The Student & Young Professionals Committee (SYPC) would like to thank Danielle Bertini for all of her hard work and accomplishments throughout the past few years as chair of the committee. Danielle has significantly impacted and improved the fluidity and quality of the SYPC competitions and events, as well as encouraging SYPC involvement within the industry. We thank her for her service to this committee, and I have now taken over as the new committee chair. The SPYC just released the first edition of the semi-annual student and young professionals online newsletter, which is available to members and nonmembers alike. The goal of this newsletter is to recognize our sponsors (without whom we would not exist) and to showcase all of the hard work put on by the outstanding students and volunteers throughout the year.

Danielle Bertini, past committee chair.


The first newsletter features articles written by students and young professionals, with a focus on this year's Student Design Competition (SDC) and poster contest at the Florida Water Resources Conference. It also features upcoming events through the end of the year, with students and young professionals encouraged to attend and become involved within the industry. It is also hoped they will ultimately become active members of organizations like FWEA, WEF, and AWWA.

2016/2017 Goals The mission of SYPC is to support students and young professionals in the environmental engineering field. We accomplish this by providing scholarships, hosting the SDC and poster contest, and offering a variety of networking opportunities. With the help of the former SYPC chair, we've set a few goals this year to ensure the continued advancement and development of the committee: S Maintain and improve relationships with universities and FWEA student chapters S Connect university students with local utilities and mentors S Collaborate more with other FWEA chapters and committees S Reach out and be more involved with K-12 students We are also hoping to add a student paper competition next year at FWRC, which will allow research-focused project authors to participate in the conference, and have the opportunity to win a free trip to the 2017 Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) to compete in the national paper competition there. More details will be available in the winter edition of the SYPC newsletter (coming in December 2016). To view the summer edition of the newsletter, visit

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

dents_young_ professionals.php. If you are interested in submitting an article or sharing an upcoming event, please contact me at the email below. If you're attending WEFTEC this year, which is being held September 24-29 in New Orleans, please be sure to stop by and support our Florida students at the national Student Design Competition!

Looking to Get Involved? Are you new to the industry or to Florida? The SYPC is a great way to get involved and get connected with others in your field. If you're looking to get involved or become a sponsor, please reach out to me at: Tyler Smith, SYPC chair Carollo Engineers Other committee personnel can be reached at: • David Hernandez, SYPC vice chair Hazen & Sawyer • Samantha Hanzel, Poster Competition chair Jacobs S


FWPCOA Offers Continuing Education Programs for License Renewal Cycle Certification Regulation

Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

ell, we just wrapped up the FWPCOA state short school, which was held August 8-12 in Ft. Pierce at the Indian River State College, and it was a great success. Another success is that we‘ve already made it through all of August and, thankfully, there have been no major storms this season for anyone to have to contend with yet. We all know the big ones are coming—I’m not talking hurricanes, but about getting our required continuing education units (CEUs) for the next license cycle in place.


Training Options We all like to put this off to the last minute, but before we know it, next May will be here. The FWPCOA will have one more state school in March before the end of the renewal cycle, with continuing education courses available, but I strongly suggest that you do not wait until the last minute to complete the courses required for license renewal. If your utility needs training for employees, you can contact your local FWPCOA region to get assistance with the training. The FWPCOA provides operators with cost-effective options to obtain the CEUs required for license renewal. Another option is the Online Training Institute, located at FLC8518/, which provides over 160 continuing education courses for treatment plant operators and water distribution system operators. The FWPCOA’s on-the-road program delivers continuing education courses directly to agencies desiring to train a group of employees. The association tailors the course delivery to fit the requesting agency’s schedule and training needs. The requestor provides a training room and up to 25 employees, and the association provides the instructor. Operators may verify their continuing education credits for the current license renewal cycle online at Follow the instructions provided on the webpage to access your information.


The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) operator certification program regulates the licensing of Florida’s operators and has developed the following biennial continuing education course requirements for license renewal: S An individual who possesses both an active water distribution system operator license and an active water treatment plant operator license may apply the same CEUs concurrently to each license. This is the only instance where a continuing education course may simultaneously apply to two licenses. S Operators with other license combinations must obtain CEUs based on the requirements for a single license applied to each license held. Since CEUs cannot be applied concurrently to each license, a continuing education course may apply to only one license at a time. S A very important rule that applies to all operators is that you may not take the same course for continuing education credit during back-to-back renewal cycles. Maintain a file of your course completion certificates, for reference purposes, to prevent this problem from occurring. For additional information on continuing education requirements, refer to Section 62-602. 710, Florida Administrative Code, available online at wastewater/62-602 pdf, and the FDEP Operator Certification Program Handbook, also available online at ocp/docs/ocp_handbook.pdf.

Proposed Revisions to Rules 62-550 and 62-560, FAC Please take the time to review the changes to both of these rules. Notice of Proposed Rule Department: FDEP Division: Departmental Rule No.: 62-550.817, 62-550.828, 62-550.830 Purpose: The department is adopting revisions to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Public Notification Rule relating to the

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Revised Total Coliform Rule published in the July 1, 2015 version of 40 C.F.R. 141, Subpart Q. The Department is also updating existing citations to incorporate the July 1, 2015 version of 40 C.F.R. 141, Subpart Q. Notice of Proposed Rule Department: FDEP Division: Departmental Rule No.: 62-560.400, 62-560.410, 62-560.430, 62-560.440 Purpose: The department is adopting revisions to the EPA Public Notification Rule relating to the Revised Total Coliform Rule published in the July 1, 2015 version of 40 C.F.R. 141, Subpart Q. The department is updating existing citations to incorporate the July 1, 2015 version of 40 C.F.R. 141, Subpart Q. The department is also making minor updates to the incorporated federal public notification regulations to address EPA comments on department rules and to incorporate federal requirements for public notification to new billing units by noncommunity water systems.

Training Scholarships The FWPCOA is accepting nominations for the Pat Robinson Scholarship Awards for 2016. The association provides 13 scholarships each year, one per association region, to deserving members. Each scholarship waives the tuition fee for a state short school and provides reimbursement of travel costs up to $800. The nomination form is available online at The deadline for nominations is Dec. 31, 2016. Submit nominations to the nominee’s FWPCOA regional director to ensure delivery of the nomination to the Scholarship Committee chair by the deadline. Nominees must currently must be employed in any of the following utility professions: S Water plant operations S Wastewater plant operations S Stormwater system operations


Reclaimed water system operations Water distribution system operations Wastewater collection system operations Utility customer service

Nominees must also meet the following criteria: S Have at least one year of experience in the profession. S Be a current member in good standing of FWPCOA with at least one year of membership. S Must be made by a member of the region and endorsed by both a regional officer and the regional director. The scholarship awards are an excellent way to acknowledge someone’s service and commitment to the water utility profession, and I encourage your participation in this program!

Online Institute Update The Online Institute currently has 81 active courses and 295 registered students. For the 2017 license renewal cycle, FWPCOA has sold an average of 49 online courses per month, which is much greater than the monthly average of 28 courses sold during the 2015 cycle. There was another increase in revenue for July 2016 when compared with July 2014, owing largely to the sale of 61 continuing education courses to Broward County Utilities. The average monthly revenue for the 2017 renewal cycle remains above that of the 2015 cycle: $2,762 per month versus $2,032 per month, respectively. Please continue to advise your members of the availability of the FWPCOA Online Institute in your newsletters and at your membership meetings. Continue to encourage operators to start earning CEU for the 2017 renewal cycle.

Help Publicize These Courses! Please publicize the availability of the following online short courses at your utility, company, or region: S Stormwater C S Utility Customer Relations I S Wastewater Collection C S Water Distribution Levels 2 and 3 Also, don't forget to mention the Class C treatment plant operator courses. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Algal Blooms Affecting Many Florida Areas An unprecedented amount of toxic algal blooms has infested miles of southern Florida's coastline and waterways for the past several months. Officials believe the root of the blooms can be traced to Lake Okeechobee, which is the largest lake in Florida and second largest freshwater lake in the United States. For the past several decades, Lake Okeechobee has been loaded with excessive amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from a variety of sources, including fertilization runoff from farms and urbanization, which can build up in water in a process known as eutrophication, or over-enrichment. Such nutrients, along with other environmental factors (such as warmer temperatures), promote the growth of blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria. A controlled release of water from an overfull Lake Okeechobee into local rivers that flow east to the Atlantic and west to the Gulf of Mexico mitigated the problem. Heavy precipitation makes these controlled releases necessary because Lake Okeechobee’s aging dike system can’t retain the large amount of water. The lake’s poor water quality started with its surrounding watershed. The agricultural area that surrounds it is planted with citrus and sugarcane and also has hundreds of thousands of acres of pasture, with only a small percentage of urbanized land. Rains can carry fertilizers and manure into the lake, and ultimately to the coasts. And just as fertilizer feeds plant growth on land, it feeds algal growth in water, which can cause the kind of harmful algal blooms now occurring in Florida.

In June, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District discharged a high volume of the lake's nutrient-polluted water into local canals to prevent flooding. The nutrients from the released water likely contributed to the putrid algal blooms that have since been seen proliferating in canals, rivers, and estuaries in four counties across southern Florida. After seeing the algae firsthand and getting numerous complaints from residents, the Corps announced that it would start reducing the amount of freshwater flowing from Lake Okeechobee. However, since a number of the algae-infested canals and rivers flow into estuaries and inlets that empty into the ocean, several beaches in Martin County have also began experiencing blue-algae blooms. Authorities have not yet been able to confirm if the algal blooms on the county's beaches are caused by something other than the release of nutrient-polluted water from Lake Okeechobee. A recent sample of water from a beach showed that the algae there was the same species as the algae found in Lake Okeechobee and in the affected estuaries. Florida Gov. Rick Scott has declared a state of emergency in Martin, St. Lucie, Lee, and Palm Beach counties, and he also asked the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) to take actions to address the issues caused by algal blooms in south Florida waterways, including developing a hotline for residents to report algal blooms and deploying teams of additional staff to more rapidly survey and sample areas impacted by blooms.

(photo: National Aeronautics and Space Administration)


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Gov. Scott announced that he would ask the Florida Legislature to set aside money that would be used for a grant program to aid homeowners who voluntarily want to switch from septic tanks to central sewer systems. He also pledged to put aside money for next year to help communities around the Indian River Lagoon and Caloosahatchee River build new wastewater systems. "While the state has continued to step up and invest in important restoration projects to help south Florida waterways, it is clear that more work has to be done," Scott said. "It is up to all of us—the state, Florida's local communities, and the federal government—to work together on long-term solutions to improve the quality of our water. That is why I am going to commit state funding and match it with local contributions so we can work together on efforts to clean up our waters. Septic tank runoff is a major contributor to the pollution in these water bodies and I look forward to working with the Legislature to fund efforts to curb it." According to the Florida Department of Health (DOH), risks associated with blue-green algae occur when people or animals are exposed to toxins that are sometimes produced by certain kinds of these organisms. The department has said that exposure can happen through unintentionally swallowing lake or river water, breathing water spray, or coming into direct contact with the blooms. At high levels, these can affect the gastrointestinal tract, liver, nervous system, and skin. Many residents near the bloom-affected areas have said they're concerned about the possible health problems the algae pose, and a number of them have also been spotted wearing masks in an attempt to avoid inhaling the smell released by the algae. Some people have also blamed the algae for headaches, respiratory issues, and even rashes. The algae can also choke out marine life by blocking sunlight and consuming oxygen that fish and other aquatic species need to survive. When oxygen levels become dangerously low, or hypoxic, what are known as “dead zones” may occur and result in massive fish kills. To ensure the health and safety of the state’s residents and visitors, FDEP is committed to providing updates on current algal blooms and how the state is responding to protect human health, water quality, and the environment. The FDEP, the five water management districts (WMDs) in the state, the DOH, the FWC, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) are all working together to respond to the algal blooms, each with a specific role. This group of organizations, known as the “Bloom Response Team” coordinates activities based upon the nature of the bloom event.

The DOH issues health advisories that it determines to be appropriate when toxicity levels are high, and may also post warning signs when blooms affect public beaches or other areas where there is the risk of human exposure. These actions are typically directed out of local county health departments, most often in consultation with staff from DOH’s aquatic toxins program. The World Health Organization considers levels

under 10 µg/l to represent a low-level risk for adverse health outcomes from short-term recreational exposures; however, certain sensitive populations (e.g., children, the elderly, and immunocompromised populations) may still be at risk, even at low concentrations, and should avoid any exposure. This team, and all other involved federal, state, and local agencies, will continue to respond

as quickly and efficiently as possible to both observed and reported algal blooms. The team will frequently monitor Florida’s water quality, and routinely collect algal bloom samples as soon as they are observed as part of this effort. In addition, staff can be deployed to take additional samples in response to reported blooms—whether from a citizen, response-team agencies, or other sources. S

Frequently Asked Questions:

Cyanobacteria/Blue-Green Algae What are cyanobacteria/bluegreen algae? Blue-green algae are a group of organisms that can live in freshwater, saltwater or in mixed "brackish" water. Most of us know them as ”pond scum." They also have been found to share some characteristics with bacteria, which has led to them being referred to as "cyanobacteria." What is a cyanobacterial bloom and how do they form? Cyanobacterial blooms occur when the algae that are normally present grow in numbers more than normal. Within a few days, a bloom can cause clear water to become cloudy. Winds tend to push some floating blooms to the shore where they are very noticeable. Cyanobacterial blooms can form in warm, slow-moving waters that are rich in nutrients. Blooms can occur at any time, but most often occur in late summer or early fall. They can occur in marine, estuarine, and fresh waters, but blooms of greatest concern are those that occur in fresh water, such as drinking water reservoirs or recreational waters. What do cyanobacterial blooms look like? Some cyanobacterial blooms can look like foam, scum, or mats on the surface of fresh water lakes and ponds. The blooms can be blue, bright green, brown, or red and may look like paint floating on the water. Some blooms may not affect the appearance of the water. As algae in a cyanobacterial bloom die, the water may smell bad. What are some tips for avoiding cyanobacteria/blue-green algae? It is important that adults, children, and pets avoid swimming in or drinking water containing blue-green algae. It is best not to come in to contact with water in areas where you see foam, scum, or mats of algae on the water. What should I do if I come in contact with cyanobacteria/ blue-green algae? Blue-green algae toxins can affect the liver, nervous system, and skin. Abdominal cramps, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting may occur if untreated water is swallowed. Some people who are sensitive to the algae may develop a rash or respiratory irritation. If you come into contact with an algae bloom, wash with soap and water right away. If you experience an illness, please contact your healthcare provider immediately. What agency should I contact to report fish kills or illness associated with blue-green algae? • Fish Kill Hotline (Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission) 1-800-636-0511 • Human Illness (Florida Poison Control Center) 1-800-222-1222 Can I eat fish harvested from areas near or in algae blooms? No. Do not eat fish that are harvested from areas near or in blooms.

Is it okay to use algae water for showering or irrigation? Untreated water from the bloom area should not be used for irrigation when people could come into contact with the spray. Do not use untreated water from the area with the bloom for showering or bathing. Does blue-green algae cause ALS or Alzheimer’s? Beta-NMethylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is nonprotein amino acid. Some researchers have reported that BMAA can be produced by most cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). However, some concerns have been raised regarding the specificity of the earlier analytical methods and whether BMAA was the only substance quantified. There is little evidence to show how the type of brain changes seen in people with ALS could be induced by BMAA. No animal model has demonstrated that BMAA exposure results in ALS-like neuropathy. Also, no large-scale epidemiological studies have been performed that can definitively link BMAA levels as the cause of ALS. Proximity and spatial association to a water body with cyanobacteria does not prove causality. The BMAA hypothesis is still a hypothesis. No proven connection has been found between cyanobacteria and ALS. The BMAA is one of the many possible environmental triggers to neurological disease that is being investigated by researchers in Florida and elsewhere. There are millions of potential environmental exposures; BMAA is just one of those potential triggers. There has been little evidence of BMAA being linked to neurodegenerative disease in the general public, but BMAA has been reported to be associated with the neurological disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinson dementia complex (ALS-PDC), in a local population in Guam. This relationship was first noted over 40 years ago. The source of exposure for this population was cycad plant seeds, used for making flour, and fruit bats that feed on cycad fruit; the amount of BMAA exposure was very high. This is an unusual and very limited population. In laboratory tests on cells and in animals, BMAA has been shown to be a potent neurotoxin, especially when given through injection or other nonfood exposures. There is a lack of toxicological information based on standard tests using the oral route of exposure upon which to base a health-based value for use in a risk assessment. There are the studies of Canadian and U.S. ALS patients that had higher BMAA concentrations in their brain tissue than Huntington disease patients or non-neurologically affected patient; however, this finding may be coincidental. Various chemicals exist in our bodies as part of living in an industrialized society, but are at levels that do not necessarily affect our overall health. Recent research has identified levels of BMAA on par with levels observed in Guam fruit bats, shrimp, crabs, bottom fish, and shark fins from south Florida marine ecosystems; however, there are no known cases of human neurological diseases related to ingesting animals from these waters. (FAQ provided courtesy of Florida Department of Health)

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

FWEA Biosolids Committee Affiliation: FWEA Current chair: Jody Barksdale, P.E., ENV SP, senior vice president, Gresham Smith and Partners, Tampa Year group was formed: The FWEA Biosolids Committee was formed in the mid-1990s due in part to the development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Part 503 regulations for “The Standards for the Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge,” which were published in 1993. The committee was formed to assist with guidance and education with respect to biosolids. Scope of work: The mission of the committee is to promote education, networking, and sound public policy in the field of biosolids, while advocating their proper management by utilities, haulers, land appliers, and other biosolids end users. In addition, the committee conducts conference calls to keep membership informed of new developments. The committee also coordinates with the Water Environment Federation (WEF) Residuals and Biosolids Committee and its subcommittees to disseminate national information to local members. Recent accomplishments: Jody Barksdale, committee chair, recently participated on a panel for the FWEA Energy and Nutrient Recovery Roundtable to discuss energy recovery from biosolids. The committee’s members have also participated in workshops and presented papers at seminars and conferences. The committee supports workshops, technical sessions, and seminars at the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC). It supports and maintains a presence at the FWEA water festivals and promotes public education on biosolids issues.

Group members: Jody Barksdale Alex Kraemer Matthew Love George Dick Gary Hammond Kristen Waksman Tony Pevec Craven Askew Jeovanni Ayala-Lugo Mark Burgess Janet DeBiasio Kathy McGrath Richard Moore Lisa Prieto Joe Sacco Beth Schinella Jim Spencer Brian Stahl Alex Terral Amir Varshovi

Chair – Gresham Smith & Partners Vice chair – Centrisys Webmaster – Gresham Smith & Partners Membership – Gresham Smith & Partners Awards Subcommittee – Eco Sciences, LLC Seminar Coordination/Arrangements – Carollo Engineers Advertising – CDM Smith City of St. Petersburg MWH Global Reiss Engineering City of St. Petersburg City of Clearwater RDM Engineering Brown and Caldwell Orege North America Hillsborough County NEFCO Biosolids Infrastructure Solution Services LLC Hydro Solutions Services LLC Green Edge Technologies

If you would like to keep up with the latest expertise and new ideas related to the biosolids industry, the Biosolids Committee is always looking for fresh input and participation. The committee is a great way to network with the leaders in the industry and expand your knowledge of the latest issues and trends. S

Current projects: On October 27, at the Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida in Orlando, the committee will be providing a one-day seminar, “The Future of Biosolids Process and Management Technology: Be on the Leading Edge.” The seminar will focus on new and emerging biosolids processing technologies and the latest trends in biosolids management. Continuing education units (CEUs) and professional development hours (PDHs) will be provided as a benefit to attendees. Future work: The committee will continue public relations and coordination with FWEA to promote the sharing of knowledge, better technologies, and the beneficial use of biosolids. Both FWEA and the committee will continue to provide information on new technologies and processes and to track industry trends. The committee will make sure that FWEA and the public are aware of policy changes related to biosolids.


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Barksdale (far right) participating in the FWEA Energy and Nutrient Recovery Practices Roundtable in March.


Proactive Risk Management: Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Mitigation Support for Climate Resiliency Lena River, Eric D. Kenney, and Nicole LaRosa azard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is focused on funding projects that support risk reduction due to natural and man-made disasters. In response to The President’s Climate Action Plan (2013), Executive Order 13653 (Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change), FEMA’s Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2011-OPPA-01), and the 2014-2018 FEMA Strategic Plan, FEMA is taking steps to ensure its programs account for the impacts of climate change and include planning for mitigation actions in support of climate-resilient infrastructure and communities. To explore how climate-resilient infrastructure may be incorporated into eligible HMA grants, CDM Smith supported FEMA to research climate-resilient project options and identify actions that provide risk-reduction benefits for flood and drought, and lend themselves to implementation using green infrastructure (GI) methods. Initially, over 70 climate-resilient project options were identified that may reduce the risk of impacts to people and infrastructure attributed to climate change weather extremes. Figure 1 summarizes the projected climatechange impacts and risk factors nationwide as summarized in the 2014 U.S. National Climate Assessment (Melillo et al., 2014). The list of 70 project options was further screened and 14 project types were evaluated under various eligibility, technical, economic/ financial, implementation, and environmental considerations. Of the 14 project types, four climate-resilient mitigation activities were ultimately selected, based on their high performance related to feasibility and cost-effectiveness, and their ability to meet programmatic funding requirements consistent with HMA guidance. The four climate-resilient mitigation activities are: 1. Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR): This involves injecting untreated surface water, untreated groundwater, potable water, or reclaimed water (when it is available) into an aquifer through a well, to be stored for a pe-



riod of time until it is needed, and then recovered for use (referred to as a cycle) through the same well. Implementation of ASR increases climate resiliency for periods of low rainfall or extended periods of drought by taking advantage of seasonal variations in surface-water runoff or groundwater surpluses. The ASR does not typically provide flood-hazard reduction independently due to the relatively low injection volumes (compared to flood flows); however, it can be used to “free up” storage in regional stormwater management facilities and reservoirs if pumped at a constant maximum rate. 2. Flood Diversion and Storage: This includes the transfer of floodwater from a stream, river, or other body of water into a wetland, floodplain, canal/ditch, pipe, or other conduit (e.g., tunnels, wells). Storage of these floodwaters provides for a controlled baseflow release and reduces downstream peak flows, stages, and velocities. Water can be im-

Lena Rivera, P.E., D.WRE, is principal water resources engineer with CDM Smith in Maitland, and Eric D. Kenney, P.E., CFM, is a project manager with CDM Smith in Fairfax, Va. Nicole LaRosa is a senior policy specialist with the Federal Emergency Management Agency in Washington, D.C.

pounded in surface reservoirs, floodplains, and wetlands, along with retention and detention facilities. By actively managing floodwaters by diversion, storage, and infiltration, and allowing for a controlled baseflow release, the project would mitigate flooding impacts. In addition, floodwater diversion and storage can replenish water supply aquifers and enhance usable water supply to mitigate the effects of drought. Floodwater diversion can also help maintain healthy ecosystems.

Figure 1. Summary of Regional Climate Change Impacts and Risk Factors in the United States

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

3. Floodplain and Stream Restoration: Natural events and human activities can change the dynamic equilibrium of stream and floodplain systems. Restoration is the re-establishment of the structure and function of floodplains, stream morphology, and ecosystems. Typical projects include improvements to floodplains and floodways, wetlands, streambeds, flow area, natural channel form, and sinuosity. When healthy, these systems can provide stream flood mitigation, mitigate bank erosion concerns, and provide ecological benefits. Additional benefits include habi-

tat for fish and wildlife, improvement of water quality, water supply benefits, and recreation opportunities. 4. Low-Impact Development (LID)/Green Infrastructure: The LID is a sustainable development and redevelopment approach to natural landscape preservation and stormwater management. It emphasizes conservation and use of onsite natural features integrated with engineered, hydrologic controls to more closely mimic predevelopment hydrologic functions. The GI can be used at a wide range of scales in place of, or

in addition to, more traditional stormwater control elements to support the principles of LID; these approaches are also termed best management practices (BMPs). Implementation of LID/GI practices can help mitigate flood events by increasing the ability of the landscape to store water onsite. Infiltration of these stored waters can also mitigate the effects of drought by replenishing water supContinued on page 28

Table 1. Climate Resiliency Snapshot Guide

Figure 2. ASR Climate Resiliency Snapshot Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Continued from page 27 ply aquifers and enhancing usable water supply. These four activities are now eligible under the HMA programs to support communities in reducing the risks associated with climate change. These activities address flooding and drought conditions, and may also provide benefits beyond hazard mitigation, including water quality and supply, as well as ecosystem services. Each of the four activities is summarized within the report in a climate resiliency snapshot (CRS) to provide an overview of the implementation considerations, costs, and benefits. Table 1 provides a guide to the CRS components.

Figure 3. Typical Aquifer Storage and Recovery Well Operation

Aquifer Storage and Recovery This activity captures water when it is abundant, storing the water in the subsurface in brackish aquifers and recovering the water when needed. It is a drought management tool that has all of the benefits of a surface reservoir, but does not have evaporative or seepage losses and provides better protection of the injected water quality. Once implemented, ASR systems help to supplement water supplies and mitigate the effects of drought. In addition, they can provide flood control and water quality benefits. A CRS for ASR is provided in Figure 2 and Figure 3 is a schematic of a single ASR well operation. During times of abundant or excess water availability, fresh water is pumped (injected) into the aquifer storage zone, below the ground surface, to create a “bubble” of stored fresh water. Due to differences in water quality and, in particular, salinity (i.e., total dissolved solids), a “mixing zone” is created between the injected water and native groundwater. The salinity or density difference helps keep the injected water close to the ASR well for later recovery. During periods of drought, high demand, or when additional water supply is required, the stored water is pumped out of the aquifer (recovered), treated, and utilized as a freshwater supply. Typically, in ASR systems, water is pumped and recovered from the same ASR well. The U.S. has been using ASR for more than 30 years (Muniz et al., 2003). According to a 2013 survey of the status of ASR in the country, over 50 sites in at least 26 states have either used or investigated the use of ASR, and worldwide, there are over 100 operational ASR facilities (U.S. Geological Survey, 2015). Source waters for injection into ASR wells range from potable water, reclaimed water, raw and partially treated surface water, and raw groundwater. Projects


range in size from a single ASR well, storing relatively small volumes of water, to multiwell projects, storing billions of gallons of water in the ground. ASR systems can be operated such that the recovered water is used to satisfy seasonal demands, or water can be stored over several years, recovering only a portion of the water, but leaving a significant quantity of stored water to meet demands during drought conditions. Given the ability to utilize multiple types of source water for implementation, ASR systems can mitigate the effects of increased demand and drought in a variety of communities across the U.S., which all have different needs and constraints. Feasibility and Effectiveness Challenges for implementing ASR include reduced recovery efficiency due to improper selection of the storage zone, arsenic leaching from the storage zone materials, and elevated arsenic concentrations in the recovered water. An exploratory test well should be drilled to confirm that the hydrogeology is favorable for a successful ASR project. There have been advances in the last 10 years for minimizing arsenic leaching (pretreatment of the source water and conditioning) for the utility-scale ASR projects and regulatory relief mechanisms on larger projects, such as water quality criteria exemptions, mixing zones, and buffer zones. Technical considerations for successfully implementing ASR projects include clearly understanding the goals and objectives of the project, proper site selection, utilization of all available tools for appropriate storage zone selection, and hydrogeochemical characterization and modeling of interactions among the target storage zone aquifer matrix, native groundwater, and injected water.

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Evaluation and Summary of Benefits and Costs As a hazard mitigation project, ASR primarily enhances water supply resiliency during times of drought. If surface water is the source of supply to be redirected to the aquifer, the project may also mitigate impacts of flooding by reducing peak stormwater flows. The increased groundwater baseflow provided by ASR may also reduce subsidence and structural damage to facilities in the vicinity. To complete a benefit-cost analysis (BCA), an applicant would have to identify the quantity of additional water supply provided by the project (in millions of gallons) during drought conditions and a mitigation value associated with the additional water. Ideally, the applicant would also demonstrate the amount of water required for daily use versus the amount required for drought mitigation. According to rates developed by Pyne (2014) construction costs for ASR projects range from 50 cents to $2 per gal per day, or $0.5 to $2 million per mil gal per day (mgd) of total ASR system capacity, which is on the low end of the range for water supply projects and other surface storage technologies, such as reservoirs and ground storage tanks of comparable capacity. The implementation costs of an ASR project can vary based on existing conditions of the site and should be examined closely on a project-byproject basis. Environmental and Historic Preservation (EHP) Requirements All recharge or injection of fluids directly into aquifers in the U.S. are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under 40 CFR Part 144, titled, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. As part of the EPA UIC Continued on page 30

Continued from page 28 permit process, an applicant must demonstrate that the activity does not impact other users of the aquifer. An exploratory test well should be drilled to confirm that the hydrogeology is favorable for a successful ASR project. If there is evidence that the site is a historic or archaeologically significant site, then the location of the ASR site

should be relocated. Similarly, facilities may be sited to avoid sensitive fish and wildlife and designated critical habitats, thereby reducing potential impacts and the necessary level of EHP review. The ASR facilities would not typically qualify for a categorical exclusion (CatEx) because they do not fit into the categories of actions described in 44 CFR 10.8. Most local-scale ASR facilities, and those closely associated with an existing municipal treatment facility, would likely be covered by an environmental assessment (EA). Early screening of the site is recommended to determine if an EA or and environmental impact statement (EIS) would be likely based on project complexity. Potential Coordination with Other Federal Agencies Since ASR is often considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative water supply option, there are currently several federal programs that have or could potentially fund ASR projects, such as U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), EPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

Flood Diversion and Storage Every year, communities face significant damages from flooding. Diverting floodwaters from a stream, river, or other body of water into a wetland, floodplain, canal/ditch, pipe, or other conduit (e.g., tunnels, wells) and storing them in reservoirs, floodplains, wetlands, or other storage facilities allows for a controlled baseflow release and attenuates peak flows, stages, and velocities to mitigate flooding. Actively managing floodwaters by diversion, storage, and infiltration can also replenish water supply aquifers and enhance usable water supply to mitigate the effects of drought. Floodwater diversion also can help maintain healthy ecosystems. A CRS for flood diversion and storage is provided in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Flood Diversion and Storage Climate Resiliency Snapshot


Feasibility and Effectiveness The concept of floodwater diversion and storage is applied nationwide at multiple scales: large, regional efforts, like the network of major flood control diversions along the Mississippi River; moderate-sized diversion and storage efforts that occur in relatively smaller rivers and tributaries; and at a site-specific or neighborhood scale that utilize stormwater infrastructure to divert flows and store water on a parcel-byparcel basis.

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Depending on the scope, scale, and location of potential sites, floodwater diversion and storage projects vary in complexity, and the scale of these projects must be considered when evaluating if the projects are consistent with HMA guidance regarding flood risk reduction projects. Proper planning, siting, sizing, and construction are required to implement successful floodwater diversion and storage systems. Types of flood storage (online, offline, dry, wet, or wet/dry), planning constraints, and design considerations (land acquisition, siting, and adaptability) are key elements of technical implementation. Evaluation and Summary of Benefits and Costs The primary benefit of floodwater diversion and storage projects is to reduce flooding by attenuating peak flows and velocities, allowing them to slowly be released or infiltrate into the ground; therefore, potentially reducing flood damages to infrastructure such as roads, residential and commercial structures, or other property downstream and upstream. The reduction of flood impacts from peak stormwater flows can be quantified using traditional FEMA BCA methodologies in the current FEMA BCA tool. The applicant should provide hydrologic and hydraulic information to estimate the reduction in flood elevation pre- and post-project. If a floodwater diversion and storage project results in new or restored wetlands, estuaries, or riparian or green open space, the total annual benefits for these categories can be included in the BCA. The applicant would need to quantify the area of restored ecosystem and the land use type and may need to identify the quantity of additional water supply provided by the project (in millions of gallons) and demonstrate the amount of water required for daily use versus the amount required for drought mitigation. Costs for floodwater diversion and storage projects are site-specific and vary, depending on the scope, scale, and location. Some costs that may be incurred include: land acquisition; feasibility analyses; environmental impact, habitat assessment, and cultural significance analyses; hydrologic and hydraulic analyses; subsurface and foundation investigations; consulting services for the design, permitting, project management, and supervision of the construction; demolition, construction, and mobilization costs (e.g., channels, pipes, detention basins, stormwater interventions, floodgates, levee realignment, and utility realignment); pre- and post-project monitoring; and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs.

EHP Requirements There are numerous permits and supporting documentation that may be required as part of any floodwater diversion and storage project, and they may be required to show compliance with EHP requirements. Many of these permits relate to environmental habitat considerations, wetland delineation, water quality, and additionally, tribal community reviews. Neighborhood-scale projects that utilize stormwater infrastructure to divert flows and store water on a parcel-by-parcel basis would likely be eligible for a CatEx, but it would not apply if a project would change downstream flow patterns to the extent that land use, delineated special flood hazard areas, stream functions, stream habitat, erosion, or sedimentation rates are affected. Moderate-, large- or regional-scale projects would not be covered by a CatEx and would need to be reviewed under an EA or an EIS. Potential Coordination with Other Federal Agencies A critical piece of a floodwater diversion and storage project plan is to have a transparent and inclusive approach to outreach and collaboration. In addition to local stakeholders, there may be an opportunity to coordinate with other federal agencies, such as the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), USBR, EPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), USACE, and HUD. In many of these cases, coordination is required for permitting, cost-sharing, and for multibenefit and multigoal objectives, such as using floodwater diversion and storage projects as a means for providing a wealth of ecosystem goods and services, recreational opportunities, and regional sediment management for beneficial reuse.

Floodplain and Stream Restoration The U.S. has more than 3.5 million mi of rivers and streams that, along with closely associated floodplain and upland areas, comprise corridors of great economic, social, cultural, and environmental value (Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group [FISRWG], 1998). When healthy, these systems can provide stream flood mitigation, mitigate bank erosion concerns, and provide ecological benefits. Many natural events and human activities can contribute significantly to changes in the dynamic equilibrium of stream systems across the country. Stream degradation ultimately results in water quality issues, loss of water storage and conveyance capacity, loss of habitat for fish and wildlife, and decreased recreational and aesthetic values (National Research Council, 1992), while risks to flooding and erosion increase.

Restoration of disturbed river systems is accomplished by adjusting the physical stability and biological function of an impaired river to that of a natural stable river. Channel improvements generally involve alterations to degraded channel floodplain storage, side slopes, sinuosity (degree of meandering), vegetation, bed slope, and roughness. The floodplain of a riverine or stream system provides capacity for storing stormwater runoff, reducing the number and severity of floods, and minimizing nonpoint source pollution. Restoring floodplains and wetlands, and their native vegetation, are integral components of stream restoration efforts, as is the comprehensive consideration of the streams at a watershed scale. A CRS for floodplain and stream restoration is provided in Figure 5.

to structures and infrastructure, while restoring natural and beneficial function of the floodplain. The benefits due to a reduction of flood impacts from peak stormwater flows can be quantified using traditional FEMA BCA methodologies in the current FEMA BCA tool, and erosion control benefits can be similarly quantified. The applicant should provide hyContinued on page 32

Feasibility and Effectiveness A wide variety of techniques can be applied to stream restoration planning and channel design. There are no one-size-fits-all approaches, and stream restoration requires a site-specific approach based on sound stream restoration analysis and design. A successful stream restoration project must incorporate multidisciplinary techniques from hydrology and hydraulics, fluvial geomorphology, engineering, and stream ecology. Clearly defining the objectives of the stream restoration project reduces ambiguity for all parties involved. Objectives should not only be specific, but also realistic, achievable, and measurable. Project scope and scale are major considerations for stakeholders and the design team in setting objectives, and both control the breadth of restoration options (Smith and Klingeman, 1998). Channel design is a critical portion of the overall stream restoration process and constructability and environmental impacts are two critical items to consider during the design phase. Flood damage reduction techniques should simultaneously provide flood protection benefits and restore natural environmental functions, while considering FEMA-authorized local and nonlocal flood risk reduction projects. Sedimentation analysis is a key aspect of design, since many projects fail due to excessive erosion or sediment deposition. Implementing a successful stream restoration solution requires detailed planning, analysis, and design phases. Once the restoration plan is designed, it is important to carefully execute the construction, maintenance, and monitoring phases. Evaluation and Summary of Benefits and Costs The primary benefit of floodplain and stream restoration is to reduce flood damages

Figure 5. Floodplain and Stream Restoration Climate Resiliency Snapshot

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Continued from page 31 drologic and hydraulic information to estimate the reduction in flood elevation pre- and postproject. If a floodplain and stream restoration project results in new or restored wetlands, estuaries, or riparian or green open space, the total annual benefits for these land uses may be included in the BCA. The applicant would need to quantify the area of restored ecosystem and

the land use type and may need to identify the quantity of additional water supply provided by the project and demonstrate the amount of water required for daily use versus the amount required for drought mitigation. The costs of floodplain and stream restoration measures are very site-specific and depend on numerous factors, such as tributary area, size and condition of floodplain, depth, width, sinuosity, and flow of the stream. These factors, along with bank slopes, access, existing and proposed vegetation, extent of erosion, type of soil/rock comprising the streambed and stream bank, and the amount of land required for easement or acquisition, all result in a complex array of costs. Some costs that may be incurred include land acquisition; feasibility analyses; environmental impact, habitat assessment and cultural significance analyses; geotechnical investigations; hydrologic and hydraulic analyses; consulting services for the design, permitting, project management, and supervision of the construction; demolition, construction, and mobilization costs (e.g., erosion and sediment control, channel clearing and shaping, riprap, restoration structures, seeding and mulching, earthfill and drainfill, etc.); pre- and post-project monitoring; and O&M costs. EHP Requirements Legal compliance, permits, and supporting documentation may be required as part of any floodplain and stream restoration project and may be required to show compliance with EHP requirements. Many of these permits relate to environmental habitat considerations, wetland delineation, water quality, and additionally, tribal community reviews. A simple floodplain restoration project that only involves land acquisition, removal of structures, and planting of indigenous vegetation might be covered under CatExs (d)(2)(vii), property acquisition and demolition, and (d)(2)(xi), planting of vegetation. A more complex project that involves construction activities, such as setback and reconstruction of levees, regrading stream beds and banks, or armoring countermeasures, would likely not be eligible for a CatEx and would need to be analyzed in an EA.

Figure 6. Low-Impact Development/Green Infrastructure Climate Resiliency Snapshot


Potential Coordination with Other Federal Agencies Several federal agencies are already engaged in floodplain and stream restoration activities, and many agencies help support and provide funding for these activities, including USDANRCS, FWS, USACE, and NOAA-National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Low-Impact Development/ Green Infrastructure The LID is a sustainable approach to natural landscape preservation and stormwater management (EPA, 2013). This approach emphasizes conservation and the use of onsite natural features integrated with engineered, small-scale hydrologic controls to more closely mimic predevelopment hydrologic functions (Puget Sound Action Team [PSAT], 2005). Implementation of LID/GI practices can help mitigate flood events by increasing the ability of the landscape to store water onsite. Infiltration of these stored waters can also mitigate the effects of drought by replenishing water supply aquifers and enhancing usable water supply. GI can be used at a wide range of landscape scales in place of, or in addition to, more traditional stormwater control elements to support the principles of LID (EPA, 2014). Both LID and GI utilize BMPs that can be combined in a BMP treatment train to enhance benefits and reduce costs. In the last decade, LID and GI often have been used interchangeably; however, LID focuses specifically on water management issues, while GI’s scope can be broader and used to mitigate issues such as air pollution, urban heat island effects, wildlife conservation, and recreational needs (Chau, 2009). A CRS for LID/GI is provided in Figure 6. Feasibility and Effectiveness Instead of large, centralized treatment plants and water storage facilities, LID/GI emphasizes local, decentralized solutions that capitalize on the beneficial services that natural ecosystem functions can provide. The LID/GI is most effective when applied on a wide scale and encompasses much more than just water infiltration, as it can be used to mitigate floods downstream, filter pollutants, and capture and store water for use at a later time. Storing potential floodwaters onsite in LID/GI practices allows for a controlled baseflow release and attenuates peak flows, stages, and velocities to mitigate flooding. The diversion, storage, and infiltration of these waters also can replenish water supply aquifers and enhance usable water supply to mitigate the effects of drought. One of the primary motivations for LID/GI for a number of communities in the U.S. is to reduce stormwater runoff, which may contribute to combined sewer overflow (CSO) events. Overflow occurs in cities with combined sewer systems (CSS) where wastewater (i.e., sanitary sewage), stormwater, and urban runoff water are collected in the same Continued on page 34

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Continued from page 32 pipe network and routed to a treatment plant (Economides, 2014). If the capacity of the downstream treatment plants cannot handle the amount of water collected, excess flows, inclusive of sanitary sewage, are often routed directly to the nearest body of water. The LID/GI is an ecosystem-based approach that is used to replicate a site’s predevelopment hydrologic function. The primary goal of LID/GI is to design each development site to protect, or restore, the natural hydrology of

the site so that the overall integrity of the watershed is protected (Maimone et al., 2007). This is done by creating a “hydrologically” functional landscape. In the face of a changing climate, LID/GI can potentially play an increasingly important role to reduce local impacts for community resources and waters. By reducing the volume of runoff entering sewer systems and increasing natural features that can reduce the effects of flooding, LID/GI can add resiliency to climate change adaptation planning (American Rivers

et al., 2012). Scales of implementation, site design considerations, design guidance and technical manuals, and LID/GI practice selection are key considerations and guidance to be used in planning and design of any LID/GI project. Evaluation and Summary of Benefits and Costs The primary benefit for many LID/GI projects is the reduction of flood damages to structures and infrastructure through stormwater detention and infiltration. The reduction of flood impacts from peak stormwater flows can be quantified using traditional FEMA BCA methodologies in the current FEMA BCA tool. The applicant should provide hydrologic and hydraulic information to estimate the reduction in flood elevation pre- and post-project. If a LID/GI project results in new or restored wetlands, estuaries, riparian or green open space, the total annual benefits for these land uses could be included in the BCA. The applicant would need to quantify the area of restored ecosystem and the land-use type. If applicable, the applicant may need to identify the quantity of additional water supply provided by the project (in millions of gallons) and demonstrate the amount of water required for day-today use versus the amount required for drought mitigation. There are some cases where LID project costs have been higher than those for conventional stormwater management projects, but in the majority of these cases, significant savings were realized due to reduced costs for site grading and preparation, stormwater infrastructure, site paving, and landscaping (EPA, 2007). On average, total capital cost savings ranged from 15 to 80 percent when LID methods were used (EPA, 2007). The O&M costs for LID/GI practices vary, depending on sitespecific conditions; however, ongoing maintenance need diminishes as plant materials establish and the site stabilizes. Cost of LID/GI practices vary widely, depending on site-specific conditions and the type of GI techniques being used. EHP Requirements Water quality certification, hydraulic project approval, no-rise certification or a conditional letter of map revision, and a general construction permit may be required as part of any LID/GI project and may be required to show compliance with EHP requirements. Many types of LID/GI projects may be covered under existing CatExs when they are replacing existing structures resulting in the same developed footprint and similar form and function.


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

It is important, however, to note that while most LID/GI projects would be expected to meet the general criteria for a CatEx found in 40 CFR 1508.4, unless the activity would be covered under a specific CatEx in 44 CFR 10.8, it would require an EA. Potential Coordination with Other Federal Agencies Given the potential of GI to support a wide range of purposes, a number of agencies, including EPA, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), HUD, USDA, U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offer expertise and resources that can be used to help communities plan, design, and then implement GI practices.

Summary To date, FEMA’s mitigation funding efforts have been in response to natural and manmade disasters; however, FEMA’s focus on risk management is expanding to include proactively anticipating climate changes and planning for additional new funding programs in support of climate-resilient infrastructure. It continues to integrate climate-change adaptation into programs, policies, and operations to strengthen the nation’s resilience by addressing current needs, while planning for future risk. All four climate-resilient mitigation activities presented here are consistent with FEMA’s HMA programmatic requirements and guidelines. They are feasible and effective measures for independently addressing drought and flooding issues, can be shown to be cost-effective, and meet EHP requirements. The funding of climate-resilient projects and enhanced land/floodplain development regulations are critical to building stronger, more resilient communities. Climate-resilient planning and infrastructure projects allow communities to be better prepared for disasters related to climate change in order to minimize, or avoid, damage. Climate-change mitigation planning results in less post-disaster damage and, therefore, reduced costs to rebuild communities post-disaster. Strategic funding by FEMA of climate-resilient projects will help communities proactively plan and be better prepared for impacts related to climate-change weather extremes.

References • American Rivers, Water Environment Federation, American Society of Landscape Architects, and ECONorthwest, 2012. Banking on

Green: A Look at How Green Infrastructure Can Save Municipalities Money and Provide Economic Benefits Community-wide: A Joint Report. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Landscape Architects. Retrieved from vernment_Affairs/Federal_Government_Affairs/Banking%20on%20Green%20HighRes.pdf. Chau, H.F., 2009. Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles: Addressing Urban Runoff and Water Supply through Low Impact Development. Retrieved from een_infrastructure.pdf. Economides, C., 2014. Green Infrastructure: Sustainable Solutions in 11 Cities Across the United States. Retrieved from en_Infrastructure_FINAL.pdf. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2015. Climate Resilient Mitigation Activities for Hazard Mitigation Assistance. Aquifer Storage and Recovery Fact Sheet. Retrieved from actSheet_Sep2015_Dec508.pdf. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2015. Climate Resilient Mitigation Activities for Hazard Mitigation Assistance. Flood Diversion and Storage Fact Sheet. Retrieved from actSheet_Sep2015_Dec508.pdf. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2015. Climate Resilient Mitigation Activities for Hazard Mitigation Assistance. Floodplain and Stream Restoration Fact Sheet. Retrieved from ctSheet_Sep2015_Dec508.pdf. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2015. Climate Resilient Mitigation Activities for Hazard Mitigation Assistance. Green Infrastructure Methods Fact Sheet. Retrieved from tSheet_Sept2015_Dec508.pdf. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group, 1998. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. GPO Item No. 0120-A; SuDocs No. A 57.6/2: EN 3/PT.653, Washington D.C. Maimone, M., J. Smullen, B. Marengo, and C. Crockett, 2007. The Role of Low Impact

Redevelopment/Development in Integrated Watershed Management Planning: Turning theory into Practice. Cities of the Future towards Integrated Sustainable Water and Landscape Management. • Melillo, J.M., Richmond, T.C., and G.W. Yohe, Eds., 2014. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 841 pp. • Muniz, A, Gonzalez, A.M., and F. Bloetscher, 2003. Summary of AWWA Survey of ASR Practices in the United States. Proceedings of the 2003 Florida Water Resource Conference, Tampa, Fla. • National Research Council, 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. • Puget Sound Action Team, 2005. Low Impact Development: Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound. Retrieved from _manual2005.pdf. • Pyne, R.D.G, and T. Belser, 2014. Achieving Water Supply Reliability and Sustainability with ASR – Getting the Water Right. Aquifer Storage and Recovery Webinar Presented by the University of Florida TREEO Center on April 1, 2014. • Smith, C. L., and Klingeman, P. C., 1998. “Institutional structures for river restoration.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Water Resources Engineering, S. R. Abt, J. Young-Pezeshk, and C. C. Watson, eds., ASCE, Reston, Va., 654–659. • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007. Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices. Retrieved from educingstormwatercosts-2.pdf. • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013. Green Infrastructure Strategic Agenda 2013. Retrieved from • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014. Federal Agency Support for the Green Infrastructure Collaborative. Retrieved from • U.S. Geological Survey, 2015. Aquifer Storage and Recovery. California Water Science Center. Retrieved from S

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Test Yourself

Put Your Knowledge of Biological Nitrogen Removal to the Test! Ron Trygar

1. In the five-stage Bardenpho process, there are a total of two anoxic zones, one anaerobic zone, one aerobic zone, and one re-aeration zone (not in that order). In which zone would complete nitrification take place? a. b. c. d.

Anaerobic zone First anoxic zone Aerobic zone Second anoxic zone

2. Of the following parameters listed below, which will decrease as nitrification takes place? a. b. c. d.

Alkalinity Nitrate Nitrite Oxygen demand

3. In the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process, nitrate-rich mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) are returned, or recycled, into which basin? a. b. c. d.

Anaerobic tank Post-anoxic tank Re-aeration tank Pre-anoxic tank

4. Several sources of supplemental carbon are available to help drive the denitrification process, including glycerin, ethanol, molasses, and methanol. Which of the following is also an available carbon source? a. b. c. d.

Acetic acid Sulfuric acid Charcoal Carbonic acid

5. Organisms called Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter contribute to nitrification and are classified as what? a. b. c. d.

Anaerobic methanogens Aerobic autotrophs Aerobic heterotrophs Facultative anaerobes

6. What is the process of organic nitrogen converting to ammonium known as? a. b. c. d.

Nitrification Denitrification Ammonification Nitrogen fixation

7. If the conversion of one part of ammonium requires 7.1 parts of alkalinity, how much alkalinity will be required to completely nitrify 52.6 mg of ammonium per liter? a. b. c. d.

373.5 mg/L as CaCO3 37.4 mg/L as CaCO3 7.5 mg/L as CaCO3 74 mg/L as CaCO3

8. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) is the combination of what two compounds? a. Organic nitrogen and nitrate b. Nitrate and nitrite c. Organic nitrogen and ammonia d. Organic nitrogen and oxygen 9. What oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) millivolt (mV) reading would be best for the anoxic basin? a. b. c. d.

+ 250 mV - 30 mV + 100 mV - 250 mV

10. When successfully denitrifying, approximately how many parts of alkalinity are recovered for each part of nitrate reduced? a. b. c. d.

1.5 parts 3.5 parts 4.6 parts 7.1 parts Answers on page 62

SEND US YOUR QUESTIONS Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: or by mail to: Ron Trygar, CET Senior Training Specialist UF TREEO Center Gainesville, Fla. 32608


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Reservoirs: Florida’s Future Sustainable Water Supply Randall Bushey and D. Edward Davis Randall Bushey, P.E., is senior water resources engineer with CH2M in Gainesville, and D. Edward Davis, P.E., is senior project manager with CH2M in Orlando.

ustainability of a potable water supply for a growing population and a static or decreasing groundwater supply is a conundrum that is impacting many water supply agencies within peninsular Florida and the southeastern United States. Florida has been recognized by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Institute of Water Resources as one of 10 hot spots in the lower 48 states that will have significant water supply issues (USACE, 2008) by 2025, based on water availability and population growth (Figure 1). Given the importance of this issue, alternative solutions have been put forth to augment the water supply and meet future water demands. Examples of alternative solutions for water supply augmentation were identified as follows: S Surface water storage S Artificial groundwater recharge through aquifer storage (AS) wells and reclaimed water infiltration through wetlands and rapid rate infiltration basins S Supplemental desalination capacity of brackish groundwater for urban water supply S Reclaimed water for replacement of groundwater and potable water used as irrigation (residential and agricultural) S Conservation of potable water in residential household and irrigation use


Figure 1. Significant Water Supply Issues in Florida by 2025 (Source: USACE, 2008. U.S. Water Demand, Supply, and Allocation: Trends and Outlook. 2007-R-3. December 22.)

Figure 2. Population Projections for 2030 (Top 12 States) (Source: USACE, 2008. U.S. Water Demand, Supply, and Allocation: Trends and Outlook. 2007-R-3. December 22.)


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The groundwater resources within peninsular Florida have become overextended, resulting in the need for water management districts (WMDs) to restrict future expansion of the resource and limit groundwater withdrawals to currently permitted levels. Even as WMDs are limiting the current and future water use permits, Florida is projected to have the greatest population increase of all the states (Figure 2) between 2015 and 2030, which will intensify the need for sustainable potable water. To bridge the gap between the available, naturally occurring water resources and the future need for water to

support the population, other options must be investigated beyond traditional water sources, such as surface water and groundwater. The annual average rainfall in Florida ranges from about 52 in. in the south Florida and greater Miami area to 42 in. in the Tampa Bay region, with approximately 70 percent of the rainfall occurring during the wet season (June through November). The volume of rainfall occurring during this season results in the discharge of approximately 1 bil gal (BG) of water to tide each day in each region. The sustainability of a future potable water supply requires capture and storage of the wet season stormwater runoff not needed to provide the environmental balance for the tidal estuaries and riverine floodplain ecologies. Capturing a portion of this flow and storing it in reservoirs for future potable water, aquifer recharge, irrigation, and desalination blending sources could assist in meeting the water needs in a future Florida scenario. Reservoirs are key water resource features that can be used to support alternative solutions for water supply augmentation, including storage of raw (potable) water, capture of stormwater for increased post-event aquifer storage, increased storage of reclaimed water for maximum reuse capability, and as storage for maximizing post-stormwater event percolation through wetlands and infiltration basins. Reservoirs can be implemented in various ways, but two popular implementation types are instream and offstream. An instream reservoir is placed within an existing watercourse or as part of an existing water impoundment; the Hoover Dam is an example of an instream reservoir. Offstream reservoirs do not interrupt natural watercourses and can be placed in areas that protect property and the natural environment, as well as in locations that make the most sense hydraulically within a system.

Offstream Reservoirs in Florida Two major Florida water supply authorities have existing offstream reservoirs that are designed to capture excess water during rainfall events: Tampa Bay Water and Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority (PRMRWSA). Both agencies are located in southwest Florida. Tampa Bay Water is an integrated potable and raw water supply agency serving the wholesale water supply needs of six member governments (three counties and three municipalities). It has an integrated groundwater, surface water, reservoir, and desalination portfolio that serves

a population of more than 2.4 million, with more than 170 mil gal per day (mgd) of potable water (Figure 3). The variation in water sources allows flexibility in meeting permitted limits on groundwater average annual withdrawals, the cost to produce potable water (groundwater being the least expensive and desalination being the most expensive), and weather variabilities. To protect them, surface water withdrawals from local rivers and bypass canals are stageand flow-limited to avoid impacts to the downstream estuarine ecological communities. The reservoir’s 15-BG-capacity reservoir provides a “water supply savings account” to augment surContinued on page 40

Figure 3. Tampa Bay Water System Layout (Source: Tampa Bay Water Per-Statement of Qualifications Presentation to Renovation Contractors, June 28, 2010)

Figure 4. Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Infrastructure (Source: Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority, 2013. Lakewood Ranch, Fla.

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Continued from page 39 face water supplies during the times of limited withdrawals. The PRMRWSA infrastructure consists of a 120-mgd surface water intake on the Peace River (flow-based withdrawal schedule), 21 aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) wells (6.3 BG total capacity), and two offstream reservoirs (6.5 BG total capacity), as shown in Figure 4. The reservoirs provide the flexibility and sustainability to meet about 40 percent of the water treatment plant capacity throughout the year. The PRMRWSA supplies about 26 mgd to its customers in four counties.

Using Offstream Reservoirs to Meet Future Water Supply Demands An offstream reservoir in Florida typically has no intrinsic watershed to provide stormwater as a means of filling the reservoir, and instead is constructed with an earthen embankment that provides a self-contained storage facility. However, in other states, such as Virginia, and in areas of the world such as Melbourne, Australia, offstream reservoirs can be located on minor streams, with instream dams. The reservoir can be filled with captured water from the upstream watershed and augmented with pumped water

Figure 5. Phosphate Clay Settling Impoundments: Future Use as Offstream Water Supply Reservoirs (Source: FIPR. 2005. Potential Technologies to Reduce or Replace Groundwater Consumption in the SWFWMD. Pub. No. 01-179-213. 43 pages.)

Figure 6. Typical Reservoir Timetable


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

from other sources. The typical peninsular Florida offstream reservoir receives only the stormwater falling on the reservoir pool area and water pumped into the reservoir from an outside source, such as a river, stormwater collection system or impoundment, or a lake or other natural or human-made body of water. Regionally, the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), in its 2015 five-year water supply plan, has identified the need for an increase in water supply of approximately 202 mgd by 2035. The SWFWMD plans to accomplish this through implementation of the following measures: S Reduction of agricultural dependence on groundwater S Increased capture and storage of stormwater S Decreased use of potable water and groundwater for irrigation S Increased use of reclaimed water for irrigation S Increased storage of stormwater and reclaimed water for supplementing water sources during the dry period of the year Increased storage, a major component of the plan, can be accomplished efficiently through the construction of more offstream reservoir capacity. A Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR) study identified the feasibility of increasing offstream reservoir storage capacity within the SWFWMD through modifications of existing phosphate mine clay settling ponds. Figure 5, which is from the FIPR study, reflects the available clay settling acre-ft of storage potential that could be realized. The USACE and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) authored the “Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan,” initiated in 1998, and are in the process of designing and constructing four major offstream reservoirs to manage south Florida stormwater for recharging potable aquifers, augmenting agricultural irrigation, providing environmental water requirements, and enhancing flood control. Reduced groundwater use and an increased need for development of surface water storage is not unique to Florida; the southeastern area of the United States is also addressing this future potable water supply shortage. Examples include the construction of instream dams (Duck River Dam in Cullman, Ala.) and Georgia’s allocation of funding for reservoir construction passed in the last 10 years. The need to regionally manage water supplies is illustrated in the USACE’s current legal actions over operation of Lake Lanier (an instream reservoir north of Atlanta) and its impact on Alabama’s surface water supply for potable water and Florida’s environmental needs (Apalachicola Bay).

Offstream Reservoirs: Concept to Operation The time frame from conceptual planning to operation of an offstream reservoir can be eight to 10 years or longer, depending on land availability, permitting, and environmental considerations. A future reservoir development within peninsular Florida requires advanced planning, and Figure 6 presents an example of a hypothetical reservoir timetable from conceptual planning to operation. The time for Florida to develop a long-term plan using offstream reservoirs to augment potable water, agricultural irrigation, and environmental water resources is now. Conceptual planning for an offline reservoir includes water supply needs forecasting, financing, land acquisition, water supply source, site investigations, community outreach, permitting, site mitigation, engineering design, and constructability analysis. The spatial extent of an offstream reservoir depends on the geology of the area, volume of storage needed based on the demand analysis, economics of raising the height of the reservoir embankment versus expanding the reservoir’s spatial extent and lowering the embankment

height, seepage analysis, environmental impacts, ability to permit the reservoir, and dam safety considerations.

Site Characteristics: Geological and Environmental Florida is primarily underlain with karst limestone formations that compose the Floridan aquifer with varying thicknesses of overburden. The Biscayne Aquifer dominates the southeastern Florida geology and is exposed to the surface with very little overburden. Where the overburden is relatively shallow, the slightly acidic groundwater causes a gradual (over thousands of years) loss of formation, and the result is a karst formation with sinkhole potential (Figure 7). All of peninsular Florida is prone to sinkhole activity, and extensive site investigations are required in siting the reservoir, specifically the reservoir embankment footprint. Extensive site investigations include historical review (Figure 8), standard geological and geophysical techniques, environmental observations, and professional judgment (Florida Geological Survey, 2005, Publication No. 57). Site investigations performed include the following:

S Background data collection: regional and local geomorphology; U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle map; county soil survey; and recorded historical sinkholes, historical photography, and site-specific design and investigation studies. S Preliminary site inspection S Professional judgment S Design investigations • Ground-penetrating radar • Site borings: standard penetration testing and auger borings • Electrical resistivity profiling • Surface wave measurements • Magnetometer • Microgravity surveys • Cone penetration tests • Test pits • Geophysical logging • Aerial color photographs of the site S Environmental delineation • Streams • Wetlands • Springs • Threatened and endangered species • Upland habitats Continued on page 42

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Figure 7. Filled-in Sinkholes on a Highwall in a Brooksville, Fla., Limestone Mine (April 2013)

Figure 8. Sinkhole Zones in Florida (Source: Florida Geological Survey Poster No. 11, 2004.)

(Source: Florida Geological Survey Poster No. 11, 2004.)

Continued from page 41

Environmental Concerns Environmental site characteristics for siting a reservoir relate to the potential for disturbance of ecological features, such as wetlands, sloughs, lakes, threatened and endangered species habitats, springs, streams, and stream floodplains. In assessing the potential for a reservoir site, the impacts to these natural ecological features could represent permitting risks, time delays, and mitigation requirements that significantly impact the community acceptance of the site and project, contribute to lengthy permitting, and increase the time from conceptual to operational status of the reservoir. The environmental aspects of the reservoir site selection could significantly impact the project finances through timing, cost of mitigation, and community acceptance impact on the funding source (e.g., state and federal legislators). Advance pre-application meetings, site visits, and workshops to educate the permitting regulators and allow the design team to understand potential permit-specific conditions can significantly reduce the permitting schedule and the quantity and intensity of the conditions.

Engineering Design The reservoir’s site characteristics, design, and operational considerations make every reservoir unique. Each reservoir is designed with safety as the highest priority. The engineering design will therefore include the following safety features: S Potential Failure Modes Analysis (PFMA) – A design tool that is employed by USACE to improve the design and safety of the embankment through understanding the potential failure modes and implementation of design, construction, maintenance, and operational and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) improvements before, during, and after construction to mitigate these potential failures. S Risk Assessment – An evaluation of the probability of loss-of-life scenario and design or construction changes needed to improve the safety and operational efficiency of the reservoir using PFMA. S Design Workshops – These will be developed to: • Improve communication with the owner’s engineering, maintenance, and operational staff with a goal of further defining the design criteria and improving reservoir safety. • Focus on engineering, survey, QA/QC,

Figure 9. Potential Reservoir Site-Ranking Matrix Example

structural, hydrologic and hydraulic, and operation and maintenance issues. • Continue the dialogue with workshops through construction and initial operational startup. S Independent Technical Review – The review is performed by QA/QC teams at major design milestones and work elements during construction. S Strong QA/QC Program – This starts with conceptual design and continues through startup. S Development of an Emergency Action Plan – This includes embankment breach analysis, inundation mapping, and emergency response coordination and communication protocols. The conceptual design should start with a workshop to identify the characteristics, constraints, and requirements of an offstream reservoir site. Alternative site evaluations typically include potential environmental impacts, geophysical and geotechnical site characteristics, construction material availability, proximity to potable water demand and water sources, and community considerations. Figure 9 provides an example of a reservoir site-ranking matrix for evaluating and ranking alternative sites, with a focus on sites with the highest potential for success (environmental, geological/geotechnical, site characteristics, and location).

Conclusion Offstream reservoirs will play a key role in meeting Florida’s future potable water demand. The implementation of these resource tools requires the immediate initiation of conceptual planning, site selection, operational considerations, and financial planning to meet the future S needs of Florida’s 2030 population.


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal


What Can WEF Offer You? Lisa Prieto President, FWEA

o, what is the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and what can it offer you? We all know being a member gets us discounts, but what do they do up there in Washington, D.C.? Isn’t the organization so huge? Am I just a number to WEF? Can I really make an impact? Some of you may already have heard of some of the programs I will mention, and I’m glad. If you have, then I challenge you to use a program WEF has or share what you have learned with a colleague, or reach out to WEF. I learned through chairing our local WEFMAX committee this past year how much WEF does and how wonderful the folks are. I realized I’m not just a number and that the WEF leadership and staff truly want us to get value out of our membership and all the programs they have. Here is a summary of some of the programs WEF has to offer its members and some easy ways to get involved. If none of these programs or opportunities interest you, I invite you to poke around the WEF website at, or reach out to one of your local FWEA board members to help you find an opportunity.


LIFT Program (Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology) – This is a joint effort between WEF and the Water Environment & Research Foundation (WERF). The multifaceted program includes: technology evaluations to demonstrate and accelerate the adoption of new technology; benchmarking efforts; training, education, and outreach; and an informal forum for research and development. The joint team, made up of engineers, manufacturers, and utilities, pilots equipment and document performance. More information and access to the information can be found at

structure challenges. The website ( has resources and ways to get involved. You can also sign up your organization online to participate by having an open house, issuing a proclamation or press release, writing an oped piece for your local news outlet, participating on social media, etc. Webcasts – Did you know that WEF offers free webcasts for members? You can even get professional development hours and search for webcasts by topic. Go to to find a list of upcoming webcasts and register for free. Value of Water Coalition – Multiple organizations and companies have come together with WEF to form the Value of Water Coalition. Its mission is to build national will for investment in water infrastructure and water resources. The website ( has a lot of great information that can be used for public outreach and education. WEFTEC and Technical Conferences – The 2015 Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference had over 25,000 attendees, making it the largest water conference in the world. If you have never attended, it’s well worth it; just a trip around the exhibit floor is so valuable. The Federation also holds multiple specialty conferences throughout the year scattered around the United States. These conferences are shorter than WEFTEC and are a great opportunity to really dig into a specific topic, such as nutrient removal, biosolids, or utility management, to name a few. More information on WEF’s up-

coming specialty conferences can be found at x?id=8641. So, you say this all sounds fine and dandy, but I don’t have a lot of time and I can’t always go to conferences, travel, etc. What can I do to get more involved and take full advantage of my WEF membership and help promote our industry? If you have 60 seconds to spare you could: S Check out the WEF Twitter feed S Share WEF posts on social media S Write a tweet on Imagine a Day Without Water If you have an hour you could: S Participate in a webinar S Get your organization involved in Imagine a Day Without Water (September 15) If you have some time on your hands and feeling generous you could: S Join a committee and email the chair to volunteer S Write an abstract for a paper for an upcoming conference S Get on a local host committee for a national conference S Attend a conference, network with your colleagues, and soak it all in S Attend WEFTEC (there’s a first-time workshop that is great if you’re a newbie) S Join a LIFT technology workgroup So, I hope you now see that WEF has a lot to offer you, and I hope you take advantage of this great organizational resource to help you, your career, and the entire water community! S

Imagine a Day Without Water – This year’s event will be held on September 15. The day was created by the Value of Water Coalition to raise awareness about our growing infraFlorida Water Resources Journal • September 2016



Respirator Fit Testing for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Atmospheres Doug Prentiss Sr.

ver the years I have gotten many questions about fit testing for respirators, and this article will attempt to combine clarifications for the most confusing parts of the regulations covering the issue. Perhaps one of the sources of the confusion is the way it is presented in the regulation. Repeated throughout the regulation is the following comment: “Whether the employer chooses qualitative or quantative fit testing, as if it is just a convenience or arbitrary decision, the decision on fit testing type is driven by the potential exposure for the workers.” The foundation of the respiratory protection standard starts with the knowledge of the employer about the actual hazards workers will face. The employer is directly responsible for determining specific worker hazard exposure potential, and that hazard potential is the key that some fail to see. Nuisance dusts or low exposure levels can be handled by a simple respiratory program that allows for qualitative fit tests and checklist health evaluations. When we put workers in immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) situations that can kill them if they don’t follow procedures or use personal protective equipment (PPE), we are held to a higher standard, which is reflected by quantative fit testing. So, if your workers are using respirators for protection, look at the IDLH level on the material safety data sheets (MSDS) and determine if their exposure could go higher than 10 times the permissible exposure level for the chemical. A simple example is if your workers use a chlorine cartridge for respiratory protection for minor leaks and you use 1 parts per million (ppm) as the permissible exposure level. A cartridge will provide respiratory protection up to 10 ppm, so when combined with work procedures that evacuate the worker before reaching IDLH, the fit testing and health as-



sessment could be qualitative because the worker will not reach IDLH. Confined spaces, where the worker’s ability to escape is hampered, may change the potential and add additional requirements. Determination of IDLH potential can also be determined by use of gas detectors or other atmospheric monitors. Sometimes work activities, such as welding and cutting, can also create IDLH atmospheres with toxic fumes. Fortunately, many industry standards for performing hazardous work exist and are used on a regular basis. For those of you who will have to explain this to your workers or others, I provide the follow notes from the respiratory protection standard. 1910.134(d)(1) General requirements. 1910.134(d)(1)(i) The employer shall select and provide an appropriate respirator based on the respiratory hazard(s) to which the worker is exposed, and workplace and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability. 1910.134(d)(1)(iii) The employer shall identify and evaluate the respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace; this evaluation shall include a reasonable estimate of employee exposures to respiratory hazard(s) and an identification of the contaminant's chemical state and physical form. Where the employer cannot identify or reasonably estimate the employee exposure, the employer shall consider the atmosphere to be IDLH.

and Health (NIOSH) for a minimum service life of thirty minutes, or 1910.134(d)(2)(i)(B) A combination full facepiece pressure-demand supplied-air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-contained air supply. 1910.134(e) Medical evaluation. Using a respirator may place a physiological burden on employees that varies with the type of respirator worn, the job, workplace conditions in which the respirator is used, and the medical status of the employee. Accordingly, this paragraph specifies the minimum requirements for medical evaluation that employers must implement to determine the employee's ability to use a respirator. 1910.134(e)(1) General. The employer shall provide a medical evaluation to determine the employee's ability to use a respirator, before the employee is fittested or required to use the respirator in the workplace. The employer may discontinue an employee's medical evaluations when the employee is no longer required to use a respirator. 1910.134(f) Fit testing. Before an employee may be required to use any respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the employee must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used.

1910.134(d)(2) Respirators for IDLH atmospheres.

1910.134(d)(2)(i) The employer shall provide the following respirators for employee use in IDLH atmospheres:

1910.134(d)(2)(i) The employer shall provide the following respirators for employee use in IDLH atmospheres:

1910.134(d)(2)(i)(A) A full facepiece pressure-demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of thirty minutes, or

1910.134(d)(2)(i)(A) A full facepiece pressure-demand self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety

1910.134(d)(2)(i)(B) A combination full facepiece pressure-demand supplied-air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B)(2) Employers must not apply maximum use concentration (MUC) to conditions that are IDLH; instead, they must use respirators listed for IDLH conditions in paragraph (d)(2) of this standard (listed previously, which states SCBA). 1910.134(f) Fit testing. Before an employee may be required to use any respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the employee must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. This paragraph specifies the kinds of fit tests allowed, the procedures for conducting them, and how the results of the fit tests must be used. 1910.134(f)(6) The qualitative fit test (QLFT) may only be used to fit-test negative pressure air-purifying respirators that must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less. 1910.134(f)(8) Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and tight-fitting powered airpurifying respirators shall be accomplished by performing quantitative or qualitative fit testing in the negative pressure mode, regardless of the mode of operation (negative or positive pressure) that is used for respiratory protection. 1910.134(g)(3) Procedures for IDLH atmospheres. For all IDLH atmospheres, the employer shall ensure that: 1910.134(g)(3)(vi)(A) Pressure-demand or other positive-pressure SCBA, or pressure-demand or other positivepressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary SCBA. The SCBA pressure-demand mode is assigned a protection factor of 10,000. If you have any other questions, please contact the FWEA Safety and Security Committee through the FWEA website at Comments on this article can be directed to me at Doug Prentiss Sr. is a member of the FWEA Safety Committee. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016



Integrated Water Resources Planning in Pinellas County Scott I. McClelland Table 1. Pinellas Integrated Water Resources Management Plan Objectives

Scott I. McClelland is vice president with CDM Smith in Tampa.

he Pinellas County strategic plan was adopted in 2015 and includes the goal to practice superior environmental stewardship. Demands and limitations of the water resources of the county include impaired surface water quality throughout the county, increased demand for alternative water supplies (including reclaimed water), and the potential effects of climate change, such as increased vulnerability of county facilities to flooding and increased Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) insurance premiums.


Figure 1. Pinellas County Integrated Model Conceptual Design


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

To achieve the goals of the plan and to address the other demands on water resources, the county departments must work efficiently and collaboratively. As a result, the county wished to develop an integrated water resources management plan to identify opportunities for greater sustainable water supply collaboration, expanded use of reclaimed wastewater, improved protection of groundwater and surface water, and better management of stormwater resources. Because of connections to regional water use and reclaimed reuse, the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) partnered with the county in the execution of this integrated water resources management plan (IWRMP). The IWRMP defines the overarching objectives of the programs for water, wastewater, surface water, solid waste, and reclaimed water; identifies the performance measures to determine the degree of achieving the objectives; assesses interactions among the program elements; and assesses alternatives that are based on project options (i.e., projects and activities) using modeling and decision support tools. To address both short- and long-term projects and activities, especially due to the long-term issue of climate change, the IWRMP defined four planning horizons: S Early out (less than two years out) S Short-term (five to 10 years out) S Medium-term (25 years out) S Long-term (50 years out)

Figure 2. Overall Modeling Framework

Table 2. Objective and Performance Measure Weighting

The early-out options were projects and activities that were already planned or being completed in a very short period of time; these projects were identified to the county but not included as part of the IWRMP. Also, the long-term options were related to climate change, where coastal sea-level rise may affect the vulnerability of county facilities.

Description of Programs Each sector of interest was analyzed for simplified water resources relationships. The existing facilities and programs for water supply, surface water (including stormwater), wastewater, reclaimed water, and solid waste (surface water discharges only) were identified and relationships considered. An overall picture of the interconnected sectors is provided in Figure 1. Major interconnections for the overall program are: S Water Supply to Wastewater: While the county service areas for water supply and Continued on page 48 Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Continued from page 47 wastewater treatment do not cover the same exact areas, there is overlap so that some of the water supplied by the county is used and returned as wastewater to the William E. Dunn (WED) and South Cross Bayou (SCB) water reclamation facilities. S WED Reuse Supply to Reclaimed Water: Reclaimed water from the WED facility, augmented by reclaimed water from Clearwater and Oldsmar, is provided to a number of golf courses. Discharge to surface water is possible with excess reclaimed water.

S SCB Reuse Supply to Reclaimed Water: Reclaimed water from the SCB facility is provided to golf courses, municipalities, and southern Pinellas County. Discharge to surface water is possible with excess reclaimed water. S Water Supply and Reclaimed Water: Reclaimed water used for irrigation or other needs will reduce the demand for potable supply for the same purposes. S Reclaimed/Wastewater to Surface Waters: Treated wastewater, reclaimed water, and solid waste stormwater are discharged to surface waters, if there is no demand for them.

Table 3. Options Included in Each Alternative

Project Objectives and Performance Measures In the first of three workshops (Workshop 1), the stakeholders identified over 50 potential objectives for the IWRMP. Through discussion, these were narrowed down to five major objectives, as described in Table 1. The IWRMP also included resiliency as a measure and goal of the plan; however, resiliency was considered independently from the objectives.

Modeling Framework Figure 2 illustrates the overall IWRMP process used for this project. Internal stakeholders identified planning objectives and metrics, as well as options (projects and activities). From these, alternatives were identified and analyzed using the Systems Thinking Experiential Learning Laboratory (STELLA) model. The decision support tool (Criterium Decision Plus, or CDP) provided a scorecard to rank alternatives relative to each of the metrics for comparison. Besides the objectives, the internal stakeholders also identified a potential list of performance measures to objectively judge how an option would achieve the objectives. Table 2 provides a list of the measures associated with each objective, as well as the weighting. Initially, each of the objectives and performance measures had the same weights (stakeholder priorities), and a sensitivity analysis was performed to test the final ranking of alternatives to other potential weighting scenarios. To help in the quantification of the performance measurements, a nutrient loading model was used to estimate the nutrient loading benefits (reductions) associated with project options. The model was developed and run by Janicki Environmental Inc., and annual loadings for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total suspended solids (TSS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were estimated from 1985 to 2011. A future scenario, which considered future land-use projections, was also provided. This model helped identify the benefits of pertinent nutrient reduction project options.

Project Options and Alternatives

Figure 3. Alternative Scores, Including Hybrid


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

In Workshop 2, the internal stakeholders identified a series of project options and activities. Through facilitated discussion, the options and the alternatives in which they were placed were combined and narrowed to a list of 19 options, shown in Table 3. As expected, since

the major theme of the IWRMP is water quality improvements, the majority of the options were related to surface water projects. The five initial alternatives are: S No Action: This alternative acts as the baseline condition in which no project options are selected. S Low Cost: The lowest-cost options within each sector were selected based on annualized cost to the county. S Reclaimed Water: Options that maximize the availability and use of reclaimed water were selected. S Water Quality: Options that minimize pollutant loads to surface water were selected. S Flood Control: Options that minimize the risk of flooding were selected.

and federal grants were estimated at $19.3 million. Based on the pollutant loading model results, the hybrid alternative would result in a receiving water loading reduction of about 43,600 pounds per year of total nitrogen and 11,250 pounds per year of total phosphorus. Through the Pinellas County IWRMP, water-related programs within the county were addressed as an interconnected system, and systemic and sustainable alternatives were

promoted. This approach to water resource planning encourages interagency collaboration, connecting many departments in the county government, as well as multibenefit, multipurpose programs and projects. Future work on the IWRMP could include municipal partners in the areas of reclaimed water sharing and watershed-based pollutant reduction projects, as well as public stakeholders to confirm overall objectives and goals. S

Alternative Analysis Each of the alternatives were simulated in STELLA to provide a quantitative indication on each of the modeled performance measures, and each qualitative measure was added. Ultimately, each was scored via CDP to provide a comparative measure of achievement of each objective. The initial results were reviewed by the internal stakeholders during Workshop 3 and a new hybrid alternative was suggested by including all options in the surface water sector, as well as the septic system reduction program and inflow and infiltration reduction program from the wastewater sector. Figure 3 illustrates the resulting scores for each alternative, including the hybrid. The hybrid has the highest score of the alternatives. The hybrid scored the highest or second highest for reliability, water quality, quality of life, and natural systems, while still balancing cost considerations. The scoring process was tested to check the sensitivity of each weight to the ultimate scores. For each measure, the weight was set to 50 percent of the total score and the remaining 50 percent equally distributed to the rest of the weights. These sensitivity tests determined that the hybrid alternative was the highest-ranked under each weight considered.

Recommendations Based on the STELLA model analysis and the scoring using CDP, the alternative that best achieves the internal-stakeholder-driven objectives is the hybrid alternative. Project options included in the hybrid alternative are listed in Table 3. The total estimated capital costs were $67.1 million, with annual O&M fixed costs of $1.27 million. Costs potentially saved through partnerships with SWFWMD Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016



Mark Kelly

Garney Construction, Winter Garden

What does your job entail? As director of business development for 29 years, my focus is on uncovering and investigating growth opportunities for Garney within the water and wastewater infrastructure, whether it be in municipal or private sectors. I consult with clients and present to them the options available to deliver their projects, and assist in analyzing any constraints, such as schedules, budgets, or operational necessities, they may be under. I assist and direct our team of business development managers and marketing coordinators in the preparation of business proposals aimed at presenting Garney’s experience to owners and engineers, along with spearheading alternative delivery proposals.

Attendees at the fly-in include Mark Kelly, Lisa Wilson-Davis, Jaqueline Torbert, Kim Kunihiro, Richard Anderson, Grace Johns, and Chris Petitt.

I participate on various boards and associations to promote the ever-changing needs of the water and wastewater industry, and develop partnerships with engineers, manufacturers, and other specialty firms to develop water and wastewater solutions. In short, my job is helping people solve the problems they weren’t sure how to solve. What education/training you have taken? I have a bachelor of science degree in building, construction, and contracting from Purdue University. What do you like best about your job? When I started in this industry, I had some of the best mentors a person could ask for, and because of their selflessness, they provided opportunities that allowed me to grow, learn, and advance my career. So, it’s my time to pay that forward. Having the ability to mentor those around me, and then watch as they grow and prosper in both their professional and personal lives— well, there’s nothing more you can ask for. Generations only move forward if those behind them share their experience, their accomplishments, and their occasional mistakes. So, to be there to see young people start their careers and then to see them years later, managing projects or running entire departments with skill, knowledge, and confidence, that in a small way I hope I contributed to— like I said, it doesn’t get much better than that. What organizations do you belong to? Design-Build Institute of America, Water Environment Federation, and American Water Works Association. How have the organizations helped your career? Presently, I am a trustee in the FSAWWA Section and involved in working with its mentoring program. I enjoy attending many of the events the section offers around the state and seeing all the involvement to support AWWA and all the beneficial work it does. I enjoy participating in the legislative fly-ins and supporting our member utilities

Mark (fourth from left) participates in the FSAWWA barbecue contest held at the 2015 Fall Conference..


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

with all of their water-related issues. I was past chair of the Contractors Council, and appreciate the section’s vision of valuing the construction perspective in solving water issues. From a peer standpoint, these organizations provide an outlet in which to interact with those in our industry who are as passionate as I am in improving our industry as a whole. They allow for dialogue with owners and engineers across the country to discuss water policies, the obstacles they face, and the funding needed to make necessary changes. What do you like best about the industry? Environmental construction is a necessity, not a luxury. We need water to live, and whether it be a city, a state, a country, or the world, providing clean drinking water and reusable wastewater is a priority. This industry has never stagnated. It grows because the demand for potable water grows, and the need to treat and reuse our wastewater is imperative. You can’t do that without the environmental construction industry and the men and women whose careers are dedicated to designing, constructing, and

maintaining these systems. They know that the issues we solve today will allow future generations to have what many of us have always taken for granted—clean water. To be a part of that, in my own little way, is kind of cool.

Mark in County Clare in Ireland.

What do you do when you’re not working? I enjoy spending time with family and friends; anything outdoors, such as fishing, biking, and hitting the beach; cooking; and watching football. S

Mark and his wife, Zoie, watching their son play at a South Carolina Gamecock football game.


August 2016

We Want to Hear From You! The Florida Water Resources Journal is first and foremost a technical publication, disseminating current and relevant information to those in the water and wastewater industries. But the magazine also wants to be a vehicle for members of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA to share their professional experiences with their colleagues. If you attend an association meeting, educational or training seminar, or any other kind of water-related event, we would love to get an article from you, relating your experiences. Maybe you have an interesting story to tell about a meeting or event, or something that happened at work—at the office, laboratory, plant, or jobsite. The magazine is always looking for human interest stories that show the personal side of the industry. And if you have an opinion on an industry-related topic, we’d love to hear about that, too. So don’t just share stuff on social media; write a short and quick story, click some pics with your camera or phone, and send them to me at The Journal wants to hear from YOU! Rick Harmon, editor

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


In May, a team of four WEFTEC Operations Challenge veterans—Dale Burrow, Steve Motley, Donnie Cagle, and Dave Vogel (not pictured)— traveled to Munich, Germany, to compete in the Open German Championship in Wastewater Technology. (photo: KSB)

Veterans of U.S. Operations Challenge Take Home International Win From Open German Championship in Wastewater Technology Jennifer Fulcher A U.S. team of water sector professionals took home a first-place win from an international competition modeled after Operations Challenge, a Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) contest for water treatment professionals. During the international trade fair, IFAT 2016, held May 30–June 3 in Munich, DWA (Hennef, Germany), the German Association for Water, Wastewater, and Waste, hosted its own version of the competition, the Open German Championship in Wastewater Technology. Teams from six countries, in three professional divisions—trainees, sewer professionals, and wastewater professionals—tested their skills in four events: S Work Safety and Protection of Health S Scheduled and Unscheduled Maintenance S Instrumentation and Control and Operational Monitoring S Process Control The DWA competition has four events: Work Safety and Protection of Health, Scheduled and Unscheduled Maintenance, Instrumentation and Control and Operational Monitoring, and Process Control. Members of Team KSB–USA (Cagle, Burrow, and Motley) compete in the Scheduled and Unscheduled Maintenance event. (photo: KSB)


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

A total of seven teams competed in the trainees division, which required completion of all four events. The 15 teams of sewer professionals com-

peted in the Work Safety and Protection of Health event, and in the Scheduled and Unscheduled Maintenance event. Twelve wastewater professional teams participated in the Instrumentation and Control and Operational Monitoring and Process Control events, a news release says. Team KSB–USA represented the U.S. at the international competition. The team, organized by the Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) and sponsored by KSB Inc. (Frankenthal, Germany), finished first in the sewer professionals division and third in the wastewater professionals division. Team KSBUSA included some of the winningest Operations Challenge competitors ever: S Donnie Cagle, who earned 10 first-place Division 1 trophies as a member of the Virginia Operations Challenge team, Terminal Velocity; S Dale Burrow, who earned five first-place Division 1 trophies as a member of the Texas Operations Challenge team, TRA CreWSers; S Stephen Motley, who earned five first-place Division 1 trophies as a member of Terminal Velocity; and S Dave Vogel from CH2M (Englewood, Colo.) in Lanesborough, Mass., who has participated as competitor or volunteer in every Operations Challenge event since its debut in 1988, served as the team’s coach. “I’m very proud to have been a part of a great team,” Burrow said. “We are so proud of Team KSB–USA and congratulate all of the participants of this fantastic international competition,” said WEF Executive Director Eileen O’Neill. “It was our great honor to have been invited to be a part of IFAT and the Open German Championship, which along with WEF’s own Operations Challenge competition, showcases the incredible dedication, professionalism, and outstanding skills of our operations personnel.” The first Open German Championship in Wastewater Technology took place in 2012. The DWA has continued hosting the competition every two years during IFAT as a way to promote young talent in the water sector, set quality standards, and help address a shortage of skilled personnel, according to a DWA news release. The fourth competition is planned to coincide with IFAT in May 2018. “What is most significant to us is what we have learned, the friends we have made, and how all of the participants, along with all operators around the world, will continue to perform this important work every day in their own communities,” Vogel said. This article originally appeared in, and is reprinted with permission from, WEF Highlights. S

During the Process Control event, the team used the DWA Modular Wastewater Training Kit—specially designed magnetic cards that represent individual processes—to create a flow diagram. (photo: Kraig Moodie and Steve Motley)

Team KSB–USA earned awards in every Open German Championship in Wastewater Technology event and first place overall (among 15) in the sewer professional division and third place overall (among 12) in the wastewater treatment plant professionals division. (photo: KSB)

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


New Products Sensaphone introduces three new sensors that monitor water quality at treatment and wastewater facilities. These sensors measure oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), pH, and toroidal conductivity, so that facility operators can be alerted when conditions fall outside the desired range. The sensors are compatible with most Sensaphone remote monitoring systems, which provide the necessary alerting and data-logging functionality. Instant notification ensures prompt corrective action to keep water safe and equipment working properly. They are all ideal for applications ranging from pure water in cooling systems to harsh chemical environments, like wastewater treatment plants. The ORP sensors measure water cleanliness by detecting contaminants. At a higher ORP level, water can more easily destroy foreign contaminants, such as microbes and carbon-based contaminants. A lower ORP level means there is a greater level of water contaminants, which are consuming the oxygen. This sensor is an integral two-wire 4-20 mA ORP transmitter that feeds data directly to a Sensaphone device. The sensor includes a measuring range of 0 to 1000 mV or -500 to 500 mV, replaceable salt bridge for extended

service life, flow-thru, hot-tap or submersible mounting, and automatic temperature compensation. Changes in pH can reduce water quality and damage equipment. The pH sensor is an integral two-wire 4-20 mA pH transmitter that feeds data directly to a Sensaphone device. The sensor includes a measuring range of 0 to 14 pH, and also has a replaceable salt bridge for extended service life, flow-thru, hot-tap or submersible mounting, and automatic temperature compensation. The toroidal conductivity sensor measures water purity based on ion counts. It monitors chemically aggressive process solutions in applications where conventional contacting sensors may become fouled or corroded. It is loop-powered and provides direct 4-20 mA output. Each sensor comes standard with a Pt100 RTD temperature device, which provides automatic temperature compensation to 25°C (77°F). In addition to water treatment and wastewater applications, these sensors are used in environments where ensuring water quality is critical, such as laboratories, healthcare facilities, food and beverage production, aquaculture farms, and HVAC systems. (


The Odor Guard unit from Sierra Environmental Technologies is a high-capacity, radial-flow manhole and wet well insert. Constructed of stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant materials, it fits below a manhole lid and past steps to work anywhere, even in locations with entry challenges. The cylindrical media basket is held in the manhole or wet well with a tub-type holder that can be manufactured to fit any size or shape of manhole or wet well entry. The lightweight components allow the unit to be installed by one person in less than 30 minutes. (


The Chlor-Scale ton container scale from Force Flow provides an accurate way to monitor the amount of chlorine used in a disinfection process, allowing an operator to document that target disinfection levels have been consistently met and know how much chlorine remains in the tank. The steel rectangular tube platform is robotically welded and then epoxy-powder-coated to ensure maximum strength for safety and durability. It is available as an electronic system with the Wizard 4000 or SOLO G2, or as an AC power-free hydraulic system with a Century dial. (


The biotttaTM biological filtration system from AdEdge Water Technologies leverages nature to offer a sustainable solution for wellhead treatment of organic and inorganic contaminants. Its fixed-bed, dual-stage biotreatment cultivates an environment for microbiological organisms to destroy contaminants or reduce elements to simple and unharmful forms. The fixed-bed treatment process consistently addresses contaminants at low levels, intermittent of fixed operation, and the dual bed assimilates a complex packaged biotreatment plant. It has regulatory approval for the reduction of nitrate and perchlorate and demonstrates hexavalent chromium, volatile organic contaminants, iron, manganese, and sulfide elimination in a single process. The low-volume discharge is easily managed as a nonhazardous waste stream. ( S


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! September 19-22 ......Backflow Tester* ........................................St. Petersburg ..$375/405 19-23 ......Utility Maintenance II ................................Osteen ............$235/255 26-28 ......Backflow Repair ........................................Osteen ............$275/305 30 ......Backflow Tester recert***..........................Osteen ............$85/115

October 3-7 ......Water Distribution Level 3, 2 ..................Osteen ............$225/255 17-21 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....Osteen ............$350/380 26-29 ......Backflow Tester ..........................................St. Petersburg ..$375/405 28 ......Backflow Tester recert***..........................Osteen ............$85/115

November 14-16 ......Backflow Repair* ......................................St. Petersburg ..$250/275

December 12-14 ......Backflow Repair ........................................Osteen ............$275/305 30 ......Backflow Tester recert***..........................Osteen ............$85/115

Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016



Tank Engineering And Management

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Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983






CLASSIFIEDS P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e

Utilities Treatment Plant Operations Supervisor $55,452 - $78,026/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $37,152 - 52,279/yr.; $39,011 - $54,892/yr.

Water-Reuse Distribution Supervisor $55,452 – 78,026/yr.

Utilities Engineering Inspector $52,279 - $73,561.90

Utilities Treatment Plant Operator I $46,010 - $60,519/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Make Orange County Your Home for Life. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to over 500,000 citizens and 66 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions:

City of St. Cloud, Florida – has an exciting job opportunity for those looking for a career in the Water field. Full-time regular employees are eligible for City paid Medical and Dental coverage, paid vacations, paid holidays, sick leave, life and accidental death insurance, tuition reimbursement, pension plan, and more!

Industrial Electrician I $36,733 – $43,035/ year Apply online at: Positions are open until filled.

JOIN OUR TEAM! WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS Salary Range of: C = $14.9669 - $22.9001 per hour Salary Range of: B = $15.4907 - $23.7016 per hour Salary Range of: A = $16.5940 - $25.3897 per hour Apply: Must submit an online application ( Job Descriptions and Application available on our website: Email: M / F / EOE / D / V

SCADA OPERATIONS MANAGER Salary: $81,158 to $126,746 annually Please apply at

Maintenance Supervisor Wastewater Utility in Key West Supervisor in charge of tracking, scheduling, and documenting all preventative maintenance on Wastewater Treatment Plant, Vacuum Station, and entire collection system. Job Duties include: plan, manage, document, supervise, and oversee the overall maintenance and repair of wastewater facilities and assets (trucks, jet rodder, generators, trash pumps, compressors, lift stations, etc.). Provide daily supervision over the maintenance staff and support wastewater facility assets including preventative, breakdown, predictive repairs and/or replacement of wastewater assets. Must be willing to be “on-call” for off hour maintenance emergencies. Salary Range $55,000-$70,000 plus medical/dental/life benefits, paid leave, and retirement benefits. Send resumes to

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Traffic Sign Technician - Water/Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C - Solid Waste Worker II - Collection Field Tech – I & II - Distribution Field Tech – I & II Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Construction and Utility Programs Coordinator Ready for an exciting new chapter in your career? Join our team of Utility professionals at the City of Tavares in beautiful Central Florida!

City of Winter Garden Construction Projects Manager

This position performs supervisory work overseeing contractors involved in major construction projects for utility system capital improvements. This employee works with contractors, developers and other City of Tavares employees to assure compliance with all pertinent regulations and contractual obligations; and will be involved in developing and implementing City Utility programs. This position reports to the Utility Director.

The position acts as the City's project manager for all capital improvement construction projects including water, wastewater, roadways, parks, stormwater systems and other facilities; inspection of private development projects; and supervision of 3 construction inspectors. Salary DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at

The City of Tavares, AMERICA'S SEAPLANE CITY, is recognized throughout Florida as an innovative, collaborative and service-oriented employer! Located in the center of the Sunshine State on the banks of beautiful Lake Dora, Tavares is home to a current population of 15,000 residents and is the capitol city of Lake County.

Minimum Qualifications: ~ High school diploma or GED equivalent and two years of college coursework. ~ 10 years of field experience in utilities and/or structural construction management ~ Working knowledge of general construction of above and below ground utilities. ~ Valid driver's license

FOR EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES VISIT OUR WEBSITE AT: WWW.CASSELBERRY.ORG Job Title: Water Production Plant Operator I/II/III Salary: $32,796 – $55,785 (DOE and Certification) We offer a competitive compensation package and affordable health benefits. The City of Casselberry is an Equal Opportunity Employer. For additional information regarding responsibilities or qualifications and to apply, please visit our website.

Lake Placid Regional Utility is currently seeking a licensed minimum dual C operator or will consider wastewater only. Please visit or call (863) 699-3747 for further information and job description.


September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• Salary range: $40,000 - $60,000 • Excellent health, dental, life, disability and Florida Retirement System benefits • Generous time off and holiday plans • Positive and progressive work environment, with active focus on staff development The qualified candidate will possess: • High school diploma or GED, with Associates or Bachelors degree from an accredited institution in engineering, business or construction preferred • Minimum of 5 years experience in the field of underground utilities construction For more detailed information about this key position and electronic access to our employment application, please visit our Employment page at APPLY TODAY! We welcome your resume or application in person, by e-mail to, by mail to City of Tavares Human Resources, 201 East Main Street, Tavares, FL 32778, or by fax to 352-7426351. We are an EOE, ADA, E-Verify and Drug-Free Workplace! The City of Tavares - Land and See!

South Florida Water Management District Science Technician 2 Technical field position responsible for collecting water quality and biological samples in remote areas throughout the Everglades, lakes, rivers, canals, and estuaries and in SFWMD Project Areas. Requires Associate's Degree in Natural or Physical Science or related field and at least 4 years of experience in scientific support, preferably water quality sample collection. Visit our website at:

News Beat

Ave Maria Utility Company, LLLP is seeking the following positions for facilities in Collier County. Operations Supervisor Must have FDEP Class “C” dual licensure (or higher). $64,721 – $90,610 Plant Operator Must have FDEP Class “C” dual licensure (or higher). $47,597 - $69,015 Plant Mechanic $44,838 – $65,015 Salary DOQ. Positions require a high school diploma/GED equivalency, a valid driver’s license and background check. Excellent benefits. Send resume to EOE/DFWP

Utilities, Inc. Utilities, Inc. is seeking a Field Technician II for the Pinellas County area. Applicant must have a collection license or 2 years’ experience with collection systems and wastewater pump stations. Applicant must have a HS Diploma or GED & a valid Florida driver’s license with a clean record. To view complete job description & apply please visit our web site,, select Employment Opportunities and search for Field Tech.

Pos i ti o ns Wa nt e d Stephen Curmode - Holds an A wastewater license, 26 years experience from Trainee to Regional Facility Manager. Available 1/2/17. Prefer North Central Florida, Gainesville or Jacksonville area. Contact at 108 SE 3rd Ave, Hallandale 33009, 954-288-8407

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Classified Advertising Rates - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

The Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) is accepting preproposals under its 2016 unsolicited research program. The Foundation is funding research projects that will significantly advance its understanding of water resources and the ability to protect and preserve them in a sustainable and cost-effective manner, and to minimize impacts on health and the environment. The unsolicited research program supports WERF’s mission in funding pioneering research that significantly advances the understanding of today’s most pressing water quality issues and provides practical solutions to the challenges facing wastewater and stormwater programs. It will also consider proposals that would take existing research to the next level of completion. Proposers are invited to submit preproposals relevant to wastewater, stormwater, and water quality. Currently, WERF has ongoing research in the areas of nutrient removal, stormwater, climate change, resource recovery, sustainable integrated water management, sensor integration and guidance, trace organics in biosolids, and other emerging issues. The program also encourages proposals to test and evaluate innovative technologies. The WERF/WEF Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT) program places an emphasis on moving new technologies into practice and accelerating innovation. The current high-priority areas of LIFT’s focus are: biosolids to energy, energy from wastewater, digestion enhancements, nutrient removal, phosphorus recovery, collection systems, green infrastructure, small facilities, water reuse, and intelligent water systems. The WERF website ( has a list of ongoing, completed, and planned research, as this will help proposers avoid duplication. The call for preproposals and complete instructions are available on WERF's “Open Requests” webpage. For additional information, contact Lola Olabode, WERF program director, at


The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) governing board has signed an agreement that will transform the Ten Mile Creek Water Preserve Area into a functional water storage and water quality improvement project for the St. Lucie River and Estuary. Taking control of the project from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers allows SFWMD to make repairs to fill the long-idle federal reservoir with 4 ft of excess stormwater that would otherwise flow to the St. Lucie River. A wetland at the site in St. Lucie County will clean that water before it reaches the river. The Ten Mile Creek Water Preserve Area is located at the outlet of the 30,682-acre Ten Mile Creek Basin in St. Lucie County, situated immediately south of State Road 70 (Okeechobee Road) and west of the I-95/Florida Turnpike intersection. The project was designed by the Corps to improve the timing and volume of water deliveries to the North Fork of the St. Lucie River by capturing, storing, and treating stormwater runoff from the Ten Mile Creek Basin. “Today's action literally required an act of Congress, and significant credit goes to south Florida's congressional delegation and St. Lucie County officials for their steadfast efforts," said Kevin Powers, SFWMD governing board vice chair. "We will now work without further delay to repair and operate the Ten Mile Creek project to finally provide tangible benefits for the St. Lucie River and Estuary and Treasure Coast families." Construction bid requests went out in July, with a contract award in September and project completion in June 2017. Once complete, the reservoir will be able to hold 2,500 acre-ft of water. Secondary benefits of the project included reduction of fine sediment and nutrients flowing to the St. Lucie River, increased freshwater recharge into the aquifer, and the capability to make releases back to the Ten Mile Creek for water supply when needed. S Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2016


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 36 January 2016

1. C) Aerobic zone Nitrification requires 4.6 parts of oxygen to oxidize one part of ammonium to an end product of nitrate, and this process occurs in the aeration tank, or aerobic zone.

Editorial Calendar January ....Wastewater Treatment February....Water Supply; Alternative Sources March........Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..........Conservation and Reuse May............Operations and Utilities Management; Florida Water Resources Conference June ..........Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..........Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ......Disinfection; Water Quality September Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ....New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November..Water Treatment December..Distribution and Collection


Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue).


The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.



FWPCOA Training ....................55 FWRC Call for Papers ..............51 Garney Construction ..................5 Gerber ....................................49 Hudson Pump ..........................29 Lakeside ..................................25 McKim & Creed........................34 Polston ......................................9 Stacon ......................................2 Treeo ......................................37 Xylem ......................................64

September 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

D) Pre-anoxic tank To enhance the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas, the MLSS that contains nitrate is returned from the outlet end of the aeration tank to the pre-anoxic tank where it can be reduced to nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions.


A) Acetic acid Liquid acetic acid (CH3COOH) can be used to supplement carbon sources to enhance denitrification. Sodium acetate can also be used, but is supplied in a powder form and must be mixed into a solution before application.


B) Aerobic autotrophs Nitrifying organisms are autotrophic, which means they derive their carbon source from either carbon dioxide (CO2) or carbonate (CO3), and use specific inorganic chemicals like ammonia (NH3) and nitrite (NO2) for energy. They perform the process of nitrification under aerobic conditions, using 4.6 lbs of oxygen (O2) per lb of NH3 oxidized.

C) Ammonification Ammonification is the conversion of organic nitrogen compounds (urea, amino acids) in raw wastewater to ammonium or ammonia. Ammonification usually happens in the collection system and the amount of ammonification depends on length of time in the collection system, the water temperature, and its pH.


A) 373.5 mg/L as CaCO3 To calculate the required alkalinity, multiply the ammonium value by 7.1 mg of alkalinity required per 1 mg of ammonia per liter. In this case, 52.6 x 7.1 = 373.46 mg/L of alkalinity to nitrify 52.6 mg/L of ammonia. Many facilities lack enough influent alkalinity to support complete nitrification!


C) Organic nitrogen and ammonia The TKN analysis is normally performed in a laboratory and includes an initial ammonia reading followed by a heated digestion period where organic forms of nitrogen are converted to ammonium sulfate. A distillation process is used to convert the ammonium to free ammonia gas, is condensed, and read using colorimetric methods. These readings are compared with initial ammonia readings, and the organic-N portion is calculated. The TKN is the sum of both the organic nitrogen and ammonia values.

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A) Alkalinity Nitrifying organisms require a carbon source, such as carbon dioxide or bicarbonate alkalinity. Alkalinity normally enters the treatment plant within the raw influent and decreases as nitrification takes place in the aeration tank as the nitrifiers consume bicarbonate alkalinity and produce nitric acids.


B) -30 mV On a millivolt scale ranging from +999 mV to -999 mV, a -30 mV reading indicates that the condition of the water favors a reductive environment, where the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, to nitrous oxide, and a final production of nitrogen gas (N2) can occur. Positive ORP values favor oxidation processes; negative ORP values favor reduction processes. The ORP values that are less than -100 mV tend to promote anaerobic conditions and are not necessary for denitrification to take place in the anoxic basin.

10. B) 3.5 parts Most denitrifying organisms are facultative-anaerobic heterotrophs and produce carbon dioxide, as they destroy acids formed during nitrification and other metabolic processes. The CO2 becomes carbonic acid (H2CO3) in water, which in turn becomes available as bicarbonate (HCO3) alkalinity. Chemically, for each gram of nitrate reduced to nitrogen gas, 3.5 grams of alkalinity are produced.

Reference: WEF Manual of Practice No. 29, “Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) Operation in Wastewater Treatment Plants,” 2005.

Florida Water Resources Journal - September 2016  

Emerging Issues and Water Resources Management

Florida Water Resources Journal - September 2016  

Emerging Issues and Water Resources Management