Page 1

Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal

1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office: P.O. Box 745, Windermere, FL 34786-0745 Web: General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

News and Features 4

40 44 46

Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 888-328-8448 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.


and Vivek Galav

26 28 30

News Beat WEF HQ Newsletter—Steve Dye Restoring Reliability to Older Potable Water Supply Wells—Julie L. Karleskint


Prioritizing Well Rehabilitation With a Well Condition Survey—Douglas P. Dufresne and Valerie C. Davis


31 42 45 50

Hillsborough County Pump Station Rehabilitation Program—Kimberly S. Not Enough Space—Now What? Rehabilitation of the Krause Pumping Station in Tampa—Freddy Betancourt, David Hagan, and Mike Pekkala

Education and Training 7 14 27 43 49 55

FWEA Focus—Lisa Prieto FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kunihiro Test Yourself—Ron Trygar FWEA Committee Corner—Teri L. Shoemaker


Rogers and James C. Fleming


FWRJ Committee Profile—FSAWWA Manufacturers/Associates Council Fall Conference Committee C Factor—Scott Anaheim FWRJ Reader Profile—Greg Chomic Process Page: Broward County North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant— Ralph Aliseo, Persad Bissessar, Metason Philip, and Eric Stanley

Technical Articles

FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

Pipes, Pressures, and Pumps: Proactive Force Main Management in the City of West Palm Beach—Jason A. Johnson

and John (Jack) Garbade

Membership Questions

Training Questions


Process Page: Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility—Craig Fuller

Departments 48 56 59 62

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers FSAWWA Fall Conference CEU Challenge FWPCOA Online Training TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Training Calendar

ON THE COVER: The Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility, operated by Polk County Utilities, uses shade balls to reduce chlorine consumption, stabilize residuals by occupying the area of chlorinated water exposed to the environment, and eliminate algae growth and iron oxidation. For more information, see page 52. (photo: Nathan Silveira)

Volume 67

October 2016

Number 10

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Pipes, Pressures, and Pumps: Proactive Force Main Management in the City of West Palm Beach Jason A. Johnson and Vivek Galav Since 1974, the City of West Palm Beach has seen an exponential growth in population, and similarly, in wastewater management needs. Piping, treatment, and pumping stations have been constructed and remain the foundation of the city’s wastewater management system. During this time, the city has continuously upgraded its pumping and treatment processes based on advances in regulations and technology. Historically, management of the force main network has been based on the general age of the system without specific information on the integrity of the system in relation to its normal and extreme weather operation. The city has completed the first phase of a condition assessment, design, and rehabilitation program of its force main network.


This article presents the systematic approach developed by the city to proactively manage the force main network in light of ever-evolving demands and needs of the community. The evolution in the force main management strategy, the collection of information based on advanced technological approaches, and the evolution in the decision making process utilized to be proactive in the management of the force main asset are discussed. The force main management process included examination of a variety of parameters. Manufacturing standards from the original force main design were structurally analyzed in contrast to current design standards. Utilizing acoustics and electromagnetics, high priority areas were identified and quantified based on gas pockets and structural distress along the force main route. Current operation and maintenance practices were examined of

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

air release valving and other appurtenances to the force main. Pressures were assessed based on the multiple pumping station connections to the force main. Examination of these parameters were combined with rehabilitation and replacement design strategies to define the second phase of the management process, design, and construction.

Condition Assessment The original design plan in the 1970s was for the construction of a parallel force main to convey wastewater to the East Central Regional Water Reclamation Facility (ECR). The parallel force main was never built, but routine monitoring of the air release valves and system pump stations continued. The force main, however, operated and continues to serve as the cornerstone of the wastewater management system network for the city with limited awareness of the pipeline’s structural integrity and operational health. Due to the lack of visibility on the structural condition of the force main and the environmental consequences of failure, the city began investigating condition assessment studies. In 2007, the city conducted acoustic monitoring of the 6-mi force main to determine which areas, if any, were actively deteriorating. The results of the acoustic monitoring were inconclusive. In 2015, with the evolution of force main condition assessment techniques, the city conducted a follow-up inspection focusing on the utilization of pressure monitoring and inline assessment technologies that would minimize disruption from normal operation of the force main. Acoustic technology was utilized to identify leaks and gas pockets, and electromagnetics was utilized to evaluate structural integrity of the force main, comprised of 42-in.- and 48-in.-lined cylinder pipe (LCP) sections manufactured by Price Brothers Co. and the 48-in.-diameter embedded cylinder pipe (ECP) sections manufactured by Interpace Corp. On Feb. 24 and June 15, 2015, a leak and gas pocket detection inspection and electroContinued on page 6

Figure 1. City of West Palm Beach Force Main Condition Assessment, Design, and Construction Schedule

Continued from page 4 magnetic inspection of approximately 6 mi of force main between Lift Station 22 and the ECR were conducted, respectively. The acoustic leak and gas-pocket detection inspection recorded no results indicative of leaks and 23 recordings were indicative of entrained gas and slugs of gas in the force main. Of the 1,682 pipes across the 6-mi route inspected electromagnetically, approximately 10 percent of the pipes were found to contain broken-wire wrap distress. Structural engineering analysis was conducted based on the original design standards and current design standards for the LCP and ECP designs. The results of the engineering analysis suggest that rehabilitation of the force main is required. Pressure monitoring was conducted to confirm real-time operational parameters of the force main, in supplement to those reported by the city’s supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system and to identify sources and frequency of pressure surges that approach the force main’s structural yield design limit. The pressure readings were contrasted with the design pressures for the LCP and ECP to determine whether any of the readings approached the force main yield strength. The pressure monitoring identified intermittent pressure surges that are within the design standard of the force main. However, this effort elevated the city’s awareness of the inter-relationship between pressure management, typically associated with the pump station operation, and the structural integrity of the pipeline.


Condition assessment of the force main found that the majority of the pipe was in good condition, resulting in a more controlled budgeting, planning, and design process for the remaining phases of the program. Several portions of the 48-in.-diameter main needed rehabilitation and/or repair as soon as feasible. The varying degree of distress and the general distribution of distressed locations support a phased implementation strategy for rehabilitation.

Community Outreach Based on the completion of the condition assessment and the production of actionable information, the city implemented a two-year project delivery timeline for extending the service life of the force main for another 40 to 50 years. The schedule included a comprehensive community outreach program, in combination with a phased design and construction approach. The project schedule identified three major phases: condition assessment and design, and phase-1 and phase-2 construction. This delineation was utilized to support community outreach. Due to the evolved urbanization along the pipeline route since the force main’s original construction, community outreach is a critical element associated with resident acceptance and coordination during the pending construction-intensive phases. The city actively met with and continues to provide online resources to residents to inform them of the pending work and how it may impact them.

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Conclusion Through the effective utilization of condition assessment related to the operation of the city’s force mains, pressure profiling across the wastewater network, review of pump operations, and an effective community outreach program, the city has developed an effective strategic plan for implementation of rehabilitation to its wastewater management system. Through the implementation of these strategies, the city has been able to accomplish the following: ! Focus the design and construction effort on the sections of the system that specifically require rehabilitation. By reducing the focus of the design effort, the city was able to effectively manage the cost and the schedule for implementation of the rehabilitation. ! The city has been able to refine its air release valve inspection and maintenance program focusing on the locations where active gas pockets have been observed. ! Pump station operation has been reviewed to confirm that the operational settings do not adversely impact the structural integrity of the force main. ! The community is kept abreast of the infrastructure improvement process, allowing for support and awareness of the phased construction efforts. Jason Johnson. P.E., is the south area manager for Pure Technologies in Miami, and Vivek Galav, P.E., is a project manager with the City of West Palm Beach. !


Prioritizing Well Rehabilitation With a Well Condition Survey Douglas P. Dufresne and Valerie C. Davis Case Study Due to changes in the conditions of production wells over time within the potable water system, Toho Water Authority (Toho) requested a preliminary evaluation of the well conditions of all active production wells in its water supply system. This evaluation included the gathering of existing information on the wells and analysis of the data gathered in order to aid Toho in the prioritization of well rehabilitation or replacement efforts in the future. Information requested from Toho included all pertinent well data, which may be obtained from well completion reports, well construction summary reports, maintenance records, water use permit information, historic pumpage rates and water quality records, and other technical well reports. The data collected were summarized on well data logs and included a thorough list of well and pump information. Table 1 presents the data sought in the well condition survey. The wells in this well condition survey were all open borehole, Floridan aquifer wells. Additional information would be collected on screened wells, which may include screen diameter, screen slot size, screen material, gravel pack thickness, gravel pack size distribution, and gravel pack setting interval. Permitted Wells The water use permit issued from the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) to the Tohopekaliga Water Authority on Dec. 6, 2013, has 64 listed existing water supply wells.

Currently, 35 active potable water supply wells are in the Toho water system, on which the well condition survey is focused. The 29 remaining permitted water supply wells are either to be abandoned (20 wells), already abandoned (seven wells), or are irrigation wells (two wells). Several wells listed within the water use permit had different characteristics than those identified in the sanitary surveys performed regularly for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). When there was a conflict in names or well characteristics, in general, the information provided in the sanitary survey0 and the driller’s well completion report took precedent over the information in the SFWMD table. Construction information found within an engineering report detailing well construction also took precedent over information found in a driller’s well completion report. Well Data Logs The information and data gathered on the 35 active potable water supply wells were tabulated in the well data logs. Additional calculated values are also included on the well data logs, such as original specific capacity, current specific capacity, and well efficiency. The logs each show an aerial photograph location of the well, in addition to the state plane coordinates of the well in North American Datum 1983 (NAD83). Well Age The ages of the active wells were reviewed to determine the distribution of well age through the system. Figure 1 shows the well age versus the

Table 1. Well Condition Survey Data

Douglas P. Dufresne, PG, is senior hydrogeologist/project director, and Valerie C. Davis, PG, is project hydrogeologist with Ardaman & Associates Inc., a Tetra Tech Company, in Orlando.

number of wells in each age category for the active wells in the Toho water system. There is one well in the Toho system that is less than 10 years old, 16 wells were between 11 and 20 years old, and six wells were between 21 and 30 years old. The total number of active Toho water supply wells less than 30 years old is 23 wells, which accounts for 65.7 percent of the total number. The useful life of a water well is often considered to be 30 years, although many wells last longer than that without significant problems. The total number of active Toho wells that are 31 years old or greater equals 12 wells, which is 34.3 percent of the total number. Those older wells include four wells between 31 and 40 years old, seven wells between 41 and 50 years old, and one well significantly greater than 50 years old at 91 years. The average age of the active Toho wells is 26.7 years, and without including the oldest well, the average age is 24.8 years. The geometric mean of well ages is equal to 23 years for the active Toho wells. The remaining Toho wells, which include abandoned wells and wells to be abandoned, range between 13 and 56 years in age and average 33.7 years in age; many of these wells did not have recorded construction dates. The geometric mean of well ages for the remaining Toho wells is equal to 31.6 years. The average age of the remaining Toho wells is 7 years older than the active Toho wells. The geometric mean age of the remaining Toho wells is 8.6 years older than the active Toho wells. Pumped Volume The annual pumped volume and maximum monthly pumped volume for the active Toho wells for calendar year 2014 were used in the analysis. The total annual 2014 pumped volume for the 35 wells equaled 11,567 mil gal (MG). The wellfield annual pumped volume was


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 1. Well Age Versus Number of Wells

calculated, along with the distribution of wellfield pumpage in percentage of the total annual pumped volume. The three wellfields with the largest annual volumes and percentages are North Bermuda with 4,821 MG and 41.7 percent, Southwest with 1,460 MG and 12.6 percent, and Parkway with 1,170 MG and 10.1 percent. The pumped volumes of water from active potable wells for Toho were sorted by well age. Wells less than 10 years old account for about 4 percent of the annual pumped volume, whereas wells between 11 and 20 years old and between 21 and 30 years old account for about 69 percent and 8 percent, respectively. The wells 30 years old or less account for a total of 80.9 percent of the total annual volume. The active wells between 31 and 40 years old account for about 4 percent of the total annual volume pumped, and wells between 41 and 50 years old account for about 15 percent. Wells greater than 30 years old account for a total of 19.2 percent of the total annual volume pumped in 2014. The annual volumes of water pumped in 2014 for the various well age groups were: ! Less than 10 years old - 477 MG ! Between 11 and 20 years old - 7,945 MG ! Between 21 and 30 years old - 931 MG ! Between 31 and 40 years old - 449 MG ! Between 41 and 50 years old - 1,753 MG ! Greater than 50 years old - 11 MG Figure 3 shows the distribution of the total annual volume pumped in 2014 for the various well age groups. The wells 30 years old or less had a total annual volume pumped of 9,353 MG in 2014; wells greater than 30 years old had a total annual volume pumped of 2,213 MG in 2014. Although the majority of pumpage comes from the newer wells, there is still a significant amount of water that comes from the older wells. As these older wells develop more problems as they continue to

Figure 2. Well Age Versus Percentage Flow

Figure 3. Well Age Versus Annual Flow Volume

age, they need to be considered for rehabilitation to extend their useful life. If it is determined that these older wells cannot be effectively rehabilitated, they should be considered for replacement. Static Water Level The static water levels recorded at the original construction date were found for 24 of the 35 active potable wells. The original static water levels ranged between 0.61 and 45.19 ft below measuring point (bmp). These static water levels can vary due to the differences in the potentiometric surface elevation of the Floridan aquifer system, drawdown from pumping wells in the surrounding area, land surface elevation, and the time period the well pump has been off. The current static water levels were recorded between June and September 2014 for 19 of the 35 active potable wells. There were 16 wells within the system that do not have appro-

priate access to measure the static or pumping water levels, predominantly due to the size of the pump within the final well casing not allowing a water level indicator to freely move to the water level for measurement. The current static water levels ranged between 4.48 and 50.52 feet bmp. The changes in the static water levels (current minus original levels) could be determined for 12 active potable wells; these changes in the static water levels ranged from -1.52 to 12.79 ft bmp, and averaged 6.24 ft bmp. The current static water levels reflect the change in the potentiometric surface for the Floridan aquifer over the last couple of decades, with the increased use of the Floridan aquifer for potable water supply due to growth in the region. Pumping Water Level The pumping water levels recorded at the original construction date were found for 24 of Continued on page 10

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Continued from page 9 the 35 active potable wells. The original pumping water levels ranged between 5.08 and 70 ft bmp. These pumping water levels can vary due to the differences in the potentiometric surface elevation of the Floridan aquifer system, drawdown from pumping wells in the surrounding area, land surface elevation, and the time period the well pump has been pumping. It is critical to have the original water level data for the well when it was installed in order to properly track changes over time for determining the need for rehabilitation and to monitor the water supply sustainability. The current pumping water levels were recorded between June and September 2014 for 19 of the 35 active potable wells. The current pumping water levels ranged between 10.69 and 77.22 ft bmp. The changes in the pumping water levels (current minus original levels) could be determined for 12 active potable wells; these changes in the pumping water levels ranged from 13.49 to 19.77 ft bmp, and averaged 5.62 ft bmp. The current pumping water levels reflect the change in the potentiometric surface for the Floridan aquifer over the last couple of decades, with the increased use of the Floridan aquifer for potable water supply due to growth in the region. These current pumping water levels can also be different from the original pumping water levels, if the pump rates are different. Pump Rate The design pump rate for the installed pumps in the active potable wells ranged between 75 and 3,500 gal per minute (gpm), and averaged 1,640 gpm; the current pump rate for the same wells ranged between 84 and 4,043 gpm, and averaged 1,757 gpm. The current

pump rate data came from the most recent flow meter calibration reports. The change in pump rate (current minus design pump rate) ranges between -806 and 1,830 gpm, and averages 50 gpm. Figure 4 shows the change in pump rate versus the well age. The majority of the active potable wells that are less than 20 years old have current pump rates that exceed the design pump rate for the existing pumps. The majority of wells that are greater than 20 years old have current pump rates that are less than the design pump rate for the existing pumps; the older wells likely have static and pumping water levels that are lower today than when the pumps were installed. With the change in head conditions, the pump rate can drop below the design rate, and the pump rate can also drop below the design rate due to pump wear. The wells can also experience a change in productivity with the clogging of the formation within a close proximity of the open borehole leading to greater drawdown within the well, thereby changing the head conditions. Clogging of the formation should be noted with a change in the specific capacity over time. Specific Capacity The specific capacity of a well is equal to the well discharge per unit of drawdown (Driscoll, 1986) expressed in gpm/ft or cubic meters per day per meter (m3/day/m); this value is used as a measure of a well’s productivity. The original specific capacities were calculated for 20 of the 35 active potable wells. These original specific capacities ranged from 32 to 869 gpm/ft. The current specific capacities were calculated for 18 of the active potable wells; they range from 41 to 1,029 gpm/ft.

Figure 4. Change in Pump Rate Versus Well Age


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The change in specific capacity (current minus original specific capacity) was calculated for the 12 active wells that had both original and current specific capacity values. Change in specific capacity ranged between -370 and 428 gpm/ft, and averaged 56 gpm/ft. There were four wells that had a decrease in specific capacity and eight wells that had an increase in specific capacity. The change is specific capacity could be influenced by the difference in the test rate between the original and current measurements. The higher the pump rate while testing, the more the specific capacity generally decreases due to the increase in turbulent flow within the well. A change in specific capacity, therefore, does not necessarily mean that there has been an actual change in the productivity of the well when the test rates are different. Well Efficiency Data from step-drawdown tests performed at the time of well construction were available for nine active wells. The step-drawdown test is generally run with four steps of increasing pump rates run for one hour of pumping for each step; the specific capacity and well efficiency is then calculated for each step of the test. For these wells, the design-rate well efficiency ranged between 29 percent and 69 percent, and averaged 47 percent. Well efficiency is equal to the ratio of theoretical drawdown in the aquifer to observed drawdown in the well (Driscoll, 1986). An efficiency of 70 to 80 percent is the target efficiency when constructing a well with good design, construction, and development practices (Driscoll, 1986). Due to high flow volumes in Floridan aquifer wells with fractured flow and cavities, turbulent flow in the borehole often leads to a well efficiency that is considerably less than 70 percent. If the discharge rate is high for a well and there is little drawdown, an inefficient well can be considered acceptable. Well Problems The well problems surveyed for the active potable wells for Toho included water production, sand concentration, bacteriological, and water quality. A water production problem was reported in 12 of the 35 wells. A sand concentration problem, where the well is pumping too much sand, was reported in one well. In 10 wells, a bacteriological problem was noted, and in 13 wells, a water quality problem was reported. Many of the wells with a water quality problem had the problem at the time of construction. Figure 5 shows the number of wells with a water production problem distributed by well age. Water production problems were noted in four wells between 11 and 20 years old, three

wells between 21 and 30 years old, one well between 31 and 40 years old, and four wells between 41 and 50 years old. Twelve active potable wells have a reduction in pump rate from the design rate greater than 15 percent, which defines them in this study as having a water production problem. These wells ranged in a reduction of pumpage from 16 percent to 67 percent. A sand concentration problem was only noted in one well, and it was between 11 and 20 years old. After some investigation, it was determined that this well had sand entering the open borehole about 135 ft below the bottom of the casing, and that it was also pumping rust scale from a corroded casing. The well was rehabilitated by brushing the casing, disinfecting, and redeveloping through overpumping, and the well was placed back into service. Figure 6 shows the number of wells with a bacteriological problem distributed by well age. Bacteriological problems were noted in one well between 11 and 20 years old (6 percent of the age group), one well between 21 and 30 years old (17 percent of the age group), two wells between 31 and 40 years old (50 percent of the age group), five wells between 41 and 50 years old (71 percent of the age group), and one well greater than 50 years old (100 percent of the age group). It appears that the older the wells are, the greater the likelihood that they experienced a bacteriological problem. With aging comes the corrosion of the casing and fittings that may expose the well to bacteriological contaminants within the surficial aquifer. The wells could have been rehabilitated over the years by scrubbing the casing, disinfecting the casing and borehole with strong chlorine solution or other disinfectant, and redeveloping the well. This method is effective for several years or longer, but it all depends upon whether the root cause of the bacteriological contamination has been addressed or not; otherwise, the problem can reoccur. Toho has addressed some of the concerns with bacteriological contamination by demonstrating a four-log inactivation at some of its water treatment plants. The water treatment plants that have had demonstrated four-log inactivation include Buenaventura Lakes, Camelot West, Northwest Kissimmee, and Parkway. Figure 7 shows the number of wells with a water quality problem, most of which are due to the background water quality within an area. With the exception of two wells, all of the wells with water quality problems are located east of Lake Tohopekaliga, so it appears that the water quality problem for Toho is a regional problem and not necessarily individual wells. These water quality problems include disinfection byproduct precursors, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia. Continued on page 12

Figure 5. Well Age Versus Water Production Problem

Figure 6. Well Age Versus Bacteriological Problem

Figure 7. Well Age Versus Water Quality Problem Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Continued from page 11 Water quality problems were noted in one well less than 10 years old, six wells between 11 and 20 years old, two wells between 21 and 30 years old, one well between 31 and 40 years old, and three wells between 41 and 50 years old.

Conclusions The average age of active potable water supply wells for Toho is 26.7 years; the useful life of a water well is often considered to be 30 years, although, many wells last longer than that without significant problems. Active water supply wells less than 30 years old account for 65.7 percent of the total number of wells for Toho and have a total of 81 percent of the total annual pumped volume in 2014. The static water levels recorded at the original construction date were available for 24 of the 35 active potable wells. The current static water levels recorded between June and September 2014 were available for only 19 of the active potable wells. There are 16 wells within the system that do not have appropriate access to measure the static or pumping water levels. It is critical to have the original water level data for the well when it was installed in order to properly track changes over time for determining the need for rehabilitation and to monitor the water supply sustainability. It is also necessary to have the ability to measure the current static and pumping water levels to monitor the performance of the well over time. The changes in the static water levels (current minus original levels) could be determined for 12 active potable wells, and they averaged 6.24 ft bmp. The changes in the pumping water levels could be determined for 12 active potable wells, and they averaged 5.62 ft bmp. The current static and pumping water levels reflect the change in the potentiometric surface elevation for the Floridan aquifer over the last couple of decades, perhaps due to the increased use of the Floridan aquifer for potable water supply in the region. The change in pump rate (current minus design pump rate) averages 50 gpm. The majority of the active potable wells less than 20 years old have current pump rates that exceed the design pump rate for the existing pumps. The majority of wells greater than 20 years old have current pump rates that are less than the design pump rate for the existing pumps. Change in specific capacity averaged 56 gpm/ft for the 12 wells that had both original and current capacities to compare. There were four wells that had a decrease in specific capacity and eight wells that had an increase in specific capacity. The designrate well efficiency ranged between 29 and 69 percent, and averaged 47 percent for nine of the


active wells that had step-drawdown test data available. There are twelve active potable wells that have a reduction in pump rate from the design rate that is greater than 15 percent, defined as having a water production problem. A sand concentration problem was reported in one well, which is 16 years old; in 10 wells, a bacteriological problem was noted. It is clear that the older wells have a greater likelihood that they will experience a bacteriological problem. A water quality problem was reported in 13 wells, but it appears to be a regional problem. The results of the well condition survey allowed for a rehabilitation prioritization table to be prepared based on the number of well problems and the potential for affecting water supply reliability in certain areas. Recommendations It is generally recommended that additional information be gathered on the active potable wells in order to more fully evaluate the well conditions for all the wells. There are some wells identified in the well condition survey recommended for rehabilitation, and Toho could proceed with implementation in the near future. The other wells could be addressed as needed over the next several years in a maintenance program. For ease of assigning recommendations, and to identify the order of rehabilitation, the wells were first prioritized. A table was created showing the wells with identified well problems as revealed in the well condition survey, including water production, sand concentration, bacteriological, water quality, and water-level measurement access. The 27 wells on the table were sorted by reduction in pump rate and then by the total number of problems. The wells with a reduction in pump rate and additional problems were assigned a higher priority for testing and rehabilitation. Wells with some evaluation that were ready for additional testing and rehabilitation were prioritized, and wells with bacteriological problems would be next in line for testing and rehabilitation. Wells on the list with the lowest priority for rehabilitation included those requiring access for water level monitoring or for water quality issues that could be evaluated, but likely would not be easily remedied due to the existing background water quality in these areas. Recommendations for any utility include: ! The next time pumps are pulled in wells without water-level measurement access, the utility should install a metal or plastic air line with a pressure gauge during reinstallation of the pump that can be used to monitor static and pumping water levels (USGS, 2001).

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

! Wells identified with decreased production need to be tested and analyzed to determine whether the change in production is a result of change of the potentiometric surface elevation for the Floridan aquifer, a change in specific capacity, pump wearing, or a combination of reasons. ! Wells with a sand concentration problem should be investigated. If the investigation shows that the well can be restored, the well should be rehabilitated and tested. If the investigation shows that the well cannot be rehabilitated, and the well is older than 30 years, consideration should be given to replacing the well. ! Wells identified with bacteriological problems need to be tested and analyzed to determine the source of the contamination and whether the well can be properly rehabilitated. The wells can often be remediated by scrubbing the casing, disinfecting the casing and borehole with strong chlorine solution or other disinfectant, and redeveloping the well. If there are perforations in portions of the casing, a liner can be installed to seal the casing from the aquifer only when the casing diameter is large enough to accommodate the liner. If the bacteriological problem is persistent and reoccurring, and the well is older than 30 years, consideration should be given to replacing the well. ! Wells identified with water quality problems need to be investigated to determine the source of the water quality issues and whether the well can be properly rehabilitated. If the source of the water quality problems is not ambient water quality, the wells can often be remediated. If the water quality issues are persistent and reoccurring, and the well is older than 30 years, consideration should be given to replacing the well.

References • Ardaman & Associates Inc., March 2015. “Toho Water Authority Well Condition Survey, Osceola County, Florida.” File No. 15-10-0401, Orlando, Fla. • Driscoll, Fletcher, 1986. “Groundwater and Wells, Johnson Screens.” St. Paul, Minn. • U.S. Geological Survey, 2011. “Groundwater Technical Procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods.” 1-A1, Reston, Va., pp. 111-116. !

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016



Hillsborough County Pump Station Rehabilitation Program Kimberly S. Rogers and James C. Fleming


he Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department (department) has two distinct wastewater collection and transmission system service areas (Northwest and South-Central) that are separated by the City of Tampa’s wastewater service area (Figure 1). The department owns, operates, and maintains over 780 wastewater pump stations, with new additions each year from development. The systems also include 1,400 privately owned pump stations. Wastewater is conveyed through the collection and transmission systems consisting of 630 mi of force main, and 1,400 mi of gravity collection pipe. The county’s service area is limited by the urban service area boundary that is defined by

the Hillsborough County comprehensive plan. Parcels within this boundary are allowed to connect to the county’s utility services; parcels outside of the boundary are considered rural and do not have access to the department’s utility system.

History The department’s oldest stations have been acquired from private utilities over the years. These stations were constructed in the 1950s through the 1970s, prior to the existence of department standards. Since then, the department has constructed master pump stations to consolidate area wastewater flows, and developers

Kimberly S. Rogers, P.E., is a senior professional engineer, and James C. Fleming is a senior utility design engineer with Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department in Tampa.

have continued to construct pump stations for both private and public ownership. Figure 2 illustrates the growth over the last 15 years. Stations built for public ownership are now constructed to meet department standards. In the mid-1990s, the department established a master renewal and replacement program, also referred to as a “master project,” for wastewater pump stations. The department funded this project through the utility’s capital improvement program (CIP). To provide services through the master project, the department bid a multi-year contract to begin rehabilitation or replacement of wastewater pump stations in order to bring them into compliance with current county standards. This contract included a list of bid items pertaining to all aspects of pump station rehabilitation, including mechanical, electrical, and structural components. More recently, the department started a more methodical approach to its pump station rehabilitation program, breaking it down into the following three categories: ! Funding – The department allocates dollars per year based on the number of pump stations rehabilitations to be conducted per year. ! Prioritization – The department establishes a ranking system to determine the order in which the department’s pump stations should be rehabilitated, based on an objective condition assessment system. ! Delivery – The department generates multiple contracts, utilizing the allocated funding and targeting the highest-ranked stations (those in the worst condition).

Current State of the Program Figure 1. Wastewater Service Area


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Over the years, the department’s pump station rehabilitation program has evolved with

expanded funding and additional contracts. The department now has six contracts in place for both partial and full pump station rehabilitation projects. In the past 11 years, the department has completed 247 pump station rehabilitation projects (>$30K/station) and more than double that many partial rehabilitations (<$30K/station). Utilizing the same contracts, the department has installed seven emergency backup generators and 19 diesel backup pumps over the same time period. For rehabilitation of the department’s largest pump stations (>3 mil gal per day [mgd]) or stations that require complete replacement, separate bid contracts (i.e., “stand-alone” CIP contracts) are created. Table 1 shows the number of stations rehabilitated or replaced (>$30K each) per year and the corresponding costs from 2005 through 2015. A fully rehabilitated pump station is expected to have a useful life of twenty or more years, requiring only minor repairs within that time period. Now that a majority of the pump stations in poor condition have been addressed, the department is in a position to begin actively renewing and replacing assets. The goal is two-fold: 1. Eliminate pump station sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). 2. Provide a finished project that meets the department’s current standards and is safe and reliable, and therefore can be efficiently maintained. In the pursuit of minimizing SSOs, the department has also been steadily incorporating a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system into its wastewater collection/transmission system. Though a work in progress, it is intended to provide real-time monitoring of all department pump stations. This will allow field maintenance services (FMS) staff to not only monitor performance and predict maintenance, but also identify faults and malfunctions as they are occurring, improving response times.

Pump Station Prioritization Historically, pump stations would be ranked for rehabilitation based on condition assessments conducted during field visits by the department’s pump station rehabilitation team. The team includes representatives from engineering (planning, design, and project management) and FMS. In a given year, 20 or 30 of the department’s worst pump stations would be selected for site assessments based on input from FMS staff.

Figure 2. Wastewater Infrastructure Inventory

Table 1. Historical Program Expenditures

* Costs shown do not include materials supplied by the department, such as control panels and pumps. ** The number of rehabbed stations declined during 2015 because a larger number of minor rehabs (<$30K) were performed.

The team evaluated these stations using a comprehensive checklist of some 40 components (i.e., assets) that included such things as pumps, piping, grounds, fences, driveways, and electrical equipment. The condition of each individual asset was scored on a 1-to-5 scale (from excellent to very poor, respectively) based on team consensus. The pump stations deemed to be in the poorest condition (highest score) would then be added to the list for rehabilitation. In 2015, the department decided to pursue a more precise ranking and prioritization system where the department collects asset data in its comprehensive asset management system (CAMS), a database that includes assets and work orders. Every pump station has a series of records, one for each individual asset. Every

asset is assigned a condition score from 1 to 5 (same as previously mentioned) for both functional and physical conditions. The condition-score rating system is defined as follows: Physical Condition Definitions The current state of repair and operation for the asset as influenced by age, historical maintenance, and service/operating conditions. 1 – Excellent: Fully operable, well-maintained, and consistent with the current standards. Little wear shown and no further action required. 2 – Good: Sound and well-maintained, but may be showing slight signs of early wear or not up to current standards. Delivering full efficiency Continued on page 20

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Continued from page 19 with little or no deterioration in performance. Only minor renewal or rehabilitation may be needed in the future. 3 – Moderate (within five to10 years of failure): Functionally sound and acceptable, and showing normal signs of wear. May have minor failures or diminished efficiency and some deterioration in performance or increase in maintenance cost. Moderate renewal or replacement required. 4 – Poor (within one to five years of failure): Functions, but requires a high level of maintenance to remain operational. Shows abnormal wear and is likely to cause significant performance deterioration in the near term. Near-term scheduled replacement or rehabilitation needed. 5 – Very Poor (immediate to one year for failure): Effective life exceeded and/or excessive maintenance cost incurred. High risk of breakdown or imminent failure with serious impact on performance. No additional life expectancy, with immediate replacement or rehabilitation needed. Functional Condition Definitions 1 – Excellent: Meets all design and legal/regulatory requirements in all demand conditions. Overall performance is excellent and meets all future requirements. 2 – Good: May not meet current standards, but overall performance is excellent. May have minor risk under extreme conditions. Will likely meet expected future requirements. 3 – Moderate: Current performance is acceptable, but would likely not meet any future additional requirements or increased demand. 4 – Poor: Current performance is marginal and will not meet future additional requirements or increased demand.

Table 2. Criticality Score from Repump Score

5 –Very Poor: Current performance is unacceptable and does not meet currently required performance criteria, such as capacity or regulatory requirements. These scores are based on field observations by the team. The department’s goal is to assess the condition of all 780 pump stations every 10 years, or roughly 78 per year; master pump stations will be assessed on a more frequent basis—every five years. The department is evaluating additional measures to define a “master” pump station as having a peak flow greater than 1,000 gal per min (gpm) and/or a station that requires a stand-alone diesel-driven backup pump or backup generator. In addition, weighting factors of 1, 3, or 5 are applied to address the varying degrees of importance associated with each asset (e.g., condition of the fence [weighting factor of 1] versus condition of the discharge piping [weighting factor of 5]). The weighted scores are averaged into overall condition-code scores for the pump station. Every pump station is assigned a criticality score. The criticality scores are 5, 7, and 9, and result from the number of other pump stations that contribute flow to the station; master pump stations are designated as those with a criticality score of 9. The department’s wastewater collection and transmission system is a networked system of small pump stations pumping into larger pump stations, ultimately pumping into “master pump stations.” The majority of stations are small, neighborhood stations that do not repump flows from other pump stations. The largest stations collect and repump flow from nine or more other pump stations. In general, the department decided to assign criticality based on a score from the following equation: Repump Score = No. of County Stations + 0.5*No. of Private Stations County-owned stations generally serve developments of single-family homes. Private stations tend to have less flow than county-owned pump stations. Exceptions are for large multifamily developments, although in general, multifamily homes use less water and produce less wastewater than single-family subdivisions. The

Table 3. Total Number of Pump Stations and Sanitary Sewer Overflows by Year (2011–2015)


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

county has few large industrial customers for wastewater; therefore, the private stations were weighted at 50 percent of the value of countyowned stations for scoring purposes Table 2 lists the criticality score as it corresponds to the repump score. With the criticality scores in place, all county-owned pump stations are ranked based on an existing risk assessment formula used for force mains: Overall Risk = Criticality*Condition + [Consequence of Failure Factors (i.e., environmental, health and safety, and public service] In the original formula, the consequence of failure factors is based on quantifiable measures, such as the asset’s proximity to waterbodies, arterial or collector roads, and hospitals or schools. Using this formula, the stations with the highest criticality score topped the list, regardless of condition codes, and the high criticality scores for very few pump stations skewed the results. In addition, the original consequence of failure factors was designed based on force main assets and was not necessarily applicable to pump stations in the same way. For example, a force main break results in a discharge at the location of the break; therefore, that force main’s proximity to a waterbody can be easily correlated with the risk to the waterbody. However, a pump station malfunction may cause a wastewater backup in the contributing gravity system. The vulnerable point is usually the manhole lowest in elevation. The risk will not necessary correlate with the pump station’s proximity to a waterbody if the manhole that first experiences the overflow is thousands of feet upstream of the station. Therefore, the team began modifying the equation to better suit the needs of the pump station network. Philosophically, the team decided that the overall risk should be mostly a function of the condition codes, with some influence of environmental factors and criticality. The new equation is as follows: Overall Risk = w1*Criticality + w2*Condition + w3*∑Consequence of Failure Factors Where w1, w2, and w3 are weighting coefficient for each component of the risk score. The team completed a sensitivity analysis of the overall risk and weighting factors. For each step of the sensitivity analysis, the team reran the pump station prioritization report. Increasing the weight of the condition codes drastically changed the pump station priorities.

The prioritized list was more in line with the department’s current projects and opinions from FMS. Currently, the values are set to 0.1, 0.7, and 0.2, respectively. However, there remains a complicating factor: Not all of the condition data currently in the CAMS system are accurate. There are pump stations rated in “moderate” and “good” condition that are actually in need of repair. There are also many stations that have been recently rehabilitated to “excellent” condition, but still have condition codes of “poor” or “very poor.” The team is working on improving the data; however, this puts it in an iterative loop of creating the list based on the revised risk equation and then completing a thorough condition assessment of the top-ranking six to eight pump stations. This is where the team often identifies discrepancies in the data. The revised data is entered into the CAMS system and a new report is created. The pump station team then visits the next top-ranking six to eight pump stations that were not previously visited and completes the assessments. These new condition scores are then entered and the process repeats.

This effort is a “work in progress.” The existing condition code data define which pump stations will be assessed in this first year of the program, but the only way to improve this data is to assess the stations and correct discrepancies; this results in the team frequently visiting stations in good condition. While time may be better spent assessing stations in poor condition, this iterative process is the only way to improve the condition scores. In the next year of the program, the team will repeat the iterative process and assess a different set of 78 pump stations. As each year progresses, the team expects the data to improve and for the report to more accurately reflect actual field conditions. The team is still evaluating program components, such as: ! The final value of the weighting coefficients. ! How to update the condition codes over time with a 10-year cycle between condition assessments.

Project Delivery Pump stations with the highest overall risk scores are identified for rehabilitation. In order to qualify for full rehabilitation, a sufficient

number of assets need to be identified for replacement, such that a “tipping point” is reached. A full rehabilitation typically includes removing/replacing all assets, with the exception of the wet well. If it is determined that the wet well is beyond repair and needs to be replaced, then a complete replacement project (stand-alone CIP) is required. Full rehabilitations or replacements involve a multistep process that is a full-team collaborative effort. Team members are integrally involved throughout assessment, planning, design, and construction. First, the design process is initiated, starting with obtaining a topographic and boundary survey of the site. The designers commence creating a new design with a proposed layout that meets current standards and can be more safely and efficiently maintained than the existing pump station. Prior to preparing the new layout, design staff conducts a preliminary site visit, creates a photographic record, and identifies any unusual concerns that need to be addressed. For example, site issues, such as traffic or adjacent homeowner concerns, aesthetic issues (e.g., trees, fencing), and constructability limitations, are Continued on page 22

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Continued from page 21 identified. Where possible, space for a portable diesel backup pump is set aside within the pump station footprint. In the meantime, planning staff will review flow data and provide recommendations for pump size and horsepower. At 60 percent de-

sign, the team holds an onsite review meeting where comments are gathered for design modifications. At 90 percent design, the project management team assigns the project to one of the department’s pump station rehabilitation contractors, and the project manager then schedules an onsite review meeting with the

Figure 3. Total Number of Pump Stations and Sanitary Sewer Overflows by Year (2011–2015)

contractor and the other team members. With constructability comments from the 90 percent meeting, design staff will bring the project to 100 percent, the project manager issues a work order, and construction commences under the supervision of project management. As mentioned previously, the department utilizes six different contracts for pump station rehabilitation, which are characterized as work order construction services (WORCS) contracts; all six of these contracts are intended to last for multiple years. Typically, the department will issue an initial one-year term for a given contract, with options for several (two or three) annual renewals. During the procurement process, potential bidders are issued a set of the department’s standard drawings for wastewater pump stations. Potential bidders are also issued a short list of example pump stations that require some level of rehabilitation, but with the understanding that a preponderance of stations needing rehabilitation will remain undisclosed prior to bidding. Four of these WORCS contracts (issued to four different contractors), are based on a long list of bid items (over 200 items). In addition, there are provisions for nonpriced items to address unusual or unique work items. Upon receiving the 100 percent design, the project manager will create a work order based on the proposed items and their corresponding quantities for that particular pump station rehabilitation. The two other WORCS contracts are time and materials contracts. These are typically used for partial rehabilitation projects. For rehabilitation of the department’s largest pump stations or stations that require complete replacement, including the wet well, a separate, competitively bid contract is generated for the project, usually funded by a separate “stand-alone” CIP, rather than one of the master-project CIPs. The team holds monthly pump station rehabilitation coordination meetings, providing updates on upcoming and ongoing projects. The goal of these meetings is to ensure that the effort keeps moving forward, rehabilitating pump stations at a steady pace and continually identifying new projects.


Figure 4. “Before” Images of Pinewood Pump Station (clockwise from upper left): Old Pump Station Overview Looking East With Control Panel in Background; Old Pump Station Looking West; Pump Station Wetwell and Electrical Vault; and Looking Into Wetwell.


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Using the system described, the department has successfully rehabilitated or replaced hundreds of wastewater pump stations over the last 20 years. During this time, the department has refined the process, continually seeking ways to improve it. While the effort remains a

Figure 5. “After” Images of Pinewood Pump Station (left to right): New/Rebuilt Pump Station Overview, Looking East; New Pump Station, Looking South.

work in progress, the department can demonstrate that it has already created an effective program. Despite inheriting pump stations up to 60 years old from private utilities, the department has been able to overcome a litany of problem pump stations in various stages of disrepair and bring them up to current standards. In so doing, the department has significantly minimized SSOs caused by pump station failures (Table 3 and Figure 3), while creating a safer and more efficient work area for maintenance purposes. The photographs in figures 4, 5, and 6 show images before and after construction of two pump stations.

Steps to Begin Implementing a Program ! Create a project team of experienced staff, including engineers and pump station technicians. ! Develop a comprehensive condition assessment program, where pump stations are prioritized for rehabilitation based on an objective protocol, preferably using an asset management system. ! Develop a thorough checklist of pump station assets with appropriate ranking and weighting factors. ! Develop a schedule of site visits for gathering condition scoring, visiting each pump station on a cyclical basis. ! Conduct onsite condition scoring with the project team. ! Enter condition scoring into a comprehensive data base or asset management program. ! Create one or more “bid item” contracts, with appropriate items for pump station rehabilitation. ! Procure construction contractor(s) based on the lowest responsive and responsible bid(s).

Figure 6. Lumsden No. 5 Pump Station: “Before” Images Showing Old Suction Lift Pump Station With Discharge Force Main (white polyvinyl chloride) Exiting Through Block Wall (top); “After” Rehabilitated Pump Station (bottom).

The Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department has a large network of wastewater collection and transmission infrastructure. In order to reliably serve its customers, the department must maintain all 780 pump stations. In the department’s early decades, pump stations were repaired and rehabilitated when failure had occurred or was imminent. With this rehabilitation program, the department has moved toward proactive pump station rehabilitation. The

result is more reliable, safer stations and fewer SSOs. The department will continue to adjust the risk equation to identify stations for rehabilitation, and expand the contracts where necessary to include new line items and services. The department’s passionate team of pump station professionals looks forward to continuing positive results from this program. !

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

FSAWWA Manufacturers/Associates Council Fall Conference Committee Affiliation: Florida Section AWWA Current chairs: Kim Kowalski, partner, Wager Company, and Rick Ratcliffe, territory manager, American Flow Control Year group was formed: 1996 Purpose: This committee oversees the coordination and administration of the Florida Section AWWA Fall Conference. Scope of work: The mission of the conference committee is to promote the goals of the Florida Section of AWWA through the annual fall conference. Our ultimate goal and what we strive for is to make the fall conference a better event each year, not only for our members, but for our future members as well. We are in charge of the hotel site selection and contracts, planning of programs and activities, poker and golf tournaments, and final income/expense statements of the conference.

Recent accomplishments: 1. We continue to provide technical sessions that offer water professionals answers and solutions to improving water quality, renewing and replacing infrastructure, and ensuring a safe drinking water for all Floridians. 2. The exhibit hall is also an excellent area to view new products and talk to representatives about their products. The potential for learning is nearly limitless. 3. The opening general session was introduced in 2013. It’s a great event that is a segué to the opening of the exhibit hall. 4. Because of the success of introducing the BBQ Challenge and reception for the incoming chair, we will continue to host the event on Monday night. 5. Another success is the conference mobile app. We will continue to provide it to the attendees. This year, we will offer CEU/PDH tracking and log-in capability. We are proud to be a part of the 90th anniversary celebration of the Florida Section AWWA. This year’s theme is “The Value of Water.” By way of this article, we are inviting you to join us at the fall conference to be held at the Renaissance Orlando at SeaWorld from Nov. 27 to Dec. 1, 2016. If you haven’t yet registered for the 2016 fall conference, please visit for more information. Don’t miss

Opening General Session

Exhibit hall


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

out on the 90th gala celebration to be held at the Hard Rock Hotel on Tuesday, November 29, from 7:00 to 10:00 p.m. Group Members: Manufacturers/Associates Council chair................Todd Lewis, U.S. Pipe Conference co-chair..................Rick Ratcliffe, American Flow Control Conference co-chair.............................Kim Kowalski, Wager Company Event: Backhoe Rodeo Contest......Paul Blastic, Paul Blastic & Company Mike George, RMC Corporation Event: Meter Madness Contest......Paul Blastic, Paul Blastic & Company Mike George, RMC Corporation Event: Tapping Contests..............Paul Blastic, Paul Blastic & Company Mike George, RMC Corporation Exhibit...................................................Kevin Stine, Sigma Corporation Sponsorships........................Carlos Gonzalez, Smith Blair Corporation Golf Tournament...........................................John Edwards, Krausz Inc. Branon Thames, Thames & Associates Poker Tournament..........................................David Wheeler, CPH Inc. Registration..........................................Stacey Smith, Register with Ease Site Selection....................................................Chris Stewart, Xylem Inc. Technical Programs............Fred Bloetscher, Florida Atlantic University Kim Kunihiro, Orange County Utilities Water Distribution Awards.................Mike George, RMC Corporation Utility Systems Symposium.............Tom Hogeland, Data Flow Systems Young Professionals.............Jordan Walker, Kimley-Horn & Associates FSAWWA chair..........................Kim Kunihiro, Orange County Utilities Marketing/Website .....................................Peggy Guingona, FSAWWA Jenny Arguello, FSAWWA The photos show various events from the 2015 conference.


Conference luncheon

Poster Contest

Technical sessions

BBQ Challenge Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ October 2016



Being a Member of FWPCOA Has Much to Offer Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA


he FWPCOA recently completed its fall short school at the Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce and it was another great success. I was proud to attend the awards banquet and see all the students and awards recipients there. Our quarterly board of directors meeting is always the weekend before the short school and it was mentioned at the meeting that I should do an article on what it means to be a member of this organization and what benefits it provides. As I was giving my closing comments at the luncheon, I did speak a little about this and how I became actively involved with my region, which led to me writing this article (that Rick Harmon will edit to make it look like I know what I’m talking about). I became a member of FWPCOA—like most members have—by attending a regional short school and receiving a free membership for taking the course. I would get notifications about monthly meetings, but I never went. I would, however, read the monthly Florida Water Resource Journal that I received in the mail. The magazine was another little perk that you received free of charge with the membership. I’m working on my thirty-fourth year in the utility business, but it wasn’t until a couple of active members, Milton Skipper (a lifetime member), and Larry Johnson, who was the region chair, finally pushed me to come to the Region 2 meeting that I got involved. What I mean to say is that they got me to a few of the meetings so they could nominate me for the Region 2 director’s position. I know that if it wasn’t for the two of them pushing me that I wouldn’t have got involved with the organization. Now I know you’re prob-


ably saying, “What does this have to do with the article?” Well, like many of you, I didn’t know what this organization offered until I got involved and started to assist with the meetings and training. For those of you who don’t know, FWPCOA is the acronym for the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, which is an organization made up of members who are actively engaged in or deal with the production, treatment, or distribution of water, and/or the collection, treatment, or disposal of wastewater, be it industrial or domestic. The FWPCOA was organized to advance the professional status of water and wastewater operators, provide a system for licensing operators, and arrange educational and training programs for operators. I’ve read the history of FWPCOA and found that it was officially organized in May 1940, but the beginnings of the association can be traced as far back as the late 1920s when a group of individuals from the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association approached the University of Florida to put on a short course for water works operators. From that time on, this association has strived to promote the educating and development of water and wastewater operators. There are many benefits to being a member of this association. You will be able to meet with and exchange ideas with representatives from water supply agencies from all over the state. For over 70 years, this organization has provided educational courses for its members; sponsored trade shows and new-product demonstrations; acted as a clearinghouse for information impacting the water supply field; provided input to county, state, and federal lawmakers on impending legislation; and encouraged the sharing of experiences and resources among various water departments—all with the goal of improving water quality, safety, and service to our customers. This organization also provides many opportunities for you or your organization to be

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

recognized for outstanding work by the one of the leading water works associations in Florida. We are also well represented at the annual Florida Water Resource Conference through the association’s involvement on several committees, and thereby members benefit from a wide array of information, expertise, training, and networking. Plus, the membership rate of thirty dollars is still one of the lowest of any of the water and wastewater associations in the state. I am a huge advocate for people to become involved in the industry in which they work, and volunteers for professional organizations like FWPCOA enhance the industry of which they are a part. The association serves the industry through training programs, professional development, the development of best management practices, and networking. I have directly benefited by taking advantage of the association’s programs and I am excited to give back to our industry.

Online Institute Update The Online Institute presently has 80 active courses and 281 registered students. Please continue to advise your members of the availability of the FWPCOA Online Institute in your newsletters and at your membership meetings. There are eight months left in the 2017 license renewal cycle, so encourage operators to start earning their CEUs before the end of the cycle.

Help Publicize These Courses! Please publicize the availability of these online short courses: ! Stormwater C ! Utility Customer Relations I ! Wastewater Collection C ! Water Distribution Levels 2 and 3 And don't forget to mention the Class C treatment plant operator courses. !

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is, New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Prioritizing Well Rehabilitation With a Well Condition Survey Douglas P. Dufresne and Valerie C. Davis (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS)

1. The useful life of a water well is often considered to be ____ years. a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 40 2. The _____________ of a well is equal to the well discharge per unit of drawdown. a. efficiency b. viability c. performance d. specific capacity 3. Raw water quality issues revealed by this study seem to be a. regional in nature. b. specific to certain wells. c. unique to this aquifer system. d. those which need not be addressed by the water treatment process. 4. Changes in static water levels a. could not be measured. b. averaged 5.62 ft from original to present. c. reflect a change in potentiometric Floridan aquifer surface elevation. d. are dictated by sea level changes. 5. Following this study, wells having which of the following issues were assigned the highest priority for rehabilitation? a. Reduction in pump rate b. Bacteriological issues c. Water level monitoring access d. Sand production

Restoring Reliability to Older Potable Water Supply Wells Julie L. Karleskint and John Garbade (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS)

1. The city originally planned to rehabilitate well 2 because a. it was affected by salt water intrusion. b. its productivity had declined. c. funds were limited. d. testing revealed the presence of iron bacteria. 2. The “open hole” area for Arcadia wells does not extend into which of the following stratigraphic sections? a. Undifferentiated b. Peace River formation c. Arcadia formation d. Tampa Arcadia formation 3. Video logging revealed that wells were susceptible to surface water contamination because a. they had never been properly grouted. b. they were located in subaqueous vaults. c. much of the well casing had corroded. d. inner casings were covered with large tubercles. 4. The U.S. Geographical Survey information revealed that the ___________ aquifer was the only feasible city water supply source. a. Floridan b. surficial c. Biscayne d. intermediate 5. As part of the well rehabilitation regimen, a. new casing liners were wire-brushed. b. the old pumps were reinstalled. c. new 10-in. liner casings were installed. d. wells 2 and 3 were acidized. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016



Greg Chomic Heyward Inc., Winter Park

What does your job entail? Heyward Inc. is a sales representative company founded in 1908 in Charlotte, N.C., and has had an office serving the Florida water, wastewater, and power industries since 1945. I was attracted to Heyward because of its long history, high-caliber people, reputation for representing manufacturers of quality equipment, and commitment to providing a high level of service. I was impressed by Heyward’s corporate values of honesty, integrity, and commitment, and felt that they aligned well with my own personal values. Our corporate values and my personal values must align pretty well because I’ve been with Heyward for 30 years now. The time has passed very quickly—too quickly, in fact—but it shows that I’ve really enjoyed my career. It’s hard not to enjoy this job, given all the great people in our industry. Although my corporate title is vice-president, I am and will always be a “sales rep.” I love being a sales rep for a lot of reasons, but at the most basic level, it’s because a good sales rep is dedicated to serving others. I have found over the years that I am enjoying my job the most when I make my customers happy; so that is what I strive to do. I also love being a sales rep because of the wide variety of projects I get involved in and the wide variety of people with whom I get to work. I support design engineers during the earliest planning stages of a project as they evaluate alternative solutions to their design challenges. If my equipment or process is chosen as the basis of design, I then get to work with the design profes-


sionals as they develop the detailed design of the project. And, if I’ve done my job well up to that point, I then get to work with general contractors as they build the projects. Regarding general contractors, I have to say that I started my career with a stereotypical impression of contractors as rough and gruff people. Over the years, I have come to have great respect for them. The Florida water and wastewater industry is blessed to have a group of contractors with high integrity and professionalism and an extreme talent in making words and lines on paper, that are sometimes not always clear, become reality. After the project is built, I get to help train the operators who will operate and maintain my equipment. This is actually my favorite part of my job, because getting my equipment to operate as efficiently as possible is often an incredible learning experience, especially if things don’t go as planned, which is often the case. This is the stage of a project where the operator and I learn from each other. Over the course of my career, I have had the pleasure of working with many dedicated and hard-working professional operators. Most of my postgraduate “training” and most of what I know about the wastewater process was learned from, and while working side-byside with, professional operators. I love working with and learning from professional operators, intelligent design engineers, and talented contractors. I have learned so much about water and wastewater treatment from all of them! Education/training you’ve taken. I attended college at the University of Florida, where I earned a degree in environmental engineering in 1980. Although my academic training provided a good foundation for my career, the vast majority of what I’ve learned over the years has come from on-the-job experience. My first job after graduation was with Procter & Gamble Co. in Augusta, Ga., where I worked as a maintenance manager in a detergent manufacturing plant. Although I received some valuable management training and experience at P&G, I was also exposed to some pretty cool people doing some very interesting packaging system and control system design. The surprising thing was that these people weren’t engineers, but maintenance technicians

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

with limited formal academic training. They were largely self-taught country folk who happened to be incredibly smart and talented. Through these people I was exposed to programmable logic controllers and variable frequency drives early on in the industrial application of these technologies. I also learned to not judge a book by its cover; that is, you don’t need an engineering degree to be smart and talented. This lesson has served me well over my career as a sales rep. Although P&G is a great company, I realized that industrial management wasn’t my life’s calling. So after four years, I decided to move back to the Sunshine State by accepting an engineer III position at the Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER), which is now the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Although I worked at FDER for only 18 months, I met a lot of very nice people, many who had a deep commitment to protecting public health and Florida’s water environment. I took this job to get better acquainted with the people and issues in the Florida water and wastewater industry, and from that perspective, my time at FDER was a success. It also gave me the opportunity to meet a lot of important people in our industry, including Tom Burke, who worked for Greeley and Hansen at the time, and Brad Baird with the City of Tampa. It was Tom and Brad who recommended me to Heyward, and the rest, at least for me, is history. What organizations do you belong to? I am a member of WEF and FWEA, AWWA and FSAWWA, and FWPCOA. How have the organizations helped your career? I joined WEF and FWEA in 1986 when I started to work for Heyward. At that time, Hugh Pearch was Heyward’s executive vicepresident managing the Florida territory. Hugh was also executive director of the Florida Pollution Control Association (FPCA was FWEA’s old name) and was among the early leaders who literally wrote the articles of incorporation for FPCA, the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) and the Florida Water Resources Journal (FWRJ). As a Heyward employee, being a FWEA volunteer was expected, so it wasn’t long before I was “voluntold” to get involved! Since that time, I’ve served on many committees; helped organize many

seminars; helped organize the Central Florida, First Coast, Southeast, and Southwest local chapters; served on the board of directors from 1996 to 2004 and again from 2009 to 2015; and was president in 19992000 and in 2013-2014. So as you can see, I’ve been involved in FWEA for almost my entire career. I can’t imagine working in the Florida wastewater and water industry without being involved in FWEA in some way! Through involvement in FWEA I’ve made many friends, and I continue to make new friends in Florida and throughout the United States through WEF. And through service on the board of FWRC and FWRJ, I’ve made some good friends among the leaders of FSAWWA and FWPCOA. Our industry may be very technical, but it is still fundamentally a relationship business. The FWEA has given me a forum, outside of my job as a sales rep, to build trusting relationships with fellow professionals because they get to see me not just as another “peddler,” but as a fellow team member working to make our industry better. What do you like best about the industry? What I like best is making new friendships, learning new things, and helping young people learn the profession. What do you do when you’re not working? When I’m not working I enjoying reading, mostly on topics related to American history, the military, and national security. I feel blessed to have been born in the greatest, most free, most generous country in the history of the world. I take my responsibility as an American citizen seriously and I strive to be an informed and engaged citizen. As a lifelong Catholic, I also try to give of my time and treasure to help those less fortunate than me, mostly through involvement in my church’s Haiti ministry. My role has been to help find sources of safe drinking water for our sister parishes in Haiti. I have traveled to Haiti three times in that role. And finally, I enjoy physical fitness. My family has been long-term members of the YMCA and we all visit there often. !

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This monthʼs Process Page column highlights the Broward County North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant. This facility won the Earle B. Phelps Award in the category of secondary wastewater treatment in 2016.

The Broward County North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant: Talented Staff Are Key to Maintaining Compliance While Reducing Environmental and Energy Footprints Ralph Aliseo, Persad Bissessar, Metason Philip, and Eric Stanley


he Broward County Water and Wastewater Services North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) has been in operation since 1974. It is a 95 mil-gal-per-day (mgd) plant that provides a regional wastewater solution for Broward County’s retail water customers and the following large users: Coconut Creek, Coral Springs, Deerfield Beach, Lauderhill, North Lauderdale, Oakland Park, Pompano Beach, Tamarac, Parkland Utilities, North Springs Improvement District, and Royal Utilities. The NRWWTP staff consistently produces quality effluent and maintains an exemplary compliance record. The NRWWTP staff has reduced the nutrients being discharged through the ocean outfall and increased preventative maintenance hours. It operates a septage receiving facility, enforces an active industrial pretreatment program, and manages an onsite National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP)-certified laboratory. Liquids at the NRWWTP are run through a series of five treatment modules for aeration and clarification, each with a capacity of 20 mgd. Currently, two of the modules are fitted with fine-bubble aeration systems. The NRWWTP is upgrading

the remaining modules to fine-bubble diffused aeration. The NRWWTP currently discharges treated effluent to an ocean outfall and also to Class 1 injection wells. The recent Ocean Outfall Rule legislation eliminates the use of ocean outfalls for effluent disposal (except for peak flows) after 2025, and requires NRWWTP to reuse 21.45 mgd of reclaimed water. Currently, the plant operates a 10mgd reclaimed water plant that provides plant site landscape irrigation and process water, as well as some offsite irrigation. A plan is in place to expand the reclaimed water facility to 26 mgd. The NRWWTP is operating a 2-megawatt biogas-to-energy facility and a gas conditioning system for moisture, hydrogen sulfide, and siloxane removal from biogas. This facility captures methane and turns it into a reliable source of electricity, which powers a significant portion of the plant. The methane production is enhanced by the injection of fats, oils, and grease (FOG) into the process. The enforcement section of the NRWWTP is responsible for the hauled waste program at the septage receiving facility (SRF) and the industrial pretreatment program (IPP). The enforcement section staff brings together a diverse group of people with several decades of environmental compliance

experience. The section works cooperatively with internal customers, external customers, county agencies, and state regulatory agencies in their efforts to promote community stewardship and appreciation of the environment, as well as the conservation and wise use of natural resources. The Broward County Water and Wastewater Services Laboratory is a NELAP-certified testing laboratory for drinking water, groundwater, and nonpotable water analysis using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved procedures. The staff has well over a combined 100 years collective experience, and laboratory capabilities include inductively coupled plasma, ion chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, microbiology, and wet chemistry. “While individual components and sections of the NRWWTP draw attention, it is the collective efforts of the staff that make the NRWWTP an award-winning facility,” said Mark Darmanin, director of operations. “Broward County strives to train, attract, and retain talented staff.” Ralph Aliseo, Persad Bissessar, and Metason Philip are wastewater treatment plant superintendents with Broward County Water and Wastewater Services in Pompano Beach. Eric Stanley, P.E., is an environmental engineer with CDM Smith in Boca Raton. !

Aerial view of the Broward County North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant. Staff members at the Broward County North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant proudly display the Phelps Award.


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Lisa Prieto President, FWEA


he Value of Water Coalition, coordinated by the U.S. Water Alliance, designated September 15 as “Imagine a Day Without Water,” a campaign to raise awareness of our deteriorating water infrastructure across the United States. As Americans, we take for granted that when we turn on the faucet, there’s a steady stream of safe, potable water. However, as many of us in the industry realize, it takes an army to keep the behind-the-scenes infrastructure up and running to ensure that our customers have safe and reliable water and wastewater service. The campaign invites any group involved in our industry to participate and support “Imagine a Day Without Water” and provides a list of 12 ways to be a part of the campaign: 1. Sign the campaign petition to encourage public officials to make funding infrastructure projects a priority. 2. Join the thunderclap to broadcast the petition and campaign across multiple formats of social media. 3. Participate on social media by posting on your group or personal social media sites graphics and facts to promote the campaign and raise awareness. 4. Host a tour or open house and invite local officials and the media so they can become more familiar with the behind-the-scenes work it takes to keep our water and wastewater systems up and running. 5. Issue a press release to help advertise the campaign to your local media.

Imagine a Day Without Water 6. Issue a proclamation or resolution to outwardly show your organization’s support for the campaign. 7. Write an op-ed piece, preferably in conjunction with a water-dependent industry, to stress and explain the importance of a healthy water infrastructure on our local economies. 8. Use the “Value of Water” toolkit, a collection of communication tools and creative materials, including print ads, dorm-flyers, bill stuffers, bus ads, and billboards, produced by the Value of Water Coalition. 9. Get water in the news by reaching out to your local journalists and media outlets to provide resources and an avenue for them to be educated regarding water and water issues so they can produce relevant stories. 10. Engage the next generation of customers and stewards through student programs, either in school, or open houses or field trips at local utilities. 11. Take it to the radio waves by offering to do an interview or provide a sound clip or information so that your local radio stations can advertise the day and provide their listeners pertinent information about the campaign. 12. Release a paper or report on September 15 and get a lot of press! Now you’re ready for “Imagine a Day Without Water” in 2017! Infrastructure Report Card The American Society of Civil Engineers regularly produces an infrastructure report card ( on multiple aspects of infrastructure in the U.S. The 2016 Florida infrastructure report card is abysmal: drinking water – C+; stormwater – D; and wastewater – C. I know if my kids brought home these grades, I wouldn’t be very happy. So, I know a lot of folks look at those grades and think that if we had more statewide support we wouldn’t be getting C’s and D’s— and I agree. But what are we each doing about it? When was the last

time you spoke to your local commissioner, mayor, state senator or representative, or federal senator or representative? Many of us have attended events put on with our elected officials and sponsored by WEF or AWWA over the years, but one day isn’t enough. There’s a quote I recently read that really resonated with me: “Volunteering is the ultimate exercise in democracy. You vote once a year. But when you volunteer, you vote every day about the kind of community you want to live in.” So I am making the call loud and clear: get out there. We are the voice of our industry and we need to be heard. The next time someone knocks on your door and wants to talk about the upcoming election, give them an earful about our industry and what we need to keep the water running. There are very few folks from our industry in elected positions, so our officials need resources and information, and we need to be there to educate them on the current issues and infrastructure needs of our local communities. Write or call your local representatives’ offices. Each representative is mandated to have a staffed local office; you may not always get someone on the phone immediately, but I know from experience that they will get back in touch with you. Provide them some of the information WEF has produced and offer to be a resource to them, or invite them to a Federation event. Offer a hand to your local utility and offer to volunteer at their next public outreach event. These folks do a great job at providing tours and festivals, and staffing tables at local events to get the word out about our infrastructure needs. They also provide great material about our local utilities; when was the last time you told one of them thank you? Our infrastructure needs aren’t going to be solved overnight or by one person, but if each of us makes a conscience effort to reach out to our elected officials and volunteer our time in our industry, we can each take a bite of the elephant and start chipping away at our issues and challenges. Thanks for serving our great industry—and do something today to make a difference! !

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016



Not Enough Space—Now What? Rehabilitation of the Krause Pumping Station in Tampa Freddy Betancourt, David Hagan, and Mike Pekkala


he City of Tampa’s Krause Pumping Station (station) is located on South Ashley St. between the City of Tampa Convention Center and the Hillsborough River. As shown in Figure 1, the station is adjacent to the city’s Riverwalk, immediately south of the Lee Roy Selman (Crosstown) Expressway, and across the street from the convention center parking building. The station has been active since construction was completed in 1952 and predates all facilities in the vicinity. Several modifications have been made to the station over the years; however, it was in need of its first major refurbishment. The main focus of the city was to increase the capacity of the pump station to meet the future demands of the booming redevelopment of downtown Tampa. In addition, there was a focus to make this pump station more resilient. This station is a major collection system asset located directly adjacent to the Hillsborough River and subject to major flooding in the event of a major storm. The goals of this project were to: ! Improve overall reliability

! ! ! !

Upgrade all equipment within the facility Protect the facility from the 100-year flood Meet all current building codes Meet all current permit conditions for wastewater pumping stations

There were several challenges presented during the course of the design, most of them related to the very compact layout of the facility and the lack of space within the pump station site to perform the necessary upgrades. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the station falls within Flood Zone A of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood insurance rate map (FIRM), and thus, all new equipment needs to be protected against a 100-year flood. This presented a significant challenge because it was to be accomplished without any major structural modifications to the building. Another significant challenge included bypassing the station during the active construction period and the layout of bypass pumping equipment within the site constraints. Because of the proximity to the city’s Riverwalk, the lay-

Freddy Betancourt, P.E., LEED AP, ENV SP, is central location leader for Florida at Arcadis in Maitland. Dave Hagan, P.E., and Mike Pekkala, P.E., are associates at Greeley and Hansen in Tampa.

out of temporary equipment, including bypass pumps and piping, needed to be clear of the Riverwalk so that the venue remained open during construction. Additional design constraints included improvements to the screening room to improve the convenience and efficiency of the debris removal from the screens, something that was very difficult to accomplish in the very compact structure.

Design Approach The interactive design process between the city staff and the consultant team was the basis for selection of the solutions impleContinued on page 34

Figure 1. Location of Krause Pumping Station Figure 2. Krause Pumping Station Location in Relation to Flood Zone


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;¢ October 2016


Figure 3. Existing Krause Pumping Station: Section View

Continued from page 32 mented for this project. This article focuses on the following: ! Flood resiliency and equipment selection ! Bypass pumping considerations ! Improvements to screening debris handling Flood Resiliency and Equipment Selection The existing pump station had four pumps: two 100-horsepower (HP) jockey pumps with “MagneTek” adjustable frequency drives (AFDs), one 300-HP constant speed pump, and “Big Bertha,” a 400-HP constant speed pump. All of these pumps have been in place since 1952.

Wastewater is received from interceptors that enter the screen area from the north and from the west (under the Hillsborough River through a siphon). The design flows provided by the City of Tampa Wastewater Department were as follows: ! Low flow: 7,000 gal per minute (gpm) or 10 mil gal per day (mgd) ! Average flow: 17,000 gpm or 24.5 mgd ! Peak instantaneous flow: 45,000 gpm or 64.8 mgd These flows need to be met under current and anticipated future operating conditions.

Figure 4. Krause Pumping Station Pump and System Curves


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The force main from the station to the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (AWTP) was constructed along with the station in 1952, but includes some newer sections. The city plans to reroute a portion of this force main in the future, which will slightly increase the total pumping head. System curves were prepared to reflect both current and future operating conditions. Given the great differential between the low-flow condition and the peak condition, three operating pumps were selected to convey peak flow. Figure 4 shows the system curves, together with the pump curves, for the station. This figure shows that if the pump were installed with a smaller impeller, it could meet the initial conditions, with a nonoverloading (NOL) power requirement of 316 HP. This still necessitates a 400-HP motor. The existing pump station has limited space; thus, providing elevated motors with extended shafts was impractical for this application as it would have required significant structural changes within the facility, including removing the existing bridge crane, beams, and roof to elevate the ceiling of the structure. Other alternatives for flood-proofing were evaluated, including a perimeter flood wall, which was considered to be potentially visually disruptive to the area, and to flood-proof the station by means of replacing any potential entry and exit point with flood-resistance options, such as marine doors. These alternatives were rejected because of the possibility that flooding could occur within the building though the sewer and the wet well. The recommended solution was to provide pumps with vertically coupled, blower-cooled, immersible motors to provide flood protection and locate critical electrical equipment above the 100-year flood level. These immersible motors can withstand up to 30 ft of submergence depth for a two-week period, which was deemed

sufficient time for any localized flooding to subside and the city to take corrective measure to dewater the station lower level without compromising the equipment. A disadvantage of using immersible motors is that they are uncommon for wastewater sewage applications in this area; however, Tampa Armature Works (TAW), one of the largest motor maintenance services providers in the area and commonly used by the city for its services, indicated that it is equipped and capable of providing maintenance and repairs of immersible motors from 3 HP to 7,000 HP. Considerations were given to installing submersible motors in a dry pit application; however, the conceptual analysis of this solution would have resulted in a significant cost impact to the city. Figure 5 shows a section of the proposed design and Figure 6 shows a view of the installed pump and motors. In addition to protecting the pumping equipment, submersible, electrical, and pneumatic-rated actuators were required for the knife gate isolation valve and the discharge pump-check plug valves, respectively, which are permanently located in the pump room and below the 100-year flood elevation. As indicated, the station was designed and constructed in the 1950s. As shown in Figure 7, the existing electrical equipment was located in the basement. Other electrical gear was located on the main floor, but still subject to impact of flooding. It operated over 60 years without major failures; however, it was imperative for the city to make this station flood-resilient. Bypass Pumping Considerations The station mainly conveys wastewater from two major interceptor systems: the West River intercepting system conveying flows from west central Tampa and the downtown intercepting system. Both interceptors converge in a chamber immediately west of the pumping station, between the station and the river. There is a minor tributary sewer that is connected to the station downstream on this chamber and immediately upstream of the influent channels. A major design consideration for the bypass pumping arrangement was to be able to layout the bypass system without creating a raw sewage poolâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;with its potential odorsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that could accommodate the suction piping for the high capacity bypass pumping equipment. As the station is next to the newly inaugurated Riverwalk, it is anticipated that there could be significant pedestrian traffic adjacent to the jobsite, particularly during events such as Gasparilla or the Downtown Arts Festival, among others. Another major concern was that if the inContinued on page 36

Figure 5. Section View Across Pump Station

Figure 6. New Pumps and Motors

Figure 7. Longitudinal Section of Krause Pumping Station Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ October 2016


Continued from page 35 terceptor system was “backed up” to provide priming for the pumps, a wet weather event could surcharge the system and result in an overflow event, either in downtown Tampa or on the west side of the river. It is worth noting that the West River interceptor has a syphon crossing under the Hillsborough River. The scope of the refurbishment for the station included the replacement of the manual bar screens, coating of the wet well, replacement of the pump suction tubes, and other modifications that required the wet well and influent channels to be offline for an extended period of time. In addition to the major constraints identified, an evaluation of the implementation constraints for bypass of this station was performed. The constraints were identified as follows: ! The Riverwalk must be kept open to the public throughout the duration of construction activities. ! At least one lane along Ashley Street, south of Brorein Street, must remain open for exit of convention center parking. This required the development of a maintenance of traffic (MOT) plan during design. ! Any temporary bypass pumping pipe that crosses Ashley Street needed to be completely

or at least partially buried, with steel plates on top to maintain traffic through the area. ! Use of parking spaces from the city’s lot under the Crosstown Expressway for staging of materials or equipment required coordination with the city parking division. The city must meet the required parking agreement with the St. Pete Times Forum during events. ! Bypass pumping must be able to meet the expected peak flows of 65 mgd, with sufficient redundancy in the equipment in case of failures. ! The equipment must be protected and/or fenced to prevent unauthorized operation from unqualified personnel or pedestrians. A conceptual layout of the bypass pumping configuration is represented in Figure 8. As noted in the drawing, a common discharge piping header of the pumps is required to be partially buried across the lane of traffic, which will remain open on Ashley Street as to not impede traffic exiting the convention center parking garage. It was determined that the bypass configuration will likely consist of a combination of electrical pumps with AFDs to pace the low and average flows, and the use of diesel-engine-dri-

ven pumps for peak flows. A temporary power supply will be required for the operation of the electrically operated bypass pumps on AFDs. This will allow full access to the station by the contractor during construction. As the city requires sufficient backup capabilities in case of failures, the system will consist of four electrical pumps of approximately 7,000 gpm, each with two equal-sized diesel backups. Peak flows are expected to be conveyed with the aid of a single large-capacity diesel pump and its respective backup. The system layout required closure of a city parking lot and coordination with the Crosstown Expressway Authority, as it owned the right-of-way where the system was deployed. The conceptual bypass also identified multiple entry points for the bypass suctions piping and/or any instruction or structure modification required to successfully implement the bypass operations. It is anticipated that at least two structures located in the through-lane of traffic on Ashley Street will be required, thus necessitating a temporary MOT plan. The conceptual MOT developed during design required the traffic to be moved toward the east side of Ashley Street and be reduced to a single lane, as noted in Figure 9.

Figure 8. Conceptual Layout of Bypass Pumping Equipment


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The anticipation of the list of constraints during the process was critical in implementing an acceptable bypass system. At the time of this study, the project was currently under construction, with the bypass system layout similar to the conceptual design. Figure 10 shows the hot tap on the 54-in. prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) required for the bypass system. Figures 11 and 12 show views of the installed bypass system components.

manufacturers of mechanical screens, and the existing screens are at the influent to the pumping station. There are two screens, one to each side of the station wet well; the two halves of the wet well are not currently interconnected. To access the screens, operators need to go downstairs within the pumping station below grade to a platform, where a rake is used

Improvements to Screening Debris Handling The city asked the consultant team to evaluate options for automated screening and/or other options for improvements to the current process for debris handling. Currently, the existing manual screens are manually raked at a lower level in the wet well room and loaded into 13-gal containers. The containers are manually carried up the stairs and placed in the back of a truck for transport to disposal. Automated screens were evaluated to replace the existing manual screens. The goal was to reduce the amount of time necessary to handle screenings at the station. The consultant team and city staff discussed this project with

to collect the screenings and put them into a container. The concept of mechanical screening was developed using information from one manufacturer; other manufacturers are available, but a single manufacturer was used to develop the concept. The concept was to provide one screen inContinued on page 38

Figure 9. Conceptual Maintenance of Traffic Plan

Figure 11. Installed Bypass System Components: Average-Flow Pumps and Enclosure

Figure 10. 54-in. x 36-in. Hot Tap on Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe

Figure 12. Installed Bypass System Components: Peak-Flow Pumps Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ October 2016


Figure 13. Inclined Mechanical Screen Concept: Plan View

Figure 14. Inclined Mechanical Screen Concept: Section View 1

Figure 15. Inclined Mechanical Screen Concept: Section View 2


October 2016 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 37 stalled into one channel, which could handle the expected peak flow; if the mechanical screen failed, an overflow to the manual screen would be necessary. Sketches of the concept are shown in Figures 13 and 14; figure 13 shows the screen in the North Channel. The wall to the east is moveable to obtain additional space. Figure 14 shows the section view, with a new floor at the entrance level of the building, where the existing screen-room door is located. This arrangement would only allow for 6.5 ft of headroom to clean the manual screen. Figure 15 is another section view, showing that the distance between the north (exterior) wall and the equipment would be just over 12 in. Figure 15 also shows that there would be little space between the base of the screen and the stop log groove. It also shows a screenings compactor and dewatering system, which would discharge to a container. The automated inclined screening concept with the screen in the North Channel was not considered practical, since there is insufficient space to the north. The consulting team developed a concept for putting the screen in the South Channel, but the following disadvantages remain: ! Requires water for compactor: 65 gpm â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 15 minutes/hour = 24,000 gal per day (gpd) ! Access to hauler needs to be provided ! Limited access to manual screen below

! Limited space available to provide an overflow to manual screen ! Cascade effect through the screen can lead to air entrapment and pump cavitation ! Construction cost of $1 million, plus additional annual costs ! Holding of screenings for longer periods could release odors ! Skilled labor associated with screen maintenance requires additional training, expertise level ! Less reliability than manual screens since periodic failure of mechanical screen is probable, reducing capacity Another automated screen concept was also evaluated: a vertical screen, capable of being installed directly in manholes. This option addressed many of the disadvantages presented earlier. Figure 16 shows a representation of a dual-vertical screen concept for the station. During the evaluation process, other mechanical options were analyzed and are summarized as follows: ! Channel grinders (Channel Monster and Task Master) â&#x20AC;˘ Largest model: 40 mgd Continued on page 40

Figure 16. Vertical Screen Concept (Visual representation of vertical screens for station provided by Aqualitec)

Figure 17. Improvements to Screening Room Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ October 2016


News Beat The Golden Mangrove Award was presented to the Tampa Shores Special Dependent District No. 60 as Tampa Bay Estuary Program’s most outstanding Bay Mini-Grant project. The award recognized an innovative project at Tampa ShoresImperial Key, a 240-home canal subdivision in northwest Hillsborough County on the northern part of Tampa Bay, to reduce pollution by installing sturdy baskets with absorbent filters in existing stormwater drains to capture oil, trash, and lawn clippings before they reach Tampa Bay. Brad Ware, president of the special district, spearheaded the project after learning similar projects had been implemented successfully in other canal communities in the Tampa Bay area and Cape Coral. Susan Aungst, president of the Tampa Shores Imperial Key Civic Association, wrote the grant proposal and helped to implement the project. The association provided information to residents about the project and information about how to help reduce pollution through social media, and at business meetings and social events. “Essentially, the screen mesh and ring filters collect debris, like trash and leaves, plus the replaceable, absorptive ring collects the oils and contaminants from street runoff. About 20 community volunteers empty the devices twice a year,” Ware said. The $5,000 Tampa Bay Estuary Grant for the project was supplemented with about $3,000 from the community’s tax board; that total funded the first seven devices in 2014. Since then, the community tax board has bought and installed four additional devices and a new mini-grant will fund five more in 2016. “Since we have 32 storm water drains in our community, we look at the complete device installation project as a fiveto seven-year process,” Aungst said. The project was selected for the award from 18 community groups, nonprofits, and organizations that received the minigrants. The estuary program Community Advisory Committee member Kristin Lehman, chair of the Golden Mangrove Award committee, described the baskets as a “model for every community within our watershed.” Sales of Tampa Bay Estuary vehicle license plates, which feature a tarpon, also help to fund the mini-grant program.



Gov. Rick Scott has announced the reappointment of Daniel O'Keefe and the appointment of Federico Fernandez to the South Florida Water Management District. O'Keefe, 48, of Windermere, is an attorney with Shutts and Bowan LLP. He previously served on both the Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee and the East Central Florida Regional Planning Council. O’Keefe received both his bachelor's degree and his law degree from the University of Florida. He is reappointed to a term beginning Aug. 26, 2016, and ending March 1, 2020. Fernandez, 40, of Coral Gables, is an attorney with DiFalco and Fernandez LLP. He currently serves as a Bacardi Family Foundation board member and previously served as a member of the Dade Heritage Trust. Fernandez received his bachelor's degree from the University of Miami and a law degree from Emory University. He succeeds Anne Batchelor Robjohns and is appointed to a term beginning Aug. 26, 2016, and ending March 1, 2020. The appointments are subject to confirmation by the Florida Senate.


The Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA) has announced that Robert Pignato has joined the organization as the new director of membership and marketing. He brings more than 15 years of experience working for Washington D.C.based associations providing marketing, membership, communications, educational programming, and trade show expertise. Additionally, his experience includes working on strategic planning; sales strategy development; and web, print, and social media content. Most recently, Pignato was senior vice president at the American Wholesale Marketers Association in Fairfax, Va., where he was responsible for marketing, membership, communications, event management, and industry affairs. He has built successful partnerships in both business and the association environment. !

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 39 • Challenges on fitting side-by-side to meet peak flows • Excessive headloss through system ! Inline shredder (Super Shredder) • Would require significant changes to pump intake • Maximum size: 24 in. ! Screen with submersible motor • Screenings still at lower level ! Other screens • Configuration largely the same The conclusion of the evaluation was that the cost of installation of an automated system would not provide the desired return on investment to the city compared to manual debris handling. As consensus, the consultant team and city staff opted for performing improvements to mitigate the physical work of debris collecting and handling. As shown in Figure 17, the improvements to the screening room included providing a rotating davit crane with pneumatic winch, customized trolleys for the containers, and a nylon lifting sling. This will significantly improve the handling of the debris, eliminating the manual lifting of the container to the top of the stairs.

Conclusions Infrastructure rehabilitation and flood resiliency may require innovative and out-of-thebox solutions, as the designs will need to be adapted to existing configurations that were not necessarily intended to include new equipment or components. To identify and evaluate solutions, it is imperative to have an environment that fosters creativity and openness; it also requires constant coordination between the design team and owner, including the operations and maintenance staff so that designs are not only constructible, but also operable and maintainable to the satisfaction of the owner. In the case of the Krause Pumping Station, the City of Tampa staff, in combination with the selected consulting team, including Greeley and Hansen, Engineering Design Technologies (prime consultant also responsible for instrumentation and electrical), Biller Reinhart (structural), and Global Sanchez (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), were able to solve unique challenges with careful planning and consideration. Among the keys of success for this project were: ! Focus on a conceptual wastewater flow diversion plan. ! Protect the station against a 100-year flood. ! Proactive engagement of identified key stakeholders, such as the Tampa Convention Center and the Crosstown Expressway Authority. !


Drops of Wisdom Kim Kunihiro Chair, FSAWWA


was recently reminded by AWWA that I joined in 1989 and am now eligible for the Silver Water Drop Award since I have been a member for more than 25 years. My roots in AWWA and the Florida Section AWWA go back many years, and I found an opportunity to become active and contribute in the Technical and Education Council as a division chair and later as the chair of the council. Florida Section AWWA’s highest priority is member service and engagement, and one of the ways we do that is by offering outstanding educational and training opportunities throughout the state. In the many years I have been in FSAWWA, I have seen many improvements, including dedicating personnel in the section’s headquarters to assist in making training avail-

able to anyone and everyone who wants it. We develop sessions for utilities who request specific types of training and we offer CEUs and PDHs for these programs. Our annual Fall Conference is November 27-December 1 and it brings the best in the industry together to offer both educational and member engagement opportunities. Another expansion of our member outreach is reflected in the Operator and Maintenance Council, which was formed by operators and for operators. In 2014 we added initiatives for maintenance personnel to join our group and help to design and influence programs to serve the maintenance personnel at utilities. The council has developed an outstanding workshop for the fall, which is called “Protect and Prevent.” This workshop will be offered throughout the state at the regional level, and topics include corrosion control and condition assessment of assets, as well as steps to safer digging and work environments. Also, we are featuring training in conjunction with AWWA and the Southeast Rural Community Assistance Project (SERCAP) to offer free training to personnel from small utilities. The topics include:

! “Water Treatment Strategies,” to be held in Destin on October 4. ! “Distribution System Infrastructure and Maintenance” in Crestview on October 25. ! “Water Treatment Strategies,” to be held in Gainesville on November 9. Please register at the FSAWWA website at Recently, we held a webinar sponsored by our young professionals committee on lead corrosion, control, and monitoring. It included speakers from Michigan and Florida and was very well attended. More than 190 people tuned in for the webinar, and live events at 10 regional locations around the state. As I continue my active membership in FSAWWA, I am so impressed by how we continue to grow our programs to meet the needs of our membership. I am also impressed by the volunteer hours that are donated to this organization and to our dynamic and dedicated staff who keep it moving and changing along the way. I hope you can join us for one of the upcoming training events, and I plan to see you all at the Fall Conference in Orlando. !

FloridaSection Protect and Prevent Workshop A full-day workshop specifically designed for operators and maintenance personnel involved in water transmission and distribution infrastructure protection. The Operators and Maintenance Council is bringing our first statewide training opportunity to a region near you!


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Oct 11 - 13 First Trip Region IX Oct 11 - Destin Region II Oct 12 - St. Augustine Region III Oct 13 - Orlando/Polk November 8 - 10 Region IV Regions V & X Region VII

Second Trip Nov 8 - Tampa area Nov 9 - Port Charlotte Nov 10 - Miami-Dade

Finding Strength in Numbers The Water Advocates website makes it easier to get involved in water-related legislation and regulations Steve Dye


he Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) has launched a new website and online grassroots advocacy tool for its Water Advocates program that features important legislative and regulatory matters and calls to action on issues impacting the water sector. The website offers a number of free grassroots tools to help WEF members engage with their elected officials. Although the website is accessible to all water professionals, WEF invites members to join the Water Advocates program to increase their effectiveness in advocating for the water sector. The WEF members can join the Water Advocates community at, as well as the Water Advocates website as

Automated Letter Writing to Congress The Water Advocates website currently has two calls to action on significant bills pending in Congress that connect users to a “Write your Congressman” tool on the site. The tool electronically submits predrafted letters to senators and representatives. The tool uses the official congressional correspondence process so the emailed letter will not get marked as spam. The first call to action urges the House and Senate to increase funding for water infrastructure in FY2017 appropriations bills. The letter asks Congress to fund the Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (SRF) programs at $2 billion each. In addition, the letter includes a link to a new report by WEF and the WateReuse Association that states that for every $1 million in SRF funding, $930,000 is returned to the federal treasury in tax revenues, 16.5 high-paying jobs are created, and $2.95


million in economic growth is generated in the U.S. economy. The second call to action urges the Senate to pass the Water Resources Development Act of 2016 (WRDA). The Senate version of this bill includes a number of important policy and funding provisions that benefit water infrastructure investment. The bill was passed out of committee earlier this year, but now needs to go to the Senate floor. The draft letter asks senators to urge Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell to bring the WRDA bill to the floor and pass it with the water infrastructure provisions.

Sign up for This Week in Washington If you’d like to get all the latest news from Washington, D.C., and elsewhere around the country on important legislation, regulations, legal action, and national policies and programs, sign up for WEF’s weekly government affairs enewsletter, This Week in Washington. Every Friday afternoon you will receive a brief report on important issues affecting the water sector, as well as upcoming events, webcasts, and publications. And best of all, it’s free to subscribe. Sign up at GovernmentAffairs/ThisWeekInWashington/.

Grassroots Advocacy Toolkit

The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and the publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources. ________________________________________

Members and member associations have another toolkit for their grassroots advocacy efforts. This toolkit explains the benefits of grassroots advocacy at the federal, state, and local levels, and provides advice and guidance on how to engage with elected officials and the public on important issues affecting the water sector. The toolkit outlines essential steps to grassroots advocacy, as well as provides quick tips on calling, writing, and meeting with elected officials. Also, the toolkit includes useful links to congressional and federal agency websites and directories. Members of WEF can download the pdf version of the toolkit at the Water Advocates website and member associations are urged to share it with members as a resource. Save the Date: WaterWeek 2017 Mark your calendars! WaterWeek 2017 is happening in Washington, D.C., on March 20– 25, 2017. At WaterWeek, the National Water Policy Forum, Fly-In, and Expo will be hosted by WEF, National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF), and WateReuse from Tuesday, March 21, through Thursday, March 23. Other partner organizations, such as AWWA and Water & Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA), are also hosting their annual fly-ins the same week.

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Since 2011 Steve Dye has served as legislative director for the Water Environment Federation (WEF). In his government relations role, Steve represents the Federation before Congress, monitors key legislation and federal policies, develops and executes legislative strategies and proposals, and maintains WEF’s excellent reputations before public and private interests in the water sector. He also leads WEF’s Water Advocates, a grassroots program designed to mobilize and train WEF members to advocate before federal, state, and local officials. !

Test Yourself

Test Yourself With These Water Distribution System Operator Questions! Ron Trygar

1. An 8-in. main line needs to be flushed. The length of the main is 1,500 ft. How many minutes will it take to flush the main at a flow rate of 700 gal per minute (gpm)? a. b. c. d.

5.6 minutes 6.5 minutes 7.9 minutes 8.5 minutes

2. What is the principal purpose of an altitude valve on an elevated storage tank? a. Maintain constant static head in the distribution system b. Control maximum filling level in distribution system storage tanks c. Maintain uniform flow from elevated storage d. Restrict water flow to high demand areas

3. What are the two major requirements in sizing a household service line? a. b. c. d.

Corrosion resistance and longevity Flow rate and C-factor Flow rate and volume Flow rate and pressure

4. According to AWWA, how often should 5/8-in. meters be tested? a. b. c. d.

Annually Every two years Every five years Every 10 years

5. Who or what is often the customer’s most memorable image of a utility? a. The public relations spokesperson b. The actions of the distribution system field personnel c. Radio and television reports of the utilities successes d. Bill stuffers received with the water bill

9. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Safe Drinking Water Act, samples for lead and copper must be what? a. Composite samples b. Collected only from homes built after 1995 c. Preserved with copper sulfate d. First-draw samples

6. How should consumer complaints and questions be handled? a. Crew members should be able to answer routine questions, but direct all others to the homeowners association. b. Crew members should direct all consumer questions to the supervisor. c. Shut off the consumer’s service until all complaints and questions are resolved. d. Crew members should be able to answer routine consumer questions, but direct all other questions to their supervisor.

10. An 18-in. transmission main is a half mi in length. If the velocity in the main is 5 ft per second (fps), what is the gpm flow rate? a. b. c. d.

1,528 gpm 3,972 gpm 9,850 gpm 22,215 gpm

Answers on page 62

7. C-factor refers to what? a. b. c. d.

Inside pipe diameter Smoothness of pipe interior Corrosion resistance factor Pipe manufacturer credentials


8. Routine coliform samples are collected from a distribution system and one comes back from the laboratory as coliform positive. How many repeat samples must be collected? a. b. c. d.

One sample Two samples Three samples All samples must be retaken.

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: or by mail to: Ron Trygar, CET Senior Training Specialist UF TREEO Center Gainesville, Fla. 32608

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Restoring Reliability to Older Potable Water Supply Wells Julie L. Karleskint and John (Jack) Garbade Facing significant deterioration of its water supply wells, and with minimal options for siting new wells, the City of Arcadia focused on rehabilitation efforts to restore water quality, improve well production, and extend the lifetime of its existing well field. After iron bacteria was detected in the water supply wells, video logging was performed, which showed that much of the casings had corroded away, leaving the wells susceptible to contamination from surficial sources. Therefore, options for rehabilitation of the existing wells were evaluated, taking into account site-specific hydrogeologic conditions. The existing well field consisted of six wells; five of the wells were installed in the 1960s in a residential neighborhood within the city rights of way (Figure 1), with the addition of one new

well that was installed in 2012 near the water treatment plant. The older wells were originally located below ground in subaqueous vaults in order to minimize the impacts to local residents; however, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection later required that these wells be brought above grade in the early 2000s. Wells 1, 2, 4, and 5 were brought above grade by 2005; however, well 3 remained in a subaqueous vault due to limited right of way until 2014. Initially, the city had only planned to rehabilitate wells 2 and 3, since the productivity of well 2 had dropped significantly and testing of well 3 revealed the presence of iron bacteria. As part of the initial rehabilitation, a video inspection was performed, which indicated that a significant portion of the casing had deteriorated and that it had completely corroded away near the top of the water column where it fluctuated based on the water level. After reviewing the

video log data, it was decided to evaluate the older wells to determine if they were in similar condition, which proved to be the case. With the understanding that the wells were in significantly poorer shape than initially considered, the city and its engineers began to evaluate options for replacement or rehabilitation of the wells. Information and data available through the Southwest Florida Water Management District and the U. S. Geological Survey indicated that the intermediate aquifer was the only potable aquifer in the Arcadia area that could yield the necessary quality and quantity needed. The deeper Floridan aquifer would require additional and/or a change in treatment technology to meet drinking water standards, and the surficial aquifer could not provide the necessary quantities desired. Additional new wells using the intermediate aquifer were also evaluated and contact was

Figure 1. Arcadia Well Sites

Figure 1. Arcadia Well Sites


October 2016 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 2. Well Field Location

made with several local well drillers. They indicated that moving south and west from the current well locations, water production from the intermediate aquifer decreased significantly and that the best options would be to look north and east of the current wells. The current wells, however, are located at the eastern edge of the city, and available city-owned properties were all located to the west; therefore, a significant investment would be required to purchase property and relocate the well field. The well field withdraws groundwater from the intermediate aquifer, which consists of secondary limestone and dolomite aquifer units within the Miocene Age Hawthorn Group, as shown in Figure 3. As shown by the north-south trending cross section, the Hawthorn Group, as well as deeper stratigraphic units, exhibit a steep, north-south slope down the peninsula of Florida. In Arcadia, the Hawthorn Group extends from approximately 0 to -450 ft below mean sea level and consists primarily of a thick sequence of dolomitic silts and clays, with intervening layers of soft to hard limestone and dolomite. The thickness, transmissivity, and areal extent of water-bearing units within the Hawthorn Group are highly variable; therefore, restoring the water production and quality of the existing wells was critical. The open hole area of the Arcadia wells is outlined in Figure 3, with the production zone highlighted within it. Prior to rehabilitation, the background data for the existing wells was examined, including the well completion reports. The data indicated that the initial water-bearing capability (specific capacity, or transmissivity) of the aquifer is highly variable across the wellfield, with open boreholes extending to depths as great as 350 ft. Well construction records were obtained, which indicated that each well was constructed with 10-in.-diameter steel casing utilizing the cable-tool method. Typically, well casing depths ranged from approximately 112 to 160 ft below land surface (bls), with open hole sections extending from 112 to 350 ft bls. Given the age, material, and construction method, initial evaluations completed on each well included, at a minimum, caliper and video logging, as well as specific capacity testing to verify the well condition and productivity prior to rehabilitation. Results of the caliper logging indicated production zones ranged in depth from approximately 225 to 265 ft bls. Results of the video logging indicated that all of the original casings were highly corroded, with visual evidence of seepage of groundwater through the casing above the water table and inflow of water at the grout seal in some of the wells. The video and caliper logs were also used to identify likely water-producing zones. Flow logs were not completed.

Figure 3. City of Arcadia Wellfield Geologic Cross-Section

Table 1. Well Specification Summary, City of Arcadia Wellfield

The results of the initial evaluation provided the basis for design of a well-specific rehabilitation plan necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the well. In particular, the depth at which to set the new 6-in. liner casing was critical in order to not case off any waterproducing zones. It was also important that the rehabilitation methods did not result in cave-in or collapse of production zones. Once the new inner casing depth was selected, follow-up work included wire brushing the old casing, installing and grouting steel liners, well development, installation of new pumps and riser pipe, aquifer performance tests, turbidity, sand and silt density testing disinfection, and site restoration. Acidization using Cotey Chemical Dry Acid SpecialÂŽ was also completed on wells 2 and 3 to

improve production and ensure bacteriological disinfection. Well casing liners consisted of a 6-in.-diameter black steel set below the original casing to ensure minimal influence of withdrawal capability. This was performed by setting bentonite-chip-filled baskets in the borehole just below the old and new inner casing. The baskets provided a platform upon which a 5- to 7-ft interval of neat cement grout above the bentonite filled baskets could be placed. Following a 24hour curing period, the remaining portion of the well annulus was grouted to land surface. Final well development, specific capacity, silt density, sand content, and turbidity testing were then completed to establish the new pump Continued on page 48

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ October 2016


Continued from page 47 depth, pumping rate and pump specifications, and ensure that the raw water was acceptable for treatment. A summary of the specific capacity of the wells based on the data obtained at installation, prior to rehabilitation, and post-rehabilitation is shown in Table 1. The data show that for all the wells, with the exception of well 1, the original specific capacity had reduced over time, which is to be expected. The acidization of wells 2 and 3 restored their loss in capacity so they were similar to those of the other wells. It should

also be noted that the rehabilitation, which reduced the diameter of the well casings and drop pipes, did not impact well production. The final drawdown information was then used to establish a well-rotation schedule to mitigate excessive drawdown impacts induced by overlapping cones of depression. Following completion of well development and testing work, the rehabilitated wells were chlorinated, and the pumps installed and reconnected to the main transmission line. Post-rehabilitation testing shows that bacteriological problems have been resolved without negatively influencing the

withdrawal capability of the well field, and thus extending its life expectancy without having to find a new water supply source in the near future. However, as the city continues to grow, it will continue to evaluate alternative water supply sources to meet its needs, as the current well field is near its capacity. Julie L. Karleskint, P.E., is senior associate engineer with Hazen and Sawyer in Sarasota, and John (Jack) Garbade, PG, is principal consultant with The Colinas Group in Sarasota. !

New Products The RD547 from Radiodetection Corp. is a single-control unit capable of acoustic and tracer-gas methods of water leak detection. For acoustic methods, is has high listening capabilities and supports three different microphones. Optimized for flexibility, the universal microphone has a selection of attachments that make it suitable for ground measurements or attaching to pipe fittings. The ground microphone (geophone) has a windproof shield for outdoor use and is sensitive to lower frequencies. A test rod with a rigid handle and extendable tips allows measurements to be taken on deeper-set utility fittings. When tracer gas offers a better option, a ground sensor for the detection of hydrogen can be attached. Six kit options are available. (


The sulFade™ molecular neutralizer from Helix Laboratories helps municipalities counteract hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, and other sulfur compounds. It is designed to break down these compounds, yielding water a harmless inert byproduct that poses no risk to downstream processes or the environment. It is available in bulk containers, and a complementary product, ClearAir, is designed specifically for odor control in stations. (


Sensorex has expanded its SD7000 family of differential pH/ORP sensors, adding four new models to suit a wider range of online process monitoring applications. Sensorex’s proven sensor technology produces highly accurate measurements with an overall low cost of ownership. They are ideally suited for measuring pH and ORP in industrial and


municipal wastewater treatment and neutralization, metal finishing and plating, wet fume scrubbers, chemical processing, and other online water quality and process applications. The three-electrode differential sensor design results in less maintenance for operators, minimized down time, longer sensor life, and overall greater reliability. Process pH or ORP is measured differentially with process and protected inner reference electrodes, compared to a third ground electrode. The inner reference electrode is surrounded by a known concentrated pH 7 buffer that resists process contamination, maintaining its pH level with minimal dilution effects. A double junction salt bridge further guards against contamination. Both the standard pH seven-cell solution and salt bridge can be replaced periodically at a much lower cost than total sensor replacement. The new SD7500CD and SD7500CDORP are universally compatible with any conventional pH/ORP transmitter or controller, including Sensorex products. The new SD7420CD and SD7420CD-ORP include a direct 4-20mA output for integration into process control systems without requiring an additional 4-20mA transmitter or controller. These sensors are also a direct replacement option for some Hach® and Water Analytics®/Aquametrix probes. (


Cloth media filtration from Aqua-Aerobic Systems has demonstrated the ability to accommodate high solids loading capacity, large hydraulic throughput, a small footprint, and exceptional effluent quality in more than 1,500 installations. Joining the family of filters is the new AquaPrime cloth media filtration system, designed as an eco-

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

nomical and efficient solution for the treatment of primary wastewater and wet weather applications. The AquaPrime system utilizes a disk configuration and the exclusive OptiFiber® cloth filtration media to effectively filter screened, degritted, raw municipal sewage. This proven technology easily handles significantly higher solids loading rates, compared to secondary clarified effluent (by a factor of three to five times) with the added ability to sustain a low total-suspendedsolids concentration, making it an ideal solution for both wet weather treatment and primary treatment in lieu of conventional sedimentation systems. The system efficiently operates in less than 10 percent of a footprint, compared to conventional primary settling basins, and offers the added advantage of improving gas production (energy harvesting) in the anaerobic digestion system due to significant reduction in organics. The system produces consistent, high-quality effluent under variable influent conditions that are typical in both primary treatment and wet weather applications.


Engineered to expedite machine condition monitoring and quality control evaluations, the SpectrOil 100 Series from Spectro Scientific provides quick, laboratory-precise measurement of elemental concentrations in a variety of fluid types. The ease of operation makes them ideal for use in laboratories, and onsite inspection and maintenance environments where rapid test results create value. The product eliminates the delay and expense of offsite laboratory analyses, and minimal training is needed to operate the Continued on page 54

FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner ! The Public Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this column to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at

First Coast Chapter Events Offer Fun and Training Teri L. Shoemaker


he FWEA First Coast Chapter held its eighth annual Don Maurer Classic Putting Tournament at the World Golf Village in St. Augustine in May. For those who knew Don, he was a passionate and dedicated engineer, friend, and mentor to many. He gave countless hours to the betterment of his community and our profession, and helped to increase awareness of the industry. Don was an integral part of FWEA throughout Florida and especially in the northeastern part of the state. It’s for this reason that the putting tournament was memorialized in his name, and the University of Florida scholarship endowment, which is now $30,000, was formed. The growth of this event and of the scholarship, awarding $1,200 per semester, is a testament to his leadership, and our focus is to carry out his vision for the industry. The event is a regional favorite and was a success this year with 88 golfers and 20 sponsors. After the tournament, the evening concluded in the Verandah at the Village with food, drinks, and great raffle prizes. Thank you to our sponsors: ! Cogburn Bros. ! Crom ! Meskel & Associates ! Moss-Kelley ! TSC Jacobs ! Victaulic ! American Cast Iron Pipe ! Mott MacDonald ! Jacobs ! Carter & VerPlanck ! CH2M ! Environmental EMD


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

! ! ! !

Haskell Sawcross CDM Smith Constantine Engineering Group

! Jones Edmunds ! WPC ! Bradshaw-Niles & Associates

We have already set a date of May 18, 2017, for our ninth annual event and we hope to see you there! This summer our chapter offered continuing education by sponsoring a wastewater pumping seminar. Topics included pumping station design and operational consideration, Hydraulic Institute standards and design recommendations, low-pressure sewer systems, submersible pump design, and pump vibration. Attendees earned four professional development hours and enjoyed lunch from Bono’s BBQ. In August, FSAWWA Region II and our chapter hosted an annual golf outing at St. Johns Golf and Country Club. We are now planning our fall luncheon in October and a holiday event in December, as well as our annual clay shooting tournament in January and bowling event with students in February. Stay tuned for more details on these events! The First Coast Chapter steering committee meets quarterly. Please contact me at for information about the meetings or chapter activities.

Manasota Chapter Activity: Save the Date! The Manasota Chapter is sponsoring its second Sporting Clays Shoot on Friday, October 28. More information about the event will be available soon. Teri L. Shoemaker is an engineer with St. Johns County Utility Department in St. Augustine. !

PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This monthʼs second column highlights Polk Countyʼs Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility, which won the Earle B. Phelps Award in the category of advanced secondary treatment in 2016.

Award-Winning Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility: Advanced Treatment Through Operational Efficiency Craig Fuller


Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Accepted by Mark Lowenstine, Jeremiah Van Horn, Charles Nichols, Jeff Goolsby, and Nathan Silveira.


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

he Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility (Northeast WWTF) is one of three regional wastewater treatment plants operated by the Polk County Utilities. At 6 mil gal per day (mgd), the Northeast WWTF is Polk County’s largest and most sophisticated. While there are advanced processes and improvements throughout the facility, such as automated sequencing for digestion, biosolids dewatering, a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system operable throughout the plant from tablets, and aquifer recharge, this article describes the advancements made in the operation of its mainstream process.

Recent Expansion The original Northeast WWTF was built in 2001 to serve the residents of Polk County near the intersection of Interstate 4 and US 27 with a

capacity of 3 mgd. Due to the growth in the area, and the strength of waste increasing, it was identified in 2006 that the Northeast WWTF would need to be expanded to 6 mgd, with a buildout of 9 or 12 mgd. In 2012, the 6-mgd expansion was completed and the state-of-the-art biological nutrient reactor (BNR) was started up, coupled with the two existing oxidation ditches. The Northeast WWTF has widely varying levels of both carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), averaging approximately 274 mg/l and 59 mg/l, respectively, during the previous year. The Northeast WWTF has received peaks in nutrient loading averaging 450 mg/l and 75 mg/l as CBOD5 and TKN, respectively, sometimes for over a week straight. Within the past year, the facility has had minimum influent TKN of 48 mg/l and maximums of 75 mg/l. To nitrify the amount of TKN and CBOD5 coming into the facility, the Northeast WWTF had to provide a high density of aeration. Additionally, to target low values of effluent total nitrogen (TN), the facility had to provide large volumes of anoxic area, high quantities of recycle flow, numerous treatment shifts, and/or simultaneous treatment. Due to the relatively high nutrient levels and high deviations, and to limit costs for recycling, the facility was designed to provide numerous shifts in biological treatment and simultaneous treatment. The graphic is a description and sketch of how the treatment system is currently operated, with five stages in biological treatment. The Northeast WWTF was previously operated with

seven stages in biological treatment and is capable of up to nine stages, if necessary. Influent wastewater is screened at the headworks structure before flowing to the BNR basin with flow equalization and grit removal capability. The existing BNR contains selectable anoxic and aerobic zones where aeration is accomplished with fine-bubble diffusers prior to flowing to one of the two oxidation ditches, also with anoxic and aerobic zones. While it appears the recycle stream comes from the anoxic zones to the aeration zones in the oxidation ditch, that is simply a function of the installed aerators providing both forward and recycle flow, beyond the anoxic zone. This effectively allows for the total air input to be lower and the deaeration to function better. Following secondary biological treatment, the Typical Plant Loadings and Discharge.

View of Chlorine Contact Chamber With Shade Balls, April 2015.

mixed liquor flows to three clarifiers for settling, return sludge, and waste sludge. Treated effluent from the final clarifiers is filtered through one of four parallel deep-bed filters; the filters can be dosed with chlorine to deter algae growth. A polymer solution may be added to the influent flow as a filtering aid, but it is rarely if ever utilized. While the BNR can be run with many differing options for treatment, the graphic is a block depiction of the Northeast WWTF in its current operational scheme. Note that the greyed-out structures are not in use and only the mainstream treatment train is shown.

Operational Efficiencies and Nutrient Removal The biological treatment system utilizes oxidation reduction potential (ORP), both within the BNR and the oxidation ditches, as the process control parameter for aeration and anoxic areas. The facility previously utilized dissolved oxygen (DO) to control the oxidation ditch’s aerator speeds. By utilizing ORP, the Northeast WWTF has been able to use significantly less power and chemicals while providing far greater nitrogen removal, as compared to pre-expansion performance. While there is not a “set” level for ORP, the county’s operators worked diligently to determine the optimum set points for their facility, which is the key to the low TN levels and enhanced treatment. The facility does not utilize a carbon addition in the deep-bed filters, but has been able to average effluent total nitroContinued on page 54

Aerial of Northeast Wastewater Treatment Facility During Construction, September 2010. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Continued from page 53 gen of 1.80 mg/l for the past year, which represents nearly 97 percent removal of TKN, as compared to 59 mg/l influent. Additionally, the power utilized per influent volume treated has dropped by 12 percent since preexpansion levels and the total chlorine utilized per influent volume has dropped by 49 percent. The net savings between the preand post-expansion operations from chemical and power represent nearly $120,000/annually, while the effluent quality from the plant has never been better or more consistent. Additionally, the facility is able to treat the varied load it sees without being “upset” or having to go into reject. Due to the resolution ORP provides, the facility can target the oxidation state, rather than an overshoot of oxygen, keeping the facility within the operating range necessary to provide optimum nitrification and denitrification. This directly contributes to the power savings by lowering the oxidation ditch’s aerator speed and blower speeds. Additionally, because the oxygen provided to the BNR and oxidation ditches is low, the DO in the nitrogen-recycle (N-Rcy) is extremely low, leading to improved anoxic efficiency and increased nitrate removal. Further, due to the removal efficiency increase in both ammonia and nitrate, this led to increased ammonification

and removal of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The Northeast WWTF is currently averaging approximately 0.66 mg/l for over one year in DON, while prior to expansion, the facility averaged 1.31 mg/l, a decrease of 50 percent. While approximately 65 percent of the Northeast WWTF chlorine savings is attributed to the county’s operation of the mainstream process, approximately 35 percent of the chlorine savings came from the addition of shade balls. Originally, the operators experimented with the balls in the chlorine contact chambers to reduce chemical costs in August 2013. During the testing, it was discovered that the shade balls not only reduced chlorine consumption, they also stabilized the residual by occupying the area of chlorinated water exposed to the environment (ultraviolet, wind, etc.). The balls virtually eliminated algae growth and iron oxidation that previously built up on the channel walls. The use of the balls has all but eliminated cleaning of the chambers, except where the channels are exposed to sunlight. To keep the balls in place, there is grating installed at the end of each contact chamber before the outfall. Craig Fuller is senior project manager with AECOM Technical Services Inc. in Bartow. !

New Products Continued from page 48 system. The analysis process involves no sample preparation or use of solvents or gasses, reducing cost per sample, and the spectrometers’ 30-second analysis time provides immediate, simultaneous multielement results. The spectrometers consist of two basic models: the SpectrOil 110, which provides a basic engine wear package, and the SpectrOil 120, which includes standard- and extended-range packages with the options of wear metals, coolants, fuels, and custom application packages. The SpectrOil 100 Series uses rotating disc electrode, optical emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) technology, a product of decades of development in support of the U.S. military’s joint oil analysis program (JOAP). The method employs carbon electrodes and highvoltage electricity to convert a fluid sample into a plasma that emits a unique spectrum of light. Charge-coupled device


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

cameras capture the light, and spectral analysis software detects concentration of dozens of elements in solution with sub-parts-per-million precision, including particles as large as 10µm. The spectrometers detect and quantify the presence of elements that indicate machine wear or fluid contamination, while also monitoring depletion of additives that protect critical assets, according to ASTM-D6595 (oil). In quality control applications, the analyses monitor the composition and quality of petrochemicals, from the crude state to final blended product, to ensure process integrity and guard against contamination, in line with ASTM D6728 (fuel). Fluid analysis of coolants will ensure they are still providing heat transfer and corrosion protection, while analysis of power plant cooling water and turbine wash water determines if their condition is within regulatory limits. ( !


3-7 ............Water Distribution Level 3........................Osteen ................$225/255 17-21 ............Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ........Osteen ................$350/380 24-28 ............Water Distribution Level 2........................Osteen ................$225/255 28 ............Backflow Tester recert***..........................Osteen ................$85/115 31-Nov. 4 ........Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ........St. Petersburg ......$350/380


14-16 ............*Backflow Repair ....................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 14-17 ............Backflow Tester ......................................Osteen ................$375/405 25 ............Backflow Tester recert***..........................Osteen ................$85/115


5-9 ............Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ..................Osteen ................ $350/380 12-14 ............Backflow Repair ......................................Osteen ................$275/305 30 ............Backflow Tester recert***..........................Osteen ................$85/115

– UPCOMING 2017 CLASSES – January

9-12 ............*Backflow Tester ......................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405


13-15 ............*Backflow Repair ....................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016



Tank Engineering And Management

Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983






CLASSIFIEDS P os i ti o ns Ava i l a b l e

Utilities Treatment Plant Operations Supervisor $55,452 - $78,026/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $37,152 - 52,279/yr.; $39,011 - $54,892/yr.

Water-Reuse Distribution Supervisor $55,452 – 78,026/yr.

Utilities Engineering Inspector $52,279 - $73,561.90

Utilities Treatment Plant Operator I

$46,010 - $60,519/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.


The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electrician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High school diploma or GED required. Must possess a Journeyman Electrical Certificate of Competency as recognized by the State of Florida. Must have a minimum of five years experience in the direct operation, maintenance and repair of electrical and electronic equipment associated with water/wastewater treatment facilities or heavy industrial manufacturing facility. A two-year Associates Degree in Electronics may be substituted for two years actual experience on a year per year basis for a total minimum experience of five years. Must possess a valid State of Florida Driver’s license and an acceptable driving record. Applicants may possess a valid out of state driver’s license and obtain the Florida driver’s license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $39,655.72 - $63,394.50/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Lab Technician

The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for a Laboratory Tech at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Bachelor’s degree with major course work in Biology, Chemistry, Environmental Science or a related field, and a minimum of one year experience in a water or an environmental laboratory. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess a valid out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $17.1001 - $28.7212/HR. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and yearround sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Make Orange County Your Home for Life. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to over 500,000 citizens and 66 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions:

Industrial Electrician I $36,733 – $43,035/ year


Apply online at: Positions are open until filled.

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Traffic Sign Technician - Water/Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C - Solid Waste Worker II - Collection Field Tech – I & II - Distribution Field Tech – I & II Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Construction and Utility Programs Coordinator Ready for an exciting new chapter in your career? Join our team of Utility professionals at the City of Tavares in beautiful Central Florida! This position performs supervisory work overseeing contractors involved in major construction projects for utility system capital improvements. This employee works with contractors, developers and other City of Tavares employees to assure compliance with all pertinent regulations and contractual obligations; and will be involved in developing and implementing City Utility programs. This position reports to the Utility Director. The City of Tavares, America's Seaplane City, is recognized throughout Florida as an innovative, collaborative and service-oriented employer! Located in the center of the Sunshine State on the banks of beautiful Lake Dora, Tavares is home to a current population of 15,000 residents and is the capitol city of Lake County. • Salary range: $40,000 - $60,000 • Excellent health, dental, life, disability and Florida Retirement System benefits • Generous time off and holiday plans • Positive and progressive work environment, with active focus on staff development The qualified candidate will possess: • High school diploma or GED, with Associates or Bachelors degree from an accredited institution in engineering, business or construction preferred • Minimum of 5 years experience in the field of underground utilities construction For more detailed information about this key position and electronic access to our employment application, please visit our Employment page at APPLY TODAY! We welcome your resume or application in person, by email to, by mail to City of Tavares Human Resources, 201 East Main Street, Tavares, FL 32778, or by fax to 352-742-6351. We are an EOE, ADA, E-Verify and Drug-Free Workplace! The City of Tavares - Land and See!

Town of Davie Utilities Compliance and Efficiency Manager $64,969 - $77,090/ yr. Utilities Plant Operator I – Water $40,393 - $48,018/ yr. Utilities Plant Operator I –Wastewater $40,393 - $48,018/ yr. Utilities Electro - Technician $50,724 – $60,296 / yr. Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Open until filled.

Utilities, Inc. Utilities, Inc. is seeking a Water/Wastewater Operator II for the Clermont, FL area. The position requires a minimum Class C Water & Wastewater license or the ability to be dual certified within 6 months of hire. You must have a clean driving record. For details and requirements please refer to our website posting, where you can apply for the position.

Wastewater Operator A,B, or C Good Samaritan Society, located in Kissimmee, FL. Is accepting applications for individuals to fill a part-time position. Send resume to

City of St. Petersburg Water Plant Operator IV

Water Plant Operator A, B or C Perform specialized work in the op. of a conv. Lime Softening & RO water trtmnt plant on an assigned rotating shift. Current Class Cert. as a nonlimited water trtmnt plant op “A”, “B” or “C” by Florida Dept of Envir. Reg. req’d. HS dipl or equivalency & valid State of FL Driver’s License req’d. Apply online at; EEO Emp; Drug Free Wkplce


October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

(IRC35170) Lead supervisory technical work at Cosme Potable Water Plant in Northwest Hillsborough County, FL on rotating shift (24/7 operation). Requirements: able to maintain phone contact - respond to emergency events 24/7; high school diploma/GED equivalency; State of FL DL; State of Florida Class "A" Water Operator Certificate. Open Until Filled; $49,009 - $71,901 DOQ; See detailed requirements at EEOAA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets' Pref

Polk County BoCC Process Control & Systems Specialist Bachelor's degree in Chemistry, Biology, Natural Sciences, or a closely related field, with a minimum of ten (10) years experience in water and wastewater process control sampling and/or quality assurance, water/wastewater quality trends, treatment studies, and analytical laboratory testing, including a minimum of five (5) years supervisory experience. Must have a valid driver's license. Special preference may be given to applicants who possess a Class C or higher license in the area of water and/or wastewater treatment. For application, information, and submittal requirements, go to

City of Temple Terrace

Technical work in the operation of a water treatment plant and auxiliary facilities on an assigned shift. Performs quality control lab tests and other analyses, monthly regulatory reports, and minor adjustments and repairs to plant equipment. Applicant must have State of Florida D.E.P. Class “A”, “B”, or “C” Drinking Water License at time of application. SALARY RANGES: $16.59 - $24.89 per hour • w/”C” Certificate $18.25 - $27.38 per hour • w/”B” Certificate (+10% above “C”) $20.08 - $30.12 per hour • w/”A” Certificate (+10% above “B”). Excellent benefits package. To apply and/or obtain more details contact City of Temple Terrace, Chief Plant Operator at (813) 506-6593 or Human Resources at (813) 506-6430 or visit EOE/DFWP.

Reiss Engineering, Inc. Looking for an opportunity to make a difference? Looking for a dynamic team environment where you can manage and lead projects to success? Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to contribute and make a difference for our people, our clients, and our community! Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. To see open positions and submit a resume to join our team, visit

P o s itio ns Wanted DARRYL E. WILLIAMS – Has passed test for C Water and C Wastewater licenses. Currently has 785 credit hours but needs additional plant hours to obtain his licenses. Prefers the St Petersburg and adjacent vicinity. Contact at 4327 8th Ave. S. St Petersburg, Fl. 33711. 813-215-8332

Sarasota County Govt. Utilities-Environmental Design Manager $55,557-$73,694 Closing Date: 10/28/16 941-861-5742 AA/EEO/ADA - Veterans' Preference

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help!

Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Plant Operator

Must have FDEP Class “C” dual licensure (or higher). $47,597 - $69,015

Plant Maintenance Technician

$44,838 – $65,015 Salary DOQ. Positions require a high school diploma/GED equivalency, a valid driver’s license and background check. Excellent benefits. Send resume to EOE/DFWP

Classified Advertising Rates - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2016


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 45 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ........Wastewater Treatment February ......Water Supply; Alternative Sources March............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..............Conservation and Reuse May................Operations and Utilities Management; Florida Water Resources Conference June..............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..........Disinfection; Water Quality September ....Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ....Water Treatment December ....Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue).

1. A) 5.6 minutes Calculation steps: • Convert 8 in. to ft: 8 in. ÷ 12 in./ft = 0.67 ft • Calculate the cu ft volume of the pipe: V = 0.785 x D x D x Length; V = 0.785 x 0.67 ft x 0.67 ft x 1,500 ft; V = 568.6 cu ft • Convert cu ft to gal using 7.48 gal/cu ft; gal = 528.6 cu ft x 7.48 gal/cu ft; gal = 3,954 • Divide gal by flow rate, gpm to obtain minutes; minutes = 3,954 gal ÷ 700 gpm • Minutes to flush = 5.6 2. B) Control maximum filling level in distribution system storage tanks Altitude valves allow tanks that are at differing heights to be filled to their maximum capacity. 3. D) Flow rate and pressure 4. D) Every 10 years 5. B) The actions of the distribution system field personnel. 6. D) Crew members should be able to answer routine consumer questions, but direct all other questions to their supervisor. 7. B) Smoothness of pipe interior

The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index Blue Planet......................63 CEU Challenge ................27 CROM ............................29 Data Flow........................33 FSAWWA CONFERENCE Preliminary Calendar ....14 Attendee Registration ..15 Conference Summary ..16 Student & Young Professionals ................17 FWPCOA Online Training..43


FWPCOA Training ............55 FWRC Call for Papers ........7 Garney Construction..........5 Hudson Pump..................51 Lakeside ........................41 PCL ................................13 Stacon ..............................2 Stantec ..........................54 Treeo ..............................49 Vaughn............................21 Xylem..............................64

October 2016 • Florida Water Resources Journal

8. C) Three samples One at the original site where the failed sample was collected, one sample within five service connections upstream, and one sample within five service connections downstream. 9. D) First-draw samples A first-draw sample is the first liter of water collected from a cold water tap that has not been used for at least six hours. 10. B) 3,972 gpm Calculation steps: • Convert diameter in. to ft: 18-in. pipe opening ÷ 12 in./ft = 1.5 ft • Calculate the cross section area, ft of the pipe: A = 0.785 x D x D; A = 0.785 x 1.5 x 1.5; area = 1.77 ft • Calculate the cu-ft volume of just the 5-ft length given as velocity, ft/sec. NOTE: The total pipe length of a half mi is not needed! V = A x length; V = 1.77 ft x 5 ft; volume, cu ft = 8.85. This is actually 8.85 cu ft per second (cfs) • Calculate the gal per second (gps) using 7.48 gal/cu ft: gal/second = 8.85 cfs x 7.48 gal/cu ft; gal/second = 66.2 • Convert to gpm by multiplying by 60 seconds per minute; 66.2 gps x 60 sec/min = 3,972 gpm

Florida Water Resources Journal - October 2016  

New Facilities, Expansions and Upgrades

Florida Water Resources Journal - October 2016  

New Facilities, Expansions and Upgrades