Florida Water Resources Journal - October 2022

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal Inc.

President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

Secretary: Mish Clark Mish Agency


The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions

FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com

FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions

FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com

FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information

DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500

FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820

Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751

FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org

FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318


Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com

FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org

FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org

FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org

Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org

Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons.

Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features

4 In Memoriam: David Lynn Tippin

6 Dave Tippin: A Remembrance— Marjorie Craig

13 Toho Water Authority Welcomes Sunbridge Customers

Technical Articles

14 Suspended Ion Exchange: City of Tampa Demonstrates Exciting Alternative for Total Organic Carbon Removal—Melanie Pickett, Michael Gerdjikian, Crickett Luu, Chuck Weber, Antony Gibson, Vincent Hart, and Tyler Smith

34 Setting Your Geographic Information System to Facilitate Better Infrastructure Analysis—James Barton, Paula Fonseca, and Frederick Bloetscher

Education and Training

11 Florida Water Resources Conference

22 FSAWWA Fall Conference Schedule

23 FSAWWA Fall Conference Registration

24 FSAWWA Fall Conference Chair’s Reception and BBQ Challenge

25 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions

26 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night and Happy Hour

27 FSAWWA Fall Conference TopGolf

28 CEU Challenge

41 TREEO Center Training

50 FWPCOA Training Calendar


10 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak

12 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Emilie Moore

20 FWEA Focus—Sondra W. Lee

30 C Factor—Patrick “Murf” Murphy

32 Chapter Corner: Big Bend is Back: Reactivating the Chapter—Felicity Appel and Lina Polo

42 Reader Profile—Alex Maas


51 Classifieds

54 Display Advertiser Index

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794,

ON THE COVER: As the south service area continues to expand, the City of Leesburg prepares for current and future growth by upgrading its Turnpike Wastewater Treatment Plant from 3 to 4.5 million gallons per day and including additional sequencing batch reactor treatment, cloth media filtration, and biosolids stabilization. (photo: Aerial Innovations, contracted by Wharton-Smith Inc.)



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Volume 73 October 2022 Number 10 Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 3

David Lynn Tippin

1939 - 2022

David Lynn Tippin, 82, passed away on July 13 in Tampa. He was a native of Owensboro, Ky., and a 1957 graduate of Owensboro High School. He graduated from the University of Kentucky with a degree in civil engineering and was a registered professional engineer in several states.

Tippin retired from the City of Tampa in 2003 after serving as the director of the Tampa Water Department for 29 years, Tampa’s longest serving department director. In his honor, the city renamed its water treatment plant the David L. Tippin Water Treatment Facility. Prior to Tampa he was the supervisor of engineering services for the Cast Iron Pipe Research Association, superintendent of water for the Owensboro Municipal Utilities, and a commissioned officer in the U.S. Public Health Service.

He was a former member of the Rotary Club of Tampa and a Rotary Paul Harris Fellow, diplomat of the American Academy

of Environmental Engineers, and president of the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies. He was awarded honorary membership in the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and served on the boards of AWWA and its Research Foundation. He was also chair of the Florida Section AWWA and awarded life membership in the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Tippin was considered a water industry icon. He presented papers at the International Water Association in Rome, Italy, and was one of eight utility directors invited to visit and confer with water officials in The Netherlands.

He was an active member of the Palma Ceia United Methodist Church and served his church in many capacities. He enjoyed art and visited many of the world’s famous art museums. He was a member of Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity Gold Circle

companion Gail, sister-in-law Connie, sister Mary Ann (William), and several nieces and nephews. S

Dave Tippin: A Remembrance

The Tampa Water Troll Crosses the River

Marjorie Craig

I remember the day I met Dave Tippin (“Mr. Tippin” or “sir” to me back then). He towered over the cubicles in the City of Tampa Water Department; we could see him across the floor from his office, or rather, he could see us. He had questions for me and wanted answers—right away. He didn’t know my name (yet), and he motioned for me to come to his office.

That day was the first of many times when he patiently spent a little time with me, a junior engineer. I ended up working for him for 18 years (10 as his deputy), and his passing on July 13 of natural causes at 82 years old brought back a flood of memories. Writing this has given me a chance to connect and reconnect with many former coworkers and his family in the process, all of us grieving along the way. The man loved water so much he called himself the “Tampa Water Troll.”

4 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal IN MEMORIAM
Continued on page 6
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Department Director

Dave was absolutely serious about the responsibilities of the position he held for 29 years as the director of the department, providing reliable, quality water at a reasonable price, dedicated to the customers and the brand. Before Tampa, he worked for the Cast Iron Pipe Research Association and the U.S. Public Health Service.

In many ways he was an old-school engineer and utility director, but he also had vision, and countless innovations, critical projects, and

programs were implemented at the plants and in the department under his leadership. Some of those projects included Water Quality 2000, which made vast improvements and upgrades to what later became the David L. Tippin Water Treatment Facility. The WQ2000 initiative included a plant expansion using Actiflo, adding capacity with a smaller footprint than the existing conventional treatment, and taste and odor improvements using ozone.

Throughout all the plant projects, maintaining the architectural integrity of the historic original 1928 Mediterranean Revival filter gallery and main plant building was important to Dave. The plant was named an

American Water Works Association (AWWA) historic landmark, and he displayed the award proudly in the lobby for years.

At the city Dave led the way by embracing technology with one of the first local-area networks with desktop computers in the 1990s, which included a major technology upgrade, moving away from legacy hardware and software. Again, he embraced technology in the 2000s, including a new call center for customer service, where calls were triaged for routing, which required major technology and process improvements.

He also was a pioneer in water conservation, locally and statewide, hiring one of the first manager-level positions in the industry specific to water conservation. Numerous master plans were developed and implemented for fire protection, galvanized and asbestos cement main replacement, pipe lining, supervisory control and data acquisition that was upgraded through the years, Hillsborough River dam improvements, aquifer storage and recovery, and the south Tampa area reclaimed water project.

I remember being on a job site with Dave when water pipe over 100 years old was found in service. We took a picture and an etching of the pipe with the 1888 date and sent it off to AWWA to get certified as a utility having pipe in service that was over 100 years old. Dave was really excited (for Dave, that meant a big smile) when we found that pipe.

We were lucky to be a part of his world and his steady, long-term guidance, and many of us continued working for the department because it was our work family. He would always listen to our opinions; he may have said no, but he would always listen. And sometimes, even when he said no, he’d go

Classic “I need to see you immediately” Office Dave. “The Water Bearers” sculpture. Dave by the facility sign bearing his name, with the utility logo to the left.
6 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued on page 8


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away, think about it for a while and come back and say, “You know, I was thinking about that and. . .” and then the answer was a yes.

You can see in one of the pictures included here some of his achievements as a past AWWA chair, Fuller Awardee, an AWWA life member, and more. He also was the president of the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies for two terms, and while in that role, he went to Washington, D.C., and testified before Congress during the deliberations for the 1996 amendment of the Safe Drinking Water Act. When he returned from the trip, he brought back one of the pens used to sign the amendment.

The Two Daves

At the office we joked that there were two Daves: “Office Dave” and “Out of Office Dave,” since people outside of the office seemed to experience a different person. The first Dave I met many years ago was Office Dave, who could be gruff and intimidating (remember, he did call himself the Tampa Water Troll). For his retirement, my husband, Karl (who also worked for the department), and I made him a special department troll doll with a stand. After many years, much humor, and strength in numbers (Don’t go it alone!), we all kind of wore him down and got him to become Out of Office Dave, even in the office.

My kids immediately saw right through that Office Dave demeanor—they loved Dave instantly and whatever he said, it was like God

had said it. “The boss said it’s time to lock the doors” (lock the car doors, put your seatbelts on). After he retired in 2003, the “water kids lunch” started, and we would get together for lunch at least several times a year and catch up, especially if someone came in from out of town. He kept up with many friends and past coworkers at lunches throughout the years.

Dave was family to us. For me, this was especially true after I lost my parents, and my kids have never forgotten him. My daughter, Amanda, who spent time with me at work when I had to attend a late meeting or finish a project, now works at the Tippin facility as an environmental engineer and has been able to see some of its evolution over the last few years.

Influence of Family

If Dave was more of a traditionalist, an engineer, introverted, and conservative, his beloved wife, Nancy, who died of cancer in 1999, was the perfect foil. She was an artist—witty, outgoing, and virtually sparkling with energy.

Art and an appreciation of history and preservation were always a part of Dave’s work culture. Nancy touched the department by opening his eyes to art and she created the department logo, which is a simple and graceful three lines depicting water.

There was a portion of the department’s budget that was dedicated to art in public places. The money was used over the years for art—water art when possible—including commissioning the painting “The River” by Dr.

Gladys Shafran Kashdin. “The Water Bearers,” originally a small sculpture Nancy made, was cast and installed at the facility when it was dedicated to Dave.

He was so proud of his two sons, Rew and Brad, and all that they accomplished, and his granddaughter, Gwen. Rew has worked in the theatre since high school and is also an accomplished writer—so much so that Dave once brought him one of the reports I had proudly written to review. The report was completely marked up in red (“Your ‘Engineering English’ is hard at work, with heavy Overcapitalization Because Every Engineering Word is Important!”) and his comments were some of the best feedback I’ve ever received.

Brad worked with children as a mental health counselor, wrote a novel, and now continues the family tradition of serving the public as the development review manager in Pasco County.

Dave was also a devout Christian and attended Palma Ceia United Methodist Church for as long as I can remember. After he retired, he volunteered there and met his cherished companion of the last 21 years, Gail Stephan.

He truly enjoyed his church, his family, and the continued water kids events and lunches with other industry members. The Tampa Water Troll will be profoundly missed.

Marjorie Craig, P.E., is utilities department

One of the many recognitions Dave received. Santa Dave at Christmastime.
8 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued from page 6
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Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Odor Control?

5. Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Biosolids and Residuals Management Fact Sheet – Odor Control in Biosolids Management” (Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet), the most successful odor control programs are those that take what type of approach?

9. Per EPA’s Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet, which method removes odors using the adsorption and absorption of odor-causing compounds onto a natural media bed where microorganisms oxidize the compounds?

1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-600, Domestic Wastewater Facilities, wastewater treatment plants must be designed and located to minimize the effects of odors that could potentially harm human health or

a. cause excessive corrosion of metals. b. exceed the permit limit for methane gas. c. interfere with the enjoyment of life or property.

d. stay within the buffer zone.

2. Per “Advanced Waste Treatment – A Field Study Training Program” (Advanced Waste Treatment), the main cause of most odors in wastewater systems is

a. carbon dioxide. b. hydrogen sulfide. c. methane. d. sulfur dioxide.

3. Per Advanced Waste Treatment, an example of organic gases found in wastewater treatment plants is

a. ammonia. b. carbon monoxide. c. dimethyl sulfide. d. mercaptans.

4. Per Advanced Waste Treatment, one of the oldest and most effective methods used for odor control is

a. addition of aluminum sulfate. b. chlorination.

c. chromate addition. d. sulfonation.

a. Alternative approach

b. Holistic approach

c. Limited approach

d. Reductionist approach

6. Per the EPA’s Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet, one of the most cost-effective approaches to odor control is to

a. conduct analytical testing of every process stage for odor-causing compounds.

b. conduct odor modeling at the facility.

c. examine the operation and maintenance practices at the facility.

d. pilot-test various odor control methods.

7. Per EPA’s Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet, a tool to predict the impact of odors and help determine how much and what type of control will be necessary to minimize the impact of odor emissions is a

a. computerized air dispersion model.

b. odor production study.

c. neighborhood survey and analysis.

d. standard wind speed and direction study.

8. Per Advanced Waste Treatment, hydrogen peroxide has been used for odor control for many years due to its effectiveness and lack of toxic byproducts. A disadvantage is its inability to treat

a. ammonia.

b. hydrogen sulfide.

c. methane gas.

d. sulfur dioxide.

a. Activated carbon b. Biofilters

c. Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs)

d. Wet scrubbers

10. Per Advanced Waste Treatment, an odor control method with limited success is accomplished by mixing the odorous compound with a control agent. This is referred to as

a. counter masking.

b. dilution.

c. masking.

d. scrubbing.

Answers on page 54

References used for this quiz:

California State University, Sacramento; 2006. “Advanced Waste Treatment – A Field Study Training Guide”

Florida Administrative Code 62-600, Domestic Wastewater Facilities: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter 62-600

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Biosolids and Residuals Management Fact Sheet – Odor Control in Biosolids Management”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2018-11/ documents/order-control-biosolids-managementfactsheet.pdf

Send Us Your Questions

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

Donna Kaluzniak
10 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


We have moved the dates of the 2023 conference. The conference will still be held at the Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, Florida. The new dates are Wednesday May 31 thru Saturday June 3, 2023.

The FWRC technical program provides many opportunities to share your environmental knowledge and solutions to water and wastewater professionals at the 2023 Florida Water Resources Conference. Join industry professionals dedicated to improving and sustaining Florida's waters.

Submit your abstract for consideration as a session, workshop or roundtable discussion.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022
Check out our new website experience at www.fwrc.org Submit by 11.1.2022 Notifications by 1.13.2023
CALL FOR PAPERS EXHIBITORS AND SPONSORS Registration is open for all booths and sponsorships .

The Florida Section AWWA

Florida 2051 Initiative

Florida’s Future of Water

Water system planning never ends and the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) is a trusted resource to help our statewide water utility community plan for a sustainable water infrastructure.

In 2009, FSAWWA published “Florida’s Water Survival Handbook for the Future,” a document that was a culmination of the collaboration among Florida water industry professionals to identify water challenges in

The Florida 2030 vision presented in the handbook identified likely needs, such as producing water from alternatives sources and the importance of multijurisdictional water supply entities, which are “two or more water utilities or local governments that have organized into a larger entity, or entered into an interlocal agreement or contract, for the purpose of more-efficiently pursuing water supply development or alternative water supply development projects listed pursuant to a regional water supply plan” (Florida Statutes 373.019[12]). These needs, as documented in the 2009 handbook, ring very true today.

Additionally, the water community professionals involved in the Florida 2030 initiative generated additional reports and nine draft issue papers that can be found on the FSAWWA website at www.fsawwa.org/ page/FL2051.

Next was the Florida 2040 initiative and the continuance of the nine committees

S Reclaimed Water

S Climate Change

S Desalination

S Governance Funding

S Surface Water

S Partnerships (Utilities/Water Management Districts/Florida Department of Environmental Protection)

S Water Conservation

S Water Source Management

S Transfer Allocation

The Arrival of Florida 2051

The FSAWWA formed the Florida 2051 initiative to continue our statewide future focus on water conversation. This initiative coincides with the AWWA Water 2050 initiative, which seeks to establish a longterm vision of the future of water.

AWWA’s Water 2050 topics for 2022 through 2023 include:

Conversations. Thought leaders to gather at “think tanks.”

Strategic Partnering. Collaboration with traditional and nontraditional partners. Intergenerational Responsibility. Younger and older professionals working together toward future goals.

Knowledge Collection and Technology Transfer. AWWA to report on “think tank” insights and publish additional guidance.

Use this link (www.awwa.org/ResourcesTools/Water-2050) for more information regarding AWWA’s Water 2050 initiative.

Florida is doing its part in delivering on AWWA’s Water 2050 goals. A Florida 2051 initiative program, the Inaugural Water Utility Community Innovation, Technology, and Financial Workshop, which was sponsored by AWWA and FSAWWA, was held Aug. 12, 2022, at the Orange County Convention Center in Orlando and was truly a “think tank.”

FSAWWA inaugural Water Utility Community Innovation, Technology, and Financial Workshop, held in Orlando in August. (photo: Emilie Moore)
12 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT

The workshop was an interactive forum (a mixture of panelists, roundtable discussions, and a question-and-answer session) for water industry professionals to brainstorm with colleagues regarding:

S Operational challenges facing Florida water utilities in a post-COVID-19 world.

S Technology and innovation ideas to address key operational and infrastructure challenges.

S Funding alternatives to help finance necessary technologies and innovations.

Participants spoke openly about the challenges that their utilities face on a daily basis and concerns with future issues.

The top five operational challenges most pressing to the attendees were:

S Workforce

S Financing/Funding

S Resiliency

S Regulations

S Public Perception/Acceptance

Moving forward, the Florida 2051 committee seeks to further address sustainable water infrastructure and its future and is targeting these near-term topics and action items:

S Water Utility Workforce. Facilitate case study presentations.

S Funding. Facilitate a funding workshop orchestrated through the FSAWWA Finance and Rates Committee.

S FSAWWA Public Messaging/Outreach Plan. Develop a public outreach plan to be utilized by our utility community as needed.


Thank you to AWWA and FSAWWA for sponsoring the workshop; the venue sponsor, Orange County Utilities; the FSAWWA Water Utility Council for developing and delivering the workshop content; our panelists and moderators; and the workshop sponsors.

We look forward to continuing the Florida 2051 conversation. S

Toho Water Authority Welcomes Sunbridge Customers

Through an agreement with Toho Water Authority (Toho), and affiliates of Tavistock Development Company (Tavistock) and the Sunbridge Stewardship District (Sunbridge), Toho welcomed approximately 500 customers from the Sunbridge community effective September 1.

As part of this change, customers within Sunbridge will see a rate decrease in October, which will be reflected in their November bills.

“Toho is pleased to expand our partnership with Tavistock and Sunbridge from that of wholesale provider to the same retail services we provide throughout Osceola County,” said Todd Swingle, executive director of Toho. “We’re committed to providing these new customers from the Sunbridge community with quality water services and reduced rates in this growing area of the Osceola County community.”

“Transitioning water, wastewater, and irrigation services to our partners at Toho is a significant milestone that reflects years of collaboration and advanced planning,” said Clint Beaty, senior vice president of operations at Tavistock. “This is an innovative arrangement that will set Sunbridge up for success as our region continues to grow,

while also providing long-term value to our residents.”

Customers in the Sunbridge community are currently being served by the new Sunbridge Water Treatment Facility, which commenced operations in February 2022. The Sunbridge Wastewater Treatment Facility is also under construction and expected to be online in late 2023. Both facilities are the result of the partnership among Toho, Tavistock, and Sunbridge that has culminated in the approval of this retail utility arrangement.

Established in 2003 as an independent special district by the merger of the water and wastewater utilities operated by the City of Kissimmee and Osceola County, Toho has been providing water utility services to the area for nearly 20 years.

The recently completed Sunbridge Water Treatment Facility.


Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 13

Suspended Ion Exchange: City of Tampa Demonstrates Exciting Alternative for Total Organic Carbon Removal

Melanie Pickett, Ph.D., EI, ENV SP, is project engineer, and Vincent Hart, P.E., is senior project manager with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Tampa. Tyler Smith, P.E., is senior project engineer with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Phoenix. Michael Gerdjikian is water plant operations specialist; Crickett Luu, P.E., is engineer III; and Chuck Weber, P.E., is water department director with City of Tampa.

Antony Gibson, IntPE, is senior project director with Ramboll Inc. in Melbourne, Australia.

The City of Tampa Water Department (city) owns and operates the 120-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) David L. Tippin Water Treatment Facility (facility) located in Tampa. The facility’s primary source of water, the Hillsborough River, experiences high seasonal variability; in particular, raw water total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 3 to 30 mg/L (Figure 1).

Maintaining high-quality finished water under the wide range of influent water quality conditions throughout the year is challenging. Given the facility’s existing water quality challenges, need for expansion, and extensive chemical use and solids generation, a detailed alternative analysis of treatment options was completed as part of master planning efforts.

A recently completed pilot study demonstrates a new suspended ion exchange (SIX®) process, which is the first of its kind in the United States, as a promising new technology to help overcome the city’s challenges.

The facility currently employs an enhanced coagulation (EC) treatment method (including

Figure 1. The facility’s raw water seasonal variability during the pilot (data from Nov. 30, 2020, to Oct. 15, 2021) Figure 2. Suspended ion exchange treatment process flow diagram. Figure 3. Tampa pilot treatment train. 14 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal Continued on page 16


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high doses of coagulant and acid addition), resulting in high chemical usage, aggressive water quality in specific unit processes, and high

solids production. Alternatives were evaluated to optimize or replace the facility’s current EC treatment approach and corresponding solids

handling processes, while still achieving or improving the city’s water quality goals.

New Technology: Suspended Ion Exchange

As part of the alternatives assessment, Carollo and Ramboll worked together to perform a multiseason pilot study to test SIX, an exciting alternative to traditional magnetic or fixedbed ion exchange. Initially developed in the Netherlands, the SIX technology has had much success with multiple full-scale plants in Europe.

The technology has several advantages over the other available ion exchange technologies. Its plug flow reactor design utilizes a strong base anion exchange resin that allows for faster regeneration and reduced salt concentrations. The resin is dosed into the raw water flow just before it flows through the contactor, where it’s kept in suspension utilizing air fluidization. Since the resin and raw water flow together, both have the same hydraulic retention, or residence time, allowing for a more-uniform distribution of resin and resin functional group sites for the exchange process. After it’s collected, the resin is regenerated in a batch process with a salt brine solution (NaCl). Figure 2 presents an overview of the SIX process.

Suspended Ion Exchange Pilot Plant in Tampa

Pilot-scale testing generated scalable performance data and an understanding of SIX’s impact on downstream processes. The overall pilot train incorporated SIX, a coagulation/ flocculation/ sedimentation basin, an ozone contactor, and four biofilter columns. The four filter columns were operated in parallel, each with different filter configurations to optimize filtration; one of these is a control filter with the same media and configuration as the full-scale plant. Data from the two best-performing filters are discussed herein.

A variety of potential impacts of the SIX process on the downstream processes were evaluated, including a reduction in chemical use (coagulant, polymer, acid, base, etc.), decrease in solids production and handling, changes in filter dynamics (headloss, biological growth, constituent removal), changes to process water alkalinity, and changes in ozone demand and oxidation, among others. Figure 3 shows a simplified version of the pilot-scale process train.

Pilot Results and Conclusions

Overall, water quality was reliably improved using the SIX process, which complements the coagulation process regarding organics removal.

Figure 4. Full-scale and pilot filter finished total organic carbon (data from Nov. 30, 2020, to Oct. 15, 2021) Sulfate UVA TOC Alkalinity Bromide Chloride Apparent Color Table 1. Average Suspended Ion Exchange Anion Percent Removal Performance carbon.
16 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Average Change 89% 54% 49% 48% 17% +340% 20%
Figure 5. Suspended ion exchange pilot alkalinity removal versus raw water total organic
Continued from page 14

The pilot consistently achieved the finished water quality goal of below 2 mg/L TOC, even with variable raw water quality (Figure 4). Current fullscale chemical usage was significantly reduced at the pilot; however, significant salt usage was also required to operate SIX. With better water quality at the downstream processes, ozone demand was also reduced, and significantly higher loading rates and subsequent unit filter run volumes (UFRV) were achieved by the pilot filters.

Suspended Ion Exchange Performance

A continuous ion exchange process, SIX utilizes a nonproprietary strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin with multiple manufacturers. The selectivity of nonproprietary anion exchange resin for different anions is typically as follows:

SO42− > TOC > NO3 > Cl > HCO3 > OH

This trend was generally observed with the SIX pilot. The data in Table 1 show that sulfate removal is relatively high, at 89 percent. The resin has a high affinity for sulfate (relative to bicarbonate). Chloride content increases in the treated water due to ion exchange between target and counter anions; chloride increase was highest when raw water anion concentration was highest. Throughout the pilot, the finished-water TOC goal of <2 mg/L was consistently achieved with influent raw water TOC as high as 28 mg/L.

With SIX salt use, there were higher chloride results in the finished water. Salt use was found to be greater than double the salt use of magnetic ion exchange (MIEX®)—an alternative fluidized bed ion exchange technology for removal of dissolved organics—due to the regeneration frequency of SIX and the nonselective removal of anions. Further techniques are being investigated for salt optimization. Resin fouling was not observed at the pilot scale throughout the 10-and-a-halfmonth test period.

At first a concern, the SIX alkalinity removal was instead observed to be a tool for monitoring performance and managing operations. Depending on seasonal raw water alkalinity, SIX could be operated to achieve desired effects based on the effluent alkalinity. This is a significant differentiating factor between the SIX process and MIEX process, where the resin has high TOC affinity, but a lower bicarbonate affinity (Figure 5).

Coagulation Performance

A summary of coagulation performance is shown in Table 2. With the SIX alkalinity removal, pH depression for coagulation was achieved with lower coagulant doses and eliminated the need for sulfuric acid (currently utilized most of the year at full scale) to achieve the same or better TOC removal (Figure 6). Pilot results also demonstrated the viability of eliminating

the need for lime, which is routinely used at the facility. Coagulant (ferric sulfate) usage was reduced on average by 64 percent, along with a 59 percent reduction in floc-aid polymer usage. In addition to chemical cost savings, any reduction in coagulant demand will translate directly

decrease in sludge

additional solids handling cost savings.

Ozone Performance

the successful TOC reduction

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 17 Figure

to a proportional
production, leading to
Due to
through SIX Pilot Full Scale Ferric Sulfate Dose (mg/L) 45 124 Sulfuric Acid Dose (mg/L) Not used 61 Coagulation pH 5.4 4.7 TOC removal (%) 60% 66% Table 2. Average Coagulation Performance of the Pilot Versus Full Scale
6. Pilot coagulation performance: percent total organic carbon removal versus coagulation pH. SIX Full Scale Applied Ozone Dose (mg/L) 2.0 2.9 Pre Ozone TOC (mg/L) 2.2 3.6 Filter 1 Existing Control Filter Filter 2 New Deep Bed Filter GAC depth (in.) 22 63 Sand depth (in ) 12 9 ES, GAC (mm) 1.05 1.40 ES, sand (mm) 0.5 0.6 Loading rates tested (gpm/sq ft) 3.25 8.0 6.0 10.0 Allowable Headloss (ft) 6 12 Table 3. Suspended Ion Exchange Pilot and Full-Scale Ozone Performance Table 4. Overview of Pilot Filter Media Configuration and Operation Continued on page 18

SIX and subsequent coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation, the TOC loading onto the pilot intermediate ozone was lower than is typical at full scale (Table 3). This was found to be especially true during the period of high raw water TOC.

With lower pre ozone TOC, the ozone dose was also reduced, on average, by 31 percent.

Biofilters Performance

Different filter configurations were tested during this pilot. A control filter consisted of

media pulled directly from an existing full-scale filter and loaded in the same configuration (Table 4). An alternative “deep bed” filter was tested for future design of new filters at the facility. Through this piloting effort, it was found that when both the SIX and coagulation processes are optimized, filter performance is greatly improved when compared to the full-scale filter performance, with UFRV increasing by as much as a factor of 4. This is true even when compared to the “control” pilot filter with the same configuration as the fullscale filters (Figure 7).


This SIX piloting has characterized improved treatment performance over a wide range of raw water quality conditions, confirming that a SIX-based treatment process can reliably and continuously produce treated water that meets all of the city’s finished water quality goals, including finished water TOC less than 2 mg/L. Furthermore, the piloting established preliminary operating criteria and a range of chemical doses and waste streams, enabling full-scale design criteria and analysis of life cycle costs. S

Figure 7. Average unit filter run volumes: full-scale and suspended ion exchange pilot comparison.
18 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued from page 17 Factory Trained Technicians - Emergency Repair Services - PM Service/Plans Gas Feed Systems Dry Chemical Feed Systems Peristaltic Pumps Fiberglass Enclosures Metering Pump Skids Tablet Feeders Analyzers Scale Systems Serving the Southeast since 1976 800–826-7699 watertc@watertc.com watertc.com
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 19

Facility Staff is Key to Successful Projects

suggestions, the process of emptying these ponds is significantly improved, even though it was not a permit requirement. Furthermore, the positive impact on employee engagement from having one’s ideas valued and applied cannot be overstated.

process gives them an opportunity to request improvements to a system that may have been left out of the original scope. For instance, the team may bring up issues related to the system’s auxiliary equipment, or to adjacent systems.

Many facility projects come about by a permit requirement and can feel like a burden to the people who operate and maintain the facility. These projects not only impact the capital budgets of utilities, but also future operating and maintenance budgets. Inevitably, the facility will undergo a period of disruptions and extra work loads during construction. In addition, the project may require the facility staff to operate and maintain processes completely new to them.

These challenges, though daunting, can provide an excellent opportunity to enhance both team dynamics and individual skill sets. With planning and teamwork, facility projects can serve not only to improve infrastructure needs, but also provide the groundwork for a highly engaged and motivated workforce.

The Thomas P. Smith Water Reclamation Facility (TPSWRF) in Tallahassee underwent a major facility upgrade between 2009 and 2015. The facility was a construction site for six years, during which it remained online.

Here are a few tips that were implemented on this project and helped to ensure successful completion.

Plan Beyond Permit Requirements

Be sure to design with the facility’s end user in mind. A well-designed project not only meets permit requirements, but should not be too difficult or expensive to operate and maintain.

During the TPSWRF upgrade project, a lot of work on the influent ponds was required. A maintenance worker requested to replace the overland hoses used to empty the ponds with underground piping. The prior method was labor-intensive, required traffic rerouting, and at times, resulted in leaks. Thanks to his feeling comfortable to make

It’s important that the facility staff be directly involved in projects and a diverse team of work skills should be incorporated. For example, at the TPSWRF, an operator, a member of maintenance, an electrician, and someone involved with instrumentation and controls are all included on the project team. Supervisors of these four groups were notified of upcoming projects and they decided who to include on the review team.

Team Involvement Throughout the Project Process

Now that you have your site’s subject experts defined, be sure to include them in the project process as early as possible and keep them engaged all the way through the completion of construction. Facility teams can often provide fresh perspective, leading to great design ideas. This will lead to a better design, a site that is easier to manage, and a team that is excited to take on the new systems.

Scope Development

The utility’s project manager should discuss the scope of the project with the facility team as it’s being developed. Aside from helping the consultant gain a better picture of the problem to be solved, bringing the team in on the scope development level helps everyone clearly understand the limits of the project scope, alleviating scope creep throughout the design process.

Sometimes a new issue at the facility is discovered during scope development. Including the team members this early in the

Design Review

As the design gets underway, give the facility’s project team an opportunity to review the design phase submittals. Describe the goals of each phase. For example, you may note that 30 percent is often a conceptual phase, 60 percent is one of the last opportunities for any large changes to take place, and the 90 percent plans provide the electrical, instrumentation, and control details.

Take extra time with the team members. Don’t forget that reading plans is not second nature to a lot of people. Instead of asking the team members if they understand how to read plans and section views, simply take the time to explain what is being shown at every review meeting. It may also be beneficial to meet with team members one on one. This way, you can get a feel for how comfortable they are with reading plans and encourage them to provide input on the design.

Consider holding an internal review meeting with your facility team before providing review feedback to the consultant. This is a good time to gather collective thoughts and iron out disagreements prior to a review meeting with the consultant.

Keep in mind, some staff may not be comfortable speaking up in front of the consultant, but they may be willing to speak up at the internal review meeting. Preferably, the team should attend the consultant review meetings, too. Detailed questions may need to be answered, which allows the entire team to participate in the decision-making process.

Construction Phase

Encourage teams to visit the site throughout the construction phase. During the major plant upgrade in Tallahassee, displays of the current construction activities were placed in the lunchroom. There was a lot of excitement from the facility staff as the new structures were being built. In fact, one team member was assigned to work offsite for

20 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

a few months and he voluntarily found the database with the daily construction photos and would take the time to view them each day.

By the time training, commissioning, and start-up begins, facility team members are more familiar with the equipment and the layout of the new process. This provides a good foundation to begin the training phase as construction winds down and the new facility is completely turned over to the facility staff. Their participation throughout the project will help crews operate and maintain the facility for years to come.

Check in With Facility Staff

Throughout the project cycle, and especially once the project is wrapped up, ask your team members for input on the overall process. Also, during the project, keep in

mind that they still have their normal facility duties to maintain.

This past year, there were five separate projects under design for the city’s facility. Key members of the facility were asked to attend many meetings to provide input on these projects. When I apologized for requesting so many meetings, they surprised me by enthusiastically stating that the process was very helpful for them.

An interesting evolution over the past few years by staff was the desire to review plans through online meetings. Prior to 2020, we would all crowd around the plans table to discuss new projects. During the distancing requirements of 2020 we began to use Microsoft Teams for plans review. Once restrictions were removed, our facility staff asked to continue using the online platform for the plans review, as everyone has a better view of the plans using this method. Also,

the team supervisors encouraged their team members to join in on the meetings, thus introducing the new processes to more of the facility staff.

Enthusiastically promoting employee engagement can pay huge dividends. Often, you will achieve an end product that everyone is proud to be associated with. Project managers at utilities and consultant project managers should reach out to facility staff to get them involved. Early introduction of a project engages facility team members, which will lead to a process that is better designed, operated, and maintained. This provides a great opportunity to expand the knowledge of the facility team and could potentially stretch out the time before that next major facility project is needed.

Phases of the Tallahassee facility project. 2009 2011 2018
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 21

Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

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12:00 PM 12:00 PM

9:15 AM 11:30 AM 11:30 AM 11:30 AM 11:30 AM 11:00 AM

2:00 PM 6:00 PM 4:00 PM 9:00 PM


November 27 to November 30, 2022 Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress

Sunday, November 27, 2022

Executive Committee Meeting


Board of Governors Meeting

Monday, November 28, 2022


Workshop 1A: Engineering Laws and Rules

Workshop 1B: Navigating the State and National Regulatory Landscape

Workshop 1C: Cybersecurity Insights, Resources, and Best Practices

Workshop 1D: Growth and New Development Considerations

Workshop 1E: Utility Systems Symposium

Top Ops & Operators / Maintenance Council Meeting

Member Engagement & Development Council Meeting

Finance and Rates Committee Meeting

Distribution Division Meeting

Public Affairs Council Meeting

Automation Committee Meeting

Workshop 2A: Source Water Protection (Farm Bill 2018)

Workshop 2B: Emergency Preparedness and Response Resources for Utilities

Workshop 2C: Automation and Scada

Workshop 2D: GIS/Asset Management Part 2

Regions / Council Chairs Lunch Meeting

Opening General Session

Exhibit Hall Meet & Greet

BBQ Challenge & Incoming Chair's Reception

Poker Tournament


Tuesday, November 29, 2022

Exhibit Hall Open (closed 11:30 AM -1:30PM)

Continental Breakfast

Session 1A: Potable Reuse

Session 1B: Management of Pipelines

Session 1C: PFAS Treatment

Session 1D: Water Treatment – Membrane Applications

FWRC/FWRJ Board Meeting

Water Equation Committee Meeting

Young Professionals Meeting

Backhoe Rodeo

Ductile Iron Tap Competition

High School Academy Students Session

Students / Young Professionals Lunch

Contaminants Committee Meeting

Technical & Educational Council Meeting

Fun Tap Competition

Session 2A: Managing Your Finances

Session 2B: Reclaimed Water Solutions

Session 2C: Emerging Contaminants

Session 2D: Where are the Workers the New Normal for Organizations

Students/Young Professionals Water Bowl

Water Utility Council Meeting

“Best of the Best” Tap Water Taste Contest

Full STEAM Ahead Youth Program Meeting

Students/Young Professionals Poster Session

FL2051 Committee Meeting

Meter Challenge

Water Quality & Resources Division Meeting

Meet & Greet



Wednesday, November 30, 2022

Continental Breakfast

Session 3A: Lead and Copper Rule Compliance

Session 3B: Less Conventional Water Treatment

Session 3C: Hydraulic Modeling of Piping Systems

Session 3D: Water Conservation Symposium

Hydrant Hysteria Competition

Annual Business Lunch & Awards Ceremony

Tear Down / Move Out

Water Use Efficiency Division Meeting

Golf Tournament

Windsong 1-4 Grand Cypress Foyer Windsong 1-4

Grand Cypress Foyer


Grand Cypress Foyer Grand Cypress Grand Cypress TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA Self-Parking Lot Self-Parking Lot TBA TBA TBA TBA Self-Parking Lot TBA TBA TBA TBA Grand Cypress TBA Self-Parking Lot TBA Grand Cypress Foyer TBA Grand Cypress TBA Grand Cypress

Grand Cypress Foyer Grand Cypress Grand Cypress

TBA TBA TBA TBA Grand Cypress TBA Grand Cypress TBA TopGolf

Member REGISTRATION Online Registration Deadline: November 15, 2022 fsawwa.org/2022fallregistration First Name: ___________________________________________________________ Last Name: ____________________________________________ Name to Appear on Badge: ___________________________________________________ AWWA Member No: ________________________________ Organization: ________________________________________________________________ Position | Title: ____________________________ Address: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ City: _________________________________________________________ State: _____________________________ Zip: _____________________ Phone: (______) ________-__________ Fax: (______) ________-__________ Email: _______________________________________________ CEU|PDH Registration: We offer 0.1 CEU and 1 PDH per hour of participation in Technical Sessions, Symposiums, and Workshops. Fall Conference Course # 05100590  I am a Florida Professional Engineer, No: ____________________________________  I am a Florida Licensed Operator, No: _______________________________________ Please select one:  Plant  Distribution  Collection Full Registration (3 days): Includes: Monday Workshops, Opening General Session, BBQ, Technical Sessions, Exhibits, Meet & Greet (Does not include Laws/Rules, Utility Systems Symposium, and Business & Awards Luncheon) Daily Registration: Workshops, Technical Sessions and Exhibits Please select a day:  Monday (Includes all Monday events, except Laws/Rules & Utility Systems Symposium)  Tuesday  Wednesday Special Registration: (Must register)  Speaker (One-day only)* Select day:  Mon  Tue  Wed Free with full or one-day registration  Retired AWWA member Select day:  Mon  Tue  Wed  Spouse (Lunch not included)  Mon  Tue  Wed  Operator Competitions  Tue  Wed  Students - Free (Registration required if attending)  Exhibit Hall Only  Mon  Tue  Wed  Engineering Laws | Rules 2.0 PDH Monday AM  Utility Systems Symposium Monday 8-5 (Includes lunch) 0.8 CEU | 8.0 PDH  Students/Young Professionals Lunch Tuesday PM  FSAWWA Business & Awards Luncheon Wednesday PM Free Events: (You will need to register for an accurate count if you are attending the following events)  Opening General Session Monday AM  BBQ after Exhibits Meet & Greet Monday PM  Water Conservation Symposium (No Credits) Wednesday AM Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA. Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022. Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure Register online is strongly recommended at: www.fsawwa.org/2022 fallregistration Questions: Peggy Guingona | peggy@fsawwa.org Note: A 30% service fee will be retained on any cancellation by Nov. 1. No refunds after Nov. 2, 2022. Hotel Accommodations Host hotel is Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress. The special rate is $165. Visit fsawwa.org/2022hotel Member Non-Member By Nov. 1 After Nov. 1 By Nov. 1 After Nov. 1 $375 $200 $200 $100 $30 $50 $50 $35 $ 0 $50 $70 $120 $30 $50 $0 $0 $0 $425 $250 $250 $150 $30 $50 $50 $35 $ 0 $50 $70 $120 $30 $50 $0 $0 $0 $495 $275 $275 $175 $30 $50 $50 $35 $ 0 $50 $70 $190 $30 $50 $0 $0 $0 $545 $325 $325 $200 $30 $50 $50 $35 $ 0 $50 $70 $190 $30 $50 $0 $0 $0 Non$475 $275 $275 $175 $30 $50 $50 $35 $ 0 $50 $70 $150 $30 $50 $0 $0 $0 $595 $375 $375 $250 $30 $50 $50 $35 $ 0 $50 $70 $220 $30 $50 $0 $0 $0 On-Site Registration Member
Monday, November 28, 2022 6:00pm | Hyatt Regency Portico Patio (Beer/Wine No Charge | Cash Bar for Liquor) The FSAWWA Contractors Council is seeking your support by sponsoring the FSAWWA's Fall Conference Annual BBQ Competition and Incoming Chair's Reception. Opportunities to Sponsor Bar Sponsor | $1200 Company Logo on banner by the bars Food Sponsor | $750 Company Name on banner by the side items Combined Sponsor | $1500 Company Name on banners at both locations INCOMING CHAIR’S RECEPTION & CHALLENGE Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA. Come join the festivities which include the BBQ, networking, entertainment and toast to Greg Taylor, our 2023 Section Chair. BBQ is serious business! BBQ teams from utilities and firms from around the state compete in Culinary Abilities with beef brisket, chicken, pork ribs, and pork butt. 1st place trophies for each category, and of course, BRAGGING RIGHTS for Overall Champion! To sponsor, please contact: Courtney Dantone, Kiewit Water Courtney.dantone@kiewit.com (312) 339-1306 or use register at: www.fsawwa.org/2022BBQ Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

2022 Competitions

Tuesday & Wednesday, November 29 - 30, 2022


FSAWWA hosts fun and lively competitions between municipalities to find the most skilled person or team in the Meter Challenge, Tapping, Hydrant Hysteria, and Back Hoe Rodeo contests.

Please join us as a spectator or visit our website to download the application to complete.

Back Hoe Rodeo: Tuesday | 10:00 am - 12:00 pm

Backhoe operators show off their expertise by executing several challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time.

Tapping Contests: Tuesday | 11:00 am - 2:30 pm

In a contest of skill and dexterity as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time while they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Penalties are assessed in seconds for infractions of rules such as leaking connections or safety violations. Only two taps are allowed per team.

Ductile Iron Tap: 11:00 am - 12:00 pm

Fun Tap: 1:00 - 2:30 pm

Meter Challenge: Tuesday | 4:00 - 5:00 pm

Contestants are challenged to put together a completely disassembled meter against the clock. To make the contest more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket of meter components. Once the meter is assembled, it must operate correctly and not leak.

Hydrant Hysteria: Wednesday | 9:00 - 11:00 am

Hydrant Hysteria is a fast paced two person competition as to who can assembly a fire hydrant quickly, totally, and accurately.

Two or more teams go head to head while assembling the hydrant. All parts will be assembled in proper manner and reassembled hydrant shall be tested by the judges for ability to operate correctly.

Join the Tapping FUN! CHEER for Meter Challenge! Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria! Let loose at the RODEO! Please Contact: Mike George tapitflorida@att.net (352) 200-9631 Join the Competition Sponsorship Opportunities
Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA. Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

November 28, 2022 8:30 - 11:30pm


Join us at poker after the BBQ and continue the networking. Your participation will benefit the Likins Scholarship Fund, Water Equation, and Water For People.

Register Today! fsawwa.org/2022poker

It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Terry Gullet at tgullett@neptunetg.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.


Buy in | $20.00 (2000

Buy In | $40.00 (5000





| $30.00 (2000

| $50.00 (5000

Grand Prize: 50” HDTV!

Looking forward to


Benefiting Fund

The Roy Likins Scholarship

Opportunities to Sponsor

Straight | $50

• One of four at a game table sponsors

• Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor board at the registration table

Full House | $150

• One of two at a game table sponsors

• Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor board at the registration table

• 2 Blackjack or 2 Poker Buy-ins

Royal Flush | $250

• Sole game table sponsor

• Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor board

• 4 Poker Buy Ins or 5 Blackjack Buy-ins

Any contribution of prizes is greatly appreciated for the worthwhile cause. Pre-purchase Buy-In and Table Sponsorships through Conference Registration. Buy-Ins may be purchased at the door during first hour of play with a credit card, personal check, or cash.

Space is limited so pre-purchase to ensure that you have a chance to win. Entry tickets and chips have no cash value. Once they are purchased no refunds will be given. Only paid entries and sponsors will be allowed access to the hall.

Buy-ins: Blackjack
in chips) Poker
in chips)
Buy-ins: Blackjack
in chips) Poker
in chips)
Grand Cypress Poker Night & Happy Hour
seeing you at the Hyatt
Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Wednesday, November 30, 2022



Join us at TopGolf. Have fun and network with water industry professionals. Your participation will benefit the Likins Scholarship Fund, Water Equation, and Water For People.

Register Today! fsawwa.org/2022golf

Location: TopGolf Orlando 9295 Universal Blvd. Orlando, FL 32819 (407)218-7714 | topgolf.com/us/orlando


Entry Fee includes: Entry into the tournament, buffet food, 2 drink tickets per person, and fellowship with conference attendees

Individual/Additional Registration | $125 Individuals will be placed into bays with other registrants

Individual Utility Operator Registration | $50


Social Attendee |


other registrants

The Roy Likins Scholarship

Opportunities to Sponsor

Eagle Sponsor | $850

• Your company’s logo streaming on all TVs of the tournament bays.

• Recognized with signage at bay.

• 1 bay with up to 6 entries.

• Recognition at the awards ceremony.

Birdie Sponsor | $750

• Recognized with signage at bay.

• 1 bay with up to 6 entries.

• Recognition at the awards ceremony.

Food & Beverage Sponsor | $500

• Recognized with signage.

• Recognized on rotating bay displays.

• Recognition at the awards ceremony.

It is not necessary to participate in order to be a sponsor. Please send Chase Freeman a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.

Email: Cfreeman@spiritgroupinc.com

Benefiting Fund
Individuals will be placed into
$50 Come
with friends and colleagues (Food and 1 Drink Ticket included)
at 5:00 pm Event:
- 9:00 pm Par-Tee at TopGolf
Rain or shine, let’s play golf for a great cause. Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge!

Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available.

This month’s editorial theme is New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades . Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Suspended Ion Exchange: City of Tampa Demonstrates Exciting Alternative for Total Organic Carbon Removal

Melanie Picket, Michael Gerdjikian, Crickett Luu, Chuck Weber, Antony Gibson, Vincent Hart, and Tyler Smith

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 1 DW/DS02015411)

1. Resin regeneration is accomplished using a. sodium hydroxide. b. sodium chloride. c. calcium chloride. d. ozone.

2. Unlike the magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) process, the suspended ion exchange (SIX) process has a higher affinity for a. alkalinity.

b. total organic carbon. c. calcium.

d. free residual chlorine.

3. Pilot results demonstrated the viability of eliminating the need for a. sulfuric acid. b. lime.

c. ferric sulfate. d. ozone.

4. In the reactor, the resin is kept in suspension by a. buoyancy. b. water velocity. c. air fluidization. d. magnetic attraction.

5. _____________ content increases in the finished water due to the exchange between target and counter ions.

a. Hardness b. Chloride c. Sulfate d. Carbonate



FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print) Article 1 LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: (Credit Card Number) (Expiration Date)
28 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades for Florida’s Future

There is no denying that new facilities are going to be popping up everywhere, or at least existing facilities are going to require expansions and upgrades to facilitate compliant operations due to increased populations.

Putting on Your Reading Glasses and Thinking Caps

must be generated on what is going to effectively produce or treat the water in question, targeting parameters that need to be addressed. Usually, all of the operators will not be involved in many parts of the process, but they will be expected to operate what is built, and the wisest of engineers will at least question the operators at the beginning for their input.

There are estimates that 1,000 people are moving to Florida each day and its population will increase to nearly 26 million by 2030. By that time the state is projected to use 7.7 billion gallons of water per day, which is 1.3 billion gallons per day more than is currently being used.

If you aren’t locked in your home for fear of COVID or other things, then you’ve

The process needed for a new facility, expansion, and/or upgrade can be a trying time for the operators, engineers, and contractors who will be designing and building the facility or doing the construction. Depending on the size and complexity of the work being done, parts of the process can push you to your wits end.

Generally, the designs will come in at 30, 60, and 90 percent; the people that you are going to have reviewing these plan sets and the other documents (i.e., technical memos, feasibility reports, modeling reports, basis of design reports, etc.) should be forwardthinking, detail-oriented folks who are willing and able to invest time in the reviews. Hopefully, your initial 30 percent design submittal won’t be a paper-cutter plan set with some other utility’s name scattered through the entire document, and the plans show something resembling what was expected at

Supervisory control and data acquisition screen shot of aeration basin controls. Three of the old aeration basins and finishing pond turned into reject storage at the Plant City Water Reclamation Facility.
30 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

We are human, however, and mistakes aren’t necessarily mistakes unless you don’t have the foresight to realize how something is going to be problematic. It’s so easy to miss things when you’re flipping through 11x17 plan sets or scrolling through 200-page documents. The intent would be that by the time you see the 90 percent sets, there is so little that you would need to do, because at that point it’s going to be catapulted into the final design and anything not caught by that time is probably going to cause change orders to the work. All of this usually take one to two years (maybe more), unless it’s some minor project; then, construction can begin.

How Lucky are You?

With the last expansion project at Plant City (I started there in mid-2003), the 90 percent designs had been completed, so there wasn’t much sense in me reviewing those plan sets because certain things were not going to get changed, as they were preparing to launch into the next steps. There was a lot of foresight put into the scope of work and there were going to be weekly progress meetings. This is usually unheard of now, since that means paying engineers and contractors who are involved in the project for their attendance. Some of our recent projects are more costconscious, and much thought is given to whether having weekly (or even monthly) meetings is necessary.

It was 2006 before the contractors were ready to start breaking ground, and that wasn’t the only thing that was broken. Within the first month, while working on a saw cut of the road for temporary service to a pump station, the power lines for the lights were knocked down (no one was hurt, and the power company made the repair in one day), a 16-inch plug blew out on a new line pressure test, and the first backhoe bucket to go in the ground (even after repeatedly pointing out where the fiber optic line was) caught the line and knocked out the supervisory control and data acquisition to that location.

It seemed like all of this was setting the tone for the project, but it was like eerie Halloween music. We could have been lucky to have virgin ground, but that was not the case; and when you have pieces of plan sets, not really as-builts, these things are going to happen.

What I considered extremely lucky (for me) was George Burns, the salty, tenured, verbally colorful construction project superintendent who ran roughshod over the contractors and subcontractors. I still have three voicemails saved on my phone

that I listen to whenever I want to brighten my mood, make me laugh, and wonder how someone can use so many curse words in one sentence without taking a breath. He knew what red lines were, and he made sure that everyone made them.

I hate to get started here, because I’m not going to mention everyone that we were lucky to have, but I must mention a few of the Malcolm Pirnie team: Ed Balchon, vice president, who probably still cringes when he sees me; Mike Demko, project manager (the Demko Zone); Ifetayo Venner, process design (OXOX); Mike Sutton, instrumentation and controls; and Daryl Ciliberto, the project inspector contracted for the expansion project. There were more, but this handful was amazing to work with.

Ironically, behind the scenes Lynn Spivey was also involved in the project, and fortunately for us, eventually moved here years later to be our utilities director. From Encore Matthew there was Nolan Hake, the project manager who was excellent to work with; George Burns (mentioned previously); and Robert Hoffman and Ashton Roth, the plant operations maintenance masters.

Internally, I was lucky to have Frank Coughenour, the utilities operations engineer and a stickler for details, and Steve Saffels, utilities operations superintendent, who brought into Plant City the first load of dirt in 1974—an invaluable resource. This project was done using a construction management at risk (CMAR) approach.

There were some long days and nights, and not all of the operators got to see all of the construction activities, piping, and new equipment installed, but they will need to be trained on everything, so time (and pay) need to be disseminated before they are going to be operating.

In our case, it was determined that it would be less expensive to build new oxidation ditches and clarifiers; then, the extensive work and structural modifications would be required to reuse the existing aeration basins. We were lucky to have excellent vendors that provided training services and routed as many operators as we could through each of the classes.

So, on Feb. 1, 2008, we started putting the new plant online (almost two years after the construction started), and there is so much I’m not mentioning (all the permitting, reviewing, coordinating, change orders, etc.). One could say we had Murphy’s luck with the new plant start-up; we seeded the plant successfully, but it still took about nine months to iron out some issues, and then a bit more time to do some fine-tuning.

Facility (WRF) achieved its first year of no exceedances in 2011, and in 2012, won first place in the FWEA Earle B. Phelps Award. To date the WRF has achieved 11 Earle B. Phelps Awards (five first-place, three runner-up, and three honorable mention). And even though we took runner-up in 2022, our total nitrogen (TN) annual average was 0.713 mg/L and our total phosphorus (TP) annual average was 0.142 mg/L. This is something that each one of the Plant City operators can be proud of, and having numbers like that for over a decade now speaks volumes to those that had their fingers in the building project.

So, get ‘er done; then get your plant nominated for an award.

Keep up the good work, get involved, and thank you for doing all you do every single day, in and out! Let’s keep that water clean!

The FWEA Earle B. Phelps Award traveling trophy, which the first-place winner gets to keep for a year.
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 31

Big Bend is Back: Reactivating the Chapter

Big Bend Chapter is active again and looking for volunteers

Getting Started

he Big Bend Chapter began its triumphant return as an active chapter at the 2022 FWEA Leadership Development Workshop in February where a plan was laid out to garner interest and active participants in the chapter’s events. The plan includes hosting several social and technical events in the second half of 2022 and reactivating the FWEA student chapter at the Florida A&M University-Florida State University (FAMU-FSU) College of Engineering.

As part of our planned activities, we hosted our first social event—a happy hour at a local Tallahassee brewery on June 9. This was a joint event with Region I of FSAWWA, and it was the chapter’s first official event in several years. We expect to hold at least two more events in 2022. More details are to come, so keep your eyes on the list of upcoming events.

Last, but not least, our chapter is working on reactivating the student chapter at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, and some chapter members attended a recruiting event there. Our chair, Felicity Appel, gave a presentation to an environmental engineering class at the college to determine if there was an

Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water EnvironmentvAssociation hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Melody Gonzalez at gonzalezm@bv.com. Melody Gonzalez Felicity Appel and Lina Polo 2022 Big Bend Chapter leadership at the Leadership Development Workshop. at the FAMU-FSU Student Organization Fair.

interest in joining the student chapter. We now have nine students that have signed up with the college to join the student chapter in the fall of 2022.

Show Your Support!

We are currently seeking volunteers and sponsors to join us in the revitalization of the Big Bend Chapter.

Our current board is comprised of:

S Chair – Felicity Appel P.E., Kimley-Horn

S Vice Chair – Lina Polo, E.I., City of Tallahassee

S Secretary – Open Position

S Treasurer – Open Position

If you would like more information about getting involved, either as an individual or with company support, please feel to reach out to Felicity Appel at felicity.appel@kimley-horn.com.

Felicity Appel, P.E., is the FWEA Big Bend Chapter chair and Lina Polo, E.E., is the FWEA Big Bend Chapter vice chair. S

Members enjoy happy hour.
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 33

Setting Your Geographic Information System to Facilitate Better Infrastructure Analysis

Achallenge is posed with buried infrastructure—since many water utilities lack the resources for examining it, other methods of data collection are needed. Much more information is known about buried infrastructure than one anticipates and a geographic information system (GIS) is a useful tool to help utilities answer many questions about their infrastructure assets, if used correctly. This project was undertaken to evaluate water distribution system assets, identify pipes most likely to fail, and create system mapping to work within the GIS system to help managers plan for future capital improvements.

Infrastructure Issues

Public infrastructure in the United States has been poorly rated by the American Society of Civil Engineers for many years (2001, 2005, 2009, 2013, 2017, and 2021). Most public officials acknowledge the deterioration of the infrastructure that customers rely on daily. Many jurisdictions have limited information about their systems and little data to use to justify spending; therefore, the infrastructure tends to deteriorate further each year as local

officials opt to limit budgets in the absence of good needs data.

At present, state and local governments spend about 1.8 percent of their gross nation product (GNP) on infrastructure, as compared to 3.1 percent in 1970 (McNichol, 2016). Both figures include a large portion for growth, as opposed to repair and replacement. Hence, the existing infrastructure systems fall farther behind, indicating the need for better tools for asset management, and GIS is one such tool.

Creating a robust GIS platform allows for improved management of assets among many other options, including:

S Data Development and Updates

S Operations and Maintenance/Asset Management

S Master Planning/Modeling/Studies

S Capital Improvement Program (CIP) Development

S Design/Permitting

S Construction

All GIS starts with data, which is the basis of all operations. Figure 1 shows the GIS data as central to the management workflow. Whatever the current condition or format of the data, it can migrate into a standard

James Barton is principal engineer with Florida Technical Consultants in Boynton Beach. Paula Fonseca is an engineer with Florida Technical Consultants in West Palm Beach. Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., is professor at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton.

GIS platform as a basis for data creation and maintenance. The data must be accurate enough for field teams to use it, and the teams must know how to correct it when they find issues. Florida Technical Consultants (FTC) has extensive experience developing data systems based on the following:

S ESRI geodatabases for water, sewer, and stormwater

S Custom geodatabases for vacuum, electrical, solid waste, and plants

It’s possible to get information from a combination of data sources. This approach is much less expensive than mobilizing to the field.

The process starts with all available data being loaded into GIS. This means that all data are in a central location where everyone

Figure 1. Geographic information system data are central to management workflow. Figure 2. Making life cycle decisions based on criticality.
34 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

has access to it. If an error is found, it’s updated in GIS and corrected.

Data sources include:

S Existing digital data

S As-builts

S Wall maps

S Staff knowledge of the system

Corrections can also be made to the data based on high-resolution aerials. When there are still questions remaining that need field clarification, field teams will be mobilized to collect data directly from the field. Inspection tools can be created using ArcGIS Online that field staff can operate from a mobile device, which is a very efficient quality assurance tool. All corrections are used to automatically update the GIS base data, so they’re never lost in notebooks or stuck in workers’ heads.

The data can be used to coordinate among departments, permit agencies, consultants, and contractors. Having reliable data can save money in design and construction, reduce risk, and promote more-organized communications. With lower risk, contractors will provide better pricing, knowing that there is less chance of unexpected changes.

Field teams can also access data and information from mobile devices, saving time and money and increasing efficiency.

Since the field staff is so critical to operations, effort needs to be made to focus most of the time developing the capacity and capability of these teams. The applications developed are specific to each client, and too numerous to mention.

Some examples include:

S Map Inventory and Red-Lining Corrections

S As-Built Access From Mobile Devices

S Water System Operations Tracking

• valve turning

• hydrant maintenance

• meter replacement

• water quality testing

• breaks and outage management

S Sanitary System

• lift station condition assessment

• gravity main lining

• blockages and overflows

S Stormwater System

• flood areas mapping

• surface modeling in 3-D

• tracking by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

S Public Works

• asphalt condition and overlay analysis

• sidewalk planning and maintenance

• management of Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)

S Facilities

• treatment plant mapping

S Public Facing Applications

• parks

• community rating system

The benefit of a master list of assets is that GIS data results can be extended to modeling software for water, sewer, and stormwater. Hydraulic modeling results can be linked directly to assets, which can assist in making life cycle decisions based on criticality (Figure 2).

When different tools are assembled in a common platform, the combination enables a program management capability. Dashboards are very effective at tracking programs and project status and can provide real-time information from whatever system they are built for. Managers can review system analytics and intuitively gather information about a system, and then use the results for reports or permits. If more information is needed, the dashboards can be tweaked to provide the data. At this stage it’s particularly important that field teams are trained and operational, as they collect most of the data.

All models require the same information. Much of these data are not readily available and require research. When GIS is used

Figure 3. Location of Margate (in red) in Broward County. Figure 4. Corporate limits and service area for city’s water service area.
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 35
Continued on page 36

from page 35

to inventory this information, the data are stored and updated in one location. It can be used for multiple purposes, including studies, construction management, and maintenance operations. Elements of this include:

S Potable Water System (these data should be on hand for a modeling project)

• plant locations/storage tank sizes/highservice pump curves

• distribution lines/diameter, material, year of installation

• fire hydrants/valves

• domestic meters

• large users/interconnects/interlocal agreements

S Operational Data

• supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)/pressure/flows

• pressure gauge locations and recorded data

• tank levels

• pressure control valves

• water produced and delivered to the system

• water demand (metered data)/ unaccounted-for water

• population data/population distribution/land use

The CIP development is an added step. The result of data analysis and studies are recommendations for system improvements.

The GIS can be applied to:

S identify problem areas

S map the location

S perform site research with field staff

S develop capital improvement projects

S track progress of CIPs

S provide CIP total budgets to management through dashboards

The benefit of a GIS-based CIP platform over a paper report is that the GIS platform can be updated:

S as projects progress

S when new issues are identified

The result is having good data for engineering design, but having the data in GIS is even better as it allows consultants to collaborate with management and make better decisions. The status of engineering projects can be included in the CIP tracking platform. Information from preliminary designs, surveys, and test holes can be brought into GIS to improve the base data. An integrated approach avoids duplication of effort, and ensures that data changes are not lost in the plans and that the data are set up for GIS migration at the end of construction.

Case Study: City of Margate

In this case study, GIS data were gathered for the City of Margate (city) water system as a means to assess condition and prioritize water main replacement. The city is located in the northern part of Broward County (Figure 3). The city’s water and sewer service area is bounded as follows:

Continued on page 39

Table 1. Outline of Distribution System Components

Pipe Size


2 in water main 34605 LF 4 in. water main 81477 LF 6 in water main 367272 LF 8 in water main 388800 LF 10 in water main 80735 LF 12 in water main 125556 LF 14 in water main 2777 LF 16 in water main 9320 LF 18 in. water main 7233 LF 20 in. water main 73 LF 24 in. water main 3582 LF

Fire Hydrants 18975 LF 3/4 in service 2055 ea 1 in service 244 ea 1.5 in service 5454 ea 2 in service 884 ea 3 in service 1642 ea 4 in service 46 ea 6 in service 117 ea 8 in service 4193 ea Land 36 ac

2 mil gal (MG) GST at the water treatment plant (WTP) in service

1.9 MG GST at the WTP in service

0.40 MG GST at the WTP out of service

2 MG GST at remote location in service

Figure 5. The city’s water distribution system.

36 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water & Wastewater Process

Treatment & Pumping Equipment

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 37
SINCE Maintenance & Repair Service Available Copyright ©2021 Tencarva Machinery Company. All Rights Reserved. TM.FL.FWRJ.MU.11.16.2021

ID_Number Breaks DIA Install Year

1 0 8 1987






1 6 1973

Soil Basinger Urban Land Immokalee Pompano

Table 2. Table of Assets (part of a larger table)

Soil Hallandale Margate Boca

1 1




1 1


2 1971 1 0 1




0 2 1971 1 0 1 0 0 1

10 0 2 1974 1 0 1 0 0 1

11 0 2 1974 1 0 1 0 0 1


Table 3. Summary of Data Known About the Assets in Table 2

ID_Number Breaks DIA Age

Soil Basinger Urban Land Immokalee Pompano High Traffic Trees Y AC DI PVC GS HDPE 95 0 2 60 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 2 60 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 254 0 2 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 0 2 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 256 0 2 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 257 0 2 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 946 0 2 60 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 948 1 2 60 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2486 0 2 60 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3316 0 2 60 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3317 0 2 60 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3377 1 2 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0




Variable Observations Obs. with missing data

Obs. without missing data Minimum Maximum Mean Standard deviation

Breaks 9858 0 9858 0.000 28.000 0.040 0.391 DIA 9858 0 9858 1.000 30.000 7.716 3.107

Age 9858 0 9858 0.000 61.000 36.097 14.342

Soil Basinger

Urban Land Immokalee

38 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal Table 4. Summary Statistics

Pompano 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.407 0.491

High Traffic 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.126 0.332

Trees Y 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.011 0.103

AC 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.255 0.436

DI 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.073 0.260 PVC 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.266 0.442

GS 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.384 0.486 HDPE 9858 0 9858 0.000 1.000 0.004 0.061

Low Traffic
Traffic Trees Y No Trees AC DI Concrete DI GS HDPE PE PVC Shallow Deep Pressure Age Breaks /ft
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 55 34 0 2 0 12
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 55 31 0 3 0 4
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 55 33 0 4 0 4
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 55 33 0 5 0 6
1 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 55 41 0 6 0 6
1 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 47 0 7
1 0
0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 48 0.016 8 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 0 9
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
47 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 47 0 12 0 2 1974 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 47 0 13 0 2 1974 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 47 0

S on the north by Sample Road

S on the west by the Stranahan canal

S on the south by the City of North Lauderdale (Southgate Drive and Florida’s Turnpike)

S on the east generally by Banks Road

The city’s service area is shown in Figure 4. It comports with the city’s corporate limits, except in the southeast section, which is served by the Coconut Creek water system. Within its service area, the city is responsible for the planning and implementation of its infrastructure needs. The city treats water from a series of Biscayne aquifer wells located

in its boundaries, and raw water is purchased and transmitted from Broward County.

The city’s water distribution system is shown in Figure 5 and Table 1, based on data gathered from the GIS system. There are approximately 17,200 connections. Because the water distribution system should have sufficient capacity to meet the water supply needs of the consumers under all demand conditions, pipes are laid out in loops to avoid dead ends that create stagnant water.

Two types of water pipes are needed in a water system: transmission lines and distribution lines. Transmission lines are the pipes that carry the water from the source to the storage system and are the largest,

Table 5. Frequency for Categorical Variables

Variable Categories Frequencies %

Soil Basinger Urban Land Immokalee Pompano

High Traffic (yes=1)

Trees (yes=1)

AC (yes=1)

1 4015 40.728

0 5843 59.272

0 8619 87.432

1 1239 12.568

0 9752 98.925

1 106 1.075

0 7344 74.498 1 2514 25.502

DI (yes=1) 0 9141 92.727 1 717 7.273

PVC (yes=1) 0 7235 73.392 1 2623 26.608

GS (yes=1)

0 6071 61.584 1 3787 38.416

HDPE (yes=1) 0 9821 99.625 1 37 0.375


thickest pipes in the system, making them the most expensive, while distribution pipes carry water out to the users. To protect water quality, water pipes must be located away from sewer pipes and laid in separate trenches.

In most communities, the water distribution system serves the secondary purpose of providing water supply for firefighting. Fire hydrants are the most visible part of the water distribution system. They must be located to meet fire flow needs, but in many cases are also installed at the end of all lines to remove accumulated corrosion products from dead ends.

Table 6. Break Frequency

Variable Number of Breaks Frequencies % Breaks: 0 9589 97.271

1 211 2.140 2 35 0.355 3 14 0.142 4 3 0.030 5 2 0.020 6 1 0.010 8 2 0.020 28 1 0.010

Variables DIA

Land Immokalee Pompano

Table 7. Correlation Matrix

Traffic Trees Y AC DI PVC GS HDPE Breaks

DIA 1.000 0.041 0.070 0.362 0.006 0.163 0.005 0.029 0.255 0.087 0.056

Age 0.041 1.000 0.159 0.062 0.000 0.622 0.166 0.103 0.577 0.077 0.098

Soil Basinger

Urban Land


Pompano 0.070 0.159 1.000 0.046 0.044 0.170 0.068 0.173 0.040 0.027 0.011

High Traffic 0.362 0.062 0.046 1.000 0.002 0.060 0.002 0.196 0.240 0.027 0.003

Trees Y 0.006 0.000 0.044 0.002 1.000 0.009 0.014 0.008 0.006 0.006 0.008

AC 0.163 0.622 0.170 0.060 0.009 1.000 0.164 0.352 0.462 0.036 0.081

DI 0.005 0.166 0.068 0.002 0.014 0.164 1.000 0.169 0.221 0.017 0.009

PVC 0.029 0.103 0.173 0.196 0.008 0.352 0.169 1.000 0.476 0.037 0.045

GS 0.255 0.577 0.040 0.240 0.006 0.462 0.221 0.476 1.000 0.048 0.064

HDPE 0.087 0.077 0.027 0.027 0.006 0.036 0.017 0.037 0.048 1.000 0.002

Breaks 0.056 0.098 0.011 0.003 0.008 0.081 0.009 0.045 0.064 0.002 1.000

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 39
Basinger Urban
Continued from page 36 Continued on page 42

/ Standardized coefficients (95% conf. interval)


Figure 6. Impact of factors on leaks.


Pred(breaks in 10 year)

10 year

Figure 8. Breaks by year.

DI Breaks

40 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal DIA Age Soil Basinger Urban Land Immokalee Pompano HighTraffi Trees Y AC DI PVC GS HDPE -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 Standardized coefficients Variable Breaks Figure 10. Ductile iron pipe break frequency.

10 year




Pred(breaks in 10 year)

Figure 7. Comparison of predictive and actual breaks over 10 years (correlation desirable).

AC Breaks


Figure 9. Asbestos cement pipe break frequency.

DI Breaks

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 breaks in Figure 11. Polyvinyl chloride pipe break frequency.

/ breaks in
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
0 5
25 30 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
5 10 15 20 25 30 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 41 EXCELLENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION UPCOMING COURSES Register online at go.ufl.edu/FWRJTREEO Visit www.treeo.ufl.edu for a full schedule of courses including: Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Recertification Wastewater Certified Professional Operator Certificate This program is designed to train professionals in the foundational concepts of wastewater operations.The program focuses on testing wastewater quality, process control and troubleshooting, and maintaining permit compliance with Department of Environmental Protection. Learn more at go.ufl.edu/FWRJWPOCP 7 NOV Unidirectional Flushing Workshop Virtual | $270 CEUs 0.8 DS DW 9 NOV 18-21 OCT 14-18 NOV 24-28 OCT 15-16 NOV 6-8 DEC1-3 NOV 8 NOV 18 OCT Fire Hydrant Operation & Maintenance Gainesville, FL Water Distribution Systems Operator Level 2 & 3 Training Virtual | $699 CEUs 3.2 DS DW WW - Level 2 CEUs 3.2 DS DW WW - Level 3 Water Class B Certification Review Virtual | $705 Wastewater Class B Certification Review Gainesville, FL | $720 Effective Utility Leadership Practices Gainesville, FL | $605 CEUs 1.35 DS DW WW Introduction to Electrical Maintenance Gainesville, FL | $605 CEUs 2.0 DS DW WW Train the Trainer: How to Design & Deliver Effective Training Gainesville, FL & Virtual | $745 CEUs 2.4 DS DW WW Introduction to Lift Station Maintenance Virtual | $325 CEUs 0.8 DS WW Confined Space Training Gainesville, FL | $295 CEUs 0.8 DS DW WW

from page 39

The inventory in Table 1, while useful, provides little information on the pipe conditions, material, or ages, but the city believes most of its pipe is ductile iron. The city does, however, have a map of its break history since 2004, which is shown in Figure 5. The goal of this project was to attempt to identify the pipes most likely to fail—and the reasons why—so that the city can invest in replacement lines using a form of prioritization based on the likelihood of breaks.


An asset management program consists of determining the selected area of study, type of system, and the quality of data used for evaluation. The question is how to collect data that might be useful to a utility that does not involve a lot of destructive testing on buried infrastructure, which is costly and inconvenient.

The reality is that utilities usually have more data than they realize:

S Most utilities have a pretty good idea about their pipe materials. Employee memory can be very useful, but may not be completely accurate.

S Many times development drives installation. Knowing when subdivisions come online is often just after the pipelines were installed; therefore, the data are often approximately known.

In most cases the depth of pipe is fairly similar and the deviations may be known.

S Most soil condition information is readily available and there is an indication that aggressive soil causes more corrosion in ductile iron pipe.

S The presence of groundwater is usually known, and if a saltwater interface of a pollution plume exists, it can be mapped and evaluated for the impact on pipes.

S Trees are easily noted from aerial photographs. Tree roots can wrap around

water and sewer pipes, so their presence is detrimental.

S Roads with heavy truck traffic create more vibrations in the soil, causing rocks to move toward the pipe and joints to flex.

So with a little research there are at least six variables known. If the break history for a water system, flood records for a stormwater system, or sewer pipe conditions from closed-circuit television are known, the impact of these factors can be developed via a linear regression algorithm, which can then be used as a predictive tool to help identify assets that are mostly likely to become a problem. The concept should apply to any utility, although the results and factors of concern will be slightly different for each one. Also, in smaller communities, many variables (ductile iron pipe, polyvinyl chloride [PVC] pipe, soil condition, etc.) may be so similar that attempts to differentiate factors may be unproductive.

on page

HDPE Breaks


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 DI INSTALL_YE

Figure 12. High-density

42 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal 1950

1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Figure 14. Install dates for ductile iron pipe before 1990.









2030 0

polyethylene pipe break frequency. PVC INSTALL_YE

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 2030









Figure 13. Install dates for asbestos cement pipes before 1990, with limited amounts in the 1980s before the material was banned.

Figure 15. Polyvinyl chloride pipe was installed from the mid-1970s onward. The 1970s pipe is likely thin-walled 2241 pipe.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2


Pred Break Factor

Figure 16. High-density polyethylene pipe in post-2000 installations.

DI Pipe

Pred Break Factor

Pred Break Factor

DI pipes (yes = 1)

Figure 18. Ductile iron pipe predicted pipe breaks; the values of “1” are closer to 2.2 as a high.

Scree plot

Figure 20. Scree plot.

AC Pipe

AC pipes (yes = 1)

Figure 17. Asbestos cement pipe predicted pipe breaks; the values of “1”are closer to 2.7 as a high.

PVC Pipe

PVC pipes (yes = 1)

Figure 19. Polyvinyl chloride pipe values under “2” and many negatives show lowest break prediction.

Table 8. Factor Loadings for Scree Plot

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 43 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 Cumulative variability (%) Eigenvalue axis

from page 42

The following are the steps required to obtain a condition assessment, with limited data, utilizing a series of assets gleaned from utility records for a water system (for example purposes):

S Step 1 - Create a table of assets.

S Step 2 - Create columns for the variables for which data exist. Where there are categorical variables (type of pipe for example), these need to be converted to separate yes/no questions, as mixing. Categorical and numerical variable do not provide appropriate comparisons; hence the need to alter the categorical variables to absence/presence variables. Descriptive variables, like pipe material, need to be

converted to binary form, i.e., create a column for each material and insert a 1 or 0 for “yes” and “no.”

S Step 3 - Summarize the statistics for the variables. Missing data are not permitted and known conditions should be entered directly.

S Step 4 - Identify break frequency.

S Step 5 - Identify correlations between variables

S Step 6 - Develop a linear regression to determine factors associated with each and the amount of influence that each exerts.

S Step 7 - The equation can then be used to predict the number of breaks going forward based on the information about breaks going back in time.

S Step 8 - Finally, the data can be used to predict where the breaks might occur in the future based on the past.

For the statistical analysis XLStat®, an Excel data analysis add-on that allows users to analyze, customize, and share results within the Microsoft environment, was used. The process is not time-consuming and provides useful information on the system. It needs to be updated as data are known, but exact data are not really needed. The benefit is that none of this requires destructive testing.


The city’s GIS system was mined for the purposes of this project. Data were retrieved and “cleaned.” For example, abandoned pipes and effluent lines were removed from the data, leaving nearly 10,000 pipe segments. Table 2 is a small piece of a much larger table that was pulled directly from the GIS system and supplemented with data of trees, traffic, and soils. Table 3 included categorical data converted to separate yes/no questions: 1 or 0 for “yes” and “no.” Missing data are not permitted and known conditions should be entered directly (Table 4). Table 5 outlines the frequency for categorical variables and Table 6 summarizes the break frequency. With 10,000 pipe sections and less than 600 breaks, many pipes have no break history.

Table 7 outlines the correlations between variables. Given the fact that breaks are limited, the correlations were small, except as it relates to age and asbestos cement (AC) pipe, and age and galvanized pipe (which is newer). The linear regression function for XLStat was used to create an equation to identify the factors associated with each

Figure 21. The varimax rotation.

44 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

variable and the amount of influence that each exerts (Figure 6).

In this case the equation is:

Breaks = -3.54426262606869E-03-6.5180516770882E03*DIA+2.60152643 232182E-03*Age

Figure 7 outlines how the predictive equation correlated for the city’s distribution system.

The analysis indicated that age and AC pipe were correlated. In fact, Figure 8 shows that the most common dates for breaks were in 1991 and the early 1970s. Based on this analysis, some added effort was placed into identifying pipe factors (limited by the correlation between age and AC pipe). Comparing break by type of pipe (Figures 9 through 12), it’s apparent that the break frequency is highest with AC pipe, while the remaining three pipes of significance (ductile, PVC, and high-density polyethylene [HDPE])have much lower break frequency (denoted by the fact that the range of values above “1” on the x-axis has a lower range than for AC pipe).

The city’s GIS system denotes ductile iron and cast iron pipe; however, the pipe installation dates are generally post-1960. Cast iron pipe was phased out as a pipe material in the 1950s so it’s unlikely much of this pipe is actually cast iron. Pipe installation dates by pipe type are shown in Figures 13 through 16.

The AC pipe was the primary pipe before 1980, with limited amounts in the 1980s before the material was banned. Install dates for ductile iron pipe is before 1990. The PVC pipe was installed from the mid-1970s onward; the 1970s pipe is likely thin-walled 2241 pipe. The HDPE pipe is post-2000 installations. The AC pipe was predicted to break more frequencly than the PVC or ductile iron pipe (Figures 17 through 19).

A principal component assessment (PCA) was performed to gain insight into the variability of the repsonses. A Scree plot (Figure 20), which is used to determine the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis (FA) or principal components to keep in a PCA, was created. Looking into the factor loadings, age and AC pipe were the most variable, with the greatest impact on Factor 1 (Table 8), but there were other negative contributors (i.e., led to breaks). Factors 2 to 4 were mainly impacted positively by PVC, diameter, and ductile iron pipe, respectively. The varimax rotation, which uses a mathematical algorithm that

maximizes high- and low-value factor loadings and minimizes mid-value factor loadings, continued to show that AC pipe and age were correlated, but not with PVC or ducitle iron pipe (Figure 21).

For the city, the GIS system data were useful to predict the commonalities of pipe that fails; the older AC pipe was the factor.

Because this correlation was high, other factors that might impact leaks in other communities were not obvious, so other communities would need to recreate this analysis for their own situations. Figure 22 is a GIS map of pipe vulnerability; the red pipe is the highest priority to schedule for replacement.


Many utilities have not implemented comprehensive asset management plans for their current buried assets. In part this is due to the belief that they cannot properly measure the assets or make estimates, as the cost to do so from traditional methods is too expensive or yields data of limited value. As a result, they have limited data to present to decision makers about the condition of

Figure 22. Margate water main evaluation shows pipe risks, with red pipe at highest risk.

their assets, and the likelihood of future pipe failures creates an atmosphere of hoping to avoid catastrophic failures, without planning for or preventing them.

Utilities with limited financial capability, which might be most at risk if failure occurs, can now develop an asset management program to help identify critical risks and provide data to decision makers who need to provide the fiscal resources to properly manage and maintain a utility system.

In this exercise, an effort was made to develop a methodology to evaluate utility assets, buried and otherwise, to help identify financial resources needed to maintain a utility system. The concept was to create data on the assets for a condition assessment. Buried infrastructure is a challenge for many utilities since they lack the resources for examining it, so other methods of data collection are needed.

The data continue to indicate that the water utility industry is not spending enough to catch up with deferred maintenance obligations. More problematic is that the way to calculate this involves replacement values, which are climbing rapidly.

page 46

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 45
Continued on

The second major challenge it for a utility to figure out its assets, how far behind it currently is, and determine the need to prioritize infrastructure repairs and replacement to reduce risk (Bloetscher, 2019).

Along with the need to maintain and build sustainable infrastructure is the need to be able to build finances and accrue strong

reserves for large expenses when needed, such as the ongoing replacement of pipelines.

Financial issues aren’t discussed here, but bond issues to cover infrastructure expenses can create a need to raise rates. Even so, most rates are not what they need to be to create the sustainable finances required by utilities, and elected officials may push back on raising rates in many communities.


• Aitchison, John, and Dunsmore, I.R. 1975. Statistical Prediction Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

• ASCE 2001. 2001 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, http://ascelibrary.org/doi/ book/10.1061/9780784478882. Accessed Sept. 1, 2016.

• ASCE 2005. 2005 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure http://ascelibrary.org/doi/ book/10.1061/9780784478851. Accessed Sept. 1, 2016.

• ASCE 2009. 2009 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure http://ascelibrary.org/ doi/book/10.1061/978078447885 http:// ascehouston.org/images/downloads/ Report_Card/asce_houston_report_ card___brochure.pdf. Accessed Sept. 1, 2016.

• ASCE 2013. 2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, http://www. infrastructurereportcard.org/. Accessed Sept. 1, 2016.

• ASCE 2017. 2017 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, https://csengineermag. com/asce-releases-2017-infrastructurereport-card/. Accessed Sept. 1, 2020.

• ASCE 2021. 2021 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, https:// infrastructurereportcard.org/. Accessed Aug. 26, 2021.

• Bloetscher, F., 2019. Public Infrastructure Management: Tracking Inevitable Asset Challenges and Increasing System Resiliency, JRoss, Plantation, Fla.

• Congressional Budget Office, 2009. Public Spending On Transportation and Water Infrastructure, Congress of the United States, Congressional Budget Office, Washington, D.C. https:// www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/111thcongress-2009-2010/reports/11-17-10infrastructure.pdf. Accessed Sept. 1, 2016.

• Goldwater, David, 2010. An Important Tool for Asset Management. Utility Infrastructure Management: Journal of Finance and Management for Water and Wastewater Professionals. http:// www.uimonline.com/index/webappstoriesaction?id=378, (accessed May 2010).

• McNichol, E., 2016. It’s Time for States to Invest in Infrastructure. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, D.C. http://www.cbpp.org/research/statebudget-and-tax/its-time-for-states-toinvest-in-infrastructure. Accessed Sept. 1, 2016. S

46 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Heyward Florida Inc., Winter Park

Work title and years of service.

I work for Heyward Florida Inc., which is based out of Winter Park; however, I primarily work out of my home in Port Saint Lucie or on the road.

I’ve worked for Heyward for just over six years. Our president, Greg Chomic, hired me as an intern while I finished my degree at the University of Central Florida and I have been with Heyward ever since. I started doing inside sales support, then transitioned into the north Florida sales

What does your job entail?

Heyward is a manufacturer’s representative company that focuses on serving the municipal water and wastewater industry. We currently represent 25 different companies that offer a wide range of technologies and processes. My role changes depending on the person I’m working with. For a utility, my value comes from teaching them about new equipment available that may resolve a problem they are experiencing or upgrades they are planning to make in the future. Additionally, I am able to recommend them to other utilities that have purchased similar equipment or experienced similar challenges with a process or technology that they otherwise would not have known about.

We do the same thing with consulting engineers, but also offer technical assistance for specification writing, drawings, and budget estimates throughout the design process. Once a project is fully designed and advertised, we will begin working with contractors to hopefully sell the equipment we represent. Should we be successful we will be the project managers for the job making sure submittals are delivered accurately and on time, equipment is delivered on time, and the contractor onsite knows how to handle the equipment properly.

Once everything is installed, we will assist with start-up and testing. After everything is completed and accepted, we will be the support

for the operators throughout the life of the equipment. We will have multiple jobs going at different stages of development around the state, making this job challenging and exciting! Throughout this process I’m creating longlasting relationships with individuals who know they can rely on me in the future.

What education and training have you had?

I have my bachelor of science in environmental engineering from the University of Central Florida (UCF), class of 2016. My training has mainly come from Greg Chomic and my other work colleagues. I’ve had invaluable hands-on learning experience from them that not many will receive, and I am extremely grateful. Not only that, but the operators and engineers I work with teach me new aspects of this industry every day. Prior to becoming an engineer I always held a job that was in hospitality, which pushed me to be more confident when speaking to people I’ve never met and has now helped me immensely in my career.

What do you like best about your job?

My favorite part of this job is being involved with a project in every aspect, from the cradle to the grave, so to speak. We are typically the first ones in and last ones out on a project and get to really see the fruits of our labor. I also love the flexibility this job offers. No two days are the same. I can be at the bottom of a clarifier

Iceland’s black beaches. Skogafoss waterfall in Iceland.
48 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

one day looking at repairs that need to be made and the next can be giving a presentation in an engineer’s office on a new technology.

What professional organizations do you belong to?

I am an active member of the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA), and Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA). Although I am not a member, I will sponsor the Florida Water Pollution Control and Operators Association (FWPCOA) meetings occasionally to help support the operators.

This year I took on the role as FWEA Treasure Coast Chapter chair. My goal is to grow this chapter by offering more technical meetings and social events to bring local utility leaders together. The Treasure Coast is growing rapidly and bringing everyone together to share industry trends, ideas for growth, and networking that will only help us prosper.

How have the organizations helped your career?

The central Florida student chapters of FWEA and FSAWWA connected me with

Heyward and launched me into the career I have today. At UCF I was the vice-president and then president of the student chapter club “S.E.E”, or Society of Environmental Engineers. Both years we had Greg Chomic talk to the group about what a manufacturer’s representative is and how important they are to the industry. Had the student chapters never been formed it’s hard to say whether or not I would be where I am today.

What do you like best about the industry?

I like the people. One of my biggest worries starting out was that people would be upset when I was calling them to introduce myself. I’ve found most people are incredibly friendly and willing to share their experience with me.

What do you do when you’re not working?

Lately my free time has been devoted to my newborn son, Jackson, teaching him how to role over, grab toys, giggle, pick a favorite football team, etc. In addition, my wife and I are finishing building a new house, which has taken a lot out of us. Before all of this, we enjoyed going to our local brewery with friends

Alex and his son, Jackson.

travel and were finally able to go to Iceland in March, which was a makeup honeymoon trip we couldn’t take in 2020. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 49




the latest updates on classes


October 3-5

Backflow Repair Course

October 11-14

Water Distribution 2


November 14-17

Backflow Tester Course







The course includes classroom instruction and hands-on training that utilizes a backflow prevention assembly wet lab where students will field test a double check assembly, reduced pressure principle assembly, and pressure vacuum breaker.

November 14-18

Reclaimed Water Field Inspector Winter Garden $350/380

November 17

Backflow Tester Recertification and Exams Deltona $85/115


December 6-9

Stormwater Management



Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp.

For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org.

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

50 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
go to the FWPCOA website www.fwpcoa.or g for
Member / Non Member




The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:


- Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III

- Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III

- Public Service Worker II – Stormwater

- Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater

- Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C

Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Treatment Plant Operators

The Water Treatment Plant at Village of Wellington is currently accepting applications for a full-time Water Operator. Apply online. Job postings and application are available on our website: https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice. com/employees/EmploymentOpportunities/JobDetail. aspx?req=20&sreq=5&form=WTO3&desc=OPERATOR III, WATER TREATMENT PLANT

We are located in Palm Beach County, Florida. The Village of Wellington offers great benefits. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585.


Hourly range (PG 54): $19.56 to 32.39

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Water Reclamation Superintendent, Plant Operator Trainee, Utility Asset Program Manager, Maintenance Mechanic, Laboratory Analyst Microbiology, Meter Technician, Equipment Operator. Apply at www.titusville.com


The City of Tamarac has an exciting opportunity available for a SCADA Operations Analyst.

The position performs responsible electronic and related technical and computer work in maintaining the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system located at the Water Treatment Facility, as well as remote stations located throughout the water, wastewater and stormwater systems. Provides systems management, maintenance, security and operational control over all related instrumentation infrastructure, computer equipment, communications, software and networks. Repairs, calibrates and maintains a variety of electrical and electronic monitoring and automated process control equipment at the City’s Water Treatment Facility and the water and wastewater systems. Troubleshoots, programs and makes repairs and adjustments to the SCADA system.

To learn about this exciting opportunity and to apply visit www.tamarac.org.

Outside Hire Starting Pay Range: $19.56 to $25.97 hourly depending on qualifications. Closing date: Open until filled. Excellent benefits to include employer paid health, dental, life, short & long term disability and retirement. To obtain a job application, please visit the Seacoast Utility Authority website at: http://www.sua.com/hr-careers/career-opportunities Please submit your application and resume to: Seacoast Utility Authority Human Resources Depart: HR@sua.com

Certified Water Technicians (Florida and all other markets)

City of Tampa hiring experienced Water technicians

• Up to $35 per hour depending on experience and industry licenses

• Bring your years of valve operations and water line repair and maintenance experience to our team

• Major medical/dental/comprehensive health coverage

• Pension plan

• Paid holidays

• Employer paid uniforms, safety apparel, continuous training

• Overtime opportunities

For more information inquire now at: www.tampagov.net

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2022 51


Utilities Mechanics (Maintenance Workers) Water Reclamation City of Cocoa Beach http://cityofcocoabeach.hrmdirect.com/ employment/careers.php?&internal=4680&

Utility Project Inspector

The City of Eustis is seeking a Utility Project Inspector. Please visit eustis.org for full job description, salary, & online app. Background check/drug screen required. EOE, V/P, DFWP

Utility Lead Worker

The City of Eustis is seeking a Utility Lead Worker. Please visit eustis.org for full job description, salary, & online app. Background check/drug screen required. EOE, V/P, DFWP

Seeking a Utilities Mechanic

No water or wastewater license needed. Experience performing general and routine maintenance of all mechanical and process equipment involved in the operations of a Wastewater Treatment facility. Starting Pay Range: $34,000 - $38,000/yr. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti EEO/AA/V/H/MF/ DFWP.

The City of Delray Beach is hiring for Utilities Water Treatment Plant positions, including:

WTP Operations Supervisor * Electrician

* Senior Utility Mechanic Licensed Operators * Operator Trainees

* Utility Service Workers

Please visit our website: https://www.delraybeachfl.gov/home to learn more about what Delray Beach – “The Village by the Sea” has to offer and submit your on-line application today!

Fern Crest Utilities - Multiple Positions - Davie, Fl. Fern Crest Utilities is seeking to fill positions for Dual Licensed Operators, Operator Trainee, and Utility Service Tech. Licensed operator must hold at least a C-level water or wastewater license with the ability to obtain the other within 12 months. Operator trainee must have a minimum H.S. diploma and will be required to obtain a water or wastewater license within 18 months of hire. Utility Service tech must hold a minimum H.S. diploma with some mechanical experience preferred. Email resume to styler@thiscd.org

Are you looking for your next Wastewater Operator Adventure?

Then come join our incredibly awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $37,000$39,000/yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or a Class A or B. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti EEO/AA/V/H/ MF/DFWP.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator

Salary Range: $52,645.98 - $91,161.94

(Based on license level and experience)

The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority’s WASTEWATER DIVISION IS GROWING, and we need two (2) WWTP Operators with a Florida “C” license or higher. You will perform skilled/ technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant. This requires technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform minor maintenance on plant equipment and machinery, in accordance with established standards and procedures. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Location: Cross Key and Cudjoe Key, FL. Must complete on-line application at www.fkaa.com EEO, VPE, ADA , DFWP

52 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued on page 54


page 52

Utilities Engineer

The City of Panama City Beach is hiring a Utilities Engineer.

• Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering or related field.

• Certification as an Engineer Intern or Professional Engineer in the state of Florida.

• Ability to read and interpret construction plans and use engineering design/modeling software.

• Possession or ability to readily obtain a valid driver’s license issued by the state of Florida.

To apply, visit www.pcbfl.gov

City of Zephyrhills – Now Hiring for Multiple Positions!

Wastewater Operators A,B,C Scada Specialist, Utility Service Workers, and Readers.

Excellent Benefits and Retirement Plan. Access an Application/Submit Resume at: http://www.ci.zephyrhills.fl.us/jobs or reach our Human Resources Department at 813-780-0000, ext. 3522 or 3521.

Test Yourself Answer Key

1. C) interfere with the enjoyment of life or property.

Per FAC 62-600.400(2)(a), Design Requirements, “New treatment plants and modifications to existing plants shall be designed and located on the site so as to minimize adverse effects resulting from odors, noise, aerosol drift, and lighting. The permittee shall give reasonable assurance that the treatment plant or modifications to an existing plant shall not cause odor, noise, aerosol drift, or lighting in such amounts or at such levels that they adversely affect neighboring residents, in commercial or residential areas, so as to be potentially harmful or injurious to human health or welfare or unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life or property, including outdoor recreation.”

2. B) hydrogen sulfide.

Per Advanced Waste Treatment, Chapter 1, Odor Control, Section 1.12, Hydrogen Sulfide Generation, “The main cause of most odors in wastewater systems is hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide can be detected by the human nose at a concentration as low as 0.00047 parts per mil (ppm).”

3. D) mercaptans.

Per Advanced Waste Treatment, Chapter 1, Section 1.10, Biological Generation of Odors, “Examples of organic gases found around treatment plants are mercaptans, indole, and skatole. These odorous compounds contain nitrogen- or sulfurbearing organic compounds.”


4. B) chlorination.

Per Advanced Waste Treatment, Chapter 1, Section 1.40, Chemical Treatment of Odors in Wastewater, “Chlorination is one of the oldest and most effective methods used for odor control. . . Chlorine is a very reactive chemical and, therefore, oxidizes many compounds in wastewater.”

5. B) Holistic approach

Per EPA’s Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet, “The most successful odor control programs are those that take a holistic approach and examine the complete system, from sewer users to land application practices.”

6. C) examine the operation and maintenance practices at the facility.

Per EPA’s Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet, “The most cost-effective approach to odor control may be to examine the operation and maintenance practices at the processing facility. Septic conditions

may result in a biosolids product that is more offensive than necessary. Some polymers break down into odor-forming compounds under high heat and elevated pH. Incomplete anaerobic digestion can result in worse odors than no digestion at all. Blending of raw and waste-activated sludge (WAS) prior to liquid storage can result in higher concentrations of dimethyl sulfide.”

7. A) computerized air dispersion model.

Per EPA’s Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet, “A computerized air dispersion model that addresses magnitude, frequency, and duration of events, and is calibrated and verified with onsite monitoring, can be an effective tool to predict the impact of odor emissions. This type of model may determine how much and what type of control will be necessary to prevent or minimize the impact. To accomplish this task with some certainty of success, a formal odor study should be commissioned.”

8. A) ammonia.

Per Advanced Waste Treatment, Chapter 1, Section 1.40, Chemical Treatment of Odors in Wastewater, “Advantages of hydrogen peroxide use include its effectiveness as an oxidant, its ability to inhibit the regeneration of sulfatereducing microorganisms, and the lack of toxic byproducts. Disadvantages of hydrogen peroxide include its inability to treat ammonia or odorous organics, the contact time required for effective odor control (15 minutes to 2 hours), and its high cost.”

9. B) Biofilters

Per EPA’s Biosolids Odor Control Fact Sheet, “Biofilters remove odors from a foul air stream by the adsorption and absorption of odor-causing compounds onto a natural media bed where microorganisms oxidize the compounds. The indigenous bacteria and other microorganisms of the media acclimate to the compounds present and are sufficient to provide the “scrubbing” action; no bacterial innoculation or chemical addition is required.”

10. C) masking.

Per Advanced Waste Treatment, “Odor masking is accomplished by mixing the odorous compound with a control agent. The masking agent or chemical has a stronger and supposedly more-pleasant odor quality which, when mixed with the odorous compound, results in a more-pleasant odor than the odorous compound.”

54 October 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal Blue Planet Environmental
55 Carollo Engineers 15 CEU Challenge 28 Data Flow Systems 49 Ferguson Waterworks 47 Florida Water Resources Conference 11 FSAWWA 2022 Fall Conference 22-27 FWPCOA Training Calendar 50 Gerber Pumps 9 Heyward 2 Hudson Pump & Equipment 37 Hydro International 5 InfoSence 52 Lakeside Equipment Corporation 7 Mead & Hunt 46 Polyprocessing 33 UF TREEO Center 41 US Submergent 29 US Water Services Corporation 53 Water Treatment & Controls Technology 18 Xylem 56 YSI 19 Display Advertiser Index
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