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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

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Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 Emergency Force Main Replacement in Downtown Ft. Lauderdale—Richard Crow and Daniel Davila

36 Resilient Solutions to Maximize Infrastructure Investments—Holly Kremers and David L. Anthony

22 FSAWWA Fall Conference Youth Program Robot Challenge 23 FSAWWA Fall Conference Students and Young Professionals Activities 41 FWPCOA Training Calendar 45 TREEO Center Training


57 WEF HQ Newsletter: Reimagine Credentialing With the Professional Operator Program—Lisa Dirksen 61 News Beat

Technical Articles 8 Wastewater Treatment Capacity Strategy to Meet Projected Growth—Karen Lowe, Gina Cashon, and Andreia Kendall

26 How a Growing Asset Management Program Helped to Identify the Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Replacement Needs for the Tampa Water Department—Brian D. Pickard and Amanda Schwerman

46 The Environmentally Sensitive Force Main Replacement for Boca Ciega Bay: Taming Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology—Francisco J. Bohorquez,

24 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Michael F. Bailey 32 Reader Profile—Ronald R. Cavalieri 34 Let’s Talk Safety: Safety Tips for Employees Working Remotely or Alone 40 FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney 42 C Factor—Mike Darrow 44 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 55 Contractors Roundup: BestValue/Qualification-Based Selection as a Another Procurement Tool—Adam Corn

Departments 59 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

David Wilcox, Mathew Francis, Dennis Simpson, Dinesh Kamath, Dalas Lamberson, and David Hunniford

Education and Training 14 Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers 15 CEU Challenge 16 FSAWWA Fall Conference Preliminary Calendar 17 FSAWWA Fall Conference Registration Form 18 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview 19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night, Happy Hour, and Golf Tournament 20 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions 21 FSAWWA Water Distribution Systems Awards

Volume 70

ON THE COVER: Due to sea level rise, it’s not unusual to see standing water on the streets of Miami Beach during seasonal high tides without any rainfall, creating “sunny day flooding.” For more information, see page 36. (photos: Google Images)

October 2019

Number 10

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Emergency Force Main Replacement in Downtown Ft. Lauderdale Richard Crow and Daniel Davila

The City of Fort Lauderdale was experiencing several leaks in one of its main wastewater transmission lines. Point repairs to address the force main issues were no longer an option for the city as it concluded that the main was in dire need of replacement and/or rehabilitation. These leaks adversely affected the surrounding communities, leading to an extensive and costly cleanup program to remove and remediate the contamination. Having another break within the city’s communities was not an option, so it had to act fast. The city issued an emergency response proposal for a trenchless approach to rehabilitate and install new force mains. Murphy Pipeline Contractors Inc., in association with DBE Utility Services and Chen Moore and Associates Inc., collectively known as the Murphy Pipeline Contractors Team (MPC), was awarded the emergency designbuild services contract with the city. It was estimated that the damaged force

main had cost the city over $10 million in pumping and sewage hauling. The MPC team acted quickly with the trenchless design and construction to bring the city’s transmission system back online. The technologies implemented in this emergency project were able to deliver the project on time and within budget, saving the city millions of dollars in additional sewage hauling. Once the team was selected by the city, it began work in less than two months. The design was submitted, construction was permitted, and the team was immediately out in the neighborhoods starting the construction.

Selecting an Approach and Materials Trenchless technology was the correct approach for this project based on the urban landscape from the recently rejuvenated Sistrunk Blvd., which is abundant with familyowned local businesses. Additionally, downtown businesses and nightlife relied on

Compression-Fit High-Density Polyethylene Lining Process

Phase 1.


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

local traffic, making this approach optimal. In the material selection process for the pipeline project, the city and the team selected high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for its jointless system, long life cycle, and strength to protect against corrosion. The team had the widest array of trenchless technology experience available to meet the city’s emergency needs, while still providing the least disruption to the residents and business owners along the force main’s path. The team worked diligently with city staff to provide a wide variety of options, while preparing for the difficult schedule constraints for the emergency work. Through the discussions with the city, the team presented several options, from pipe bursting, compression-fit HDPE lining, and horizontal directional drilling (HDD). The team and the city derived from the project’s needs and existing conditions the trenchless approaches for each phase of the project. As pipe bursting was presented for phase Continued on page 6

Compression-Fit High-Density Polyethylene Lining

Phase 2.

Phase 3.

Phase 4.

Continued from page 4 3 during the initial investigations, the existing conditions limited the pipe burst runs due to the abandoned line being cut up and segmented many years ago. Additionally, due to the shallow depth of the existing 24-inch line, pipe bursting wasn’t the preferred option. The project scope per the four phases requested consisted of the following:

of the major city collector roads and a highdensity mixed-use area, is comprised of approximately 6,100 linear feet of HDD (to be installed utilizing two bores) and approximately 200 linear feet of open cut 30inch PVC for the connections. The construction required coordination with regulatory agencies, utility providers, and Broward County for the closure and/or relocation of bus stops.

Phase 1: Close-Fit HDPE Liner, 2,400 Linear Feet of Existing Broken 30-Inch Force Main The installation was comprised of approximately 700 linear feet of HDD under Tarpon River (part of the federal waters of the United States), approximately 750 linear feet of open cut, and approximately 1,950 linear feet of close-fit HDPE liner. The construction took place in a high-end residential neighborhood, which required close coordination with the contractor and the city.

Phase 4: Close-Fit, HDPE Liner, 8,200 Linear Feet of Existing 30-Inch Force Main The installation, in a highly dense mixeduse area, mainly along N.W. 5th St. and N.W. 9th Ave., was comprised of approximately 8,2000 linear feet of close-fit HDPE liner.

Phase 2: HDD, 1,600 Linear Feet of 30-Inch Force Main The installation, in a highly urbanized area of downtown Fort Lauderdale, was comprised of approximately 1400 linear feet of HDD and approximately 250 linear feet of open cut 30-inch polyvinyl chloride (PVC) on the east end of the project. Phase 3: HDD, 6,400 Linear Feet of 30-Inch Force Main The installation along Sistrunk Blvd., one


Major Success of the Project The markers of success of the project include: S The time from submittal to shovels in the ground was 60 days. S There were zero accident incidents. S The aggressive project timeline of six months was met for phases 1 through 3, even with the disruption through Hurricane Irma. S Significant reduction in physical impact: 30inch force mains were located down narrow residential streets and through downtown areas in the business/entertainment district. Traffic-flow impact was minimized by using trenchless methods of compression-fit

October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

HDPE pipe lining and HDD, including speed of installation. S Significant reduction in environmental impact: Excavations were reduced by 92 percent versus open cut, including areas that had new surface improvements, which the client preferred not to disturb, and mature landscaping. With existing force mains leaking, the speed of the project delivery eliminated the potential for waterway contamination, as the project was located along intercoastal waterways. S Significant reduction in economic impact: The design-build approach, coupled with trenchless methods of compression-fit HDPE pipe lining and HDD with the installation of HDPE pipe, helped save significant dollars over other construction methods. The HDPE pipe selected for the force main is a major shift for municipalities, as they usually base their decisions on why existing legacy host pipes (ductile iron/cast iron) are failing. The major failure mechanism for clients with legacy pipe is corrosion and cyclical fatigue. The city’s location is among highly corrosive areas due to its proximity to salt water and salinity within the ground. This project demonstrates the feasibility of HDPE pipe as a long-term solution for clients to solve these two major failure mechanisms. This project also demonstrates what can be achieved on an emergency basis—and in a short period of time—by installing HDPE pipe with trenchless methods and qualified contractors. Richard Crow is regional manager with Murphy Pipeline Contractors Inc. in Jacksonville, and Daniel Davila is headquarters branch manager with Chen, Moore and Associates Inc. in Fort Lauderdale. S


Wastewater Treatment Capacity Strategy to Meet Projected Growth Karen Lowe, Gina Cashon, and Andreia Kendall

Karen Lowe, P.E., PMP, is project manager/engineer, and Gina Cashon, P.E., BCEE, is senior hydraulic specialist, with CDM Smith in Tampa. At the time this article was written, Andreia Kendall was an engineering associate in the Public Utilities Department at Hillsborough County in Tampa.

illsborough County (county) is located on the west coast of Florida in the central portion of the state, as shown in Figure 1. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,266 sq mi, is the fourth-most-populous county in Florida, and the most-populous county outside the Miami metropolitan area. The Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department (PUD) provides drinking water treatment, wastewater treatment, and re-


Table 1. Hillsborough County population and project growth projections.

Figure 1. Location of Hillsborough County within the state of Florida (in red) .


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

claimed water service to unincorporated parts of the county. The county’s PUD service areas are divided into the northwest service area and the south-central service area, which include four water treatment plants, six wastewater treatment plants, and a biosolids facility between the two service areas. To meet anticipated demands for new water and wastewater service, the PUD’s planning department continuously reviews population and growth projections to plan for new infrastructure and treatment facilities. Planning, however, comes with challenges. Economic variability can make predicting the size and timing for new utility infrastructure difficult. Table 1 presents the population growth and projected growth data from the county’s 2018 Annual Economic Development Indicators Report, which shows a 15.09 percent growth rate between the years 2010-2018. In comparison, the county’s 2015 Annual Economic Development Indicators Report showed a much lower 6.43 percent growth rate. To further illustrate the long-term variability of the county's population growth, Figure 2 presents the year-toyear percent change from 1970-2017. The average annual percent change for the overall 48-year period is also illustrated in this figure to provide a benchmark for gauging periods of relatively

Figure 2. Hillsborough County's year-to-year population growth from 1970-2017.

high—and relatively low—growth against the backdrop of the long-term average. The highest rate of new growth is currently occurring within the south-central service area, and this article focuses more specifically on the planning for wastewater treatment capacity within this service area. For strategic planning, the county’s goals include maximizing the use of existing infrastructure, ensuring the right capacity is in place at the right time, and selecting growth alternatives that provide the highest return on investment. To meet the anticipated wastewater capacity needs for a planning period through the year 2040, the county engaged CDM Smith to evaluate the following three strategies: 1. Maximizing treatment capacities at the existing advanced wastewater treatment plants (AWTPs) through the potential use of alternative treatment technologies. 2. Modification or addition of conveyance system pump stations to allow the redirection of wastewater flows between the south-central service area AWTPs. 3. Construction of an additional AWTP within this service area.

Figure 3. Location and service areas for South County, Falkenberg, and Valrico advanced wastewater treatment plants.

Existing System The county’s south-central service area includes the following three existing AWTPs: S Falkenburg AWTP - permitted for 12 mil gal per day (mgd) annual average daily flow (AADF) S South County AWTP - permitted for 10 mgd AADF S Valrico AWTP - permitted for 12 mgd AADF The location and service areas for the three south-central AWTPs are presented in Figure 3.

Figure 4. Falkenburg advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections and permitted capacity at 90 gpcd.

Population and Capacity Projections The county utilizes population projections provided by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFMWD) based on the Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR) data. “The Geospatial Small-Area Population Forecasting (GSAPF) Model Methodology Used by the Southwest Florida Water Management District” (January 24, 2018), prepared by GIS Associates Inc., documents the process of converting the BEBR 2017 medium population projections by county (available in five-year increments from 2020 to 2045) into parcel-level projections that are then summarized by water utility service area boundaries. The SWFWMD projections are refined by the county and are allocated to the parcel level to Continued on page 10

Figure 5. South County advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections and permitted capacity at 90 gpcd. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Continued from page 9 identify population by “sewer sheds” based on topography and location of county pump stations. The population by sewer sheds is then aggregated into the three AWTP service areas. Thus, the

BEBR population projections at five-year intervals starting in 2020 were converted into population projections at five-year intervals for the three AWTP service areas.

Wastewater Treatment Flow Projections The population projections were multiplied by a value of 90 gal per capita per day (gpcd), which is the planning-level value provided in the county’s comprehensive plan. The resulting flow projections and permitted capacity for each of the south-central service area AWTPs are presented in Figures 4 through 6.

Historical Flows and Projections

Figure 6. Valrico advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections and permitted capacity at 90 gpcd. Table 2. Calculated gpcd values for the south-central service area.

Figure 7. South County advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections using 62 gpcd (historical 52 gpcd plus 10 gpcd).


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The historical population and annual average influent flow data for each AWTP service area were provided by the county for the years 2014 through 2017. A historical look back was conducted to calculate the actual gpcd per year at each AWTP, with results presented in Table 2. The calculated gpcd results are all lower than the 90-gpcd value utilized during for planning purposes. The highest differences were noted for the South County AWTP and the Valrico AWTP service areas, showing reductions of 38 gpcd (9052) and 29 gpcd (90-61) respectively. There are multiple factors that can impact flows within a service area: 1. Older service areas tend to have aging infrastructure, and flow may increase due to groundwater infiltration into leaky pipes and inflow of stormwater during heavy rain events. Comparison of flow contribution during wet and dry periods can be utilized to further evaluate actual gpcd flows to those predicted. 2. Areas of new construction require connection to wastewater service, leading to higher flow rates on a per capita basis. Service areas that encompass older developments include residences on private septic tank services, which can account for lower-than-anticipated per capita flow contributions. 3. The mix of commercial, industrial, and residential services and occupancy rates within the wastewater contribution area can also impact flow contributions within a service area. Assigning various gpcd flow projections based on the type of wastewater contribution may allow for a refined prediction of flows during planning phases. The difference in actual gpcd flows into the three south-central service area wastewater treatment plants are noted in Table 2. As the factors stated previously can change over time, it’s essential to review historical flow data and continuously refine flow projections. The Falkenburg AWTP had a notably higher gpcd flow, which may be due to infiltration and inflow (I&I). The county has an active project to evaluate I&I; if I&I were Continued on page 12

Figure 8. Valrico advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections using 71 gpcd (historical 61 gpcd plus 10 gpcd).

Table 3. Potential increased wastewater treatment plant capacities.

Continued from page 10 significantly reduced, the project could extend the available capacity at the Falkenburg AWTP. The 90-gpcd value is appropriate for planning and is used in the evaluations provided in subsequent subsections. In order to visualize the future capacity impacts using the historical gpcd values, flow projection graphs were created using the 20142017 average gpcd values (Table 2), plus a buffer of 10 gpcd. The historical gpcd and the 10-gpcd buffer graphs for the South County and Valrico AWTPs are presented as Figures 7 and 8, respectively. Because the Falkenburg AWTP historical-calculated gpcd is at 80 gpcd, no additional graph was provided for the Falkenburg AWTP. Utilizing a projection of 62 gpcd for the South County AWTP results in a shift of two years (from 2025 to 2027), when this facility is projected to meet capacity. Utilizing a projection of 71 gpcd for the Valrico AWTP shifts the date, when this facility would be projected to exceed capacity past the end of the 2040 study period.

Project Alternatives to Meet Wastewater Capacity Needs Three strategies were evaluated to provide additional/new wastewater treatment capacity: 1. Maximizing treatment capacities at the existing AWTPs through the potential use of alternative treatment technologies. 2. Modification or addition of conveyance system pump stations to allow the redirection of wastewater flows between the south-central service area AWTPs. 3. Construction of an additional AWTP within this service area.

Alternate Treatment Technologies at Existing Wastewater Treatment Plants As part of the south and central area wastewater expansion study, the following three expansion alternatives identified by the county’s PUD were reviewed and evaluated to increase the capacity of the Falkenburg and South County AWTPs: 1. Addition of a fifth biological nutrient removal (BNR) bioreactor. 2. Incorporating integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) in the existing BNR bioreactors. 3. Incorporating magnetite-ballasted activated sludge (BioMag®) in the existing BNR bioreactors.

Figure 9. Falkenburg advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections at 90 gpcd with treatment alternatives.


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The evaluation resulted in potential increased capacities at the Falkenburg and South County AWTPs, as shown in Table 3. Since the Valrico AWTP had the greatest remaining ca-

pacity over the study period, alternative treatment technologies were not evaluated for this facility. To show the potential impacts to the wastewater treatment plant capacity projections, the 90-gpcd flow projection graphics presented as Figures 4 and 5 were updated to include the potential gained capacities, as noted in Table 3. The updated graphics for the Falkenburg and South County AWTPs are presented as Figures 9 and 10. For the Falkenburg AWTP, Figure 9 indicates that implementing one of the proposed treatment alternatives has the potential to extend the available treatment capacity beyond the 2040 study period; however, this is not the case for the South County AWTP. Figure 10 indicates that, even with implementing one of the proposed treatment alternatives, the South County AWTP still exceeds the available treatment capacity within the 2040 study period. The alternative treatment technologies indicate that additional investigations would be required to confirm the anticipated additional treatment capacities.

Figure 10. South County advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections at 90 gpcd with treatment alternatives.

Flow Transfer Alternatives Within the Conveyance System As part of the south and central area wastewater expansion study, six flow transfer alternatives were reviewed and evaluated. The county has expressed interest in further pursuing Flow Diversion Alternative 6, which includes the construction of a new Valrico East Master Pump Station. Flow Diversion Alternative 6 would divert portions of the Valrico east service area away from the Nature’s Way Master Pump Station via a new Valrico East Master Pump Station and new force mains. The diversion of flow away from the Nature’s Way Master Pump Station would allow that station to be utilized to divert flow from the Falkenburg AWTP service area to the Valrico AWTP, without the need to upgrade that station. The estimated potential AADF diversion for Alternative 6 was 1.23 mgd, which would be diverted from the Falkenburg AWTP to the Valrico AWTP. To show potential impacts to the wastewater treatment plant capacity projections, the 90-gpcd flow projection graphics (presented as Figures 4 through 6) were updated to include the potential transferred AADF of 1.23 mgd. To allow time for design and construction, it was assumed that the flow transfer would begin in 2021. The updated graphics for the Falkenburg and Valrico AWTPs are presented as Figures 11 and 12. The transfer of 1.23 mgd AADF delays the potential permitted capacity exceedance for the Continued on page 14

Figure 11. Falkenburg advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections at 90 gpcd with Flow Diversion Alternative 6.

Figure 12. Valrico advanced wastewater treatment plant flow projections at 90 gpcd with Flow Diversion Alternative 6. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Continued from page 13 Falkenburg AWTP by four years, shifting from 2021 to 2025; however, it accelerates the potential capacity exceedance at the Valrico AWTP forward by five years, moving from 2037 to 2032. The transfer of flow does provide additional time for the county to implement longer-term solutions to meet the anticipated treatment requirements for future wastewater flows. Additional confirmations for the quantity of flow that may be diverted, and impacts within the

existing conveyance system, will require further evaluation.

New South-Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility As part of the south and central area wastewater expansion study, the implementation of a new South-Central Regional Water Reclamation Facility (SCRWRF) was reviewed and evaluated. This facility would eventually replace the South

County AWTP, while also treating the excess flows from the Falkenberg and Valrico AWTPs once flows exceed their permitted treatment capacity. A two-phase construction schedule was envisioned for the SCRWRF, with the construction of a new AWTP starting in 2025 and an additional expansion to follow. A holistic approach to allow flow diversions between the south-central service area AWTPs and create operational flexibility should be taken under consideration. Flow distribution allocations for the diversions from the three existing south-central service area AWTPs could be adjusted based on realized flows and adjusted projections. Should the county proceed with the implementation of Flow Diversion Alternative 6, additional flow may be diverted from the Valrico AWTP. A new SCRWRF would allow the county to optimize flow diversions based on the capacities and operations at the Falkenburg, South County, and Valrico AWTPs.

Summary The county has taken a proactive approach to plan for the future wastewater treatment capacities that will be required, based on current population and flow projections. The flow diversion alternatives looked at ways to optimize the distribution of flows between the south-central service areas three existing AWTPs. Flow transfer alternatives present opportunities to maximize the use of existing infrastructure and present short-term solutions to treatment capacity challenges. The treatment alternatives presented a potential long-term solution for the Falkenburg AWTP, but did not offer a long-term solution for the South County AWTP. A new south-central regional AWTP provides for a long-term solution and offers operational flexibility. The options evaluated are not mutually exclusive, and the county may opt to implement one or more strategies. When evaluating strategies, numerous factors must be considered, including: S Short-term strategies S Long-term strategies S Cost-to-benefit ratios S Operational challenges S Operation and maintenance costs S Mutual benefits that may be realized S Systemwide operational flexibility S Reliability S Environmental impacts Strategies may develop over time. Flow projections rely on the best available information at the time of the evaluation. Projections should be continuously reviewed and updated to allow for adjustments to occur when feasible. S


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

The Environmentally Sensitive Force Main Replacement for Boca Ciega Bay: Taming Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology

Wastewater Treatment Capacity Strategy to Meet Projected Growth

Francisco J. Bohorquez, David Wilcox, Matthew Francis, Dennis Simpson, Dinesh Kamath, Dalas Lamberson, and David Hunniford

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW02015353)

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015352)

1. Once replaced with the new force main crossing, the existing pipeline will be a. rehabilitated and used as a backup sanitary sewer force main. b. removed. c. grouted in place and abandoned. d. converted for nonsanitary sewer purposes. 2. Compared to horizontal directional drilling (HDD), an advantage of tunneling is that it a. is less costly. b. eliminates the chance of mud leakage. c. allows future pipeline maintenance access. d. can be completed more quickly. 3. ______________ pipe was rejected due to tensile stress safety concerns. a. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) b. Ductile iron c. Steel d. Fusible polyvinyl chloride (FPVC) 4. The release of drilling mud from the borehole upward to ground surface is known as a. bore hole collapse. b. occlusion. c. frac-out. d. recirculation. 5. The thickest-common 24-in. FPVC pipe dimension ratio is a. 11. b. 14. c. 18. d. 35.

Karen Lowe, Gina Cashon, and Andreia Kendall

1. Older service areas with aging infrastructure are typically characterized by a. reduced flow due to leakage losses. b. increased flow due to groundwater infiltration. c. lower flow attributable to older plumbing fixtures. d. increased flow attributable to newer plumbing fixtures. 2. Which of the evaluated alternative technologies was determined to offer the greatest treatment plant capacity increase? a. Adding a fifth bioreactor b. Integrated fixed-film activated sludge c. Magnetite-ballasted activated sludge d. Adding an aerator 3. Flow Diversion Alternative 6 _______________of the treatment plants a. did not defer the need to expand any b. deferred the need to expand one c. did not accelerate the need to expand any d. accelerated the need to expand two 4. The county’s comprehensive plan establishes a planning level wastewater flow of ____ gal per capita per day (gpcd). a. 52 b. 61 c. 80 d. 90 5. Which of the following is not specifically listed as a strategic county wastewater planning goal? a. Regionalization of wastewater transmission and treatment systems b. Provide the highest return on investment c. Maximizing use of existing infrastructure d. Ensuring the right capacity is in place at the right time

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019



Past Chairs Fully Engaged with FSAWWA ello and welcome to October! Hard to believe it’s fall already (is there even a fall in Florida?). The section had a busy summer, and the following is an update of two of our more notable events.


Michael F. Bailey, P.E.

Past Chairs Summit


Our 12th annual Past Chairs Summit and dinner was held on August 8-9 in Celebration. Each year, this event turns out to be one of the most enjoyable and informative meetings we

host. The primary purpose of the meeting is to provide a platform for the current Executive Committee to inform the past chairs of the state of the section and its business, and solicit input and advice on our future direction and priorities. It’s also a great venue for the past chairs to reunite, see old friends, and swap stories. The summit has become a great opportunity for today’s leadership to meet and connect with section leaders of the past; their knowledge and experiences are invaluable tools as we look to the future of the section. Many thanks to Peggy Guingona, our executive director, and her staff for producing the event! This year’s summit clearly demonstrated the dedication and commitment of our past chairs, and I’m very proud to report that 19 chairs attended, representing 33 years of executive experience: Tim Brodeur, 1986-1987 Robert Claudy, 1987-1988 Pete Robinson, 1996-1997

The past chairs pose before dinner. In the front row are Mark Lehigh, Jeff Nash, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Grace Johns, Rick Ratcliffe, Kim Kunihiro, and Bob Claudy. The back row includes Bill Young, Luis Aguiar, John Hagelskamp, Richard Coates, Pete Robinson, Pat Lehman, Carl Larrabee, Richard Anderson, Matt Alvarez, and Chuck Carden (not pictured: Tim Brodeur and Jason Parrillo). Above: At the summit dinner are (left to right) Helen Lehman, Tim and Rene Brodeur, and Annie Claudy.

Summit attendees listen to a presentation by Mike Bailey (standing far right).


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Also at the dinner are (left to right) Mark Lehigh, Fred Bloetscher, and Jason Parrillo.

Luis Aguiar, 1998-1999 Pat Lehman, 1999-2000 Jeff Nash, 2001-2002 Richard Coates, 2002-2003 John Hagelskamp, 2004-2005 Matt Alvarez, 2007-2008 Ana Maria Gonzalez, 2008-2009 Chuck Carden, 2009-2010 Richard Anderson, 2010-2011 Rick Ratcliffe, 2011-2012 Jason Parrillo, 2012-2013 Carl Larrabee, 2013-2014 Mark Lehigh, 2014-2015 Kim Kunihiro, 2015-2016 Grace Johns, 2016-2017 Bill Young, 2017-2018

Todd Swingle, and Greg Munson, who presented “Water Utility Challenges and Opportunities.” Paul Steinbrecher, Lynn Spivey (who prepared a presentation but was unable to attend due to Emergency Operations Center [EOC] activation), Brian Wheeler, and Laura Donaldson presented “Potable Reuse Commission: A Status Update and Next Steps.” I want to thank them for their participation, particularly with the specter of Hurricane Dorian approaching.

Finally, I’m sure I speak for all of us in offering our sincerest sympathies to our brothers and sisters in the Bahamas who are struggling with the utter destruction wrought by Hurricane Dorian. Your FSAWWA staff has already reached out to officials involved in the relief efforts and I’m sure that, by the time you read this column, the section will have taken steps to assist in the island’s recovery. S

I was pleased to provide a “state of the section” report to the chairs, after which we held a roundtable discussion highlighting what they felt the section was doing well and where there were opportunities for improvement and innovation. Suggestions included the following: S Website improvements S Greater involvement in Florida governmental initiatives related to water S Soliciting FSAWWA members as candidates to run for AWWA president The chairs’ recommendations were thoughtful and thought-provoking, and I wish to sincerely thank them and our section staff for making this a meaningful and worthwhile event. I also want to thank our Executive Committee members Bill Young, Kim Kowalski, Fred Bloetscher, Greg Taylor, Emilie Moore, Mark Lehigh, and Ana Maria Gonzalez for being there. Your attendance definitely enriched the conversations.

Presentation 1 participants are (left to right) Rep. Stan McClain (R-Ocala) as moderator, and panelists Greg Munson, Gunster; Monica Autrey, Destin Water Users; Todd Swingle, Toho Water Authority; Lisa Wilson-Davis, City of Boca Raton; and Kevin Carter, Broward County.

Florida Water Forum The 10th annual Florida Water Forum was held on August 29-30 at the Loews Sapphire Falls Resort at Universal Orlando. This was my first forum, which is sponsored in part by FSAWWA, and I found it to be very interesting. The forum brings together a broad mix of elected officials, regulators, environmentalists, utilities, and business executives to discuss the current issues surrounding the availability and sustainability of our water resources and a healthy environment, all of which directly affect our business climate, ability to grow as a state, and quality of life. I’m pleased to report that several FSAWWA officers and members were panelists in two presentations, and their knowledge and expertise reflected very well on the section. Special thanks to Lisa Wilson-Davis, Kevin Carter, Monica Autrey,

Presentation 2 participants include (left to right) Rep. Bobby Payne (R-Palatka) as moderator, and panelists Laura Donaldson, Manson Bolves Donaldson Varn; Paul Steinbrecher, JEA; Kerry Kates, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association; and Brian Wheeler, City of St. Cloud.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019



How a Growing Asset Management Program Helped to Identify the Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Replacement Needs for the Tampa Water Department Brian D. Pickard and Amanda Schwerman he City of Tampa Water Department (department) has a mission to deliver highquality water and provide exceptional customer experiences in a safe, reliable, efficient, and sustainable manner to a population of 620,000 people within a 220-sq-mi area. This article focuses on the department’s expanding asset management program and how it supports the pipeline rehabilitation and replacement (R&R) program necessary to fulfill its mission. Summary statistics for this infrastructure are as follows: S 2,160 mi of piping S 49,704 valves S 14,273 hydrants S 144,555 service connections S Assets aged up to 99 years


The department’s efforts to address aging infrastructure have been ongoing for many years. Due to the aging infrastructure concerns, recent efforts have focused on pipeline R&R, with expanded emphasis placed on risk-based prioritization and rate of replacement. These efforts are closely coupled with the department’s ongoing efforts to improve its asset management program.

Tampa Water Department Asset Management Program Quantifying needs and available resources, along with evaluating existing organizational processes, are admirable first steps towards understanding how to best address R&R gaps. The department began to tackle this through assessing its asset management program and other organizational dynamics as part of its 2015 potable water master plan update. This process compared department procedures with the ISO 55000:2014, asset management standards. The comparison resulted in several incremental steps for the department to improve its existing operation across the entire utility, including its R&R program. The department has since made considerable asset management program improvements, including the following: S Goal development  The department will operate sustainably and be rated competent or better in all ISO 55001:2014, asset management and management system requirements, and maturity assessment categories.  The department’s asset management program will pursue a sustainable and optimal balance among delivered service levels, risk, and total life cycle cost.

Figure 1. The department continues to build on prior efforts to improve its pipeline rehabilitation and replacement program.


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Brian D. Pickard, P.E., is the chief planning engineer at the Tampa Water Department and Amanda Schwerman, P.E., is the planning and asset management lead at Black & Veatch in Tampa.

S Five-year strategic asset management plan and framework development S Improved capital improvement needs forecasting S Risk score assignment to all pipe and valve assets S Water main break metric compilation S Improved document control and recordkeeping for department policies, standard operating procedures (SOPs), operation and maintenance (O&M) manuals, strategic plans, and technical manuals Next steps for the department’s asset management program include the following: S Developing individual asset management plans for key asset types (pipes, valves, meters, hydrants, etc.) S Polishing existing databases  Asset installation year and material types  Main and service breaks  SOPs for database maintenance S Improving computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) utilization  Expand the vertical asset registry to include 100 percent of vertical assets  Improve capture of asset condition and criticality information with minimal additional effort from department O&M staff  Improve capture of valve condition information S Finalizing an American Water Works Association (AWWA) M36 water audit S Generating a department technology master plan

S Generating a department resource plan S Updating the department’s technical manual Recent accomplishments related to improved R&R planning rely on prior accomplishments. The department’s use of geographic information systems (GIS) to prioritize pipeline R&R projects began in 2003 or earlier. By 2006 all known unlined cast iron, galvanized, and asbestos cement pipe segments were loaded into the department’s GIS and assigned a R&R priority based on a costto-benefit ratio. By 2015 all department pipelines, along with reasonably complete attribute data, were entered into the department’s GIS. As of 2018 all department pipeline segments have been assigned an R&R prioritization score based on a complete risk assessment, incorporating both likelihood and consequence of failure. These recent asset management program efforts have made significant strides toward the ability to forecast long-term pipeline R&R needs and improving the efficiency and accuracy of R&R prioritization.

Identifying Infrastructure Needs The department routinely updates its master plans by leveraging ever-improving technology that allows better decisions to be made regarding how to best utilize available funding. The most recent distribution system master plan update improved the methods used for: S Quantifying the gap between pipeline R&R needs and available funding S Pipeline R&R prioritization Pipeline Rehabilitation and Replacement Prioritization The necessity of leveraging technology to process the large amounts of data needed to effectively prioritize projects is an ongoing challenge facing most water utilities. Fortunately, the department has heavily invested in GIS and the corresponding databases that warehouse many asset characteristics and maintenance records. The most recent distribution system master plan update was completed in 2018 and improved upon past practices. Specifically, a commercially available software package was utilized to better automate risk-score calculations for nearly 90,000 pipeline segments owned and maintained by the department. Risk is defined as the product of likelihood of failure (LOF) and consequence of failure (COF). The department hosted multiple workshops to identify scoring criteria and the corresponding weightings. The selected criteria to quantify risk for the department’s pipelines are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Considerable effort was expended to format and generate databases capable of being processed

by the software package. The effort associated with estimating remaining life for each pipe segment is of particular interest and assists with both prioritizing replacements and identifying funding needs. The department’s GIS and main break database were utilized to estimate pipeline life expectancies; specifically, survival curves were extrapolated to estimate the age when 50 percent of pipeline segments made from a particular material are expected to fail. It was noted that this threshold can be increased or decreased based on each utility’s individual policies or circumstances. Although this topic has been studied extensively by others, the effort to compare department estimates with AWWA-published estimates (Table 3) was considered valuable to understand the department’s specific conditions. The resulting risk scores are color-coded in Figure 2. The city uses this as a tool to efficiently shortlist pipe segments for R&R consideration. Segments are then manually reviewed to validate model results prior to being added to the city’s capital improvement program. An effort is made to replace segments “street corner to street corner” and to combine higher-risk pipeline segments within the same neighborhood into single projects. This is believed to minimize overall neighborhood disruptions and has an added benefit of simplifying recordkeeping requirements.

Quantifying Pipeline Needs Water pipeline needs have three primary drivers, as shown in Figure 3. The methods used to quantify the needs of each category vary. Pipeline R&R needs were based on the risk prioritization described previously, with a high weighting on remaining useful life. The Continued on page 28

Table 2. Consequence of Failure Criteria and Weightings

Table 1. Likelihood of Failure Criteria and Weightings

Table 3. Department’s Pipe Life Expectancy Estimate Versus AWWA-Published Estimates

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Figure 2. Automated Pipeline Risk Score Results Shown by Color

Continued from page 27 2015 distribution system master plan update utilized demand forecasting and hydraulic modeling techniques to identify needs for level-of-service improvements. Development-driven pipeline needs are identified through a utility service application process and funded by private developers. The R&R improvements were identified as the greatest financial need of the three drivers. Criteria developed for the risk-based prioritization described were built upon to forecast pipeline R&R needs for the next 100-plus years. The department selected a 2018-2103 study period to consider the relatively long lifespan of water pipeline assets. A desktop analysis was completed to estimate R&R needs by year, considering the various pipeline installation dates and lifespan estimates. The spreadsheet model includes the cost of replacing services in conjunction with pipeline R&R projects and occasional fire hydrant rehabilitation at a frequency greater than the pipeline replacement frequency. The result is a spreadsheet model forecasting the replacement value of endof-life pipelines annually through 2103 (Figure 4). The initial 2018 value reflects department water mains past their estimated useful life. Two remarkable results were obtained: S A significant volume of pipeline assets are already beyond their projected lifespan. S There is a notable increase in pipelines reaching the end of their useful life in 2040. The increased replacement needs starting in 2040 are believed to be correlated with post-World

Figure 3. Three Generalized Drivers Impact Total Water Pipeline Needs


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 4. Pipelines Reaching End of Life Forecasted Through 2103

War II growth in the 1950s. This is illustrated by the pipeline installation date distribution shown in Figure 5. Cast iron pipe has an estimated 86-year lifespan (Table 3), so cast iron installed in the 1950s will be due to be replaced after 2040. Considering the R&R backlog and forecasted R&R needs, the department decided to investigate the funding level required to eliminate the backlog prior to the forecasted increased R&R needs in 2040. An analysis of the department’s fiscal year 2017 (FY17) pipeline R&R budget yielded an average pipeline R&R funding level of $9.4 million annually. If the department continued to maintain that funding level, the backlog would continue increasing (Figure 6); however, if the R&R funding were increased to $33.5 million/year, then the backlog would be eliminated, thus freeing future funds to address the R&R needs beginning in 2040. Figure 6 illustrates the projected pipeline R&R backlog at $9.4 million/year and $33.5 million/year funding levels. The R&R “gap” is defined as the difference between the current funding level and the needed funding level. The R&R “gap” was identified by utilizing available GIS information and estimating the service life of Tampa-specific water mains. This Continued on page 30

Figure 5. Pipeline Installation Date Distribution Reflects an Increased Number of Pipelines Being Installed Beginning in the 1950s

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Continued from page 29 process allowed the department to understand the asset volume already beyond end of life and the asset volume that is projected to reach end of life each year for decades into the future. The utilized approach also allows for dynamic riskbased prioritization of distribution system R&R needs. The goal is to reassess the pipeline risk of failure on a yearly basis and to adapt to the everchanging conditions affecting the distribution system. The concepts and approaches used thus far are key components of effective asset management programs.

Converting Studies and Goals Into Action Since the distribution system master plan update concluded in November 2018, the department’s senior leadership has combined forces to develop a program named Progressive Infrastructure Planning to Ensure Sustainability (PIPES). This multifaceted program includes master planning, rate and fee studies, public involvement campaigns, and right-sizing city engineering and inspection staff to address increasing pipeline R&R workload. The key program message is: “Healthy infrastructure is the foundation of a strong city…which is why the City of Tampa is investing in Tampa's tomorrow by taking a proac-

tive approach to renew our infrastructure, prevent breakdowns, and provide long-term, permanent fixes to our water and wastewater systems.” The PIPES public involvement campaign includes a website with the following: S Links to news stories related to pipeline infrastructure failures S Maps illustrating historic water main break and sewer cave-in locations S 20-year planned pipeline R&R maps S Response to rate payer frequently asked questions (FAQs), including:  Where can I learn more?  Why do we need to do this now?  Why didn’t we address the needs sooner?  How will this impact my bill?  How does my water bill compare to others in the area?  Will there be more needs to address in the near future?

Conclusions and Recommendations

Figure 6. Projected Values of End-of-Life Assets at Existing and Proposed Funding Levels

Figure 7. City of Tampa's Path to Sustainable Infrastructure


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Key takeaways and lessons learned from recent department efforts include the following: S Set a goal > generate a plan > work the plan > identify areas to improve > repeat. Modern plans are not static; they must be adaptive to allow utilities to use public resources as efficiently as possible. S A good GIS database with key attribute data greatly improves the efficiency of R&R prioritization efforts. Effort to improve the GIS and attribute data should be ongoing and are excellent investments. S Asset management programs address entire management systems, in addition to R&R needs. While R&R projects are usually identified within one or two work groups at a utility, all staff members have a responsibility to perform their roles within the entire asset management system to ensure long-term success of the utility. S Utility services will always be necessities to a functioning city; therefore, pipeline R&R will always be a continuous process. It’s recommended that utilities stay proactive and promptly address R&R needs when assets reach the end of their estimated life. The department’s asset management program has helped it to achieve its mission of delivering high-quality water and providing exceptional customer experiences in a safe, reliable, efficient, and sustainable manner (Figure 7) by identifying pipeline R&R needs, providing the backup data necessary to support funding level increases, and improving information sharing between work groups. This is a process that the department will continue on an annual basis and has become part of the standard workflow. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019



Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE AECOM Technical Services Inc., Fort Myers Work title and years of service. I’m associate vice president with AECOM and have been in the industry for 39 years.

What does your job entail? I’m client services manager for AECOM’s Fort Myers office. I have extensive experience in the planning, design, and construction of water and wastewater infrastructure for public utilities. My broad range of experience includes public utility master planning, design, and construction of water and wastewater treatment plant facilities; hydraulic modeling and design of potable water distribution systems and wastewater collection and conveyance systems; and hydraulic analysis and design of potable water and wastewater pumping stations. What education and training have you had? I have an associate of applied science degree from the State University of New York (SUNY) in Canton, and bachelor of science and master of science degrees in civil engineering from SUNY in Buffalo. I also have an MBA from Canisius College in Buffalo.

What do you like best about your job? I especially like the fact that we serve in a noble profession, which has made tremendous contributions to the quality of life in the United States and around the world. My job has also been very challenging in a competitive marketplace, with many rewarding projects successfully completed for my clients. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Florida Section AWWA (FSAWWA), and American Academy of Environmental Engineers (AAEE). How have the organizations helped your career? The benefits of active membership in professional organizations are many. It has been both personally rewarding and beneficial to my employer. I’ve made a great many friends over the years and advanced my career through active leadership positions within the organizations, networking with clients and colleagues, expanding business opportunities for my employer, and increasing my knowledge in the marketplace to better serve my clients. What do you like best about the industry? Again, I really like the fact that we are making a positive impact on the environment and helping to meet the needs of the communities we serve.


Ron with his grandchildren.

What do you do when you’re not working? I like to play golf, am involved with children’s ministry at church, and love to spend time with my wife and family. I have three children and nine grandchildren. I also enjoy the outdoors and hiking, vegetable gardening, and before relocating to Florida, I played softball every summer in an engineer’s league. S

Cavalieri Road Rally.

Ron and his wife, Susan.

October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Safety Tips for Employees Working Remotely or Alone key component of worker safety is to watch out for one another. Lone work, however, presents a fundamental challenge to watchfulness. How can someone watch a colleague’s back if that colleague is working alone and out of sight? And today, reductions in manpower and increases in workload have expanded the number of employees who are working alone. While lone work may not automatically decrease a worker’s safety performance, there is no doubt that working alone increases a worker’s vulnerability to a variety of safety issues. This vulnerability applies not only to those who regularly work outdoors, but also to any employees whose work frequently takes them out into the community, or who work at night. All of these workers may encounter threats to their safety.


Working-Alone Hazards One of the first steps in creating a working-alone procedure is to make a list of any jobs or tasks that are not appropriate for a single employee. These tasks may include: S Extreme heights


Use of fall protection Use of respiratory equipment Operation of power-lift equipment Confined space Hazardous substances or materials High-voltage electricity Hot-work conditions

Employers should also make a list of jobs where employees are required to work alone and complete a risk/hazard assessment of each job to determine if the job is appropriate

Working alone can be safe if procedures are in place, communicated to employees, and strictly followed.

for a single employee. The assessment should include the following considerations: S Is it reasonable for the person to be alone? S Is the work in a remote or isolated location? S Is the job after hours? Could it be done during normal hours? S Are there extreme temperatures? S Is the job in a facility, office, or warehouse when other workers are gone? S Is the job in a basement, away from other workers? S Is the employee driving a vehicle alone for an extended period of time? S What consequences could result from a worst-case scenario? Consider all possible “what if ” factors. S What is the likelihood for other persons to be in the area? S Is there a possibility that a critical injury or incident could prevent the employee from calling for help or leaving the workplace? S What is the expected emergency response time? S What if a worker has physical handicaps or preexisting medical conditions?

The 2018 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2018 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The preceding list, while not allinclusive, gives a few examples of what should be considered in a risk/hazard assessment. Companies should consult with their health and safety (and legal) experts to determine the scope of their liabilities. The assessment should be reviewed on a regular basis to account for the possibility of hazards changing over time. Once the assessment is completed, it should be communicated to both management and employees.

Make Working Alone Safer The following four steps can help reduce the safety vulnerability of remote workers. These tips apply to all employees and their management who must work alone (or with others in remote locations) where normal means of communication are unreliable or nonexistent. Routine Communications Protocol S Designate a key point of contact (POC) who is not a part of the remote team. S Know who is working remotely and how long the work should take. S Set regular check-in times for the entire work period. At each check-in, the POC should record the time and the information given by the remote worker. S Evaluate lighting conditions; are they sufficient to ensure worker safety? S The POC should relay any anticipated changes in weather.

Emergency Communications Protocol S If a check-in time is missed, the POC should try, for 30 minutes, to reestablish communications. If that fails, the POC must assemble a search team and place the team on standby. S Contact medical personnel, informing them that an emergency response may be needed. S If an event includes an injury, after ensuring that medical attention has been provided, the responsible supervisor shall ensure that the appropriate incident/injury reporting process is initiated. Evaluate the Potential Hazards Before entering a remote work location, all team members should identify and discuss potential safety issues: S Planning for weather conditions—both forecasted and unexpected. S Potential emergencies, such as flooding, electrical contact, running out of fuel, etc. S Handling serious injuries or illnesses that might occur far from medical facilities. S Guarding against animal attacks, snakes, and insects. S Making contact with emergency agencies. S Having the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). S Having the tools required to complete the job safely. Conduct a Safety Tailboard S Discuss potential hazards and special precautions that the work requires.

S Discuss the job’s processes, procedures, and tasks, and the order in which they will be performed. S Review appropriate safety procedures and PPE considerations. Inspect tools and ensure that all PPE meets safety standards. S Discuss worker assignments. All workers must know their jobs and the jobs of their colleagues. S Establish a buddy system where coworkers watch out for each other. S Ensure that those with new job assignments, new tools, or new equipment are properly and completely trained on safety processes, procedures, and tool/equipment operation. S Report hazards and unsafe equipment to the supervisor before work begins. S Discuss unusual and nonroutine situations. S Discuss emergency procedures. Determine ahead of time who’s in charge in an emergency situation and who is the backup. S Know where all emergency resources are located: emergency plan, fire extinguisher, first aid and burn kits, emergency exits, and communication devices. Working alone can be safe if procedures are in place, communicated to employees, and strictly followed. For additional information and ideas, see Service NL (Newfoundland Labrador) Working Alone Safely Guidelines for Employers and Employees: www.gs.gov.nl.ca/ohs/safety_info/si_working _alone.html. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Resilient Solutions to Maximize Infrastructure Investments

Holly Kremers and David L. Anthony

Resiliency and Sustainability Most Floridians are familiar with the word “resilience.” Municipalities have formed regional resiliency coalitions, cities have appointed individuals for resilience task forces, and, most recently, the state of Florida has hired its first-ever chief resilience officer. Rarely does a day go by when resilience isn’t making a Florida news headline, most commonly associated with sea level rise. Resiliency is defined by the 100 Resilient Cities organization as follows: “The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems to survive, adapt, and grow, no matter what kinds of chronic stresses or acute shocks they experience.” While we as Floridians think of the weather-related shocks and stresses that

affect us most, such as sea level rise, hurricanes, and flooding, the true definition of resilience also looks at response to nonweather factors, such as high unemployment, disease outbreaks, and terrorist attacks. In the utility industry, our approach to resilient solutions is twofold: 1. We help communities become better prepared to survive and adapt when they experience stresses and shocks. 2. We help communities survive and adapt when they experience stresses and shocks they weren’t prepared for. While resiliency and sustainability are often used interchangeably, they have distinct definitions that make them an important complement to each other. The goal in providing sustainable solutions is to reduce environmental impacts and maintain the overall natural resource base, while the goal of resilient solutions is to make systems flexible enough to deal with changes from the external environment. The goals, more simply stated, are: S Sustainability goal: Put the world back into balance. S Resiliency goal: Manage an imbalanced world. Resilience is a complement to sustainability, not a substitute.

Incremental Adaptation One of the most difficult questions to answer is how far ahead communities need to plan for chronic stresses, such as sea level rise, as they put together their master and capital improvement plans. The sea level rise shown in Figure 1 from the Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact is a great demonstration of why incremental planning and adaptation are so important. This planning graphic is a compilation of sea level rise predictions from the top experts in the country, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Even with the top scientists looking at the models and projections, there is still a broad range of uncertainty, which increases as we look farther into the future. Instead of trying to plan infrastructure improvements for 100 years from now, when the uncertainty of sea level rise is in a 60-inch range, communities can maximize their infrastructure investments by planning for a more near-term projection now, and design improvements (e.g., seawall height, minimum roadway elevations) that can be adapted 30 years from now. Then, we’ll have 30 more years of data and new projections with less uncertainty. Plan ahead as long as the life of your infrastructure, and rely on the new data and projections that will develop during that lifetime.

Case Study: Miami Beach Flooding Mitigation Miami Beach is geologically comprised of a coastal dune on the east that contains its famed

Figure 1. Sea level rise projection for Key West.


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 2. “Sunny day flooding” in Miami Beach.

beaches, and former mangrove swamps on the west that have been filled in for development. In addition, several manmade islands have been created in Biscayne Bay between Miami and Miami Beach. The island is highly impervious due to development and is now built out, with the exception of three golf courses and several small parks. Sea level rise in Miami Beach has contributed to higher groundwater levels, higher tides, increased flooding, and decreased effectiveness of the gravity drainage system. In several areas of the city, the ground elevation is lower than the water level in the adjacent canal or bay during high tides, rendering gravity drainage systems ineffective. Because there is no confining layer in the porous limestone beneath the streets and buildings, solutions that have been effective in other coastal areas, including physical barriers, such as berms, dams, and dikes, are not viable for the area. It’s not unusual to see standing water on the streets of Miami Beach during seasonal high tides without any rainfall, creating the phenomenon deemed “sunny day flooding” (Figure 2). The water levels graphic (Figure 3) shows the record-observed high-water levels that occurred near Miami Beach during September and October 2017. This graphic is significant not only in showing the variation between the predicted water levels and verified water levels, but also in providing perspective in the potential effect of increased sea levels. The peak sea level was measured on Oct. 5, 2017, during seasonal king tides at 2.28 feet above sea level, using North American Vertical Datum (NAVD). Many of the original homes and buildings in Miami Beach have finished-floor elevations below 2 feet NAVD, which means the sea level is rising above its floor elevation at certain times. The porous limestone geology lends to a strong tidal influence on groundwater levels as well. During extreme tide conditions, city staff has observed groundwater pulsing up from around building foundations and through construction joints or cracks in driveways. These conditions were critical to consider when the city began developing its sea level rise response program. Miami Beach started implementing many regional climate action plan recommendations in 2014 by modifying city design and construction standards that address sea level rise. The sea level rise projection chart demonstrates the uncertainty of the rise; national experts have differing predictions that focus on a range rather than a single prediction. This uncertainty highlights the importance of incremental planning in climate-vulnerable areas. The city needed to immediately change its design and construction criteria to protect it from rising seas, while ensuring that it could continue to revisit and revise the criteria as more data are collected over the next 20 to 30 years to

Figure 3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-observed water levels during peak month to date.

reflect actual conditions and new predictions. This is the core of a resilient approach to infrastructure: planning for change and adjusting when needed. The city’s stormwater management master plan from 2011 had accounted for sea level rise, but was inadequate to account for the level of rise that could be expected through the life span of the city’s infrastructure. Several ideas were discussed, including increasing sea wall height around the island and installing massive pumps to lower the groundwater level, but all those options were solutions that would fight nature and have an energy usage impact that would contradict the city’s sustainability efforts. The best solution for the city to address flooding in susceptible Miami Beach areas is to raise the city’s elevation, starting with the roads. In Miami Beach’s resiliency program, roads and sidewalks are being raised and stormwater infrastructure and pumps are being installed to reduce ponding, increase longevity of roadways, improve stormwater quality, and enhance safety, particularly during storm events. The stormwater pumps were designed to operate only during rainfall events, when required to move water from low-lying elevations to the bay, where the receiving water was at a higher elevation than the areas being drained. Drainage improvements have been made by installing pump stations in areas of the city with the highest susceptibility to flooding. Initial projects have focused on flooding due to reverse flows in gravity stormwater outfalls with the imple-

mentation of a pumped drainage system. The city will be looking at addressing private seawalls that are overtopped during high tides and adopting new building standards to prepare for the future. The estimated cost to implement a comprehensive pumped drainage system has been projected at more than $600 million; the total cost to prepare the city for higher sea levels will likely exceed this amount to build seawalls to more stringent criteria, raise streets and sidewalks in low areas to higher elevations, set new building standards to new finished-floor elevations, and continue to address rising groundwater levels that are directly related to sea level rise. Sunset Harbour Neighborhood Projects incorporating stormwater system improvements, and roadway and sidewalk elevation increases, have been completed, with more under way. More than 60 additional pump stations are planned as the resiliency program continues over the next seven to eight years. Much of the work is being accomplished using design-build project delivery to complete the improvements as quickly as possible. In many areas, the roads will be raised to elevations that are higher than finished-floor elevations of adjacent buildings, which offers the unique challenge of harmonizing roadway and sidewalk elevations, such that driveways and building entrances remain accessible. Designs that include sloped, landscaped, drainage swales; short retaining walls; and bilevel sidewalks will be customized in each neighborhood. Continued on page 38

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Continued from page 37 The first neighborhood to be completed with elevated roadways, sidewalks, and stormwater pumping improvements was Sunset Harbour, one of the lowest-lying areas of the city. Sunset Harbour is a mixed-use residential, commercial, and marina area, with several restaurants, condominium buildings, and retail properties. Buildings and roadways in the neighborhood had elevations as low as 1.6 feet NAVD, making it one of the most vulnerable areas to tidal flooding on sunny days.

The road construction in Figure 4 shows the perspective of what raising a road by 2.5 feet looks like. The road was elevated one lane at a time to maintain traffic flow to the extent possible. Drainage pipes were installed at an elevation that allowed the sidewalks and patios in front of buildings, which remained at the building finished-floor elevation, to drain. This scenario is shown in Figure 5. The Sunset Harbour neighborhood improvements were completed in 2017, and the

neighborhood has flourished, with dry streets, increased pedestrian accessibility, and enhanced patio spaces for restaurants. Before and after photos of one of the neighborhood restaurants are shown in Figure 6. Many of the lessons learned through the design and execution of the project have been brought forward for future projects as the city continues to plan and implement improvement projects for the area.

Case Study: Miami Beach Bioswale Demonstration Project

Figure 4. Road construction showing the roadway elevated by 2.5 feet.

Figure 5. Rendering of elevated roadway.

Figure 6. Before and after Sunset Harbour improvements.


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As has been noted, the city is advancing a long-term strategy to address climate change; at the same time, it continues to seek out near-term design solutions to mitigate the current effects of climate change and sea level rise. Many of the assumptions that the south Florida engineering community utilizes for rainfall runoff and stormwater management system designs have become outdated when placed in context to the realities of climate change predictions. The traditional method of stormwater management that relied on conventional end-of-pipe treatment of stormwater before discharging to receiving waters is being reevaluated. Current engineering best management practices include solutions that manage rainfall runoff with small-scale, distributed practices close to the source of runoff. There are several newer technologies in source controls that include “green infrastructure� (GI) solutions, such as bioswales, bioretention basins, and permeable pavements. When applied across a watershed, the cumulative benefits of deploying GI as part of an integrated framework for stormwater management can include: S Restored hydrologic functions, including groundwater recharge. S Mitigation of runoff from high-return frequency rain events. S Low-volume, low-tech stormwater controls that are less costly to build and maintain when compared to traditional end-of-pipe solutions. S Creative multifunctional landscapes that improve community aesthetics. S Improved water quality for runoff discharged to the environment. S Improved habitat for wildlife. Currently, the city is planning for new elevated streets within the La Gorce neighborhood as an additional phase of implementing its climate resiliency strategy. While raising the neighborhood streets was part of the initial plan, city leaders wanted to address an opportunity to have this phase of infrastructure investment address additional resiliency objectives, including

improving freshwater recharge of the surficial aquifer, as well as improving water quality of the runoff generated from the new streets. While integrating grey infrastructure and GI to manage stormwater has shown to be effective in addressing issues important to the city (and to other parts of the United States), Miami Beach and most of south Florida present sitespecific challenges due to their Karst geology. Below the soil surface lies porous limestone that is highly influenced by changes in the hydrology of the landscape, as well as changes in sea levels. Conventional infrastructure engineering design supporting development of the region has resulted in changes to the natural hydrologic cycle and created unintended consequences, including saltwater intrusion into the freshwater lens of the surficial aquifer. In addition, runoff from new impervious surfaces that is collected in storm sewers that outfall directly to the bay has the potential to adversely affect water quality. Mitigating and eliminating water quality impairments that threaten the ecosystem of the bay is a high priority at all levels of governmental regulation. City leaders wanted to proactively address these two critical issues by implementing cost-effective GI solutions as part of their resiliency strategy. The GI design approach is a radical departure from traditional residential street stormwater management. Streets represent a significant portion of the impervious surfaces within a residential neighbourhood, and consequently, contribute a large percentage of the stormwater runoff. In the traditional neighborhood street design, the right of way is planted with turf grasses and graded to be higher than the gutter pan of the road; further, runoff drains from the individual lot, across the sidewalk, across the grass strip, and into the gutter. The road is usually crowned in the middle so each side of the road drains to the gutter pan. The road drainage is then routed to a series of catch basins and piped to a nearby receiving water. While effective in moving the runoff from the street, it also moves runoff pollutants efficiently to the receiving waters and eliminates the opportunity for the rainfall to infiltrate the soils within the neighborhood greenspace at the public right of way. The bioswale GI solution “rewires” the traditional runoff management method by diverting runoff from the streets to shallow depressions that are designed as shallow basins located between the curb and the right-of-way line. The runoff captured in the depression results in a delay of the runoff peak discharge until hours or days after the rain event. Then, the resultant discharge from the bioswale underdrain is significantly reduced due to the sponge-like capacity of the engineered soil mix used in the

bioretention basins. The engineered soil mix has internal water storage capacity where a percentage of the runoff entering the basin is held in pore spaces of the soil for later use by the plantings or infiltrated into the groundwater to recharge the shallow aquifer. In addition, any runoff passing through the GI basin is cleansed by the soil media and plantings within the bioswale. In this demonstration project, three bioswales will be implemented within the West 59th St. right of way (Figure 7). While most of the stormwater work is performed below the surface, high-impact plantings create seasonal color and texture, while also providing nutrient and heavy metal sequestration. The basin plantings, shown in Figure 8, create an aesthetic enhancement to the streetscape that gives a sense of place within the neighborhood. Native plant species were selected because they evolved to live in south Florida naturally. This translates into greater survivorship when planted and less replacement or maintenance

during the life of the stormwater management facility. The deep root systems help to develop and maintain pore space in the soil to promote infiltration of rainfall as the plantings mature over time. The deep root systems also sustain the plants during dry periods, reducing dependence on irrigation. These attributes provide cost savings for the city’s green space management team when compared to the traditional approach of turf grasses that require mowing. The city continues to observe and learn to further evaluate and improve its approach to protecting Miami Beach from the effects of climate change and sea level rise. The city’s resilient approach will ensure that the residents, visitors, and businesses continue to enjoy the beautiful island for years to come. Holly Kremers, P.E., ENV SP, is vice president and resiliency practice lead, and David L. Anthony, PLA, ASLA, is a green infrastructure specialist at Wade Trim in Tampa. S

Figure 7. Plan view and cross section of one of the bioswales proposed for the West 59th St. intersection with Alton Road.

Figure 8. Native basin plantings.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019



What Diversity Means Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA

everal years ago, I had the privilege of participating in a USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) mission to Eastern Ukraine. Our team of three traveled 400 miles east of the capital city of Kiev and assessed water and sewer system infrastructure in Rubiznhe, a city of 70,000, and met with local officials about our observations and shared experiences. We found that our hosts and acquaintances thought of us as a resource, but also as a curiosity, as they had never met an American or visited the United States. They only knew about us from what they has seen on TV or from what they were told about us when Ukraine was a Soviet bloc country. Of the infinite topics to converse about, these friendly folks consistently posed to us questions about American culture and history (especially the Civil War) and aspects of cultural diversity. We were sort of put to the test in a pleasant way. We deduced that a major factor for their curiosity revolved around the concept of diversity, because from what they understood, the U.S. seemed (to them) richer in diversity than their own country.


The Many Meanings of Diversity The people of Rubiznhe showed me that diversity can mean a lot of things to a lot of people. Evidence of this is further observable with the many articles and much research of all types presented and published on the subject—and deservedly so. From economic, societal, and political perspectives, diversity has been thoroughly examined. Some argue that diversity supports an organization’s, even a whole nation’s, ability to not only sustain their members, but pursue innovation, which was the topic of my column last month. Given this rather challenging and broad topic, I would like to focus my thoughts on the subject of what diversity means to an organization.


Overt and Subtle Aspects of Diversity For any organization, characterizing diversity is not comprised of just one dimension, like the more obvious or inherent qualities, such as gender, ethnicity, nationality, etc. It also includes the dimension of various qualities gained from diverse experiences, such as working abroad, being a certified first responder, growing up in a big family, serving in the military, or being a teacher.

Countless more traits and combinations further enrich this expanded view of diversity. Researchers call these combined aspects “2-dimensional (2-D) diversity.” Three researchers went as far as quantifying diversity with outcomes and found a positive correlation with 2-D diversity and performance. They found employees were 45 percent likelier to report that their firm’s market share grew over the previous year and 70 percent likelier to report that the organization captured a new market (from “How Diversity Can Drive Innovation” by Hewlett, Marshall, Sherbin; Harvard Business Review, Dec. 2013). In our utility business, whether it involves management, consulting, operations, or maintenance roles, 2-D diversity can serve to avoid

October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the dreaded and too-common “groupthink” phenomenon. Groupthink can occur when a team has members that have many attributes in common and, thus, a narrower range of experiences and opinions. Decisions face the danger of being (more likely) less creative, arrived at more hastily, and neglecting more alternatives that may be superior or more optimal. Successful teams that possess a higher degree of 2-D diversity owe their success in avoiding the automatic “popular option” by welcoming healthy disagreement and, at the same time, encouraging mutual respect. Different points of view can lead to a fundamental change to a conventional idea or solution into something novel and/or unique. Leaders throughout the organization who value differences and recruit for 2D diversity sustain such success. The 2-D diversity loosens innovative thought by creating an environment where “outside the box” ideas are generated and celebrated. To help illuminate any gaps that may exist, consider asking yourself and your organization’s leaders these questions: S How do you characterize your organizational culture and climate? S What barriers or biases exist? S How are individual talents and strengths managed? S How broad is your organization’s 2-D diversity focus? S How do you measure team successes? Ongoing efforts in growing diversity in most utilities and other organizations are a given, but there are still many challenges to address. Many still struggle with recognizing and receiving the value of forming work groups or project teams that are truly 2-D diverse. The dynamic nature of a multigenerational workforce faced with the imminent increase in retirements, coupled with a fluctuating pipeline of incoming qualified talent, may add to the challenge, but it can also make growing 2-D diversity as a recruitment and training strategy a compelling opportunity. Adopting, recruiting, and maintaining an emphasis on 2-D diversity efforts will help position your organization and your teams toward a successful, service-oriented future. S

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! October 7-11 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector........Osteen..................$350/380 14-18 ......Utility Maintenance Level III ......................Pompano Beach ....$325 14-18 ......Wastewater Collection B, C ........................Orlando................$225/255 21-23 ......Backflow Repair*..........................................St. Petersburg ........$275/305 21-24 ......Backflow Tester ............................................Osteen..................$375/405 25 ......Backflow Tester Recerts***..........................Osteen..................$85/115

November 18-22 ......Water Distribution Level 3 ........................Osteen..................$225/255 18-22 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ................Osteen..................$225/255

December 9-11 ......Backflow Repair* ........................................St. Petersburg ........$275/305

Upcoming 2020 Classes January 13-17 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ......Orlando................$350/380 13-17 ......Stormwater C ..............................................Osteen..................$260/290 31 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ........................Osteen..................$85/115

February 3-7 3-7 10-14 28

......Water Distribution Level3 ..........................Osteen..................$225/255 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ................Osteen..................$225/255 ......Utility Maintenance Level 3 ......................Osteen..................$260/290 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ........................Osteen..................$85/115

Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019



Your Region Still Needs You! Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA


had the recent opportunity to be involved in the FWPCOA annual awards luncheon at the August fall short school in Fort Pierce. The association gets the opportunity to recognize some of you for your outstanding performance and service to your community and the association, and excellence in your chosen discipline. It was great seeing all of you there.


Awards Each year, FWPCOA presents many awards to honor those in our industry. Some of the awards given at the annual awards luncheon this year are: S The Dr. A.P. Black Award is given to a professional outstanding member for excellence as a water treatment plant operator, wastewater treatment plant operator, or reclaimed water operator. S The Raymond Border Award is given to a professional outstanding member for excel-




lence as a water distribution system operator or wastewater collection system operator. The Nathan Pope Award is given to a professional outstanding member for excellence as a stormwater operator. The Robert Heiman Award is given to a professional outstanding member for excellence as an industrial pretreatment coordinator and in service to the community. The Joseph V. Towry Award is given to a professional outstanding member for dedicated service in water reclamation and reuse. The Outstanding Community Website Award is given to a utility that has exceptional customer information and public outreach on its website. The Outstanding Safety Award is given to a utility with an excellent safety record and performance that offers operator and technician training in all areas of safety. This is given for all different types and sizes of facilities across our state.

My congratulations go out to all of you who received an award and were recognized at the ceremony. See our website at www.fwpoca.org for a complete list of current and past award recipients at the “Awards” tab.

Katherine Kinloch (left) receives the A.P. Black Award from Mike Darrow.


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

I’m so glad to be a part of giving recognition to those who truly go beyond their daily tasks to give exceptional service to their community, the association, and our profession. Next time, make sure that you submit applications for the next annual awards ceremony, and be sure to recognize outstanding members you know of from your region or facility! A special recognition goes out to Katherine Kinloch, a wastewater treatment operator in Region X, who received this year’s A.P Black Award for her hard work and many years of dictated service to her community, our profession, and the association! She is one hard working volunteer—thanks, Katie!

Volunteering: Good for Everyone! Volunteering—as you know—is a worthy cause and is highly respected by us all. The association needs your assistance and guidance in your local area. The last two letters of FWPCOA stand for “operators association.” We’re a unique organization that’s divided into 13 regions around the wonderful state of Florida. I’ve been a member of Region X for a lot of years now and I always enjoy hearing about what’s going on in our industry and how the association can make a better future for our members and our skilled craft. It’s gratifying to know that FWPCOA is still growing in membership and is now up to 5400 members statewide. Thanks to everyone who made this happen! I attended meetings again this year in both Region X and Region XII and attendance has been up this year for most of our meetings! These two meetings were very informative and I learned quite a few things at each of them. The presentations from the regional sponsors were excellent and introduced us to new ideas and processes. Many thanks to the vendors and companies that were willing to take their time to past along their expertise! With that said, your region still needs your ideas, skills, help, and professionalism in the discipline that you work in, whether you’re just starting out on your career path or are a seasoned veteran. And don’t forget, when you attend your local regional meeting, make sure you get your membership pin. Your membership card is available in your profile on our website for convenient printing.

Get Involved When most regions meet, the attendees discuss current issues relevant to our trade to help train operators, technicians, and coordinators as they advance in their careers. At the regional level, industry professionals and vendors get together to share ideas and network to help advance their own education and help their workplaces be more efficient, professional, and effective. We need to be better at passing the torch onto others about what we’ve learned in our industry. This is something that you can participate in. Attending a local meeting is a good start. At the meeting you can share your thoughts on: S What types and disciplines should be taught locally? You can then participate to find resources to put the classes on. This will help strengthen our skills and the tools of our trade. S What kind of continuing education unit (CEU) courses would be helpful to the regional membership? Some regions have openings for officers and trustees right now, so you can plug in, participate, and determine the courses needed. S What’s the next direction of our role in the industry? What improvements and skills are needed for our profession?

password, contact our webmaster, Walt Smyser, at webmaster@fwpcoa.org.

Increase Your Professional and Social Circles The regional level is also a great place where you can socialize and network. Maybe this is what you like to do—then you can get involved here, too. The regions set up social and

fun events, like fishing tournaments, golf outings, family picnics, baseball games, and Christmas parties! Most of the training put on throughout the year by the regions helps to pay for the social events in that region. We have a lot in common, so why not get together to share your thoughts on our profession and also have some fun! See you in the field or at a meeting, and Fish On! S

Our goal at FWPCOA is to protect the public health and the environment of our great state. We work on behalf of operators of all types, including technicians, coordinators, mechanics, and those in other disciplines, by training them, making the work tasks more professional, and representing operators as a whole to the state. I ask you to please bring these (and other) topics and ideas to the meetings in your area to share. Another observation: I still see that regions are in need of trainers or instructors to help teach at classes locally or at short schools, and one day, at CEU classes. Your profession is in need of teachers for voluntary certification classes, like industrial pretreatment, stormwater, wastewater collection, water distribution, water reclamation distribution, utilities maintenance, customer service, and treatment operations. If you are interested, it could really make a different to a person who is getting started in our profession. To begin, fill out the instructor biographical form available on our website and send it to the training office at training@fwpcoa.org. Each member has a login for our website; for help with your Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Test Yourself What Do You Know About NIMS and ICS? Donna Kaluzniak

1. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requires local government personnel to have NIMS training for all employees who would be responding to emergencies and incidents in order to receive cost reimbursements. The NIMS acronym refers to the a. National Incident Management System. b. National Incident Monitoring System. c. National Investigation and Monitoring of Status. d. National Investigative Management System. 2. Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, NIMS establishes a comprehensive, national approach to incident management that is applicable to which jurisdictional levels, agencies, and domestic incidents? a. All jurisdictional levels, across all agencies, and all domestic incidents. b. Only at federal levels and agencies and national incidents. c. Only at local levels, across local agencies, and incidents impacting a specific region. d. All jurisdictional levels, across all agencies, and for only major incidents large in size. 3. Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, the five main components of NIMS are preparedness, communication and information management, resource management, command and management, and a. operational management. b. budgeting. c. ongoing management and maintenance. d. recovery.

4. Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, what are the elements of the preparedness component of NIMS? a. Planning, training, and documentation b. Planning, coordination, and communication c. Training, observation, and stockpiling d. Planning, training, and exercises 5. Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, what command management system must be used under NIMS per the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD 5)? a. FEMA Command Management System (FCMS) b. Incident Command System (ICS) c. Institutional Coordination System (ICS) d. Multi-Agency Command System (MACS)

a. communications and public information activities only. b. onsite support to ICS operations. c. offsite support to onsite ICS operations. d. command management. 10. Per the FEMA NIMS 2017 Learning Materials, in the communications and information management section, the four key principles are interoperability, reliability, scalability/portability, resilience/redundancy, and a. b. c. d.

availability. security. social media compatibility. timeliness. Answers on page 62

6. Per the ICS Review Document (extracted from E/L/G 0300 Intermediate Incident Command System for Expanding Incidents, ICS 300), ICS includes five major functional areas, staffed as needed, for a given incident: command, operations, planning, logistics, and a. b. c. d.

communication. finance/administration. public information. recovery.

7. Per the ICS Review Document, staff members who report directly to the incident commander include the liaison officer, safety officer, and a. b. c. d.

References used for this quiz: • FEMA’s ICS Review Document, March 2018, https://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/ICSRes ource/index.htm • FEMA’s NIMS 2017 Learning Materials, https://training.fema.gov/emiweb/is/icsresou rce/referencedocuments.htm • Water Sector National Incident Management System (NIMS) Implementation Objectives (NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector) March 2009 https://www.warws.com/images/documents/ e-tools/water/nimsobjectives.pdf • Free online training is available from FEMA’s Emergency Management Institute at https://training.fema.gov/nims/

chief executive officer. public information officer. procurement officer. utility director. Send Us Your Questions

8. Per the FEMA NIMS 2017 Learning Materials, when using ICS, the optimal span of control for incident management is one supervisor for how many subordinates? a. Three c. 10


9. Per the FEMA NIMS 2017 Learning Materials, emergency operations centers are used for

October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

b. Five d. 12

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019



The Environmentally Sensitive Force Main Replacement for Boca Ciega Bay: Taming Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Francisco J. Bohorquez, David Wilcox, Mathew Francis, Dennis Simpson, Dinesh Kamath, Dalas Lamberson, and David Hunniford he more-than-40-year-old 24-in. prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) force main at Boca Ciega Bay (bay) conveys wastewater from a high-density area in Madeira Beach to the South Cross Bayou Water Reclamation Facility located approximately 5 mi inland. The pipeline alignment includes two subaqueous crossings: one under the waterway and the other under the bay. The aging condition of the PCCP main posed an unacceptable risk to Pinellas County (county), which retained AECOM as the engineer of record (EOR) to evaluate alternatives, design, and support construction for the replacement of a 5,000-lin-ft portion of the pipeline located under the bay. Previously, the EOR had designed a 2,000-lin-ft replacement force main for the portion of the pipeline under the Intracoastal Waterway. The challenge was replacing the mi-long force main without impacting the environment.


The EOR evaluated horizontal directional drilling (HDD) alignment and pipe material alternatives. For the final, selected 4,000-lin-ft alignment, 24in.-diameter fusible polyvinyl chloride (FPVC) pipe was specified, providing robust strength and a lean bore diameter. Temporary and permanent construction easements were negotiated with property owners for the construction and for permanent use. Alignment selection considered available routes, easements, and permitting. Although the originally proposed alignment under the bay is approximately 1,000 lin ft less than the existing alignment, an additional 620 lin ft of FPVC via HDD and 2,300 lin ft of open cut PVC were required to connect the HDD installation to the existing force main. The original alignment included over 1,700 lin ft along the Pinellas Trail (trail), a former railroad corridor turned into a public access trail by the Rails to Trails project, and another section along heavily traveled Park St. North. The final project design and

Figure 1. Existing and Proposed Alignments


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Francisco J. Bohorquez, P.E., is project manager (and was engineer of record for the project), and David Wilcox, P.E., is group manager, with AECOM in Tampa. Mathew Francis, P.E., is tunneling and trenchless technology senior engineer with AECOM in Salt Lake City. Dennis Simpson, P.E., is engineering section manager, and Dinesh Kamath, P.E., is project manager, with Pinellas County Utilities in Clearwater. Dalas Lamberson, is vice president with TLC Diversified Inc. in Clearwater. David Hunniford, P.E., is regional sales manager with Underground Solutions Inc. in Sarasota.

construction documents were developed by using similar HDD crossings the EOR had designed in the area, including: S 2,000 lin ft of 20-in. high-density polyethylene (HDPE) crossing the waterway at the beach at minus 75 feet to avoid the Tom Stuart Causeway Bridge piles. S 1,850 lin ft of 15-in. HDPE crossing the waterway at Indian Shores, with a reverse compound horizontal curve to avoid a property boundary. S 3,000 lin ft of 30-in. HDPE water main crossing the Manatee River at Fort Hamer. S 3,500 lin ft of 20-in. HDPE water main crossing the waterway at Cortez Road. This article discusses the alternatives, assessment, design, and successful construction of the project within the beautiful and strict environmental setting of the bay, drawing upon lessons learned from preceding projects. The county has the sixth largest population in Florida, with approximately 970,000 residents. It’s the second smallest in area and boasts over 600 mi of coastline and eleven barrier islands. The service area is significantly developed, composed of commercial areas, condominiums,

apartments, and hotels. The Madeira Beach Pump Station and force main system conveys wastewater generated by the barrier island community to the county’s South Cross Bayou Water Reclamation Facility, a distance of approximately five mi. The force main is PCCP and consists of approximately 6,900 lin ft of 20-in. pipe and 19,400 lin ft of 24-in. pipe. Constructed in the early 1970s, the alignment includes two subaqueous crossings: a 2,000-lin-ft crossing of the waterway and a 5,000-lin-ft crossing of the bay. The crossings were originally installed by cut and cover approximately 2.5 ft below the bay bottom. Figure 1 illustrates the existing and proposed pipeline alignment under the bay. The existing force main is the sole method to convey the collected wastewater from the beach area to the county’s treatment facility. As such, the county determined that the more-than40-year-old force main posed a significant risk in the event of failure at the subaqueous crossings and selected the EOR to design new crossings at both the waterway and the bay. The plan was to install an additional force main at both crossings, while retaining the existing pipeline crossing as a redundant backup. The available as-built drawings from the county showed that the existing force main at the bay is a 24-in.-diameter PCCP that was installed by direct bury in 1973. The existing pipe alignment is located in the county right of way until the subaqueous crossing. Along the east and west shorelines, the pipeline is located in 20-ft easements. Along the west side, the easement runs through a Kampgrounds of America (KOA) facility. On the east side, the easement is located near the Otter Key Condominiums, Bay Area Heart Center, and other businesses. The pipeline located in these easements is difficult to access and would cause significant impact to the public should the county need to perform maintenance or repair work.

Alignment Alternatives and Selection The main goal of this project was to install a second pipeline crossing of the bay so the existing 40-year-old crossing could be taken out of service, rehabilitated, and eventually act as a redundant crossing. A secondary goal was to develop an alignment that provided the county with better accessibility to the pipeline prior to it crossing under the bay. Taking these goals into account, three alternatives were developed for consideration by the county: S Alternative 1 considers a subaqueous crossing alignment parallel to the existing force main. S Alternative 2 considers a subaqueous alignment south of the existing force main that includes some open cut installation.

Figure 2. Site Layout Map with Alternatives

S Alternative 3 considers a significant amount of open cut installation, with the bay crossing being achieved by attaching the proposed pipeline to an existing pedestrian bridge. The alternatives proposed for evaluation and the adjacent parcels are shown in Figure 2. Alternative 1 was eliminated because HDD could not follow the S-shaped alignment of the existing pipeline near the west shoreline of the bay. To perform an HDD crossing using this alignment, additional easements and relocation of buildings would be required in the KOA area that would necessitate the relocation of existing structures. Alternative 3 was eliminated as it would present a much longer, and therefore more costly, alignment. In addition, it was determined that the existing trail bridge crossing the bay could not support the additional loads that would be imposed by the proposed pipeline. Alternative 2 was determined to be the most feasible. The proposed alignment required the installation of 1,700 lin ft of pipe along the trail, a 4,000-lin-ft crossing of the bay, and a 650-lin-ft HDD installation along Park St., which only required the acquisition of two permanent easements and one construction easement, and resulted in the least impact to the public during the construction phase.

Easement Acquisition Based on the selected alignment, the county contacted representatives of KOA and Park Place Medical to discuss the proposed alignment and the need for permanent easements for the new

force main. The representatives indicated that the properties would likely be sold or redeveloped in the future and requested that the county minimize any possible additional easement that would dissect the property and thereby affect the sale. Based on these requirements, the proposed alignment was somewhat modified so that the required easements would be located in portions of the respective parcels that could not be developed. Finally, a temporary construction easement was acquired from the Bay Pines Marina along the west side of the trail. This easement was needed for drilling operations. The existing force main was installed via direct bury from the west side easement through the KOA property in an easterly direction across the bay, to an easement on the east side and to the intersection of Park St. and 54th Ave., continuing east along 54th Ave. The final proposed layout connected the existing force main from its location on the trail near the entrance of the KOA southeast via open cut to the southernmost edge of the KOA property, minimizing easement requirements and avoiding dissecting the property. It then crossed the bay via HDD to an easement along the property boundary between Park Place Medical and a moving and storage facility, continued via open cut to Park St., then ran north via HDD on Park St. to the intersection of Park St. and 54th Ave., where it connects to the existing force main before it crosses Park St. The proposed alignment required temporary and permanent easements. The existing force main and proposed alignment configurations are depicted in Figure 1. Continued on page 48

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Continued from page 47 East Side Park Place Medical offered a large area where temporary construction easements could be acquired to support drilling operations. There was sufficient space available in the surrounding landscaped green area of the facility to expedite the staging of the required HDD drill rig, store associated support equipment, and locate the entry pit for the drill. In addition, for the staging of the individual pipe sections, there was sufficient space to stage six prefused pipe sections of approximately 670 ft in length in preparation for the final more-than-4,100-ft of pipe pull, since the connection point on the trail would be overshot to the marina property. The 670-ft sections would then be pulled individually and fused as needed during the installation procedure to come to the full length. This was required because it was not possible for the entire length of pipe to be fused along Park St., as it would block both entrances to Park Place Medical. There was some risk associated with starting to pull the pipe, stopping to butt-fuse the next section (about 45 minutes of downtime), and then restarting the pulling operation, but it was minimal due to the soil conditions along the recommended alignment. There was also significant available area for the staging of equipment, necessary support vehicles, and tanks. A permanent easement (583 ft by 20 ft) would also be required on the property. A 430-ft section would be installed along the easement to reach the Park St.

right of way. Easements were negotiated with property owners and are further discussed. West Side Space was much more restricted on this side as there was insufficient space to stage the drill, pipe, or required supporting equipment on the trail; however, directly west and adjacent to the trail was the marina. There was a boat storage lot within the marina that could support the exit pit during drilling operations and the required equipment to support the proposed alignment. The storage lot was surrounded by a mobile home park that is part of the marina on two sides, a boat storage warehouse on a third side, and the trail on its east side; therefore, drilling operations would take place from the east side (as well as pipe layout), while pulling operations would take place from the west side from the marina’s empty lot, as shown in Figure 3. The pipe would be intercepted at the trail where it would continue north. Appropriate sound attenuation was provided to minimize disturbance to the mobile park residents. A small (65-ft by 20-ft) and mostly submerged permanent easement would be required on the southernmost-edge wetlands of the KOA property, which avoided dissecting the property. A temporary construction easement would also be required. Pinellas Trail The installation of the approximately 1,750 ft of force main did not represent a significant problem along the trail, and there appeared to be suffi-

Figure 3. Bay Pines Marina Temporary Construction Easement


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

cient space along the east side for the force main to be placed. The county requested that the trail remain open during construction of the force main, and as such, the contractor would need to take into consideration maintaining safe public access. The force main could be installed via open cut or HDD, while maintaining access through the trail. Park Street Installation of the approximately 700 ft of proposed force main along Park St. connecting the bay crossing to the existing force main at the 54th Ave. intersection presented some difficulty due to the number of existing utilities. In addition, there were plans to expand Park St. in the near future, with associated new and existing relocated utilities, so the recommended method of installation was HDD with a 24-in. FPVC dimension ratio (DR) of 18. The proposed section of force main was installed at approximately 30 ft below ground, taking into consideration existing and proposed future utilities, including a 36-in. reclaimed water main, also installed via HDD. The construction of the connection to the existing force main located in the grass median in the entrance to a condominium complex and two medical facilities would be done in phases to maintain access at all times.

Geotechnical Investigation Along Proposed Alignment The EOR staff reviewed maps, plans, historic aerial photographs, geologic reports, and other project-specific information in order to evaluate surface and subsurface conditions along the proposed force main route. Some of the documents reviewed include the following: S U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Seminole 3123 N.E. Area Quadrangle Maps History (topographic) S National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Nautical Chart 11412, Tampa Bay and Joseph Sound S U.S. Department of Agriculture/Surveillance Collaboration Services (USDA/SCS) Soil Survey of Pinellas County S Geotechnical Report, developed by MC Squared Inc. (MC2) in June 2016 and based on six subaqueous borings, four land-based borings, and three hand augers performed to support construction of the force main. Additionally, site reconnaissance of the proposed pipeline route was performed by EOR staff to assess site conditions. No areas of specific concern with respect to possible poor soil conditions were identified during the site visit; however, some limitations were identified on both land sides. Based on the data review, the grade for the

land-based work varies approximately between elevation (EL) +13 and +8 ft on the west side and +4 and +7 ft on the east side. The bottom ELs in the bay are shallow and vary from around EL -1 to -2 ft mean sea level (MSL). The geotechnical boring (soil and rock) information presented was collected by the project geotechnical engineer, MC2, using a total of eight standard penetration test (SPT) borings along the proposed alignment across the bay, ranging in depth from 40 to 80 ft below the existing ground surface or mud line. Soil samples recovered were visually examined and select samples were used to develop the soil legend using the Unified Soil Classification System. Laboratory testing included natural moisture content tests, percent passing a No. 200 sieve, organic content tests, and Atterberg Limits. Corrosion series testing, should a steel casing be required, and specialized testing, such as Mohs Hardness Scale and Abrasiveness of Rock Testing, were also performed on selected samples. The data collected were used to provide a general characterization of soil and groundwater conditions along the force main alignment and to generate the HDD boring and installation calculations. Subsurface conditions were explored via eight SPT borings at select locations along the alignment. Two of the SPT borings were landbased near the entry and exit pits and performed to a depth of 40 ft below ground surface (bgs). The remaining six SPT borings were performed to a depth of 80 ft bgs (below the bay bottom) from a barge-mounted drill rig. Six undisturbed Shelby tubes were collected for laboratory testing. In addition, a total of three hand auger borings were collected along the trail to obtain soil and groundwater information. In general, the soils were found to be mostly poorly graded sand (silt to fine sand and clayey fine sands), with cemented layers from ground surface to approximately EL -68 to -78. Cementitious noncohesive soils with high N-values were found at varying depths ranging from EL -10 to -30 in B-1 to B-3, to EL -36 to -45 in B-4 to B-8. Hand auger borings along the trail, or the west side of the alignment, revealed fine sands with silt from ground surface to the termination depth of 6 to 6.5 ft bgs at the groundwater table, which was recorded at 3 ft bgs at B-8 (on the east side of the proposed alignment). The seasonal high water table is estimated at 3.5 ft bgs. In addition, the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the project is reported as ranging from approximately 0 to +10 ft, National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) 83.

Evaluation of Crossing Techniques The EOR evaluated the trenchless technology techniques currently available in the market-

Table 1. Comparison of Crossing Techniques

Table 2. Soil Properties

place for construction of the proposed 24-in. force main that’s over 4,000 ft in length crossing beneath the bay. The following four trenchless techniques were considered as potential alternatives: S Microtunneling S Horizontal auger boring S HDD S Conventional tunneling techniques The horizontal auger boring and microtunneling techniques were eliminated as potential construction alternatives due to the practical and experience limitations on the maximum installation length, thereby causing the need for intermediate shaft construction within the bay. Horizontal Directional Drilling The HDD method is comprised of a twostage process. A small-diameter pilot hole is drilled along the desired alignment, which is excavated using a drill head with a rod stringing for the entire length of the proposed crossing. The pilot hole is then enlarged (reamed) to a larger diameter by attaching a reamer to the drilling rod until the required proposed borehole diameter is obtained. This reaming process can be completed in one step or several steps, depending upon the proposed diameter required.

Throughout the reaming process, the hole is kept open (or kept from collapsing) by the use of thick drilling mud to fill the annulus space. The drilling mud is usually a bentonite-based compound. The final borehole diameter is typically 50 percent larger than the proposed pipe diameter. Upon completion of the last reaming step, the product pipe is then pulled through the hole. The HDD technique can be used in a variety of soil and rock materials. The HDD technique requires a relatively large staging area on both sides of the operation at the entry and exit points of the proposed force main. Preferably, a long section of the pipe should be assembled and pulled in one operation to reduce starts and stops and downtime for the pipe welding process during the pipe pull phase. This is typically a cost-effective method for pipe installation of diameters up to 48 in. It’s commonly used for pressurized pipelines similar to the proposed force main crossing and is an ideal method where precision and accuracy of installation is not critical or detrimental to the installed pipe or existing surface and subsurface facilities/utilities. A potential risk of the HDD method is the occurrence of drilling mud Continued on page 50

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Continued from page 49 seepage creating inadvertent returns or frac-out through the surrounding soils and rock to the ground surface that may affect existing facilities and/or cause contamination of groundwater and/or surface water. Based on the obtained soil information, however, the drill alignment was located at more than 70 ft bgs below the bay mudline in cemented soil and clay layers, thereby minimizing the likelihood of frac-outs.

ventional tunneling methods for the bay crossing is presented in Table 1. Based on this evaluation, the recommended crossing technique for installing a new pipeline under the bay was HDD. The next step in the process was to evaluate pipe materials to determine which type was feasible for the installation. The pipe materials evaluated included FPVC, HDPE, and steel.

Borehole Pipe Stability Analysis Conventional Tunneling Methods This method involves the use of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) or enlarged microtunnel boring machine with a temporary lining support system consisting of liner plates or precast concrete segments. The method requires main entry into the tunnel during the construction phase. The minimum diameter planned for conventional tunneling was 72 in. The proposed force main pipe would be installed inside the temporary-lined tunnel. A launching pit and receiving pit are required to launch and retrieve the TBM from the ground. In addition, a relatively small staging area is required, compared to that of the HDD technique. This method proved significantly more costly than the HDD alternative and required a longer duration of construction to complete; however, with conventional tunneling, access for pipe maintenance could be available throughout the design life of the pipeline. In addition, other utility pipes or replacement pipes could be installed inside the tunnel in the future. A comparison between the HDD and con-

A borehole stability analysis was performed to determine the factor of safety (FS) for the borehole drilling conditions using the Delft equation (van Brussell and Hergarden, 1997). Eight soil borings were drilled up to 80 ft bgs to assess subsurface conditions. Bore logs, laboratory testing data, and a geotechnical report were issued in June 2016. Explorations for nearby projects were also reviewed, including borings provided by the Florida Department of Transportation and by geotechnical reports from other related projects (Tierra, 2014). An interpreted subsurface profile was developed and three distinct units were interpreted. Soft, loose, and unconsolidated siliciclastic marine sediments with SPT blow counts less than 25 were observed from the surface to depths that ranged from greater than 40 ft bgs to approximately 15 ft bgs. Hard, partially cemented siliciclastic marine deposits with SPT blow counts above 25 and averaging greater than 50 were observed from 15 ft bgs to greater than 80 ft bgs. A third unit of very firm elastic silt was observed in five borings at elevations greater than EL -72 ft

bgs. These same units were also identified in nearby explorations and are consistent with the marine environment. The soil input properties that were used are shown in Table 2. A few key points of the bore path geometry used include: S 12-degree entry and exit angle S Bottom tangent below -70 feet EL S 3,000-ft bend radius to accommodate steel pipe S 2 percent grade on bottom tangent to promote fluid flow S 30-in.-diameter pipe with a 42-in.-diameter borehole for HDPE and 24-in.-diameter pipe and 36-inch-diameter borehole for FPVC The following are the results of the borehole stability analysis: S In general, when drilling from west to east, the borehole stability FS was acceptable (FS>2) from the start of the alignment to approximately station 336+00. The final approximately 500 ft of the drilling may present a challenge to the driller to maintain proper borehole stability. When drilling from east to west, the initial 200 ft of the boring would present unstable conditions, as well as the final 500 ft. The limiting factor to borehole stability was the soft sediments found in the upper 40 ft of the exploration boreholes. These soft marine sediments have SPT blow counts that range from 0-25, with an average of approximately 6. S Due to the variable nature of marine sediments and partially cemented sediments, the conditions encountered were expected to vary, possibly significantly, from what is presented in the calculations. There is some evidence for fractures and soft zones in the partially cemented sediments shown in the bore logs, and therefore conditions were constantly monitored by a qualified driller with experience in similar environments.

Pipe Stress Analysis

Figure 4. Fusible Polyvinyl Chloride Installation and Fusing Operations


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The pipe analysis considered a 24-in. (for steel or FPVC) to a 30-in. (for HDPE) transmission force main at a range of pipe thicknesses to be installed using HDD in the 4,100-ft subaqueous crossing of the bay. Calculations were performed for the three types of pipe. The purpose of these calculations was to determine the minimum pipe requirements, materials, and pullback conditions to achieve acceptable pipe stresses during pullback. Calculations were performed in accordance with Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI, 2008), Plastic Pipe Institute (PPI, 2008), and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, 2005) guidance, and conContinued on page 52

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Continued from page 50 sidered allowable tensile, bending, and buckling stresses under assumed “favorable” and “adverse” conditions. Calculations utilized the accompanying Excel workbooks. Two calculations were performed for each of the three pipes: a “best estimate” case that follows design and assumes favorable pullback conditions, and an adverse case that assumes adverse installation geometry and pullback conditions. The following parameters were used for steel pipe to calculate the appropriate minimum wall thickness: S Diameter: 24 in. S Specified Minimum Yield Strength: 65,000 pounds per sq in. (psi) S Young’s Modulus: 2.9E+07 psi S Poisson’s Ratio: 0.3 S Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: 6.5E-06 in/in/0F The following parameters were used for FPVC pipe: S Diameter: 24 in. S Specified Minimum Yield Strength: 7,000 psi (reduced in calculations using an FS of 2.5) S Young’s Modulus: 400,000 psi (reduced using the formula Epvc = 2800*t^-0.067, where t is time in minutes) from AASHTO (McGrath and Sagan, 2000) S Poisson’s Ratio: 0.38 S Specific Gravity: 1.4 The following parameters were used for HDPE pipe: S Diameter: 30 in. S Allowable Yield Strength: 1,100 psi S Young’s Modulus, Short Term: 57,500 psi S Young’s Modulus, Long Term: 28,200 psi S Poisson’s Ratio, Short Term: 0.35 S Poisson’s Ratio, Long Term: 0.45 S Specific Gravity: 0.95 The following properties were assumed for HDD installation conditions under the best estimate case: S Drilling Mud Density: 12 lbs/gal (mud properties may have varied at the discretion of the HDD contractor) S Hydrokinetic Pressure: 10 psi S Fresh water was assumed as ballast (sea water may also be used) S Coefficient of Soil Friction: 0.25 for favorable conditions and 0.5 for adverse conditions S Fluid Drag Coefficient: 0.025 psi for favorable conditions and 0.05 psi for adverse conditions The following are the results of the pipe stress analysis:


Under both the favorable case and the adverse case, a steel pipe with the stated specifications and a wall thickness of 0.375 in. would have adequate performance under the anticipated pipe stresses; however, ballasting the pipe during pullback would be required to keep pipe stresses in an acceptable range for the adverse case. Ballast in the pipe may need to be used during installation if conditions vary significantly from the best estimate case. A 24-in. FPVC pipe, with DR-18 (the thickest-common 24-in. FPVC size), has an acceptable FS for pullback tensile stresses. The FS came to 1.5 for the adverse case; however, the FPVC pipe must remain ballasted during installation and its entire service life in order to maintain an adequate FS against buckling and acceptable deflections. With the pipe fully ballasted, the critical case would be during pullback where deflections up to 5 percent may be experienced, with an allowable deflection of 6 percent of the pipe’s diameter. The FS against buckling is 3.5. A 30-in. HDPE pipe, with DR-7.3, would have adequate performance under the anticipated pipe stresses if the pipe were ballasted during drilling and in long-term use; however, the FS for tensile stresses during pullback in the adverse case was unacceptable, as it was 1.1. If adverse conditions were encountered during pullback, care must be taken by an experienced driller to limit tensile stresses on the product pipe, as the pipe would risk being damaged or lost. Alternative methods of installation, such as intersect technology, should also be explored.

Recommended Material of Construction Based on the recommended crossing technique of HDD, 30-in. DR-7.3 HDPE, 24-in. (C905) DR-18 FPVC, and 24-in. steel pipe with a 0.375-in. wall thickness were retained for further evaluation and HDD calculations. As discussed, a pipe stress analysis using allowable tensile, bending, and buckling stresses under assumed favorable and adverse pullback conditions was performed for the pipe types; adverse pullback conditions represent poor installation geometry. Calculations showed that 30-in. DR-7.3 HDPE did not have the required tensile FS during pullback in the adverse case scenario, and therefore, it was not recommended. Note that this was a riskbased decision, recognizing that HDPE could perform adequately within allowable stresses if the pipe is ballasted and a qualified experienced driller used best practices to limit tensile stresses. Alternative HDD installation methods of HDPE, such as intersect technology, were not considered due to the increased cost and anticipated overwater access risk factors. The DR-18 FPVC and a steel pipe with a wall thickness of 0.375 in.

October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

both performed adequately under favorable and adverse pullback conditions; however, steel pipe is not only more costly than FPVC, but laboratory testing revealed the soils to be corrosive, requiring the added costs of cathodic protection against corrosion. As such, FPVC was recommended and retained for the basis of design, including provisions that FPVC remain ballasted during installation and service life (see Figure 4).

Permitting Requirements A variety of federal, state, and local permits were required for this project. Florida Department of Environmental Protection Pursuant to Chapter 62-604.600, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.), a Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) permit was required for the addition of a new force main to the existing wastewater collection and transmission system. A permit application form 62-604.300(8)(a), Notification/Application for Constructing a Domestic Wastewater Collection/Transmission System, with the respective fees, was completed and submitted to FDEP for review and approval. Pinellas County Right of Way Utilization Permit A right of way utilization application and permit from the county, including maintenance of traffic (MOT), was anticipated for the proposed work along Park St. North, a county road. The MOT plans were developed and included in the design drawings. The contractor was required to obtain the right of way utilization permit. Federal Permits A 404 federal dredge and fill permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers required for this project involved a complex permitting process, considering the degree of the potential impacts to jurisdictional wetland areas. A nationwide permit 12 (utility line activities) was required for the proposed pipeline installation since waters of the United States could be temporarily impacted by construction. The nationwide permit required compliance with the general conditions for nationwide permit 12, including the restoration of all impacted wetland areas to preconstruction grade, no adverse impacts to fish or wildlife, use of only clean fill (if needed), no impounding of water or draining of waters of the U.S., and the use of proper sediment and erosion controls during construction. State Environmental Resource Permit An environmental resource permit (ERP),

also from FDEP, was submitted as part of this project. Like the 404 federal dredge and fill permit, the complexity of the permitting process depends on the degree of the impact to jurisdictional wetland areas. A noticed general permit (NGP) was required for the proposed project since wetlands could be impacted during construction. The NGP requires compliance with Chapter 62-341.453, F.A.C., including a construction corridor less than 30 ft wide, less than 0.5 acres of wetland impact, no permanent fill in wetlands, no impounding of water, the use of proper sediment and erosion controls, and restoration of impacted wetlands to preconstruction grades. In addition to the ERP, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was required pursuant to 40 CFR, Part 122, for point source discharges of stormwater associated with construction of the pipeline. Under FDEP’s delegated authority to administer the NPDES program, operators that have stormwater discharge associated with 1 acre or more of construction clearing must file for and obtain either coverage under an appropriate generic permit contained in Chapter 62-621, F.A.C. (1 to 5 acres of construction) or an individual permit issued pursuant to Chapter 62-620, F.A.C. (greater than 5 acres of construction). A major component of the NPDES permit is the development of a stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPPP), which identifies potential sources of pollution that may reasonably be expected to affect the quality of stormwater discharges from the site and discusses good engineering practices that were used to reduce the pollutants. The contractor was required to obtain the NPDES permit. Chapter 253, Florida Statutes (F.S.), requires authorization from the board of trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund for any activities in, on, or over state-owned, sovereign submerged lands (state lands). A public easement was not required in accordance with Chapter 1821.005, F.A.C., for installation of the utility pipeline across state lands. The force main is processed and recorded by FDEP concurrently with the ERP application. The installation required compliance with Chapter 18-21.004, F.A.C., including minimizing adverse impacts to state lands not being contrary to the public interest and the applicant having sufficient upland interest in the adjacent riparian properties. Miscellaneous Permits A spill management and prevention plan was also developed and implemented during construction of all HDD crossings of wetlands and surface waters. This plan was developed prior to the permitting phase of this project and submitted as part of the ERP application. The plan needs to contain monitoring procedures for in-

advertent loss or spills of drilling fluids, the types and storage locations of sediment and erosion control materials to be used in the event of a loss or spill of drilling fluids, and procedures for restoring the disturbed areas.

information provided, and in consideration of contract requirements, the project was awarded to TLC as the contractor, with Centerline as the HDD subcontractor, for the amount of $4,747,565.

Construction Project Bid and Award Bids were received by the county on June 13, 2017. A total of five responsive contractors submitted bids for consideration, with a sixth nonresponsive one due to inadequate prequalification information. Bid prices ranged from a high of $8,545,318 to a low of $4,747,565, which was submitted by TLC Diversified Inc. (TLC). The engineer’s estimate provided by EOR was $5,483,775. In reviewing the bids, some differences were noted in the price for the directional drill cost per lin ft of installation of the subaqueous crossing between the bidders. The cost for the directional drill ranged from $531 per lin ft, submitted by the lowest bidder, TLC, to a high of $1,122 per lin ft, submitted by the highest bidder. The second lowest price for this bid item, $614.88 per lin ft, was provided by the second lowest bidder. The EOR’s estimate for this bid item was $700 per lin ft. Relevant project experience and qualifications required by contract documents were requested from the lowest bidder and reviewed for conformance with project specifications. The bidder subcontracted with Centerline Directional Drilling Services (Centerline) for the HDD segments of the project. The Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation website was used to verify the status of the bidder’s licenses. Based upon the

This project was a challenge as it was a record-setting HDD subaqueous crossing in the county and the second longest in Florida for its diameter and kind. Construction lasted approximately nine months, from Jan. 3, 2018, to substantial completion on Sept. 20, 2018, with final completion achieved on Oct. 3, 2018. To complete the pilot borehole, two drill rigs were mobilized: an American Auger DD-440T, capable of generating 440,000 lbs of thrust/pullback; and a Vermeer inline D330x500, capable of generating 330,000 lbs of thrust/pullback, which performed the intersecting pilot borehole utilizing Sharewell HDD Services and True Gyde software (see Figure 5). By using the intersect method, a smaller rig can be used than with a single crossing. There is logic to sizing the rig so that it is incapable of overstressing the pipe during pullback. The Vermeer rig was then used to perform the multiple reaming passes of 18 in., 20 in., 24 in., and 32 in. The multiple reaming passes of relatively small upsizing increments per pass were used to condition the borehole to minimize abrasions from cemented zones and to ensure that the borehole was well stabilized before pullback. A 28-in. barrel reamer was then used to provide final cleaning before pulling the FPVC pipe. The subaqueous crossing final pullback was completed in 36 hours, including 13 intermediate fuses. The maximum pullback forces Continued on page 54

Figure 5. Horizontal Directional Drilling Operations at Park Place Medical Easement Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Continued from page 53 observed did not exceed 160,000 psi, less than half of the allowable pull force for 24-in. DR-18 FPVC. The project also included the additional 620-ft HDD section along Park St. and almost 2,300 ft of open cut force main along the trail and along a permanent easement by Park Place Medical. By carefully considering all of the challenges, the team planned well and finished the project on time, and the owner was very satisfied with the outcome. The major concern during the HDD operation was a potential frac-out under the protected bay during the drilling operation; in particular, near the location of the entry pit and the mangrove-populated shoreline on the west side of the drill. This coincided with the location of the force main HDD tie-in to open cut within only a narrow section of upland, and TLC worked with Centerline, the county, and the EOR to minimize any possible impact to the bay. In order to prevent a frac-out, approximately 40 ft of 30-in.-diameter steel conductor casing from grade was installed, extending far enough below the bay to contain the drilling mud within the casing, which protected against the “path of least resistance” into the bay shallows near the exit. It worked as intended and the drill was a complete success, with no frac-outs experienced (see Figure 6). An additional challenge was maintaining ingress and egress of the two businesses that had to be open to the public during construction: Park Place Medical on the east side of the bay, and KOA on the west side of the bay. This was successfully achieved with proper traffic control means and methods, nighttime work for underground pipe installations across entry/exit driveways, and most importantly, a competent project manager, superintendent, and crew.

Maintaining safe access to the trail during open cut construction also presented a challenge. The popular trail is a main pedestrian and bicycle artery through the county that provides a safe asphalt path for users to walk, jog, and ride their bikes, and it also provides a route for many daily commuters who use it to get to and from work. The contract documents required this trail to be kept open during construction with no shutdowns. The design included approximately 2,300 ft of force main along the trail. The county and TLC worked with the EOR to revise the alignment 2 ft east to eliminate any disturbance to the pavement, while maintaining appropriate trench shoring, except at crossings. Finally, maintaining the project schedule was extremely important since legal easement agreements had been executed by the county with the property owners. All easement work was completed on time, including restoration to the property owner’s satisfaction.

Summary The use of FPVC with HDD provided a cost-effective solution for the county for the installation of the new subaqueous force main crossing of Boca Ciega Bay, replacing the existing 40-year-old pipeline within the environmentally sensitive bay. Figure 7 shows the leading head of the drill exiting the bore hole. After minimizing the risk in design by performing a detailed geotechnical investigation of the sub-bay soil conditions, selecting the appropriate material of construction at a depth of minus 70 ft below the bay, evaluating alignments that limited easement acquisition and disruption to businesses and the public, and

Figure 6. Tail End of Fusible Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe After Completing Pullback Under Boca Ciega Bay


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awarding the project to an experienced contractor that could complete the work, the new 24in. crossing was installed quickly and under the engineer’s estimate.

References • ASTM. (2005). Standard Guide for Use of MaxiHorizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings. F-1962. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, West Conshohocken, Pa. • Bennett, D., and Ariaratnam, S.T. (2008). Horizontal Directional Drilling Good Practices Guidelines. Third Edition. HDD Consortium. • Kramer, S., and Francis, M. (2017). Analysis and Feasibility of Long Distance HDD Crossings with High-Density Polyethylene Pipe. • McGrath, T.J. and Sagan, V.E. (2000). Recommended LRFD Specifications for Plastic Pipe and Culverts. National Cooperative Highway Research Program [NEHRP] Report 438. Transportation Research Board. • PPI. (2008). “Horizontal Directional Drilling.” Chapter 12, Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe, Second Ed. Plastics Pipe Institute [PPI], a Division of the Society of the Plastics Industry Inc. Washington D.C. • PRCI (2008). Installation of Pipelines by Horizontal Directional Drilling – An Engineering Design Guide. Publication No. PR-227-9424. • Van Brussell, G., and Hergarden, H. (1997). Installation of Pipelines Beneath Levees Using Horizontal Directional Drilling, Delft Geotechnics, SO-59407-701/2, Delft, Netherlands. Appendix to Technical Report CPAR-GL-98-1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Miss. S

Figure 7. Leading Head of Fusible Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe


Best-Value/QualificationBased Selection: Another Procurement Tool Adam Corn s collaborative delivery procurement becomes increasingly popular in our industry, some owners are hesitant to change the way they procure their projects. Whether it be the design-build model or construction management at risk (CMAR) model, some owners are not ready to change their traditional procurement methods to collaborative delivery methods due to a wide variety of factors. In our evolving market, we must ask ourselves: Are there alternate procurement options similar to the traditional design-bid-build delivery model that can be utilized, other than CMAR or design-build, while still providing the owner control to ensure that a highly qualified firm is chosen to construct the project?


a competitive bidding scenario is still achieved. Best-value/qualifications-based selection is the best value proposed for the lowest price. Major similarities between design-bidbuild and best-value selection include: S Both methods have the same selection and contractual relationship with the design professional. S There is the same contractual relationship among the owner, design professional, and contractor.

S Contract documents (contract drawings and specifications) are developed and completed for bidding Major differences between design-bidbuild and best-value selection include: S A request for proposal (RFP) must be developed for proposers to respond for a bestvalue project, which is not required for design-bid-build. Continued on page 56

Procurement Methods The best-value delivery method, also known as qualifications-based selection, is a procurement model that considers multiple factors (other than price), including the proposer’s safety record, project expertise, project team experience, schedule, and project approach. This method provides the owner more control during the bidding process, compared to the design-bid-build method, while also ensuring that

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Continued from page 55 S In a best-value selection, the contractor is not selected solely on lowest price, as in traditional design-bid-build. S A selection committee must be established to review and score proposals for best-value proposals, which is not required for designbid-build. The best-value delivery method is not new to our industry and has been used more recently by numerous Florida municipalities, including Polk County, City of Winter Garden, and City of Daytona Beach. All of these owners have active projects utilizing this delivery method. The following is a summary from each RFP on how the owner developed the selection criteria: City of Winter Garden 1. Resources, Equipment, and Personnel – 20 points 2. Past Performance and Experience of the Contractor – 25 points 3. Ability to Meet Time Schedule Requirements – 15 points 4. Projected Workloads of the Firm – 5 points 5. Costs – 35 points City of Daytona Beach 1. Team Qualifications – 10 points 2. Project Schedule – 40 points 3. Project Approach – 15 points 4. Price Proposal – 35 points Polk County 1. Experience and Proficiency on Similar Contracts – 25 points

2. 3. 4. 5.

Technical and Personnel Resources – 25 points Schedule – 10 points Cost – 30 points Surveys of Past Performance – 10 points

These selection criteria examples provide further illustration on the flexibility and control an owner can have during the procurement phase of the project, when lowest price is not the most important factor. Two of these projects have already gone through the submittal process and are currently in construction. Even with price accounting for, at most, 35 percent of the scores, both awarded contracts did not go to the highest-price bidder; on the contrary, the contractors that were selected ended up coming in with the secondlowest price, displaying how this procurement method provides the best value proposed for the lowest price.

C Pro: If project cost is a driver and




Choosing the Right Method As with any procurement method, there is not a “one size fits all” approach. The best-value procurement method has several pros and cons to consider before determining if it’s the appropriate procurement method to utilize. Each project is unique and should be evaluated independently to determine the ideal choice regarding delivery method. Several pros and cons of the best-value method are: C Pro: Potential savings with the overall project schedule. Once the design is complete, the project will be procured similar to design-bid-build.



understanding the actual cost is important, the project cost will be revealed after the selection committee ranks the proposals. Pro: Owner has the ability to evaluate the project and assign higher point values to what is important. For example, if the project schedule is critical, the selection criteria can be modified to have this as the highest-weighted criteria. Pro: Allows owners to vet the contractors. The owner is able to request detailed information in the RFP relating to the contractor’s past project performance, experience in delivering similar projects, safety records, etc. Pro: Provides opportunity for the owner to know who will be working on the project from a management standpoint. Resumés are typically provided for the project manager, project engineer, and superintendent, at a minimum. Con: Does not allow for early contractor involvement during design. The owner would not be able to benefit from value engineering and constructability reviews prior to bidding the project. Con: Additional work is required by the owner prior to advertisement. This may not seem like a con to some; however, it should be noted that an RFP must be developed for the solicitation. Likewise, a selection committee must be assembled to score and rank the proposals. This could possibly take additional time, pending the amount of responses received.

Help is Available From the Contractors Council The Florida Section AWWA Contractors Council conducts workshops and shares ideas on the different ways a project can be evaluated so that the correct procurement method is selected. The council remains committed to educate the market on challenges and unique approaches to deliver water projects. As always, if you’re interested in learning more about the different procurement methods, among other topics that the council has covered, please feel free to contact me at acorn@garney.com. Adam Corn handles preconstruction efforts and business development for Garney Construction in Florida. S


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Reimagine Credentialing With the Professional Operator Program Lisa Dirksen Two letters after a name can have a big effect on a career—just look at the R.N. or P.E. acronyms. Those designations add a level of credibility to the professional, affect the pay scale, and indicate the knowledge necessary to perform to the best of one’s ability. With the support of the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Water Environment Federation (WEF), the Association of Boards of Certification (ABC) recognized the need for a similar designation that gives water and wastewater operators credit where credit is due. Operators are frontline protectors of human health, either through ensuring safe drinking water or the safety of waterways through effective wastewater management. They

are the lifeblood of every community and deserve a way to be showcased as professionals. And so—built by operators for operators— the professional operator (PO) program was born.

Join a Community The POs are an elite group of like-minded individuals, deeply committed to serving the public and growing in the water sector. Having a supportive community for sharing professional knowledge is absolutely invaluable. The designation opens doors for international networking, connects operators with opportunities to be water sector advocates, and qualifies operators to attend events along the way.

Grow as a Professional Becoming a certified PO signals to employers that the operator is an achiever and

Brian Faist (left), from Rivergrove, Ore., receives his professional operator certificate from Andrew Houlihan, water treatment operations commissioner for Halifax Water in Nova Scotia, Canada, at the 2018 AWWA Annual Conference and Exhibition (ACE18) in Las Vegas. (photo: ABC)

committed to his or her profession long-term and ready to go above and beyond the job requirements. “I became a professional operator because of the chance to test my knowledge and accelerate my career,” said Brian Faist, a PO in Rivergrove, Ore. “The PO designation has made me a more appealing candidate for promotion.” Whether looking to grow within a company or trying to find a job, being a PO makes an operator stand out in a crowd.

Ensure Accountability The PO program is the first internationally recognized professional designation for water and wastewater operators. With the designation, peers, customers, and the public can feel confident that a PO has mastered the most rigorous standards. “I wanted a challenge and I tackled it,” said Georginna Lockett, a PO in Atlanta. “Being a PO certifies me in the industry as a top-level Continued on page 58

Georginna Lockett (left) from Atlanta receives her professional operator certificate from Andrew Houlihan at ACE18 in Las Vegas. (photo: ABC) Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Continued from page 57 operator and that has been my goal since I started in the field.” All POs must also adhere to a code of conduct, which bolsters an operator’s reputation and builds additional community trust.

Increase Mobility Water sector adopters of the PO program are continuing to grow and it’s helping to mold an expansive future for operators. “Broad acceptance of a standard certification can make water professional credentials portable across state or country lines,” said Paul Bishop, president and chief executive officer of ABC. “With many benefits and potential solutions also come some challenges, but industry leaders at WEF, AWWA, and ABC are up to the task.” The PO program is a great leap toward an industry credential standard. It includes uniform and transparent credentialing that is recognizable by any employer or certification body.

Begin Your Journey The PO certification is offered to operators in four levels (from Class I through Class IV) for water treatment, water distribution, wastewater collection, and wastewater treatment. Joining the PO movement is simple

and the entire process can take as little as a few weeks. S Step 1: Create an Online Profile. The path to becoming a PO starts by creating a profile online at portal.abccert.org. An operator will be asked to provide such information as work and education history. S Step 2: Submit an Application. The operator applies and ABC reviews the operator’s profile to ensure that basic criteria have been met. Applications are accepted from anywhere in the world, any day of the year. S Step 3: Take the Exam. In some cases, operators may have already passed a certification exam that ABC will accept; if not, the operator will schedule a time to take an ABC certification exam. Once the exam is passed, the operator will receive a certificate, be invited to a formal event to be recognized, and join the PO community. The PO program is administered by the Certification Commission for Environmental Professionals (C2EP), an organization of volunteer water environment operations subject matter experts created by ABC. For questions or additional information, visit www.professionaloperator.org or send your questions to Info@ProfessionalOperator.org. Lisa Dirkesen is director of communications and public affairs at ABC in Ankeny, Iowa. She can be reached at ldirksen@abccert.org. S

News Beat Raynetta Marshall was appointed as general manager of Jacksonville’s Underground Utilities and Public In f r a s t r u c t u re Department, (photo: City of which oversees Tallahassee) Ta l l a h a s s e e ’ s wastewater program and is headed by Reese Goad, city manager. She previously served as the director of water/wastewater planning and development for the Jacksonville Electric Authority. She is a registered engineer in Florida with a master’s degree in environmental engineering and a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Howard University. Marshall will oversee a staff of 540 and an annual budget of $200 million, and will will report to Wayne Tedder, assistant city manager. “With her engineering background and more than 30 years of experience in the public works, water, and wastewater sectors, Raynetta has the knowledge and vision to lead the department,” said Goad. “Quality, and well-planned and maintained infrastructure, are vitally important as Tallahassee continues to grow. She comes at the perfect time to ensure that we, and the city, continue delivering on our promise to provide best-in-class services to our community.”


The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) governing board renewed an ongoing contract with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to research, develop, and rear biocontrol insects to help combat the threat posed by invasive plants to the native Everglades ecosystem. The groundbreaking work will be performed at the USDA Invasive Plant Research Laboratory in Davie, constructed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers in partnership with SFWMD and USDA. This initiative is part of an integrated pest management approach to tackle invasive and harmful species and identify and rear insects to control the spread of invasive plants. Earlier Contunued on page 61


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Available Positions Include: Business Development Leader – Tampa Area Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings, 0-15 yrs. exp.) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com PIPELINE CONTROLMAN Salary Range $54,665. - $86,591.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $47,675. - $90,281. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is looking for a Pipeline Controlman. The purpose of this classification is to operate the 130+ miles of high-pressure transmission pipeline extending through the Florida Keys terminating in Key West. This classification directly monitors all pumping stations, monitors & fills all transmission and distribution storage tanks, operates pumps, isolation and control valves while adhering to strict transmission-main operating parameters. Pipeline monitor and control is accomplished via a system wide Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) computer system with specific responsibility for power monitoring and energy optimization. The Pipeline Controlmen also receives and manages all after-hour customer complaints and dispatches repair crews during a leak event or during other emergencies. Qualifications: H.S. diploma or GED; supplemented by 3 yrs. previous experience and/or training as a Pipeline Controlman with a water utility. Must be able to work rotating shift. Must possess and maintain a FDEP Level II Distribution license or a minimum Florida Class “C” WTPO license. Location: Florida City. Apply online at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

In an effort to support our rapidly growing community, Sarasota County Government’s Public Utilities department has been granted new positions for fiscal year 2020 starting  on October 1, 2019. Join this exceptional, dedicated and  high-performing team and be a part of our exciting new programs including the Heavy Construction Team & FOG Program. Enjoy great benefits including Health, Dental, Vision, and Life Insurance, Short-Term and Long-Term Disability, Flexible Spending Accounts, free gyms and classes, EAP, Florida Retirement System (FRS) and many, many more!

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

New Upcoming Positions Project Manager/Administrator IV – Utilities Public Utilities Field Operations Manager II Manager III – Water/Wastewater F.O.G. Supervisor Operations & Maintenance Manager Skilled Trades Worker II & Equipment Operator III Utilities Operations Supervisor – Stormwater Utilities Field Technicians & Crew Leader Compliance/Maintenance Specialist III Heavy Pipeline Construction Supervisor Chief Treatment Plant Operator Apply online today at www.scgov.net/jobs

City of Wildwood Water Treatment Operator: Looking for career and an adventure? We need a water operator to join our great team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $35,000 - $37,000yr. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Melissa Tuck. EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

Engineer 1 with Brevard County Utility Services Department Classified Ad Text: Brevard County Utilities is seeking an Engineer 1 to work from the Utility Services Administration office at the Government Center in Viera. This position is for a County-owned public water and sewer Utility. For more information and to apply, go to the employment website of the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners at https://career8.successfactors.com/career?company=brevardcou Brevard County is an Equal Opportunity/Veterans Preference Employer


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Utility Manager Government Services Group is seeking a full-time Utility Manager for the Florida Governmental Utility Authority (FGUA) at MacDill AFB with office location at the FGUA WWTP, 9119 Bayshore Blvd, MacDill AFB, Tampa, FL. Preliminary salary range is $80k to $95k, depending on qualifications. FGUA seeks an individual with excellent communication skills and 20 years’ experience in utility management of water and wastewater utilities. Bachelor’s Degree in civil engineering or equivalent is required, PE preferred. Salary, education, and experience requirements are adjustable for the right person. Applicant must hold a current, valid Florida Driver’s License and be able to pass a Federal Government Background Security check. Interested candidates please email resume to gforrest@govmserv.com or call 407803-3478. Excellent benefits package including 401-k, dental and healthcare insurance. AA/EOE

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Pretreatment Coordinator, Senior Utility Engineer, Technical Services Foreman, Industrial Electrician, Plant Operator, Maintenance Mechanic, Crew Leader, Service Worker. Apply at https://www.titusville.com/Employment.asp

Compliance Coordinator $49,348 - $69,437/yr. Utilities Maintenance Supervisor $60,594 - $82,261/yr. Lift Station Operator I $42,628 - $59,982/yr. Heavy Equipment Operator $44,760 - $62,981/yr. Utilities Electrician $54,406 - $76,555/yr. Utilities Foreman (Water & Storm Water) $49,348 - $69,436/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $40,598 - $57,127 / $42,628 - $66,130/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

Contunued from page 58 this year, the laboratory facilitated the release of a Brazilian insect known as thrips that will help combat invasive Brazilian peppers that have invaded hundreds of thousands of acres throughout South Florida. Biocontrols are rigorously tested to ensure that they will feed on the invasive plant being targeted and not negatively impact the native ecosystem before they are released. A vote by the board will fund the development of biocontrols for the earleaf acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) plant and the roundleaf toothcup (Rotala rotundifolia) plant. It will also help complete testing of biocontrols already under development for the melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) tree and downy rose myrtle (Rhodomytrus tomentosa) plant. The SFWMD board is also taking aggressive action to protect the Everglades and eliminate invasive pythons from its public lands. Starting in March 2017, the python elimination program incentivized a limited number of public-spirited individuals to humanely euthanize these destructive snakes, which have become an apex predator in the Everglades. The program provides access to python removal agents on designated SFWMD lands in Miami-Dade, Broward, Collier, Hendry, and Palm Beach counties. The program has already eliminated more than 2,500 pythons from the Everglades and the board also voted to triple the funding for this critical program. The program pays trained python contractors an hourly wage and a bounty based on the size of the snakes. Burmese pythons are an invasive predator not native to south Florida and they have become a severe threat to the state’s native ecosystems. Pythons prey heavily on Florida wildlife, like rabbits and birds, and directly compete for food with native predators, such as bobcats and Florida panthers. The board also authorized Drew Bartlett, SFWMD executive director, to enter into an agreement with federal agencies and other state agencies, such as the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC), that will allow SFWMD python hunters to access more state and federal lands in south Florida to hunt the pythons. Recently, Eric Sutton, executive director of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC,) and Justin Unger, deputy superintendent for the Everglades National Park, joined Rory Feeney, SFWMD land resources bureau chief, in highlighting how the agencies are going to work more closely together on python removal. The FWC also has a python program that has removed 839 snakes. "This is not individual agencies or entities with individual programs to remove pythons; it’s one program with a diversified portfolio of assets and stakeholders to accomplish one mission,” said Sutton. The board also authorized SFWMD to contract with the University of Florida to perform scientific work to aid the python removal effort. The work would potentially include reptile monitoring and assessments of the impact of removal efforts on the python population. Additional efforts include increasing the number of professional contracted hunters, working with FWC to host a joint Annual Python Challenge event to hunt the snakes, developing agreements with local governments for hunters to access lands they own in order to hunt snakes, and using both new and triedand-true methods, such as training dogs, to hunt pythons. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2019


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 44 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ........Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ................Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ............Disinfection; Water Quality September ......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection

1. A) National Incident Management System Per the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fact sheet, “Water Sector National Incident Management System (NIMS) Implementation Objectives (NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector).”

2. A) All jurisdictional levels, across all agencies, and all domestic incidents. Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, “NIMS, originally published in 2004, establishes a comprehensive, national approach to incident management that is applicable at all jurisdictional levels, across all agencies, and to all domestic incidents, regardless of size.”

3. C) ongoing management and maintenance. Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, “There are five main components of NIMS: preparedness, communications and information management, resource management, command and management, and ongoing management and maintenance.”

4. D) Planning, training, and exercises Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, “As defined in the NIMS document, preparedness covers the elements of planning, training, and exercises.”

5. B) Incident Command System (ICS)

Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Per the NIMS Fact Sheet for Water Sector, “HSPD 5 requires that federal agencies manage all domestic incidents under ICS. During large incidents, utilities should be prepared to coordinate with state and federal agencies using ICS. Utilities can practice using ICS when responding to routine emergencies, such as main breaks.”

6. B) finance/administration. Per ICS Review Document (extracted from E/L/G 0300 Intermediate Incident Command System for Expanding Incidents, ICS 300), “ICS applies across disciplines and enables incident managers from different organizations to work together seamlessly. This system includes five major functional areas, staffed as needed, for a given incident: command, operations, planning, logistics, and finance/administration. A sixth ICS function, intelligence/investigations, is only used when the incident requires these specialized capabilities.”

7. B) public information officer.

Display Advertiser Index Blue Planet ..............................................................................................63 CEU Challenge ..........................................................................................15 Data Flow..................................................................................................29 Engineered Pump ....................................................................................43 Ferguson ..................................................................................................51 FSAWWA Fall Conference Preliminary Calendar ....................................16 FSAWWA Fall Conference Registration Form ..........................................17 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview ........................................................18 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night, Happy Hour, and Golf Tournament ............................................................................19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions..................................................20 FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards..........................................21 FSAWWA Fall Conference Youth Program Robot Challenge ..................22 FSAWWA Fall Conference Students and Young Professionals................23 FWPCOA Training......................................................................................41 FWRC Call for Papers ..............................................................................14 Grundfos ..................................................................................................11 Heyward....................................................................................................58 Hudson Pump ..........................................................................................31 Hydro International ....................................................................................5 Infosense ..................................................................................................60 J&S Valve..................................................................................................33 Lakeside Equipment Corporation ..............................................................7 Stacon ........................................................................................................2 Treeo ........................................................................................................45 Xylem ........................................................................................................64


October 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Per the ICS Review Document, “Command Staff: The staff who report directly to the incident commander, including the public information officer, safety officer, liaison officer, and other positions as required.”

8. B) Five Per the FEMA NIMS 2017 Learning Materials, “The optimal span of control for incident management is one supervisor to five subordinates; however, effective incident management frequently necessitates ratios significantly different from this. The 1:5 ratio is a guideline, and incident personnel should use their best judgment to determine the actual distribution of subordinates to supervisors for a given incident or emergency operations center (EOC) activation.”

9. C) offsite support to onsite ICS operations. Per the FEMA NIM) 2017 Learning Materials, under the NIMS command and coordination structures, ICS section: • “ICS is used to manage on-scene, tactical-level response; EOCs are used to manage offscene support to ICS. • Common EOC functions include information management, resource management, and communicating policy decisions. • Jurisdictions and organizations across the nation use EOCs. • EOCs are locations where staff from multiple agencies assembles to provide coordinated support to incident command, on-scene personnel, and/or other EOCs. • The purpose, authorities, and composition of the teams that staff EOCs vary widely, but generally, the teams consolidate and exchange information, support decision making, coordinate resources, and communicate with personnel on-scene and at other EOCs.”

10. B) security. Per the FEMA NIMS 2017 Learning Materials, in the communications and information management section, “NIMS 2017 adds 'security' as a fourth key principle of communications and information systems. The four key principles are now (1) interoperability; (2) reliability, scalability, and portability; (3) resilience and redundancy; and (4) security. Security: Some information is sensitive…incident personnel should work with information technology and security experts to incorporate data, network, and systems protection best practices into incident communications and data sharing.”

Profile for Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal - October 2019  

New Facilities, Expansions and Upgrades

Florida Water Resources Journal - October 2019  

New Facilities, Expansions and Upgrades

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