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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated

News and Features 4 12 16 18 24 30 44

Technical Articles

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority


Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando


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Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Imagine a Day Without Water—Pat Lehman Grace Johns to Lead FSAWWA in 2017 WEF HQ Newsletter—Rick Warner and Barry Liner Plan On It! 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference—Holly Hanson Using Technology to Facilitate Construction of a Utility Expansion Project—Roderick K. Cashe Correction Flint Water Crisis Prompts Lead Pipe Report Update

Using Acoustics to Prioritize Sewer Cleaning Activity in Hillsborough County—Alex Churchill and John Appenzeller

Utilizing Pressure to Put the Logic Back in Variable-Frequency Drive Controls—Martin (Tim) MacVittie

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Innovative Cost-Effective Noninvasive Ultrasonic Testing for Utility Replacement—Weston Haggen, Ed Gil de Rubio, Marc Cannata, and Matthew Grewe Horizontal or Vertical? High-Service Pump Selection—Mark Ludwigson, Len Rago, and Jeff Greenfield

Education and Training 13 14 15 20 28 31 45 48 49

FSAWWA Training AWWA Membership FSAWWA Fall Conference Sponsor Recognition Florida Water Resources Conference FWPCOA Region VIII Short School FWPCOA Online Training FWPCOA Training Calendar CEU Challenge TREEO Center Training

Columns 30 38 40 42 46

C Factor—Scott Anaheim FWEA Chapter Corner—Linda Maudlin FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kunihiro Reader Profile—Steve Soltau Test Yourself—Ron Trygar

Departments 53 60 63 66

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Volume 67

ON THE COVER: Four 125-hp vertical turbine pumps and finished water piping at Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant in Sunrise. (photo: Mark Ludwigson)

December 2016

Number 12

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Imagine a Day Without Water Patrick Lehman The Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority recently joined elected officials, drinking water and wastewater providers, community leaders, business and labor groups, policy experts, advocacy organizations, and infrastructure experts throughout the United States participating in “Imagine a Day Without Water.” Organized by the Value of Water Coalition, hundreds of organizations across the country joined together to raise awareness about the crucial need for investment in our water infrastructure to ensure that no community in America is left without water. The Authority recognizes that an investment in our drinking water and wastewater systems is essential to securing a bright and prosperous future for generations to come. “We're thrilled that Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority joined Imagine a Day Without Water. This national day of action is educating public officials and engaging citizens about the essential role water plays in our lives, and the threat that aging and underfunded water infrastructure poses to our communities and economy,” said Radhika Fox, chief executive officer of the U.S. Water Alliance and director of the Value of Water Coalition. “Most


people can take for granted that when they turn on the tap or flush the toilet, water systems function exactly as they are supposed to. But the systems that provide critical water and wastewater services are aging, and we need to take action before it gets worse, because a day without water is nothing short of a crisis.” Frequently, public attention on infrastructure typically focuses on the things we see every day, like roads, bridges, and tunnels. Yet, the hidden infrastructure that reliably brings clean water to homes and businesses (and takes it away after it has been used) is actually far more vast than our national highway system—National Geographic estimates that the country’s 1.2 million miles of water mains translates to 26 miles of pipes for every mile of interstate highway. Now those systems are showing the effects of running 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Without substantial investment,

December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

these systems will experience more frequent failures and disruptions as they try to keep up with the needs of the public and business communities they serve. The Authority, consisting of Charlotte, DeSoto, Manatee, and Sarasota counties, has invested over $300 million in creating a regional water system that provides a reliable, sustainable, and affordable drinking water supply to our communities. Through a collaborative and cooperative process, the Authority and its four member counties will continue to assure that our region will never face the unthinkable— Imagine a Day Without Water. Patrick Lehman is executive director of the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority. This article first appeared in the Sept. 15, 2016, edition of the Charlotte Sun and is reprinted here with permission. S


Using Acoustics to Prioritize Sewer Cleaning Activity in Hillsborough County Alex Churchill and John Appenzeller unicipal wastewater utilities struggle to effectively manage the vast underground network of pipes that handle the transportation of raw sewage in cities and towns throughout the United States. Operators must constantly balance a variety of competing challenges that include aging infrastructure, increasing operation and maintenance costs, regulatory pressure, and the need to reduce sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Current maintenance operations typically target system cleaning based on past performance and system knowledge. Recently, an acoustic inspection device called the Sewer Line Rapid Assessment Tool (SL-RAT®), has been developed for rapidly assessing sewer line blockages in three minutes or less. The patented technology is based on measuring the signal received from an active acoustic transmission within a sewer line segment; from the received signal, an acoustic profile is obtained. Commonly encountered sanitary sewer defects, such as roots, grease, and breakages, naturally obstruct acoustic energy, which changes the pipeline’s acoustic properties and produces a measurable impact on the acoustic profile. An algorithm is used to exploit these variations and provide a real-time evaluation of the segment’s blockage condition. As part of an effort to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of cleaning operations and to maximize the utilization of available staffing, Hillsborough County Public Utilities


Department has recently implemented the acoustic inspection tool across both its north yard and south yard locations. The utility was founded in 1967 when it made its first acquisition of a franchise system and currently has 2,417 mi of sewer, with 1699 mi of small-diameter gravity-fed lines that are applicable for acoustic inspection. The collection system includes a broad mix of materials (75 percent polyvinyl chloride, 20 percent vinyl chloride, and 5 percent ductile iron) and serves just over 173,000 accounts, tallying close to 500,000 residents out of Hillsborough County’s total population of just over 1.3 million. Approximately 70 percent of the system has not yet been inspected via closed-circuit television (CCTV). The SL-RAT will help focus those efforts as part of its capacity, management, operation, and maintenance (CMOM) program. The public utilities field maintenance services group has established a CCTV and inspection team that utilizes the SL-RAT on a daily basis, focusing on the reduction of SSOs and a proactive analysis of the county’s wastewater system. The same team cleans, evaluates, and rates the condition of manholes and gravity lines in the system. It uses a high-resolution digital CCTV side-scanning camera designed for rapid and detailed condition assessment of the wastewater system, as well as combination vacuum/jet trucks to perform the cleaning operations. This article focuses on the county’s experiences and lessons learned in successfully inte-

Figure 1. Concept and Operation of the Sewer Line Rapid Assessment Tool Acoustic Inspection System


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Alex Churchill is chief operating officer with InfoSense Inc. in Charlotte, N.C., and John Appenzeller is utilities manager, field maintenance services, with Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department in Tampa.

grating acoustics into its overall maintenance program. It will provide details of implementation plans, challenges faced, and successes realized so far.

Assessment Tool Overview Acoustic Inspection Technology The SL-RAT is a patented methodology (Howitt, 2009) and exploits the similarities and differences between water and sound transmission through a sewer line segment in order to diagnose the extent of the pipe's blockage. Figure 1 depicts the general configuration of the SL-RAT device. The acoustic transmitter generates sound waves just below the entrance to the manhole, which naturally couple into the connecting sewer line segments, whether the depth of the manhole is 3 ft or greater than 30 ft. The sound wave propagates in the air gap above the wastewater flow from the speaker to the receiving microphone located at the adjacent manhole; segment lengths exceeding 750 ft have been successfully evaluated. The acoustic receiver measures the acoustic plane wave from the transmitted signal in order to evaluate the condition of an entire segment and provides an onsite assessment in less than three minutes. An important practical aspect of this technology is that both the speaker and the microphone are placed just within the opening of the manhole and never come in contact with the wastewater flow, and the operators have no requirement for confined-space entry. The acoustic inspection system provides a blockage assessment (a score ranging from 0 to 10) in less than three minutes. A scale of the acoustic score and description of typical blockage conditions are provided in Figure 2. The device is inherently conservative in its rating of the blockage condition; anomalies that absorb or reflect sound in the air space of the pipe will result in a lower score.

Technology Deployment and Implementation The county initially evaluated the SL-RAT acoustic inspection technology in February 2013 in a pilot study with Inframetrix, a Florida-based contractor. The contractor assessed over 500 line segments totaling approximately 135,000 ft over seven work days. The equipment’s speed, durability, practicality, and ease of use were noted, as well as the fact that only 8 to 10 percent of the segments tested were identified to have significant blockage or structural issues. This study highlighted the potential of the technology to focus cleaning activity and to help save the county significant time and resources. The acoustic inspection system was determined to fit in with the county’s desire to enhance its existing proactive maintenance strategy, which focuses on cost-effective asset deployment and the use of technology to efficiently manage a large and complicated wastewater collection system. The county also found that the SL-RAT’s focus on small-diameter gravity-fed lines aligned well with the composition of its overall system, and that using it to evaluate lines slated for CCTV inspection prior to cleaning could assist in optimizing pre-CCTV cleaning activity. By reducing the cleaning resources required to complete CCTV inspections, the SL-RAT technology could enhance the county’s ability to meet its goal of visually inspecting its wastewater collection system on a five-year cycle. Over many years, the county has developed a culture of proactive maintenance and investment in its infrastructure that has led to an aggressive pipe-lining program, proactive cleaning, and excellent system performance as

measured by low SSOs and low discharge volumes. County field maintenance crews are organized into two separate departments: north and south. Each department maintains its own separate management infrastructure and its own equipment, with interdivision support happening on an “as needed” basis. The north department operates its own cleaning, CCTV, and SL-RAT inspection crews, and the south department operates similarly. Both operating units rely heavily on contracted resources to perform grouting, manhole rehabilitation, pipe relining, and supplemental CCTV inspection activities. Two acoustic inspection devices were purchased by the county in early June 2015 to be used independently by both the north and south

Figure 2. Acoustic Inspection Scoring System

divisions as part of the county’s comprehensive collection system maintenance and inspection program. Two-person teams have been deployed and are inspecting approximately 1,500 to 2,000 ft per operating hour, for daily totals of approximately 5,500 to 11,000 ft per day. This inspection speed allows SL-RAT crews to easily outpace both the cleaning and CCTV operations that nominally target production of 3,000 ft per day for each. The acoustic inspection teams proceed from grid to grid systematically through the collection system and they typically operate out of a Ford F-350 pickup with enough tools to handle routine maintenance issues, as well as to conduct paper-based manhole inspections during the course of their work. The Continued on page 8

Table 1. Acoustic Inspection Result Maintenance Protocol

Figure 3. Precleaning Process Prior to and After Implementation of Acoustic Inspection Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Table 2. Inspection Statistics by Device Identification

Continued from page 7 acoustic inspection crews also act as backup resources in assisting the cleaning and CCTV crews when emergencies or other significant needs dictate. Condition-Based Maintenance Protocol The county field maintenance team has developed a protocol for prioritizing the deployment of cleaning and CCTV resources based on the acoustic assessment of each pipe segment, as shown in Table 1.

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Cleaning and Inspection Process Deployment of the acoustic inspection technology has changed the county’s process for CCTV inspection by allowing for the elimination of a significant proportion of precleaning activity. Pipe segments that receive high acoustic scores indicating a largely clean pipe are eliminated from the precleaning program, as seen in Figure 3. This allows for the targeted elimination of “cleaning clean pipe” and consequent resource reallocation, as well as significant cost savings. The cost savings result primarily from substitution of the SL-RAT’s lower operating cost (approximately $0.05-0.15 per ft) for a significant portion of the precleaning costs, which are on the order of $1 per ft. The field crews have found acoustic inspection work attractive because it is cleaner and easier than other activities, such as jetting, manhole rehabilitation, excavation, etc. The management team has found that the ease of use, speed, durability, and real-time data provided by the device allows it to prioritize the pipes that need the most attention and, again, avoid "cleaning clean pipe." It should be noted again that the SL-RAT technology focuses on small-diameter, gravityfed sanitary sewer lines. The recommended pipe diameter for inspection is 6 in. to 12 in. Largediameter pipes can be inspected (up to 30 in.), although a more conservative policy must be used for triggering maintenance activity (Selembo et al., 2013). Also, the pipe does not need to be taken out of service when performing acoustic inspections. Higher flows can possibly cause lower acoustic scores (less air gap within the pipe between manholes), which is still acceptable since it will result in a more conservative preliminary assessment and may indirectly identify where potential capacity or inflow and infiltration issues may exist. No systematic comparative evaluation of the acoustic inspection technology to CCTV was performed as part of this study. This topic has been well studied (Howitt, 2010; Kiefer, 2014; Pangulari, 2014), and so the focus of this project was on the integration of acoustic in-

spection into an overall collection system maintenance strategy and using it to prioritize resources.

Implementation Results As of the first nine months of use, field crews at the county had inspected over 4,000 segments totaling more than 910,000 ft (172 mi) of pipe. A summary of inspection statistics by device is provided in Table 2. This information about pipe-blockage condition and manhole condition has been provided in near real time and for a cost on the order of $100,000 to $150,000; however, acoustic inspection resolution does not approach that of CCTV and therefore should be considered a complementary preinspection and prioritization tool, rather than an outright alternative to CCTV. Ultimately, the acoustic inspection campaign has provided a high-level snapshot of the county's system condition, as shown in Figure 4. These results allowed collection system management to focus its limited resources away from the 86 percent of the segments that scored “good” as largely unblocked, and allocate resources more effectively toward the 14 percent of segments that scored "poor" and “fair.”

Figure 4. Distribution of Acoustic Inspection Results for 172 Mi of Sewer Lines

Data Management The SL-RAT devices are uniquely serialnumbered and provide operators with blockage assessment results in real time on the device itself, along with a unique measurement identification (ID), a time stamp of the measurement, and map-grade global positioning system (GPS) coordinates. The combination of device ID and measurement ID serves as a key to manage the database for each customer’s private web portal. The device stores up to 199 measurements locally that can be downloaded via universal serial bus (USB) cable to a Windows-based personal computer. County field crews download the data from the devices approximately twice a week to archive results and to develop work orders for future cleaning and CCTV inspection activity. The data can be viewed, edited, and analyzed using the Sewer Line Data OrGanizer (SL-DOG®) web portal ( or exported directly in unedited form from the device into an Excel spreadsheet. Management and scheduling staff are then able to check for measurement validity, export and view measurement data graphically in Google Earth or shapefile (SHP) format, manage crew productivity, and develop management reports. Several representative screen shots of

Figure 5. Device Management Summary Screen

the SL-DOG software and its features are shown in Figures 5, 6, and 7.

Technology Benefits and Next Steps The county has found the acoustic inspection device to be simple, reliable, and easy to use. These features were key to developing buyin from the field crews, as well as for generating quality data. A large portion of the system has been inspected in a short time and for a frac-

tion of the cost compared to alternative methods. In addition, less than 15 percent of the inspected pipes required immediate attention, resulting in a significant reallocation of valuable precleaning resources to the assets that need it most. In the next phase of implementation, the county envisions improving the integration of the SL-DOG data output with existing work order and asset management systems. From this Continued on page 10

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Continued from page 9 integration, it is anticipated that more visibility of crew work practices, as well as a more rigorous and quantitative understanding of the financial benefits achieved through use of acoustic inspection, will be achieved. Concurrently, daily acoustic inspection production goals are being developed to aid in crew management and optimizing staffing among acoustic inspection, cleaning, and CCTV. Based on the footage acoustically inspected so far and the maintenance protocol outlined previously, precleaning activity could have been avoided on over 3,400 segments, totaling 762,000 ft. Assuming cleaning costs of roughly $1 per ft, the initial $50,000 SL-RAT investment has had the potential to save the county approximately $575,000 in its first nine months of field implementation, using a conservative acoustic inspection operating cost of $0.15 per ft. Figure 6. Sewer Line Data OrGanizer Data Summary Display

Conclusion The county has significantly reduced unnecessary precleaning activity using acoustic inspection, while obtaining critical near-real-time condition assessment information in a practical and economical way. This new capability has enabled the county to focus its cleaning efforts and more effectively and efficiently achieve its goal of visually inspecting the wastewater collection system on a five-year cycle.


Figure 7. Visualization of Sewer Line Rapid Assessment Tool Measurement Data in Google Earth


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• Howitt, I., (2009). Monitoring systems and methods for sewer and other conduit systems. Pat. Pending, Application No. 12/399,492; 2009. • Selembo, G., Johnson, J., Howitt, I., Churchill, A. (2013). Use of Acoustic Inspection for Prioritizing Renewal and Replacement Projects at Fort Jackson, S.C. WEF Collection Systems Conference. • Howitt, I., Fishburne, J., Beam, J., Wilson, B. (2010). Active acoustic methodology for detecting sewer line obstructions, North Carolina AWWA-WEA 2010 Annual Conference. • Kiefer, T., Sayan, P., Selembo, G. (2014). Using Acoustic Inspections to Prioritize Sewer Cleaning: Test Results from Baltimore County's Pilot Study. WEF 2014 Collection Systems Conference. • Pangulari, S., Skipper, G., and Donovan, S. (2014). Demonstration of Innovative Sewer System Inspection Technology: SL-RAT. Cincinnati: United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development. S


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Grace Johns to Lead FSAWWA in 2017 Grace Johns, Ph.D., became the 91st chair of the Florida Section American Water Works Association at its Fall Conference on November 30, succeeding Kim Kunihiro. She is the first economist to lead the Florida Section. Born in Miami, she has lived in south Florida most of her life. She received her B.S. in food and resource economics from the University of Florida and her Ph.D. in agricultural and natural resource economics from the University of California, Berkeley. In 1990, Grace returned to south Florida to pursue her dream of protecting the natural resources of her beloved home state, including Florida’s Everglades and coastal estuaries. She joined Hazen and Sawyer, where from 1991 to 1993 she led the economic impact evaluation of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas Everglades Restoration Act, which resulted in economically feasible methods to improve Everglades water quality. As senior associate economist at Hazen and Sawyer’s Hollywood office, Grace is responsible for Hazen’s economic and financial studies related to water supply development, stormwater management, and water resource regulation. She has led studies that estimated the economic value of the Indian River Lagoon in eastern Florida, the Bogota River in Colombia, Biscayne Bay in Miami, and the reefs of southeast Florida and the Florida Keys. Through her work she has demonstrated that protecting Florida’s natural environment has tremendous value to the state’s economy and its residents. Grace thanks her first boss at Hazen and Sawyer, Peter Robinson, a past section chair, for encouraging her to become active with the section. She began her FSAWWA journey as a Water For People volunteer and as a speaker at the Florida Water Resources Conference and the

FSAWWA Fall Conference. In 2006, she became chair of the Florida Section Water For People Committee, which she led over the next four years. After serving as Administrative Council chair in 2010, she became treasurer-elect and was the section’s treasurer from 2012 to 2014. Since 2015, she has worked with the section’s Executive Committee and its chair to improve member engagement and professional diversity. Passionate about the water industry’s role in providing safe, reliable, and affordable water to all, Grace is proud to be part of AWWA and the Florida Section. “Each and every person I have met and every presentation I have heard through FSAWWA has taught me that many people with diverse talents and life backgrounds work very hard to serve water customers and the community. I am always very impressed and inspired.” When asked about leading FSAWWA in 2017, Grace added, “I am very honored and excited to chair this very active and growing section as we continue to ensure a better world through better water.” Grace is looking forward to working with section leaders, staff, and members to improve member services, engage members, and attract a professionally, geographically, and individually diverse membership. Grace lives with her husband, Stan Schneider, in Cooper City, where she serves on the board of Pets’ Broward, a charitable organization that works to preserve the lives of all adoptable cats and dogs at local animal shelters. S

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December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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A Legitimate Reason to Have a Beer Microbrews give communities a taste of high-purity potable reuse

Rick Warner and Barry Liner eer is a product that everybody likes to talk about. The explosion of microbreweries around the United States gave Clean Water Services (Portland, Ore.) an idea for a program to start conversations about the reusable nature of all water. The utility began partnering with Oregon home brewers in 2014 to brew beer from reclaimed water to demonstrate that water should be judged by its quality, not its history.


(Milwaukee, Wis.). In addition, CDM Smith (Boston), in partnership with the Water Replenishment District of Southern California, served up an Indian pale ale called the FAT Californian, named after the full advanced treatment (FAT) model of treatment for potable reuse applications. This year at WEFTEC, the Reuse Beer Smackdown dovetailed nicely with the release of the WEF Water Reuse Roadmap, a collaborative effort by WateReuse (Alexandria, Va.), Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF; Alexandria, Va.), and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI; Fountain Valley, Calif.). Such efforts serve to engage industry professionals, public leaders, and imbibers everywhere in this conversation about clean water, not only for its role in health, but also in supporting big and small businesses.

Sustainable Beer Smackdown

The Importance of Legitimacy in Reuse

The utility produced a batch of high-purity water that far exceeds safe drinking water standards and provided it to local home brewers. The beers, using the Pure Water Brew brand, were featured at WEFTEC 2014 and WEFTEC 2015 as part of the Sustainable Beer Smackdown. With each successive year, the Smackdown has gained new contenders. In September this year, at the WEFTEC 2016 Innovation Pavilion, Hillsborough County in Florida introduced its New Water Brew, joining Clean Water Services and the Activated Sludge beers from the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and The Water Council

While the beer events are fun and engaging, the most important aspect of these efforts is the focus on creating an authentic conversation with the larger community about water quality. These conversations are the cornerstone of a sociological concept known as “legitimacy.” Legitimacy is becoming more important as communities consider reuse projects, particularly potable water reuse. Reuse projects have often been met with public opposition, despite having proven that the technology and water quality meet or exceed drinking water standards. Oftentimes, technical professionals,


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

such as engineers and scientists, believe the public will accept new technologies when it is provided with information through marketing and public education. Such outreach efforts need to be authentic to achieve public support. Three levels of legitimacy need to be addressed to have a successful project: S The Pragmatic level focuses on the user’s self-interest, seeking to answer questions such as “How do I benefit personally?” and “How am I involved in the decision-making process?” S The Moral level deals with social values and welfare, addressing questions like “How is quality and process safety guaranteed?” and “Is the organization trustworthy?” S The final level, Cognitive, deals with customs and routines that are taken for granted. “Does the technology fit with my daily life?” and “Is the technology essential, with no feasible alternatives?” are examples of the inquiries that community members need answered.

Orange County and Nevada Strive for Legitimacy One example of how legitimacy can produce successful results is the Orange County Groundwater Replenishment System in California. Through its dedication to outreach efforts, utility managers were recognized as trustworthy and competent experts in the community (learn more in the publications listed in “Further Reading”). Taking the lessons that Orange County learned to heart, a

northern Nevada utility now values legitimacy as part of a feasibility study that may someday lead to Nevada’s first potable reuse project. Essentially, the feasibility study must show that every aspect of the treatment train is robust. The utility takes full ownership from the home to the final compliance testing, ensuring the public that it should have full confidence in the water utility. This also includes looking carefully at pretreatment ordinances, collection systems, resource recovery treatment processes, and the most advanced water purification processes. One cornerstone of the feasibility study is a demonstration-scale project. Not only will this project show that treatment technologies are able to perform and meet stringent regulations, but community leaders and the general public also will be able to visit and see water purification processes in action. The public will be able to meet with the utility’s operations and laboratory staff, and these events will showcase the agencies’ technical skills and dedication to quality, and also give the utility an opportunity to interact and share ideas with customers. Building trust and confidence with each community is vital. The Northern Nevada Regional Effluent Management Team driving

this feasibility effort includes representatives from the City of Reno, Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility, Truckee Meadows Water Authority, City of Sparks, Washoe County, and the Northern Nevada Water Planning Commission. It is an exciting time to be in the water business, and the Northern Nevada Effluent Management Team members demonstrate that utility leaders take the trust the public has afforded them very seriously.

Further Reading S Binz, C., S. Harris-Lovett, M. Kiparsky, D. L. Sedlak, and B. Truffer (2016). “The Thorny Road to Technology Legitimation—Institutional Work For Potable Water Reuse in California.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 103: 249– 263. S Harris-Lovett, S.R., C. Binz, D.L. Sedlak, M. Kiparsky, and B. Truffer (2015). “Beyond User Acceptance: A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California.” Environmental Science & Technology 49(13): 7552–7561. S Jordi, Andres (2015). “Legitimacy—The Key to Successful Implementation.” Eawag

Aquatic Research News, October 2015. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Rick Warner is a senior engineer at Washoe County, Nev., and president of the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). Barry Liner is director of the Water Science & EngiS neering Center at WEF.

Local beers created by utilities and microbreweries were showcased at WEFTEC 2016. (photo: Water Environment Federation) Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Plan On It!

2017 Florida Water Resources Conference Holly Hanson The 92nd annual Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC), a joint conference of Florida’s three major water industry organizations: Florida Section American Water Works Association, Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, and Florida Water Environment Association (Florida chapter of the Water Environment Federation), is the best water quality education and training available in the Southeast. Save the date for April 23-26, 2017, at the Palm Beach County Convention Center in West Palm Beach. The conference, with a technical program, exhibits, awards lunch-

eon, meetings, contests and competitions, and other events, will offer something for everyone in the water and wastewater industry.

New This Year Raising the bar to keep the conference dynamic, an Exhibitor’s Showcase is being developed, providing a focused opportunity for vendors to promote accelerated development and implementation of innovative technologies and approaches in the water sector. On Saturday before the conference, we’re planning an Eco Environmental Kayaking and Canoe Trip through the headwaters of the Everglades. Led by experienced naturalist guides, you can observe native species, such as alligators, bald eagles, osprey, and barred owls from a safe distance as you paddle your own canoe or kayak in a lush tropical water source. Not your traditional day at the beach, on Sunday night you might engage in a “Glow in the Dark” volleyball game. Enjoy a relaxing game before embarking on several days of your conference experience.

Innovative Technical Program The technical program, with sessions, workshops, and discussions that integrate the brain and the brawn, will provide an understanding of, and offer solutions for, the imposing daily challenges being faced. Recognized industry speakers, who are experts in their fields, will address the technical, managerial, regulatory, and environmental needs of today—and the future. Plant operators, chemists, engineers, managers, regulators, industrial and municipal administrators, academicians, and researchers will


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

have an opportunity to interact with decision makers and problem solvers concerning such subjects as utility management, leadership and EMS, facility operations and maintenance, water supply, wastewater treatment, disinfection and public health, distribution and collection systems, stormwater and green infrastructure, legislative and regulatory matters, sustainability and climate change, reclamation and reuse, resources recovery, potable water, conservation and management, contractor issues, laboratory practices, biosolids and residuals, nutrient removal, modeling/geographic information systems (GIS)/instrumentation, and much more.

Exhibit Hall: Learning and Networking Featuring over 300 exhibitors, the FWRC is Florida’s marketplace for this multifaceted industry and provides access to the most cuttingedge technologies in the field, serves as a forum for domestic business opportunities, and promotes invaluable peer-to-peer networking. As the demand for water increases, here you will find industry representatives willing to help you select the products and services you need to fill demands. Other opportunities for excellent networking include: S Operators Showcase - A great occasion to discuss both basic fundamentals and complex issues with other operators. S Young Professionals Reception - Established specifically for those just embarking on a water or wastewater career. S Contractors Council - A gathering of professional contractors to discuss common issues. S Women in Water Forum - After a phenomenally successful first endeavor at the 2016 conference, leaders will again converge to discuss the pivotal role women play in the water industry.

Another venue for students is the Student Poster Contest, held on the exhibit floor, allowing attendees to view and discuss their project. Intended to promote education on a variety of water-related projects, this is an excellent opportunity to interconnect with prospective employers. Winners of both events receive cash rewards and move on to the national competitions.

Get Involved and Support the Industry Utilities can enter teams to compete in the Operations Challenge or the Top Ops Competition held during the conference. Winners from these events travel to the national competitions at WEFTEC and the American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exhibition (ACE). The Best Drinking Water Contest will also take place, as well as a fundraiser for Water For People. Visit for conference information. Two hotels will service our needs while in West Palm Beach: the brand-new Hilton adjacent to the convention center, and the Marriott West Palm Beach, just a brief stroll away. Make plans now to attend this exciting conference and raise your career, your company, and the water industry to new heights! Holly Hanson is the executive director of the Florida Water Resources Conference. S

University Students: Florida’s Future Engineers to Present As a forum to showcase the capabilities of students studying environmental engineering, the annual Student Design Competition will have several teams representing Florida colleges and universities presenting their synopses. Initiated in Florida, this competition has now become an international event at the annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC).

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016



December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Using Technology to Facilitate Construction of a Utility Expansion Project Roderick K. Cashe The City of Cape Coral (city) is a mixed residential and commercial community of nearly 170,000 residents located in southwest Florida. The vast majority of this community has been developed by utilizing septic tanks for sanitary sewage removal and onsite wells for potable water and irrigation needs. The city was incorporated in 1970 and quickly became one of the fastest growing communities in the state. In the 1990s, city officials instituted a program to construct public utilities throughout the city in a phased approach. Each phase of the work was divided into several programs of approximately $100,000,000 each. This article discusses one of those project phases, known as the Southwest 6 and 7 Utility Expansion Project (UEP). The UEP included

installation of over 52 mi of potable water mains ranging in diameter from 6 to 12 in., 65 mi of reuse irrigation main in sizes from 4 to 24 in., over 58 mi of gravity sewer in sizes from 8 to 24 in., 12 mi of sanitary force main, 18 sanitary lift stations, and removal/replacement of over 65 mi of roads. To compress the duration of construction, the city further subdivided this project phase into seven construction contracts ranging in duration from 14 to 18 months. Tetra Tech’s project team set out to devise an approach to make the construction of this project more manageable. Technology was targeted as a way to accomplish this; however, the challenge was determining which aspects of the construction process made the most sense to apply the proposed technology. Collaborating with the company’s team of experienced geo-

graphic information systems (GIS) analysts and technology specialists, the consensus was to pursue a means of managing the construction documents, while minimizing the impact of the intrusive construction activities on the residents. PlanGrid and ArcGIS were chosen as platforms to achieve the goal of making the construction operation more manageable. ArcGIS Online was chosen as the app to broadcast realtime maintenance of traffic conditions throughout the project area. PlanGrid is an app designed for the field and allows real-time interaction among field personnel, office engineers, and stakeholders. Seven resident project representatives (RPRs) were selected to manage each of the seven construction contract areas. These RPRs were provided with iPads and training to become proficient in maximizing the benefit of using these apps.


(Source: Bing Maps )


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Prior to its development, the land where the city is now located consisted primarily of cattle farms and rural undeveloped land. In 1957, real estate developers purchased a 103-sqmi tract known as Redfish Point and began to develop land that would ultimately become Cape Coral. The Gulf American Corporation (GAC) was created with the purpose of planning and developing the property in this area. The platting and planning were for the development of a mix of residential and commercial land uses, with the primary emphasis on residential development. The initial plan was for development of over 350,000 residential lots with a projected population of over 400,000. Today, the city, with nearly 170,000 residents, is the third largest city by land area in the state and is the eleventh largest city by population. Early development by GAC began in the southeast portion of the city (south of Cape Coral Parkway). As development continued, centralized water and wastewater services were added; however, the pace of development began to pick up and spread beyond the southeast area. In addition, the development began to occur in a less manageable manner with lots scattered throughout the areas where the economies of scale to provide centralized

infrastructure became difficult. To keep up with this pace, the development moved to faster, cheaper service, whereby the utility provision was provided on an individual lot-bylot basis. Thus, water and wastewater service began to be provided through onsite wells and septic tank/drain field systems, as the centralized systems did not expand beyond the southeast area. Although the city did expand service as funds were available, the pace of growth far exceeded the utility extension pace. As such, the city developed and adopted a utilities master plan (initially prepared in 1996 and updated in 1999), which outlined the UEP in a phased approach that would ultimately extend water, wastewater, and irrigation water service to virtually all areas south of Pine Island Road (SR 78) and some areas north of there.

minimize the impact of completely tearing up a lot of public right of way over an extended period of time. The GIS analysts and programmers developed an app to broadcast maintenance of traffic (MOT) conditions, in real time, for all of the construction activity. ArcGIS expertise is not required and it doesn’t require GIS software to be installed on a device. Tetra Tech and the city notified citizens of the MOT app and educated them on its use through public meetings, door hangers, and a SharePoint site that was set up for this phase of

the city’s UEP. In order for residents to look up the real-time status of MOT near their residences, they simply had to enter their address in the app using a smartphone or tablet; the residents also had the option of accessing the same tool through the SharePoint site. Upon entering an address, a pin would immediately drop at the location, allowing the user to zoom in or out for the MOT condition in a location. The RPRs assigned to the seven construction contracts were responsible for periodically Continued on page 26

ArcGIS Many times, the human element to implementing a construction program of this magnitude is not given much creative thought, compared to the technical aspects of preparing construction documents. For this phase of the city’s UEP, the impact of construction on the public was expected to increase by a factor of almost four as a result of its effort to decrease the duration of construction to less than 18 months. It is difficult to imagine the impact of demolishing and reconstructing entire rights of way for long stretches on end, as illustrated in Figure 1. Confronted with this challenge, Tetra Tech investigated options and chose to take advantage of the robust capability of ArcGIS to help

Figure 1

Figure 2 (Source: Esri ArcGIS) Figure 3 (Source: Esri ArcGIS)

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Continued from page 25 monitoring and entering the MOT conditions, in real time, using iPads. Once entered, the updated information would immediately push across all platforms, including iPhone operation systems (iOS) or Android devices, and personal computers. Figure 2 shows screen shots of the menus RPRs used to update the MOT conditions. Figure 3 illustrates the view users get when opening the app with smartphones. The legend showing the MOT conditions is selected at the top of the app. Figure 4 is a view of the opening display when the MOT tool is accessed with a personal computer. ArcGIS provided a stable and user-friendly platform that provided local residents with the piece of mind that they were being kept informed with accurate and up-to-date information. This was a critical component in reaching out to the residents to give them a sense of comfort that their welfare is a priority for city officials.

PlanGrid Figure 4 (Source: Esri ArcGIS)

Figure 5 (Source: PlanGrid Web View)


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

In the search for a tool to manage the voluminous set of construction documents for this project, which included 1,752 sheets of construction drawings for all seven contracts, Tetra Tech’s technology experts sough technology that could possibly be used that would be stable, secure, and fast. The company chose PlanGrid as the best option to achieve that goal. PlanGrid was a relatively new company, founded in 2011, which provides the construction industry with means of seamlessly managing construction documents in a manner that allows stakeholders (owners, engineers, and their subconsultants) to collaborate with all of the drawings, specifications, and photographs on iOS or Android devices. The pdfs of drawing files are loaded up to a third-party site where users are empowered to provide real-time updates and seamless file synching over WiFi and cellular networks. The RPRs, with their iPads, are able to mark up the drawings and coordinate with the owner or engineer in real time to quickly resolve issues that arise in the field. The markups are immediately updated across all platforms. Stakeholders can be assured that they’re accessing the latest drawings at all times, no matter where they may be. Photographs taken by the RPRs while in PlanGrid were automatically embedded into the drawings; the location of the picture is automatically georeferenced and shown in the drawings. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate a typical sheet in the PlanGrid app showing the location of where pictures in the field were taken by an RPR. Figure 5 also shows the

typical pallet the RPRs used to annotate the drawings in the field. In recent versions of PlanGrid, enhanced features, such as posting a request for information (RFI), creating punch lists, and quick field takeoff and estimating tools, make it a comprehensive construction management tool that is practical for projects of all sizes.

Conclusion The use of ArcGIS and PlanGrid proved to be invaluable resources to facilitate the successful completion of this large and relatively complex phase of the city’s UEP. As a result of the success of this project and the lessons learned by the use of these new technologies, the trail was blazed for others, and now ArcGIS, PlanGrid, and field tablets are routinely used by Tetra Tech and its clients for facilitating a more efficient and resident-friendly construction management process. Figure 6 (Source: PlanGrid Web View)

Roderick K. Cashe, P.E., CDT, Leed®AP, is senior project manager and civil engineering discipline leader with Tetra Tech Inc. in Orlando. S


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New Rules Coming and FWPCOA Course Offerings Available Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

e have made it to the end of the year, and with it have come challenges and new reporting requirements that have made our job a little more taxing to do. First, a big shout out to all the utilities that assisted the communities on the East Coast during Hurricane Matthew. Our state was lucky that this storm stayed off the coast for the most part, but it still did sufficient damage to some areas in the northeast coastal areas. One of the biggest challenges that many of the utilities faced during the storm was the new emergency rule for public notification of pollution incidents. I know most of the rule is already part of the reporting requirements all utilities must follow for spills, but the difference with this one is notification to the media. The new rule applies regardless of whether the impacts of the pollution remain onsite or not. The rule applies to any pollution affecting air or


water resources, such as unauthorized discharges of treated wastewater and industrial wastewater releases. The emergency rule will last for 90 days. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) will also simultaneously begin the formal rulemaking process to gather public input and make the rule change permanent. The following outlines the new notification requirements directed by Gov. Rick Scott: S Within 24 hours, FDEP, local governments, and the general public must be notified of pollution by any and all responsible parties; S Within 48 hours, FDEP, local governments, and the general public must be notified of any potential risks to public health, safety, or welfare, and to surrounding areas by any and all responsible parties; and S Within 24 hours of becoming aware that pollution has affected areas offsite, adjacent, and nearby property owners, FDEP and local governments must be notified of any potential health risks by any and all responsible parties. The FDEP has started conducting meetings to gather public input, and for the most part, nothing has come out of the meetings that, as I stated earlier, is not part of the current reporting requirements, with the exception of media noti-

CORRECTION In CEU Challenge in the November 2016 issue of the magazine, the questions that were in Article 1 were incorrect. The correct questions appear below.

First of Its Kind: City of Bunnell Utilizes Cutting-Edge Technology to Address Water Quality Consent Order Issues Phil Locke and Nichole Smith (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS)

1. The unique aspect of the treatment system described in this article is that a. cationic treatment follows anionic. b. both cationic and anionic treatment are provided in a single vessel. c. there is no cationic resin. d. there is no anionic resin. 2. The 2011 Florida Department of Environmental Protection consent order required the city to correct what water quality issue? a. Iron b. Calcium c. Total organic carbon d. Total trihalomethanes


3. The resin is regenerated by a. hydrochloric acid. b. sulfuric acid. c. MiexÂŽ Plus. d. a sodium chloride solution. 4. ______________ is a surrogate means of measuring dissolved organic carbon. a. Turbidity b. Apparent color c. Volatile solids d. UV254 5. Which of the following processes was not among the alternatives evaluated for this facility? a. Reverse osmosis b. Carbon filtration c. Ion exchange d. Lime softening

December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

fication. Anyone who has questions on the rule should attend these meetings to find out more.

Board of Directors Meeting The January Board of Directors meeting will be held on January 21 in Destin at the Emerald Grand at HarborWalk Village, 10 Harbor Blvd. We look forward to meeting with the members of Region 1, which is the largest region in our organization per area covered.

Drinking Water Treatment Plant Operator Class B Online Course Announced On October 17, the FWPCOA Online Institute implemented a new drinking water treatment plant operator Class B course. The course, developed by Scott Ruland, is being offered for $300 per enrollment. The Class B online course is a self-paced program that meets the core subject-area requirements of the FDEP Operator Knowledge Base Manual, providing the training required by rule for the Florida drinking water treatment plant operator Class B examination. The course contains an introduction, 20 lessons, an appendix, and a glossary of terms. The 20 lessons cover: Lesson 1: Water Sources and Treatment Lesson 2: Chemical Treatment and Addition Lesson 3: Sedimentation Lesson 4: Filtration - Part 1 Lesson 5: Filtration - Part 2 Lesson 6: Fluoridation Lesson 7: Iron and Manganese Control Lesson 8: Regulation Lesson 9: Taste and Odor Control Lesson 10: Disinfection Lesson 11: Hazardous Materials Lesson 12: Disinfection Byproducts Lesson 13: Corrosion Control Lesson 14: Softening Lesson 15: Pumps and Motors Lesson 16: Energy Conservation Lesson 17: Distribution Lesson 18: Math Lesson 19: Management Practices Lesson 20: Laboratory Procedures For more information, contact Tim McVeigh, program administrator, at S

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Utilizing Pressure to Put the Logic Back in Variable-Frequency Drive Controls Martin (Tim) MacVittie n the coastal community of Hampton Roads, Va., sanitary sewer pump stations are often connected to large manifold force main systems. These systems can experience large pressure fluctuations due to the many pumps connected to the system. The programming logic for variable-frequency drive (VFD) controllers used to control sanitary sewer pumps in these areas has historically relied upon wet well levels to control pump speed settings. This condition can lead to sanitary sewer pumps operating in an area of the pump curve with reduced efficiency and increasing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. This article discusses an improved control logic, improved efficiency, preferred operating conditions, and reduced O&M costs for sanitary sewer pumps operating in this condition. In addition, the results of a recent pilot project will be discussed.


Background Hampton Roads is a large metropolitan region located in southeast Virginia, consisting of 10 cities and six counties, with a combined population of over 1.6 million. A map showing the extents of Hampton Roads can be seen in Figure 1. The majority of the sewage generated within this region is treated by Hampton Roads

Sanitation District (HRSD), a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The sewage is treated by 13 different wastewater treatment plants, with a combined treatment capacity of approximately 249 mil gal per day (mgd). Since the topography within this region is relatively flat, HRSD utilizes a large interceptor force main system to convey the sewage to the treatment plants. Additionally, each locality within this region utilizes a large number of pump stations in order to convey its sewage to the HRSD interceptor force main system. For example, the City of Virginia Beach owns and operates over 400 sanitary sewer pump stations. With such a high number of pump stations within the region, municipalities prefer duplex station configurations, with pumps sized for wet weather flow rates in order to minimize their associated installation costs. Due to the large number of pump stations pumping into the HRSD system, large pressure fluctuations can occur, especially when a station is far from a treatment plant. Designing pump stations to account for these large pressure fluctuations can be challenging. Within the Hampton Roads region, VFD controllers have typically been utilized to overcome these pressure fluctuations. This is accomplished by varying the speed of the pumps based on wet well level set points. If the wet well level rises, the pump speed subse-

Figure 1. Map of Hampton Roads Region in Southeast Virginia


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Martin (Tim) MacVittie, P.E., is principal engineer with Brown and Caldwell in Virginia Beach, Va.

quently speeds up; if the wet well level falls, the pump speed subsequently slows down. The HRSD issues pressure letters for connection points to its interceptor force main with modeled dry weather and wet weather pressures to allow municipalities to design their pumping systems appropriately. A sample of HRSD’s pressure letter for the case study that will be discussed is illustrated in Figure 2. The dry weather pressure fluctuation for this letter is 34 ft and the difference between the minimum dry weather pressure and the wet weather pressure is 77 ft. In order to minimize O&M costs, it is important to operate pumps within their preferred operating region (POR), as defined by the Hydraulic Institute standard ANSI/HI 9.6.3. Operation outside of this region generates unfavorable pump operation and higher O&M costs. The POR typically extends from 70 to 120 percent of flow at the best efficiency point (BEP), but it can be narrower depending on the pump. The POR is a much narrower region when compared to the pump manufacturer’s allowable op-

Figure 2. Hampton Roads Sanitation District Pressure Letter

erating region (AOR). The AOR is also defined by ANSI/HI 9.6.3 and extends from the manufacturer’s minimum safe flow for a pump all the way to the tail end of the pump curve. Operating VFDs based on wet well level set points in areas with large interceptor force main pressure fluctuations can lead to operation outside of the POR. This is mainly due to the fact that the VFDs, in this instance, are being installed to overcome the system pressure fluctuations, but are being controlled by a variable that indirectly relates to system pressure. The only condition that causes the pump speed to increase is when the influent flow rate is higher than the discharge flow rate, as this condition will cause the wet well level to rise. With the pumps sized for wet weather flow rates, the operating point can move far to the left on the pump curve before it creates a condition where the wet well level will rise. This can occur during dry weather conditions, coupled with HRSD dry weather pressure fluctuations. This can generate pump operations far outside of the POR and sometimes even outside the AOR. Operating outside of the POR increases radial thrust on the pump impeller, which increases the forces acting on the pump bearings and seals, causing them to fail prematurely; additionally, pump ragging increases due to an increase in pump recirculation. Pump efficiency also decreases the further operation that occurs from the best efficiency point, thereby driving up electrical consumption costs; additionally, vibration also increases further as the operation drifts away from the POR. All of these items drive up the costs associated with operating and maintaining pump stations. However, if a system variable that directly correlates to system pressure, such as station discharge flow rate or force main pressure, is utilized with wet well level, the control logic can be optimized. This optimization will help minimize the O&M costs associated with each pump station by maintaining operation within the POR.

Figure 3. Maximum Daily Pressure System Curve and Full-Speed Pump Curve

Example Case Study The City of Suffolk, Va., recently asked Brown and Caldwell to design a new pump station to service the Cedar Hill area of the city. A pressure letter was issued by HRSD (Figure 2) for this station’s connection point to its interceptor force main system. Additionally, this station had a metered average daily flow rate of 341 gallons per minute (gpm) and an existing modeled 10-year wet weather flow rate of 3,860 gpm. Because of the large pressure and flow Continued on page 34

Figure 4. Minimum Daily Pressure System Curve and Minimum-Speed Pump Curve

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Continued from page 33 rate fluctuations, Brown and Caldwell recommended two dry weather pumps and two wet weather pumps. The remaining discussion will be focused on the sizing and control of the dry weather pumps. System curves were developed for the pumping station and a dry weather pump was selected for the anticipated daily pressure fluctua-

tions. Additionally, the firm pumping capacity for the dry weather pumps was set at 853 gpm in order to bridge the gap between dry weather and the modeled 10-year wet weather event. Figure 3 depicts the dry weather pumps operating at full speed against the maximum daily pressure system curve, and Figure 4 depicts the dry weather pumps at minimum speed operating against the minimum daily pressure system curves.

Figure 5. Pump Model Results (Discharge Versus Time of Day)

Figure 6. Pump Model Scatter Graph Results (Pressure Versus Discharge Flow)

Notice that the intersection of both system curves occurs within the POR for both the maximum and minimum HRSD pressure system curves; therefore, there is a way to control the pumps that places their operation within the POR. The City of Suffolk asked its modeling consultant to model these pumps utilizing a hydraulic model of the HRSD force main system to simulate the pump operation using the city’s standard control logic. The model accounts for the daily fluctuations in both influent flow rates, as well as HRSD pressures. A graph illustrating the results from these model runs is displayed in Figures 5 and 6. Although the pump selection appears to be acceptable, as indicated by the operating points shown in Figures 3 and 4, the control logic was preventing the pump from operating as intended. The model results indicated that the pumps were operating almost 60 percent of the day outside the pump manufacturer’s AOR (Figure 5). Based on the modeling results, Brown and Caldwell recommended that the model controls be modified, such that pump speed would be adjusted in order to target a discharge flow rate; the wet well level readings were only used to start and stop the pumps. The modeling results based on the modified control logic are illustrated in Figure 7. As shown in Figure 7, the pump operation improved significantly when a variable directly related to system pressures was utilized. It is worthy to note that the points on the far left of the scatter graphs were taken as the pump was just starting in the model and are not an indication of sustained operation in that location. As a result of the modeling, the City of Suffolk requested that Brown and Caldwell test the logic on an existing city pumping station prior to its implementation elsewhere in its system. Brown and Caldwell worked with the city’s instrumentation and control engineering consultant to develop and implement the logic. Since the city does not have any existing discharge flow meters in its system, it requested that the logic be based off of discharge pressure readings.

Pump Control Logic

Figure 7. Modified Model Scatter Graph Results


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The implemented control logic utilizes force main pressure readings prior to pump start to calculate the pump total dynamic head (TDH). In order to account for the system pressure increases due to pump start and operation, two separate TDHs are calculated. The first one, called “Pump Start TDH,” is utilized just for the start-up speed selection and incorContinued on page 36

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Continued from page 34 porates a constant that accounts for the pressure increase caused by the pump operation. The “Pump Start TDH” is calculated by the following equation: Pump Start TDH = (P + FPTP + Z + I) – (WWL – FWWP)

Figure 8. Discharge Pressure Control Logic

P = Average of the pressure readings over the last 10 seconds FPTP = Constant equal to the estimate of the friction loses between the pump and the pressure transducer Z = Vertical distance between the pump volute and pressure transducer I = Constant equal to the increase in system pressure due to pump operation/start-up WWL = Current wet well level FWWP = Constant equal to the estimate of the friction loses in the suction piping The second TDH, called “Pump Run TDH,” is utilized for speed adjustments after the pump has already started. These adjustments do not occur until 30 seconds after the pump has started in order to prevent the controls from reacting to system surge pressures. The “Pump Run TDH” is calculated by the following equation: Pump Run TDH = (P + FPTP + Z) – (WWL – FWWP)

Figure 9. Existing Control Logic Pump Operation

Figure 10. Changed Control Logic Pump Operation


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

P = Average of the pressure readings over the last 10 seconds FPTP = Constant equal to the estimate of the friction loses between the pump and the pressure transducer Z = Vertical distance between the pump volute and pressure transducer WWL = Current wet well level FWWP = Constant equal to the estimate of the friction loses in the suction piping Figure 8 illustrates the methodology utilized to select the pump speed based on the calculated TDHs. If the calculated TDH is above “H1” then the pump goes to full speed; if the calculated TDH is below “H2” then the pump goes to minimum speed. If the calculated TDH is between H1 and H2 the speed is interpolated accordingly. Scatter graphs from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data show the pump operation before and after the control logic modifications were generated to substantiate the benefits of this logic change. These scatter graphs are shown in Figures 9 and 10, respectively.

Figure 10 depicts the improved pump operation that occurs based upon the improved pump control logic.

Conclusion When analyzing the life cycle costs of owning a pump station, it has been determined that up to 85 percent of the cost can be associated with station O&M. It is important to focus on minimizing these costs during the design stage of these facilities. Minimizing these costs requires focus on three critical elements of station design: the stations hydraulic configuration (wet well geometry and piping configuration), pump selection, and controls. This discussion only focused on the control optimization for pump stations that experience large pressure fluctuations downstream. The benefits from optimizing the controls can be negated by failing to focus on and optimize the hydraulic configuration and pump selection. The effectiveness of this control logic also relies on obtaining accurate pressure readings from the system. Therefore, the pressure transmitters should be isolated from the process fluids through the use of a diaphragm seal or full-body ring seal, and cal-

Figure 11. Pump Station Life Cycle Costs

ibrated and tested on a regular frequency. Using this modified control logic in areas with large force main pressure fluctuations, coupled with proper pump selection and station hydraulic configuration, can help to ensure that pump operation occurs within the POR and reduce the O&M costs associated with the following:


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Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to FWEA Chapter Corner! The Public Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at

Manasota Chapter Kicks Off a Successful Fall Season Linda Maudlin

Chapter Luncheon The Manasota Chapter of the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) kicked off fall by collaborating with Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) Region X to plan the second luncheon of the fiscal year. Hurricane Hermine intervened and caused the cancellation of the luncheon, but the chapter rallied to reschedule the event. On September 30, over forty people were enlightened with a presentation entitled, “The Town of Longboat Key Force Main Assessment.” This project included the use of the PURE Technologies SmartBall®, among other technologies. This assessment was recently completed by the town and is the fifth inspection it has proactively performed on the 20-inch-diameter force main that carries all of the town’s wastewater off of the Key to Manatee County for treatment.

Thank you to the speakers: Will Craven of PURE Technologies, Mark Kincaid of Coastal Engineering Inc., Tom Wilson and Mike Knowles of Greeley and Hansen, and David Greene of the Town of Longboat Key. The next chapter luncheon is scheduled for Jan. 20, 2017.

Chapter Member Honored Congratulations to Kristiana Dragash! The chapter honored Kristiana with a Founders Award in grateful recognition for her outstanding leadership and guidance since 2010. Thank you for your continued support.

Sporting Clay Event Continues October ended with a bang for the chapter. The second annual Manasota Chapter Sporting Clay Event was held on October 28 at the Sarasota Skeet and Gun Club. The planning committee could not have asked for a more beautiful day— sunshine, blue skies, low humidity, and a welcomed breeze. Over fifty attendees representing consultants, contractors, and municipalities took part in the event. Participants enjoyed a barbeque lunch, followed by a Sanders

Manasota Chair Mike Knowles congratulates Kristiana Dragash on receiving the Manasota Chapter Founders Award.


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Co. mini-presentation on wastewater pump systems, avoidance of common causes for failure, and selection of the right pump. A shotgun start immediately followed the presentation. The thirteen teams accepted the challenge of who would take home the coveted titles and trophies for the top three shooting teams and top individual shooters. The results were: S Top Individual Shooters: Mike Chell, Mike Dickey, Rob Humpel, James Loften, and Lane Longley. S Top Teams: Banks Engineering, TSC Jacobs, and Johnson Engineering. Congratulations to all of the winners and thank you to the event sponsors: Arcadis, Greeley and Hansen, Johnson Engineering, McKim & Creed, PSC Cardinal Contractors, Sanders Company, Sharek Solutions, and TSC Jacobs. Mark your calendars now and save the date for the third annual Sporting Clay Event, which will be held on Nov. 17, 2017.

Winter Social As the end of the calendar year winds down, preparations have begun for the annual Winter

Shooting Clay Event participants get a safety briefing.

Social scheduled for Thursday, December 15. This fun-filled event is an opportunity for local members of FWEA, AWWA, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Public Works Association (APWA), and Florida Engineering Society (FES) to join together for an

enjoyable, relaxing evening. Members will receive event information soon! This year we are asking individuals to bring to the event an unwrapped toy for a child of any age. Toys collected will support the local Toys for Tots program.

Team Greeley and Hansen (left to right: Mike Knowles, Barry Griffin, Mark Maudlin, and Connor Maudlin) takes a picture break between stations.

Stay tuned for more information on upcoming events. Linda Maudlin is a GIS technician for Greeley and Hansen LLC, in Sarasota, and is the Manasota Chapter secretary. S

Team Jacobs Air Water strikes a pose.

Range officer providing instruction during warm-ups.

Warm-up shots. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016



Participation is the Key to Our Success Kim Kunihiro Chair, FSAWWA

hope you all had a great Thanksgiving and are looking forward to the holidays and spending quality time with your family and friends. Our FSAWWA Fall Conference was a great opportunity to see so many of the fantastic men and women who work in our industry, and I hope you all had a great time at the 90th anniversary gala. Reflecting back on one of my earlier columns, I urged all of you to participate in FSAWWA and in the state to advocate for our members and our mission for public health and preservation of the environment. Our membership continues to grow (over 19 percent in the past year), and with that, our voice in the water community. In keeping with our mission, I have had the pleasure of working closely with the Utility Council and its officers and membership on regulatory and legislative initiatives. We are now focused on advocating for funding of drinking water infrastructure improvements, which is important given that the American Society of Civil Engineers has rated America’s infrastructure with a “D” grade. A must-read on this issue is the American Water Works Association (AWWA) “Buried No Longer” report, which identifies a need for almost $1 trillion in investment for water infrastructure in this country by 2035. In the AWWA “State of the Water Industry” report, however, it was determined that most utilities don’t have the ability to cover the full cost of providing water service, including infrastructure replacement and expansion. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment estimates that $384 billion will be needed to upgrade U.S. drinking water infrastructure by 2035. No matter what numbers we believe, it is a significant cost. At the national level, the Senate responded to the need for infrastructure investment and approved S. 2848, the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 2016, with a strong bipartisan vote of 95 to 3. This bill got strong support from AWWA, as well as twelve other water and municipal agencies across the country. This bill authorizes U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)



projects for investment in navigation, flood management, and ecosystem restoration. It also designates $100 million for the State Revolving Fund (SRF) program and $70 million for the Water Infrastructure Finance and Reform Act (WIFIA), which was approved in 2014. Since then, Congress has only allocated $4.4 million to EPA for WIFIA administration and has, to date, not made any loans. Recently, EPA personnel visited Florida and made a presentation on public outreach about the WIFIA program; they have held a series of these meetings throughout the country. Their hope was to clarify the goals of the program and to pave the way for successful applications to the WIFIA program once a financial commitment is made in the national budget. At the time of the meeting in Orlando, in October 2016, the national budget had not yet been set, but there was a mention that President Obama had included funding in his budget proposal for the credit subsidy necessary to make this program go forward. Since the budgets are not yet approved and will now wait until after the election results are in and the new Congress is seated, there is no dedicated funding beyond the funds allocated to EPA to do the administrative work to begin the WIFIA application process. Getting a WIFIA loan is not guaranteed or easy, but the process is still being developed and is in the approval stage with the Office of Management and Budget. The WIFIA projects can vary in size depending on the size of the community; the minimum project is $5 million for small communities serving a population of 25,000 or less, and the large projects have a minimum size of $20 million. The WIFIA loans can only fund 49 percent of the project, so the community requesting the loan will need to bring some money to the table. The application process is iterative and involves several steps in review. Based on what attendees said at the Orlando meeting, there are several shovel-ready projects that some communities would like to submit right away. We should continue to let our senators and representatives know that this is important funding for the water community and needs to be included as the budget moves forward. We don’t want to lose funding to SRF programs to fund WIFIA—we believe there is room in the budget to fund both, as WIFIA is a budgetneutral program. The Senate also looked at WRDA as a means to provide investment to help

December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

communities reduce public health risks related to lead and to help smaller rural systems fund technology improvements. After the events in Flint, Mich., this need is evident; it cannot be funded by the already overburdened Flint community. We know that funding for lead removal and water line replacement is important, but it should not be the sole focus of a national water infrastructure finance bill. The House of Representatives WRDA Bill H.R. 5303 emphasizes it as a way to fund inland waterway projects, port improvements, and flood protection, which all drive the economy. There is $170 million for water infrastructure needs, but it does not designate SRF or WIFIA funding. There was also language about lead. Much of the lead discussion in this bill is about notification to the public when lead action levels are exceeded, but as we know, in Flint the action level was never exceeded during monitoring, even though real problems existed in its system. The House and Senate committees will conference about these bills and hopefully come together with a budget proposal that provides funding for both WIFIA and SRF. More information about WIFIA can be found at Please contact your representatives who are on the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee at, and for the Senate, contact the Environment and Public Works Committee at It is essential that we all participate at the local, state, and national levels in the discourse on water infrastructure funding. We need to continue to review and evaluate new rules and bills to make sure that they adequately evaluate the needs of the water community, both financially and to protect public health. The needs are great and cannot be supported entirely by rate payers. The AWWA office of governmental affairs does an outstanding job keeping us connected at the national level, and the Utility Council does so at the state level. I encourage you to stay connected and participate in the process. Join us in Tallahassee and Washington, D.C., when we talk to our representatives and senators about water issues. It’s hard to believe my year as chair has come to an end, but my service to the section will continue as long as they need or want me to participate. I appreciate the opportunities that were given to me to serve the Florida Section. I am sure that Dr. Grace Johns will serve our members well in the coming year as our new FSAWWA chair. S


Steve Soltau Pinellas County Utilities, S.K. Keller Water Treatment Plant, Tarpon Springs Work title and years of service. I have been a water supply manager for 14 years and a licensed operator for 34 years. I work at the drinking water treatment plant situated in the picturesque Brooker Creek Nature Preserve in the northeast section of Pinellas County. We are surrounded by deer, red hawks, ospreys, peacocks, and other wildlife that add a sense of serenity and beauty to my workplace. What does your job entail? I am responsible for: S The drinking water treatment and supply system that provides 50 million gallons a


day to over 700,000 customers within Pinellas County. S Furnishing the tools and resources to the operations and maintenance staff, giving them the power to be successful in their day-to-day jobs. S Providing information and outcomes to the public and my superiors that will instill confidence in their drinking water system. S Assisting with planning, design, and construction management of extensive upgrades to our drinking water system over the past 10 years, resulting in significant improvement in drinking water quality countywide. What education and training have you had? I started out reading water meters as an operator trainee in the small coastal town of Belleair in 1984. It was there that I realized that new learning and new responsibilities were the tickets to opportunity and promotions. By 2004 I had earned an MBA in global management from the University of Phoenix in Clearwater. Along the way I attended St. Petersburg Junior College and Eckerd College and have participated and presented in local and international seminars for more than 30 years. New learning is a big part of my life and keeps in motion my attitude of growth. It is the underlying reason why I work with FSAWWA to expand high school water academies and promote the operator scholarships. The best learning opportunities during my years as a supervisor and manager have

December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

come by way of mentoring entry-level employees and managerial-level prospects and doing the research necessary to answer all those questions I get from customers and staff, supervisors and politicians, consultants and businesses, and reporters and the media. What professional associations do you belong to? I belong to FSAWWA and FWPCOA. How have the organizations helped your career? Over the years I have served FSAWWA in the role of trustee, Top Ops chair, Region 4 chair, Likins Scholarship Committee member, Plant Awards and Operator Scholarship Committee chairs, and the Operators and Maintenance Council chair. I also serve on the AWWA Quicklime and Hydrated Lime Standards Committee and have been a Florida Department of Environmental Protection Operator Exam Review Committee member since 1999. These opportunities to organize work, prioritize and meet deadlines, motivate volunteers, and work with others, continually provide me the good fortune to polish my professional skills and become a better employee for my organization—all without the workplace stress of performance reviews! The more time I spend in the company of our association volunteers, the more I learn how to celebrate success, make new friends, and be a productive part of something bigger than me.

What do you like best about the industry? There is always something to do and learn: S New and revised drinking water regulations S Maintaining and replacing aging infrastructure S Moving targets and priorities S Face-paced technology S Security concerns S Succession management These are the things that take up most of my time these days. The drinking water treatment profession has given me not just a job, but a career. It has provided me educational and promotional opportunities that I took full advantage of. Now, 33 years later, here I am, still loving what I do for a living. Most people I meet in our profession really care about our industry and are willing to help in times of need and share their knowledge to make my job easier. I have found an innovative front-line workforce dedicated to the health and safety of the public (and their high expectations). These individuals significantly contribute to the unique quality of life we are afforded by access to safe drinking water. At this time, I would like to recognize a couple of those professionals who took the time to mentor me over the years: S Kurt Peters, from whom I learned to be a teacher. S Tom Crandall, who taught me to be a leader and how to manage the business of drinking water.

S Marvin Kaden, who taught me how to be an operator and a friend. What do you do when you’re not working? Besides working on FSAWWA stuff? I like to read historic mysteries like Sherlock Holmes and thrillers by Dan Brown, fantasy adventures by JRR Tolkien, and books on being a good boss. I really enjoy digital photography and long weekends spent on Clearwater Beach with my wife; after all, that’s why we moved to Florida in the first place. My wife Terrie and I have been together for 38 years. We first met and got married in Charleston, S.C., and moved to Clearwater in 1981. We have a strong faith and are very active in our church, Unity Church of Clearwater. I work with the youth ministry every month and have served a couple of terms on the church board. I get a feeling of satisfaction from working outside and around the house, and there is nothing wrong with a good Saturday of college football time on the couch! We enjoy all the local year-round sports teams, but spend numerous summer evenings at the Clearwater Thresher’s minor league baseball games at Bright House Field. We do have an inside connection, however; our son, Cameron, has been a Thresher’s bat boy since 2010. Cameron is now a Junior at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg, living on campus, and making his parents grateful and proud. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Flint Water Crisis Prompts Lead Pipe Report Update A landmark white paper on lead pipe rehabilitation and replacement techniques published by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) 15 years ago has been revisited by a member of the original project advisory committee. In 2001 AWWA published “Lead Pipe Rehabilitation and Replacement Techniques,” which was based on a portfolio of research and technology projects undertaken in the United Kingdom by North West Water (now United Utilities). Since its publication, there have been significant changes to global and national regulatory limits for lead in drinking water as scientists have become better informed about the risk posed to public health, especially in young children’s brain development.

Renewed Interest The issue has recently received much attention following revelations of exposure to lead in drinking water to people living in Flint, Mich. Nick Preston, a member of the project advisory committee for the original AWWA report and an expert on lead pipe replacement techniques, has authored an update, commissioned by pipeline infrastructure specialist Aquam. “Quite rightly there is a renewed interest in the risks posed by lead in drinking water,” says Preston. “For utilities wanting and needing to take action, there have also been significant developments of viable technologies for pipeline rehabilitation, which have yet to be widely adopted by utilities and their supply chain contractors.”

Rule Revision The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Water has committed to issue a proposed lead and copper rule in 2017, reflecting national issues brought to light by the crisis in Flint, in-


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

cluding a reassessment of the sampling regime and lead service line replacement requirements. Says Preston, “Since these early research projects took place, patents on many technologies for lining and replacing lead service and communication pipes have expired; however, the selection of lowest whole-life-cost solutions that meet customer needs remains the objective. Utilities, along with owners and occupiers of public buildings, recognize their duty to their users. They should also be made aware of highly efficient and effective techniques to reduce lead exposure.”

Method Selection The AWWA method selection table shown in the original report has been updated to incorporate the latest technological developments and provides a basis from which those concerned can approach their supply chain or specialist advisors to determine the least-cost alternatives available to them. According to Richard Coffey, managing director of Aquam, “This is a very worrying time for people in Flint and other cities affected by the risks posed by lead in drinking water. It is important that those tasked with making supplies safe have access to the full range of options available to them so that any issues can be resolved as quickly as possible. It is often assumed that lead pipes have to be ripped out and replaced, but this is no longer the case. Advanced technologies can offer a safer, lower-cost alternative that minimizes disruption to the customer.” The white paper, “Lead Pipe Rehabilitation and Replacement Techniques: An Update,” can be downloaded at The original paper can be viewed at Library/RFR90789_2000_465.pdf. S


5-9..........Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ........Osteen ............ $350/380 12-14..........Backflow Repair................................Osteen ............$275/305 30..........Backflow Tester Recert***................Osteen ............$85/115

– UPCOMING 2017 CLASSES – January

9-12..........Backflow Tester* ..............................St. Petersburg ..$375/405


13-15..........Backflow Repair* ..............................St. Petersburg ..$275/305


13-17..........SPRING STATE SHORT SCHOOL ..Ft. Pierce 27-30..........Backflow Tester* ..............................St. Petersburg ..$375/405


15-18..........Backflow Tester* ..............................St. Petersburg ..$375/405


19-21 ..........Backflow Repair* ..............................St. Petersburg ..$275/305


10-13 ..........Backflow Tester* ..............................St. Petersburg ..$375/405 Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Test Yourself

Water Sources and Treatment Methods

Ron Trygar

1. Which of the following is not typically found in groundwater sources? a. Iron-reducing bacteria b. Manganese c. Coliform bacteria d. Sulfate reducing bacteria 2. A surface water contains elevated amounts of bacteria, turbidity, and color. What is the most effective treatment for this water source? Treatment methods shown are listed in the order they occur in the process. a. Prechlorination, followed by coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration. b. Coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. c. Reverse osmosis, followed by ion exchange softening, sedimentation, and disinfection. d. Prechlorination and lime/soda softening, followed by reverse osmosis, and final disinfection. 3. Aeration for iron removal from a groundwater source is most effective at what pH range? a. 4-6.5 b. 6-7 c. 10.2-12.5 d. 7-9 4. Prechlorination for algae control in surface water treatment plants could lead to the formation of what undesirable compound? a. Calcium hypochlorite b. Trihalomethane c. Calcium sulfate d. Magnesium hydroxide 5. The addition of what odor-reducing chemical to a surface water source must be followed by filtration to remove turbidity? a. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) b. Granular activated carbon (GAC) c. Sodium hypochlorite d. Magnesium hydroxide 6. From the table of water quality data shown, select the most effective treatment method to meet the finished water quality goals. Contaminant Chloride Sodium Total Dissolved Solids pH

Current Values 758 mg/L 1,410 mg/L 865 mg/L 7.8

Finished Water Goals <250 mg/L <160 mg/L <500 mg/L 6.5-8.5

a. Permanganate/greensand filtration, followed by aeration and disinfection. b. Prefiltration, followed by reverse osmosis, pH/alkalinity adjustment, and disinfection. c. Reverse osmosis, followed by aeration, greensand filtration, and disinfection. d. Flash mixing, followed by conventional filtration and disinfection.


December 2016 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

7. What is the primary maximum contaminant level (MCL) for turbidity? a. 0.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) b. 0.5 NTU c. 1 NTU d. 5 NTU 8. Sequestration (the addition of polyphosphate) to a finished-water product is used for what purpose? a. Corrosion enhancement b. Iron/manganese control c. Encourage tuberculation of the iron pipe d. Method of chloramination 9. The groundwater source is high in hydrogen sulfide, iron, and manganese. Which water treatment methods and operation sequence will be effective to remove these contaminants? a. Ion exchange softening followed by aeration, then disinfection. b. Disinfection followed by greensand filtration, then aeration. c. Ozone addition followed by aeration and disinfection. d. Chemical oxidation followed by greensand filtration, then disinfection. 10. The direct filtration treatment method can be used where the a. finished water is low in turbidity, color, algae, and coliform. b. source water is low in mercury, color, hardness, and viruses. c. source water is low in turbidity, color, algae, and coliform. d. source water is low in pH, alkalinity, and hardness.

Answers on page 66

SEND US YOUR QUESTIONS Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: or by mail to: Ron Trygar, CET Senior Training Specialist UF TREEO Center Gainesville, Fla. 32608

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Distribution and Collection. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Horizontal or Vertical? High-Service Pump Selection Mark Ludwigson, Len Rago, and Jeff Greenfield (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS)

1. In barrel-mounted vertical turbine pump designs, vortexing is generally inhibited by a. vacuum priming systems. b. throttling discharge valves. c. minimizing barrel diameter. d. accounting for proper submergence. 2. Horizontal split case pumps require careful consideration of net-positive suction head to avoid a. over-pumping. b. excess discharge pressure. c. harmonic dissonance. d. cavitation. 3. _____________ pumps have enclosed impellers. a. Turbine b. Axial flow c. Radial flow

d. Mixed flow

4. Bearings on vertical turbine pumps are typically lubricated by a. oil. b. grease. c. the fluid being pumped.

d. graphite.

5. Vertical turbine pumps offer greater pressure control flexibility because a. they have a steeper operating curve than horizontal split case (HSC) pumps. b. unlike HSC pumps, they can be controlled using variable frequency drives. c. of their superior operating efficiency. d. of their higher specific speed.

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Utilizing Pressure to Put the Logic Back in Variable-Frequency Drive Controls Martin MacVittie (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. A pump’s preferred operating range typically extends from __________ at the best efficiency point. a. 30 to 50 percent b. 60 to 110 percent c. 70 to 120 percent d. 80 to 150 percent 2. Which of the following is not typically a hazard associated with operating a wastewater pump outside its preferred operating range? a. Ragging b. Premature failure of seals and bearings c. Decreased radial thrust on the impeller d. Vibration

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

3. The City of Suffolk modeling revealed that although pumps could operate within their preferred operating range, ______________ was/were preventing this from occurring consistently. a. worn impellers b. bearing and seal problems c. motor issues d. control logic 4. To prevent controls from reacting to system surge pressures, revised control logic does not allow speed adjustments to occur within ___________ seconds of pump start-up. a. 5 b. 10 c. 20 d. 30

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)


5. With such a high number of pump stations in this region, municipalities prefer ______________ station configurations. a. simplex b. duplex c. triplex d. four pump

(Expiration Date)


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Â&#x160;Â&#x152;Â&#x201D;Ä&#x161;Â&#x2DC; ȹÂ&#x203A;Â&#x17D;Â&#x;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2014;ČąÂ&#x17D;Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A;Â?Â&#x2019;Ä&#x2122;Â&#x152;Â&#x160;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2014; Dec. 16-17, 16 17, 2016 | Veenice, FL Jan. 7-8, 2017| Taampa, FL Jan. 13-14, 2017 | Ft. Myers, FL Jan. 14-15, 2017 | Bradenton, FL Feb. 2-3, 2017 | Destin, FL Feb. 4-5, 2017 | Bradenton, FL Feb. 6-7, 2017 | Lake Buena Vista, FL Feb. 17-18, 2017 | Veenice, FL Feb. 23-24, 2017 | Gainesville, FL

Jan. 9-13, 2017 | Lake Buenaa Vista, FL Jan. 9-13, 2017 | Gainesville,, FL Jan. 20-28, 2017 | Venice, e FL L* *(T Two w consecutive Fri. & Sat.)

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Feb. 6-10, 2017 | Destin, FL

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Jan. 17-19, 2017 | Gainesville, FL | 2.1 CEUs C

Feb. 21-23, 2017 | Gainesville, FL | 22.4 CEUs

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Innovative Cost-Effective Noninvasive Ultrasonic Testing for Utility Replacement Weston Haggen, Ed Gil de Rubio, Marc Cannata, and Matthew Grewe ater utilities are faced with replacing aging infrastructure, while experiencing an ever-reducing repair and replacement budget. Finding cost-effective repair and replacement methods is an important objective for entities managing utility infrastructure. To accomplish this objective, South Seminole and North Orange County Wastewater Transmission Authority (Authority) explored cost-effective methods on aging pipeline infrastructure that resulted in substantial savings. The Authority is an organization tasked with the funding, planning, operation, and maintenance of a wastewater transmission system serving five major local municipalities. This transmission system consists of transmission force mains, pump stations, and monitoring stations. The collected wastewater is conveyed to the Iron Bridge Regional Reclamation Facility, which is operated by the City of Orlando. To continually maintain the integrity of the transmission system, the Authority re-evaluated its existing force main transmission system utilizing an innovative testing technology called noninvasive ultrasonic testing. The selected por-


tion of the transmission system had a ductile iron force main routed along a major state road (known as Aloma Avenue) that was experiencing significant corrosion ahead of its useful life, to the extent that replacement was recommended. In lieu of additional coupon testing done through a previous study (which is a destructive testing method) the Authority retained Reiss Engineering Inc. (REI) to implement nondestructive and noninvasive ultrasonic testing. In order to determine the exact extent of the corrosion, locations were strategically identified based on evaluating those previous field testing results and pipeline profiles. At each test location, ultrasonic readings were conducted at the top of a pipe or along an array of angles located in a cross section of the pipe. These ultrasonic measurements of the pipeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wall thickness were compared to the original wall thickness to determine the extent of corrosion and associated remaining pipe wall thickness. This technology narrowed the previously determined damage to a specific area along the force main, resulting in substantial savings to the Authority totaling approximately $1.1 million. The success of the project persuaded the Authority to continue noninvasive ultrasonic testing on an annual basis to assess the rest of the infrastructure throughout the transmission system, which was

Figure 1. Ductile Iron Pipe Corrosion


December 2016 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Weston Haggen, P.E., is project manager with Reiss Engineering Inc. in Tampa, and at the time the article was written, Marc Cannata, P.E., was vice president, and Matthew Grewe, was project manager, with Reiss. Ed Gil de Rubio is director at South Seminole and North Orange County Wastewater Transmission Authority in Maitland.

completed in 2013, and in 2014, involving the same method of pipeline integrity testing.

Background Ductile iron piping is subject to major corrosion, as shown in Figure 1. One of the primary factors of pipe corrosion in wastewater transmission systems is the production of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). High points in the piping network system can collect H2S, making these areas more susceptible to corrosion. Air release valves (ARVs) are customarily located at the highest points in a force main piping system to avoid H2S accumulation; yet, not every high point potentially vulnerable to air trapping contains an ARV. In addition, force mains do not always flow full, al-

Figure 2. Previous Aloma Avenue Thickness Testing

lowing H2S to accumulate in the open space and essentially coming in contact with the ductile iron force mains throughout the system. Hence, there is a periodic necessity to quantify corrosion levels and replace or rehabilitate pipelines. In 2004 and 2007, previous studies were conducted to assess pipe integrity in a section of the transmission system owned by the Authority. The results, shown in Figure 2, indicated that the section of the force main located in the right of way (ROW) of Aloma Avenue, between Old Howell Branch Road and Tuskawilla Road, was severely corroded and needed to be replaced. The previous testing efforts did not provide any detail on methods used prior to and during the testing effort conducted on this force main section. In lieu of destructive testing methods, the Authority retained REI to re-evaluate its existing force main transmission system utilizing a nondestructive ultrasonic testing. Initially, 13 testing locations along 6,800 lin ft of the 36-in. force main were completed using the noninvasive ultrasonic testing method. Unlike the results previously obtained through other studies, the ultrasonic tests showed that only one test location exhibited critical deterioration of the ductile iron pipe. Then, the Authority and REI decided to supplement the initial study with 11 additional ultrasonic tests in the region where replacement was deemed necessary in order to determine the exact extents of the corrosion. Additional locations were strategically identified based on evaluating those previous field testing results and pipeline profiles. The following sections are going to explain how other utilities can utilize innovative noninvasive testing methods, associated field protocol, and testing results to determine the condition of their force mains that may result in cost savings and future planning for infrastructure replacement.

Methodology In order to determine the extent of the corrosion, field investigations using noninvasive ultrasonic testing were performed where previous piping wall thickness was identified as thinning, and thus were areas of potential concern. In addition, the hydraulic grade line was reviewed to determine high and low portions of the force main. The high points were additional areas of focus, and the low points were assumed to be fully submerged with minimal corrosion. The first 13 tests had six in the state road ROW, four under the asphalt, and three in existing manholes. The additional 11 tests had five in the state road ROW, one in an existing manhole, and five under the asphalt on the connector road. Many of the force main locations were stationed within Seminole County, Orange County, and Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) limits; therefore, ROW use permits were required. The permits imposed restrictions on testing, timing, and penetrations of paved roadways and set requirements for restoration and maintenance of traffic (MOT). Piping segments were identified by REI that were deemed areas of concern for corrosion from the previous study results to determine the segment for re-evaluation. Then, REI provided noninvasive ultrasonic testing technicians with the approximate station locations, the previous testing results, and as-built drawings. Certified technicians performed field investigations using their sensors and a software ground penetrating radar (GPR) machine to determine the high points of the force main sections within the previously tested limits. The high points of the force main were confirmed using the GPR method to field-verify as-built drawings provided for the Authority’s entire system.

An advanced nondestructive ultrasonic gauge (Figure 3), was used to determine the integrity of the pipeline. This instrument can be used in pipes, tanks, and other metallic structures that have the potential for erosion and corrosion. Additionally, the device is able to measure true metal thickness using a “single backwall echo,” even when the metallic structure is painted and/or coated. The instrument calibration instructions provided by the testing device company representative were followed by REI. The same representative also met the project team onsite and demonstrated the calibration procedure. The instrument measures wall thickness by sending an ultrasonic wave through the metallic material and then calculates the velocity of that wave. Different types of materials will exhibit different velocities at the same length; therefore, it is essential to calibrate the instrument using the exact same material that will be measured in the field. In order to obtain accurate readings, REI obtained coupons (Figure 4) that were removed from previously rehabilitated sections of the Authority’s force mains. Those coupons were machined and measured to a tenth of an in., and then used to calibrate the instrument. The validity of the calibration was confirmed by measuring the sample coupons with the testing device and a digital caliper. The results obtained were equal; therefore, it was confirmed that the ultrasonic testing instrument was properly calibrated for field measurements. The testing device requires a clean testing surface area; therefore, the sections of the force main that were tested had to be exposed, then air-blasted to clean off the surface dirt, followed by using a wire drill brush to gently scrape off any debris remaining on the outer surface of the piping. This field preparation of the pipe is exContinued on page 52

Figure 4. Picture of Coupons Removed From Rehabilitated Force Main

Figure 3. Noninvasive Ultrasonic Testing Device Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Continued from page 51 tremely important to ensure the accuracy of the measurements. The amount of measurements taken at each location ranged from top dead center of the pipeline, or 0 degrees, to angles measuring 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 270 degrees, and 315 degrees. These locations were chosen because corrosive gases tend to gravitate at the top of the pipeline. Multiple measurements were taken at 0 degrees in order to obtain an averaged result. Additionally, testing sites located under the asphalt were only tested at 0 degrees because FDOT restricted the core hole size to 14 in. in diameter. To ensure that the same locations can be tested again in the future and results can be accurately tracked and compared, the following steps were performed initially:

Figure 5. Picture of Disk Marker

S Temporary stake markers were placed over the force main testing locations at the ground surface. S The global positioning system (GPS) coordinates were taken at each testing location. S A permanent disk marker (Figure 5) was installed perpendicular to the test location in concrete or asphalt as a means to locate the exact pipe segment tested in the future.

Results The percentage wall thickness remaining was calculated for each tested location by dividing the minimum reading measured by the original wall thickness. The results obtained are displayed in Figure 6, with the original study results represented with circles and the new results represented by triangles. The original wall thickness of the 36-in. force main and the 30-in. force main were measured at 0.51 in. and 0.45 in., respectively. The minimum reading was used because it represents the worst-case scenario. The results indicated that, unlike what was previously determined in other studies, the state road force main only needed to be replaced along a small portion of transmission main; all other locations yielded results above 70 percent, indicating that they were in good condition. This assessment drastically contradicted the previous study, which concluded that the entire section of the state road force main measuring 5,550 lin ft should be replaced. Additionally, the study confirmed that a connection between the new pipeline in the state road ROW and the existing connector road force main could be completed.

Figure 6. Comparison of REI and Previous Testing


December 2016 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Benefits The quality, accuracy, and ease of application of the ultrasonic testing method contributed many advantages to the project. The ultrasonic tests performed by REI provided more accurate results than the tests previously performed. This increased the level of accuracy that was associated with the possibility of taking multiple readings of the same tested point without causing further structural damage to the pipeline with traditional destructive tests or increasing the difficulty level of the field effort. The instrument was also calibrated to coupons of the original pipe, which decreased errors significantly. The testing device reads the thickness of the material instantaneously in situ, eliminating the need for collecting samples for later measurement, and also saving time. Furthermore, the instrument is portable, little heavy machinery is required, and only small sections of pipe needed to be exposed in order to obtain accurate measurements.

Challenges and Considerations The testing-device method cannot be performed if the pipeline is located under a water table, due to the fact that the velocity of the ultrasonic wave would be different under water, providing erroneous or inaccurate measurements.

Conclusion There are differences noted during the current noninvasive ultrasonic testing results and the test results from previous studies on this transmission system. Current industry standard practices were implemented by REI for identifying high points within the transmission system, preparing the pipe for thickness testing, effectively calibrating the testing equipment, and using an independent company certified in the

Figure 7. Section of Removed Pipe

use of ultrasonic testing equipment. Additional verification of testing methods and procedures included coordination and feedback from the ultrasonic manufacturer’s representative for calibration procedure review and confirmation, further calibrating the ultrasonic machine with large-diameter ductile iron piping coupons from the Authority’s system, and measuring coupons with a digital caliper to compare to the ultrasonic testing readings. The assessment revealed valuable information about the condition of the state road force main and allowed the project to be completed based on limiting the extents of the corroded sections. Noninvasive, ultrasonic testing also provided many advantages, including an increase in the accuracy of the results, a decrease in the time required for testing, and narrowing the previously determined corrosion to a specific area along the Aloma Avenue force main, which in turn saved the Authority approximate $1.1 million in replacement costs. The results of these tests were also confirmed with the completion of the state road force main construction with coupons and re-

Figure 8. Replaced 36-in. Force Main on Aloma Avenue

moved pipe confirming results from this study, as shown in Figure 7. The section of the replaced state road force main is shown in Figure 8. Both REI and the Aurhority continued to work together on similar assessments in 2013

and 2014 to determine pipeline integrity using the noninvasive ultrasonic testing. Additionally, the Authority established an annual program to monitor its transmission system using ultrasonic testing. S

New Products Hydro International has officially launched the Hydro MicroScreenTM rotating belt screen, offering wastewater treatment plants an advanced and versatile alternative to a primary clarifier, with less footprint, power use, and installation costs. With its patented continuous rotating belt screen, the product effectively separates solids from influent wastewater, using just 10 percent of the footprint of a conventional primary clarifier and only 20 percent of the power. It’s easy to install, saving the construction and installation costs of building or refurbishing a primary clarifier, and its small footprint frees up much-needed plant space for other uses. As an advanced treatment solution, the belt screen not only achieves between 50 and 60 percent total suspended solids removal, it also offers operators the versatility to improve their downstream process efficiency. (


A new line of laboratory pH sensors from Sensorex offer a range of options to maximize measurement accuracy and sensor lifetime. The basic-, advanced-, and research-grade pH sensors allow end users to choose just what fits their application needs, eliminating over-

spending on overly sophisticated sensors or on frequent sensor replacement in challenging environments. All Sensorex pH sensors offer accurate and reliable measurements across full pH ranges (0-14), compatible with all pH meters accepting a BNC connector. The basic pH1000 sensor is durable and easy to use, ideal for swimming pool, aquarium, or hydroponics measurement. Designed to withstand regular wear and tear, with a durable polycarbonate body and built-in protection for the pH glass measuring surface, the sensor provides reliable, stable readings in temperatures of up to 60°C. The advanced sensors are more versatile for more difficult sample types in environmental, wastewater, and food production applications. The standard and specialty advanced models offer extended sensor life and measurement accuracy in temperatures of up to 80°C. The sensors feature chemically resistant Ultem® bodies, double junction references, and booted meter connections for durability. This family includes the pH2000 extended-life laboratory sensor for unpredictable samples prone to contaminants. The pH2100 flat-tip electrode is ideal for viscous samples, slurries, and soft surfaces, such as agar plates and skin. The family’s pH2200 spear-tip sensor is specially designed to pierce semisolids, like food and soil.

The pH3000 research-grade sensor is the most sensitive laboratory electrode, best for low ionic samples, including drinking water, biomedical, and pharmaceutical applications. It is specially designed to respond quickly and accurately to rapid temperature changes, up to 100°C, with accuracy down to 0.04 pH. (


The Polymaster polymer makedown system from Neptune Chemical Pump Co. dilutes, mixes, and thoroughly activates emulsion, dispersion, and solution polymers, including the new lines of high-molecularweight products. Its motorized mixing chamber has a distribution head containing no blades that can damage fragile polymer chains, enabling it to hydraulically segment polymer into ultrathin film platelets that maximizes the amount of polymer area that is exposed to dilution water. The degree of polymer activation is not affected by fluctuating water pressures or dilution-water ration changes. It includes dilution speeds from 1/3 to 20 gpm, easy access to all components, automatic shutdown and local alarm light in case of loss of dilution water or motor overload, manual or automatic operation, and 120 VAC single-phase power usage. ( S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016



Horizontal or Vertical? High-Service Pump Selection Mark Ludwigson, Len Rago, and Jeff Greenfield ater engineers and utilities are often faced with a decision concerning the best type of pump when designing a high-service pump station for delivery of potable water to the distribution system. For this application, the two most common types of pumps are horizontal split case (HSC) pumps and vertical turbine (VT) pumps. The decision between horizontal and vertical is not trivial. There are strong supporters on each side who will indicate why one type of pump is better than the other, and in Florida, both types of pumps are common for high-service pumping. This article addresses the challenge of summarizing each pump type, listing key factors for making a comparison, explain-


ing which pump type has the advantage for each factor, presenting a decision tree, and providing examples of applications through case studies.

Pump Types Horizontal Split Case Pumps The HSC pumps are a type of centrifugal pump installed at floor level with the suction and discharge nozzles typically spaced 180 degrees apart. The pump is â&#x20AC;&#x153;split case,â&#x20AC;? meaning the casing can be unbolted and opened, allowing for removal and repair of pump rotating elements. The pump is double suction, which means that liquid may enter the center of enclosed im

Figure 1. Horizontal split case pump in a pump station building (left) and the same kind of pump with the top case removed (right).

Figure 2. Installation of vertical turbine pumps in barrels; motors have not yet been installed.


Figure 3. Vertical turbine pumps in a pump room.

December 2016 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Mark Ludwigson, P.E., is a senior engineer, and Len Rago is a senior client service manager with Carollo Engineers in Lake Worth. Jeff Greenfield, P.E., is a project manager with Broward County.

peller blades from both sides simultaneously. This differs from single-suction pumps, such as end-suction pumps or inline pumps, in which liquid enters the center of the impeller from a single direction. The dual suction design has the shaft supported by bearings on both sides of the impeller. When the motor is mounted horizontally, the pump is known as a "horizontal" split case pump; when the pump is rotated 90 degrees, with the motor rotated vertically, the pump is known as a "vertical" split case pump. Figure 1 shows an HSC pump for highservice pumping. Vertical Turbine Pumps The VT pumps have the motor mounted at floor level with a vertical shaft down to the impeller(s) at the bottom of the pump. The pump body is either partially submerged in a wet well or mounted inside a cylindrical barrel (also known as a "can"), with the suction line connected to the barrel. Mounting the pump inside a barrel with a buried suction line is most common for high-service pumping. The discharge line is at floor level just below the motor. Water enters the pump through a suction bell, moves up into the first-stage impeller, and enters the diffuser bowl above the impeller, where the high-velocity energy is converted into high pressure. Water is then directed into the second-stage impeller located immediately above the bowl, and this process continues through all of the stages of the pump. Turbine pumps have enclosed impellers, which direct the water upward. This differs from axial and mixed flow pumps, which have open impellers that impart a radial motion and swirling to the water. Figures 2 and 3 show photographs of VT pumps for high-service pumping.

Key Factors for Pump Type Selection Many factors must be considered in selection of a pump type. For high-service pumping, the following factors are commonly considered, with potential advantages and disadvantages of each pump type discussed. Suction Conditions Neither VT nor HSC pumps are capable of drawing suction in the absence of a liquid; thus, the pump needs to be located where flooded suction conditions exist, or a vacuum priming system needs to be implemented. The VT pump may be lowered by extending the pump column in order to achieve flooded suction conditions. Lowering a HSC pump requires lowering the entire pump station building, with associated water table and flood elevation issues. For a HSC pump, if a flooded suction cannot be provided, a vacuum priming system would need to be provided. The net-positive suction head (NPSH) is not typically an issue with VT pumps, as the pump stages are located at a low elevation inside of the barrel, which acts as a wet well and eliminates suction lift. Similar to wet well applications, the submergence of the VT stages is the driving factor. Accounting for proper submergence will inhibit vortexing, which can adversely affect the efficiency and longevity of the pump. Typically, a VT pump can completely drain a ground storage tank, and start up with the water level at ground level. The HSC pumps require careful consideration of the NPSH to avoid cavitation. The suction lift is determined by the elevation of the pump room floor compared to the low water elevation of the source, such as a ground storage tank. A HSC pump can only drain a ground storage tank to a limited elevation, and may require enlarged suction pipes and/or a vacuum prime system for operating at design flows when the water level is low in the tank. Conclusion: The VT pumps typically have the advantage for suction conditions, both in terms of priming and NPSH. Area Required The footprint required for HSC pumps is typically three times more than that of VT pumps (Mann, 2006); this is primarily due to the vertical mounting of the VT pump motor, which decreases the footprint compared to HSC pumps. For interior installations, increasing the pump room area effects the base slab; walls; topping slab; roof; sprinklers; and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC). Continued on page 56 Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ December 2016


Continued from page 55 Conclusion: The VT pumps typically have the advantage for the area required. Vertical Space Required The VT pumps typically require 1.8 times the vertical height compared to HSC pumps (Mann, 2006). This is due to the VT pump motor mounting above the pump housing with a vertical shaft, which is significantly higher off the pump room floor than for HSC pumps. For interior installations, increasing the pump room height affects the wall design and HVAC. In addition, when performing repairs or maintenance on the pump stages, the entire VT pump must be removed from the pump can. This can be addressed by either providing roof openings over each pump, or further increasing the height of the building. Conclusion: The HSC pumps typically have the advantage in areas with low vertical space. Crane Requirements The HSC pumps require an installed overhead bridge crane or monorail system for pump replacement. For VT pumps, the height of the building would need to be greatly increased to allow an overhead bridge crane to lift the entire pump out of the barrel. Since such a building height is not economical, roof openings are typically provided over each pump and crane rental is required for pump removal. Site

access and an open area next to the pump station building must be provided to allow a crane to maneuver and set into position. Conclusion: For interior installations, HSC pumps typically have the advantage for crane requirements. For exterior installations, there is typically no significant difference for this factor. Ease of Maintenance The HSC pumps can be completely rebuilt from the pump floor without removal of the motor or the pump from the piping system. The pump is “split case,” which means the casing can be unbolted and opened, allowing for removal and repair of pump internals. This makes several maintenance tasks relatively easy. The HSC pumps often require a higher speed, which is known to increase overall maintenance, with all other factors being equal; however, this is not considered a significant disadvantage. Repair of VT pump bearings or impellers requires the complete removal of the pump from the piping system, including the motor. The pump internals are located inside of the pump barrel and cannot be accessed without isolation of the discharge and the suction supply, removal of the motor, removal of the discharge head from the piping system, and lifting the pump entirely out of the wet well or pump barrel. The VT pumps typically require influent piping and valves to be located below floor

Figure 4. Theoretical maximum pump efficiency (Source: Hydraulic Institute and Europump)


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

level (buried or in a pipe trench), which is more difficult to access for maintenance. Conclusion: The HSC pumps typically have the advantage for ease of maintenance. Corrosion Protection The wetted area of a VT pump is significantly greater than a HSC pump, which increases the potential for corrosion. Also, there are several components, including bearings, couplings, and collars, which are submerged on a VT pump but that are outside the wet area on a HSC pump. In addition, on VT pumps the bearings are lubricated by the fluid being pumped, which introduces a potential for corrosion and abrasion, although this is a minor issue when pumping finished water. Note that HSC pump bearings are usually oil- or grease-lubricated and are completely isolated from the fluid being pumped. Conclusion: The HSC pumps typically have the advantage for corrosion protection. Efficiency Since high-service pumps often operate continuously, a small difference in efficiency can add up to a significant difference in annual energy consumption and associated electricity costs. The theoretical maximum pump efficiency can be compared for each pump type by considering the specific speed, which describes the geometry of the pump impeller. The formula for specific speed is as follows:

High specific speeds indicate more axial flow (flow generating) characteristics and lower specific speeds indicate more radial flow (pressure generating) characteristics. In general, the efficiency at the best efficiency point increases as the specific speed increases. Due to the use of multiple stages on the VT pumps, the head is divided by the number of stages and the VT pumps will have a higher specific speed, and theoretically, a higher efficiency. Figure 4 shows the theoretical maximum pump efficiency based on the specific speed of the pump and flow rate; the typical specific speeds of HSC and VT pumps are indicated. Note that at each flow rate, a VT pump has a theoretically higher efficiency than a HSC pump; however, an analysis of application specifics and pump sup-

plier curves with actual operating points is required to confirm this for the application. Conclusion: The VT pumps are likely to have a slight advantage for pumping efficiency. Potential Operating Range The future operating conditions or changes to the distribution system may cause changes in the total dynamic head (TDH) of the pump station. The addition or removal of stages on VT pumps and the trimming of HSC pump impellers can be done to account for the new operating conditions. The removal of stages from VT pumps does not require any modification to the existing pump station layout; however, if the addition of a stage is required to increase capacity, the pump station barrels will need to be initially designed with oversized diameter and additional column length to account for the additional space required for a new stage. Trimming of HSC impellers can also be completed without changes to the pump configuration; however, it is usually not possible to increase the size of the impeller unless the pump volute was initially oversized to accommodate the larger impeller, which reduces efficiency, especially if variable frequency drives (VFDs) are utilized. Oversizing the pump volute most often has a negative effect on the hydraulic pumping efficiency as well. Conclusion: The VT pumps typically have the advantage for operating range. Pressure Control High-service pump stations are typically designed to maintain a set pressure, with one or more pumps on VFDs. A steeper pump curve allows more precise pressure control when adjusting the speed of a pump. Pump curves associated with VT pumps are steeper than the HSC pumps, allowing for better pressure control. Conclusion: The VT pumps typically have the advantage for operating flexibility. Horsepower The VT pumps typically have lower overall horsepower (hp) requirements due to the slope of the curve and increased efficiency, which potentially results in one motor size smaller. This could also result in a smaller standby generator requirement. Pump selections are required to confirm any hp difference. Conclusion: The VT pumps typically have the advantage for hp. Capital Cost The purchase price of a VT pump is typically more than a HSC pump of the same capacity, mostly due to the large barrel required

Table 1. VT versus HSC Comparison Summary

for the VT pumps. For an interior installation, the installation cost savings for a smaller floor space footprint of a VT pump station is offset by the need for a taller structure, hatches in the roof, and the costs to install deep barrels; therefore, the installation cost advantage varies by application. For an exterior pump station, the installation cost is typically similar between a VT pump and a HSC pump. The cost savings for a smaller floor space footprint of a VT pump slab is offset by the costs to install deep barrels; therefore, the installation cost advantage varies by application. Conclusion: The HSC pumps typically have the advantage for capital cost due to the lower purchase price.

ing of common spare parts and tools. Owners may also have a strong preference for pump type based on maintenance and operations history. This preference is likely to sway the pump-type decision, unless there is an application-specific factor that prevents the use of the preferred pump type, such as a suction condition restriction, area restriction, or vertical space restriction. Conclusion: Application-specific.

Life Cycle Cost The VT pumps typically have a greater efficiency, and thus a lower operations cost for energy consumption. In some cases, this will result in a lower life cycle (20-year) cost for VT pumps. In other cases, the lower capital cost of the HSC pumps will not be overcome by operations savings over a 20-year period. The life cycle cost requires an analysis of applicationspecific information and pump supplier information to determine which pump type has the advantage for the application. Conclusion: Application-specific.

A decision tree (flow chart for making a decision) was developed to assist in the selection of pump type for a specific application. The decision tree is presented in Figure 5. The first four steps are relatively simple questions for which a "yes" answer to any one question is likely to result in a selection without detailed analysis; this can result in a pump-type selection with minimal effort. If the answers are all "no," then steps 5 through 8 should be followed. Step 5 is to obtain pump selections and quotes, and step 6 is to use this information to determine the efficiency, hp, capital cost, and life cycle cost for each pump type. Step 7 is to assign weights to each factor based on the perceived relative importance of each factor; thus, a higher importance factor would be assigned a higher weight. To reduce Continued on page 58

Owner Preference The owner may have a desire for the same pump type at all of the high-service pumps stations, which provides similarity in operations and training requirements and allows for stock-

Comparison Summary Table 1 provides a summary of which pump type has the advantage for each factor.

Decision Tree

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ December 2016


Continued from page 57 subjective bias, the weight factors can be calculated using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as explained by Ludwigson (2011). Step 8 is to sum the scores for each pump type. For the VT score, sum the weights for all the factors in which the VT pump had the advantage; for the HSC score, sum the weights for all the factors in which the HSC pump had the advantage. The pump type with the highest score is considered the more favorable alternative.

Case Studies Broward County Carollo Engineers (Carollo) designed new pump stations for two sites for Broward County. Each pump station building included a

pump room, chemical rooms, electrical room, and generator room. The firm pumping capacities were 7.2 mil gal per day (mgd) and 11.5 mgd. The discharge pressure was to be maintained at 80 pounds per sq in. (psi). Each pump station included three duty pumps and one standby pump. Carollo performed an evaluation of high-service pump alternatives with the following findings: S The VT pumps provided a more compact pump station layout. However, the proposed pump station sites easily accommodated either pump arrangement. S Pump selections were made with both pumps at a nominal motor speed of 1800 revolutions per minute (rpm). S The VT pump purchase price was approximately 2.9 times more than the HSC pumps,






mostly due to the large barrel/can required for the VT pumps. For the 7.2-mgd pump station, four VT pumps were quoted at $332,000, while four HSC pumps were quoted at $116,000. The overall capital cost savings for HSC pumps was estimated at $65,000 per site. This cost differential included the pumps, building size, overhead hatches, and crane requirements. Based on pump selections for both sites, the VT pumps had a minimum efficiency of 81 percent, compared to 79 percent for the HSC pumps. The difference in efficiency results and energy cost savings for VT pumps was estimated at $2,000 per year per site, based on a flow rate of 3 mgd and an electricity cost of $0.10 per kilowatt-hour (kW-h). The 20-year present-worth cost differential was approximately $40,000 in favor of HSC pumps. The cost differential was approximately 3 percent of the pump station cost, and within the margin of error of the cost estimate; therefore, the cost difference was not significant. Broward County has been using HSC pumps for its high-service applications almost exclusively for many decades. Carollo asked county engineering and operations staff about the county's experience with HSC pumps. Staff indicated a positive experience with maintenance and operations of HSC pumps, and expressed a preference for HSC pumps.

Carollo has successfully designed high-service pump stations with both pump types, and either would perform well for this application. Based on the owner's preference for HSC pumps, and given the relative equality when comparing the pump types, it was Carollo's recommendation to design the high-service pump stations with HSC pumps.

Figure 5. Decision Tree for Pump-Type Selection


December 2016 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Centennial (Colo.) Water and Sanitation District Carollo designed a new high-service pump station with a 16-mgd firm capacity for the Centennial Water and Sanitation District water distribution system. The pump station was designed in a partially below grade structure with full standby power capabilities. The pump station included three duty pumps and one standby pump. Carollo evaluated VT and HSC with the following findings: S The overall area of the VT layout was 920 sq ft and the area of HSC pumps was 1,280 sq ft. S The room-height requirement for the VT pumps was approximately 8 ft greater than the height required for the HSC pumps.

S The capital cost savings for VT pumps due to a decreased area of the building was estimated at $100,000. The capital cost savings for HSC pumps due to a decreased height of the building was estimated at $44,000; therefore, VT pumps resulted in an overall lower capital cost for the building, estimated at $56,000. S The motor hp size for the VT pumps would have been 350 hp and the size of the HSC pumps would have been 400 hp. This would have changed the connected load of the pump station from 1,400 hp to 1,600 hp and increased the generator sizing by 14 percent. Carollo recommended VT pumps for the following reasons: S The VT pumps provided for a smaller building footprint and thus more flexibility for the pump station location. S The VT pumps were more efficient for the specific speeds discussed. S The suction conditions were better for the VT pumps. S The pump curves associated with the VT pumps were steeper than those for the HSC pumps, allowing for more flexibility during operations and better pressure control.

Summary Choosing between HSC and VT pumps can be difficult, as there is no clear "winner" for typical high-service pumping applications. The VT pumps typically have the advantage for suction condition, area required, efficiency, potential operating range, pressure control, and hp, while the HSC pumps typically have the advantage for vertical space required, crane requirements, ease of maintenance, corrosion protection, and capital cost. An analysis of application-specific conditions and pump supplier information is needed to determine which pump type has the advantage for all the comparison factors. The decision tree provides a path to making a pump type selection, while minimizing the effort in performing detailed analyses.

References • Mann, Melvin S. (2006). "Horizontal Vversus Vertical Pumps." Technical Information Bulletin No. 2, Peerless Pump Company. • Ludwigson, Mark N. (2011). "Sustainability Comparison Framework with Reduced Subjective Bias and Application to Two Odor Control Systems." WEFTEC 2011 Proceedings. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016



Tank Engineering And Management

Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983






CLASSIFIEDS P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

Reiss Engineering, Inc. Looking for an opportunity to make a difference? Looking for a dynamic team environment where you can manage and lead projects to success? Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to contribute and make a difference for our people, our clients, and our community! Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. To see open positions and submit a resume to join our team, visit

Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Make Orange County Your Home for Life. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to over 500,000 citizens and 66 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions:

Industrial Electrician I $36,733 – $43,035/ year Apply online at: Positions are open until filled.

- Traffic Sign Technician - Water Plant Operator – Class C - Wastewater Plant Operator Trainee - Solid Waste Worker II - Collection Field Tech I & II - Distribution Field Tech I & II Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

UTILITIES TREATMENT PLANT OPERATOR On Top of the World is now accepting applications for a State certified treatment plant operator, seeking full time employment to join our team. All applicants must hold at least a minimum FDEP Class “C” Wastewater Treatment Operator’s License. Must be able to work weekends. Valid FL driver’s license with acceptable driving history is required. Salary ranges from $16.57 to $26.44 based on experience. Please forward resume to Please apply in person or visit our website at On Top of the World Parkway Maintenance 2025 Denmark Street Clearwater FL 33763 Phone: 727-799-3270 Hours of applications Monday to Friday from 8am to 1pm.

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary Range: $39,893.88 - $67,004.60/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2016


Water Treatment Plant Operator Trainee The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operator Trainee at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D. General work experience related to the operation and maintenance of water treatment equipment or related experience. Must have successfully completed and passed the approved required training courses and have passed the State of Florida Class “C” Water Treatment Exam. Must possess a State of Florida Class “B” commercial driver’s license with air brake endorsement. Applicants who do not currently possess a Class “B” CDL with air brake endorsement must acquire a learner’s permit within 3 months of hire and obtain the license within 6 months of hire. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary Range: $33,360.60 $53,331.72/AN. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Water Distribution Supervisor City of Melbourne, Florida

Wastewater Plant Operator Wanted Full Time Wastewater Utility in Key West is looking for a licensed wastewater plant operator. Pay range between $28 -$34/hour. Class “B” or higher and BAT/AWT experience is a plus. Compensation package includes Health, Dental, and Retirement Benefits. Please send all inquiries and resumes to

City of Cocoa Beach Director of Water Reclamation Under limited supervision, performs complex professional and administrative work coordinating and supervising operations of a water re-use and wastewater treatment, stormwater, and distribution system for the City. Employee is responsible for all operations, engineering, construction and finance activities, and for direct and delegated supervision of all employees of the wastewater treatment plants and related facilities. Reports to the City Manager. To apply: Please provide salary requirements for consideration

Please visit and click on Jobs for additional information.

Journeyman Electrician MECHANIC MECHANIC WANTED to perform electrical/mechanical maintenance & repairs at water treatment plant. See

Electronic Technician The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $40,890.98 - $68,680.30/yr, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Salary Range: $52,033 - $82,421. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is in need of a licensed Journeyman Electrician. Duties: Install, inspect, test, repair, and maintain all new and existing generators, motors, transformers, motor controllers, and associated equipment throughout our system, with base location in the lower keys. Minimum quals: Vocational/Technical degree w/training emphasis in electronics, electrical, pneumatics, controls, building automation, fire alarm and HVAC systems, thorough knowledge of NEC requirements, 10 yrs experience and/or training that includes electronics. Must be able to operate and use computers with various software applications, including Microsoft Office Suite. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license. Must be able to communicate and comprehend the English language. Electronic application found at: (click on “More About Us” >Community>Employment ) EEO, VPE, ADA.

Operator Trainee $14.00 - $18.00 Hourly

City of Tampa - AWT Plant Technician The City of Tampa is hiring an AWT Plant Technician. Please apply online at


December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Plant Maintenance Technician $44,838 – $65,015 Salary DOQ. Positions require a high school diploma/GED equivalency, a valid driver’s license and background check. Excellent benefits. Send resume to EOE/DFWP

Coral Springs Improvement District Multiple positions available

The City of Newberry Water – Wastewater Operator I

Wastewater Plant Lead Operator. Applicants must have a valid Class A wastewater treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience and a valid Florida driver’s license. Drug and pre-employment screening apply. The lead operator operates the Districts wastewater plant; assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. Reports directly to the WTTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Minimum starting salary is $63,000

The City of Newberry is accepting applications for individuals to fill the full-time position of Water & Wastewater Operator I. This is technical work involved in all aspects of the operation and maintenance of the City’s Wastewater and Water Plants. The employee works under the general direction of the Water/Wastewater Supervisor. The employee typically works shifts in combination with other Operators but may be assigned to work certain shifts alone. Class C license or better in Water or Wastewater required, dual license preferred. Salary range $14.77 - $20.68 an hour. Salary commiserate based on license level, experience, and dual licensing. Visit for application and complete job description. Submit applications to P.O. Box 369 Newberry, Fl. 32669 Attn: Human Resources. For more information email or call 352-474-6388. Position open until filled. The City of Newberry is an Equal Opportunity Employer and a Drug Free Workplace.

Water Plant A Operator Applicants must have a valid Class A water treatment license and experience in Reverse Osmosis/Nano Filtration treatment processes preferred however not required. Position requirements include knowledge of methods, tools, and materials used in the controlling, servicing, and minor repairs of all related R.O. water treatment facilities machinery and equipment. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. The minimum starting salary for an operator position with a A license is $56,000 Field Technician $15.00 entry level personnel Individuals assigned to this classification are expected to have the mechanical skills and abilities necessary to perform the general manual labor required. Generally, work with more experienced employees, but expected to work independently to perform relatively routine well known tasks or more work following specific directions in all aspects of wastewater collection. The qualified applicant should have the ability to do the following: • Knowledge of various equipment including driving a truck, jet truck, back hoe/loader, fire hydrant seating equipment, shoring materials, trash pumps and hand tools. • Inspect water distribution mains and lines for needed maintenance and repair; participate in the repair of water mains and lines; install clamps, pipe or fittings, make proper tie-ins. • Trouble shoot to locate the causes of wastewater odor complaints. •Respond to public inquiries in a courteous manner; provide information within the area of assignment. •Receives, reviews, prepares and/or summit’s a variety of documents such as maps, daily schedules, weekly activity reports. •Remain oncall to respond to emergency situations for repair of distribution system. •Ability to deal with people beyond receiving instructions. •Must be adaptable to performing under stress when confronted with emergency situations. •Have a valid Florida Driver’s License • Have a High School Diploma or GED equivalent •Must obtain Class C FDEP Water Distribution License within 15 months of employment. Excellent compensation including defined benefit and matching 457 pension plan Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at and fax resume to 954-753-6328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida Lead Operator Full-time 40 hours per week, Day shift, ability to work flexible schedule & holidays as necessary. Performs work involving operation and maintenance of a small utility. Operator must possess a "B" License from State of Florida or equivalent. Must have valid Florida Drivers License. Backflow certification desired. Clean Criminal Background. Email resume to: or fax (305) 894- 2350. Work Location is 20 Miles west of Krome Ave on Tamiami Trail, Miami.(Salary, $45-$50K D.O.Q)

P o s itio ns Wanted MICHAEL SMITH – Holds a Florida C Wastewater and C Water license with two plus years experience. Prefers central and west Florida. Contact at 7754 Brisbane Court, New Port Richey, Fl. 34654. 520-599-7029 PLACIDE DELGADO – Passed C Water test and needs hours in plant to obtain license. Prefers Miami, Broward or West Palm Beach areas. Contact at 433 NE 181st, Apt 202, Miami, Fl. 33179. 786-306-3024

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES – Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2016


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 46

Editorial Calendar January ........Wastewater Treatment February ......Water Supply; Alternative Sources March............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..............Conservation and Reuse May................Operations and Utilities Management; Florida Water Resources Conference June..............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..........Disinfection; Water Quality September ....Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ....Water Treatment December ....Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index Automeg ................................39 Blue Planet ............................67 CEU Challenge........................48 Conshield ..............................37 CROM......................................55 Data Flow ..............................35 Florida Aquastore ..................39 FSAWWA CONFERENCE Online ....................................13 Refer a Member ....................14 Sponsor Recognition ..............15 FWPCOA Online Training ........31 FWPCOA Region VII ................28 FWPCOA Training ..................45 FWRC Conference ............................20


FWRC (con’t) Exhibit Info ............................21 Floor Layout ..........................22 Registration ..........................23 Garney Construction ................5 Hudson Pump ........................29 Lakeside ................................47 PCL ........................................11 Permaform ............................27 Reiss ......................................12 Stacon ......................................2 Stantec ..................................44 Tonka........................................8 Treeo ......................................49 USA Blue Book ......................41 Xylem ....................................68

December 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. C) Coliform bacteria Groundwater typically contains amounts of iron and sulfatereducing bacteria and some manganese, but does not normally contain coliform group bacteria. 2. B) Coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The conventional treatment method is commonly used for surface-water-containing bacteria, turbidity, and color. 3. D) 7-9 Conversion of iron from a soluble, ferrous state to an insoluble ferric state occurs more effectively at pH values of 7 to 9; filters are then used to trap the particulate iron. 4. B) Trihalomethane Prechlorination of surface water that contains THM precursors upon entry to the treatment plant can lead to formation of THM within the plant. 5. A) Powdered activated carbon (PAC) The PAC leaves tiny carbon “fines” in the treated water that turn the water color black and must be filtered before entry to the clearwell. 6. B) Prefiltration, followed by reverse osmosis, pH/alkalinity adjustment, and disinfection. The source water laboratory results in the table of data indicate a water containing dissolved salts that are over the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for each shown. Of the methods shown, reverse osmosis is the best method of removing these salts and achieving finished water quality that is below the MCLs. 7. D) 5 NTU 8. B) Iron and manganese control Polyphosphate addition helps keep soluble iron and manganese from becoming particulates that appear in a customer’s drinking water, causing red or black water complaints. 9. D) Chemical oxidation followed by greensand filtration, then disinfection. Chemical oxidation of soluble iron and manganese, and dissolved hydrogen sulfide with ozone, chlorine, potassium permanganate, or other oxidizers improves water taste and odor and allows filters to capture oxidized iron and manganese particles. 10. C) source water is low in turbidity, color, algae, and coliform. Direct filtration omits the process of sedimentation normally found in conventional filtration treatment plants. The source water must be low in turbidity, color, algae, and coliform to allow this omission. Correction: On page 47 of the November 2016 issue of FWRJ, question 9, bullet 5 should have read as -190 mV.




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Florida Water Resources Journal - December 2016  

Distribution and Collection

Florida Water Resources Journal - December 2016  

Distribution and Collection