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Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.
News and Features 4 Water Quality Association Releases National Opinion Survey 15 Veterans in the Water Industry: Share Your Story! 18 Water Issues in Florida: How Extension Can Facilitate Stakeholder Engagement and Involvement—Erica Odera, Alexa Lamm, Michael Dukes, Tracy Irani, and Hannah Carter 30 Process Page: Award-Winning Hillsborough County Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility: Advanced Technology and Operational Excellence— Jason Hopp 42 Drop Savers Poster Contest Winners Announced—Melissa Velez 52 The Water Tower Annual Report Showcases Year of Firsts 57 Drop Savers Contest Prizes Shipped to Winners 58 News Beat
29 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions 33 FWPCOA State Short School 49 TREEO Center Training 53 FWPCOA Online Training
Columns 12 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 34 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 38 Reader Profile—Peter Selberg II 39 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 40 FWEA Chapter Corner: Biscayne Bay Recovery: Challenges and Opportunities— Melody Gonzalez 54 Let’s Talk Safety: Don’t Let Chemicals Get You! 56 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri and Kevin Frank
Departments 59 New Products 60 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index
6 Improving Water Quality for an Island Community—Timothy A. Vanderwalker 46 Rapid Design and Construction of a Membrane Water Treatment Plant to Treat Water Quality Issues—Kira Iles, Michael Sherer, and Trooper Smith II
Education and Training 11 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers 16 CEU Challenge 23 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview 24 FSAWWA Fall Conference Attendee Registration 25 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration 26 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night and Happy Hour 27 FSAWWA Fall Conference Golf Tournament 28 FSAWWA Fall Conference Water Distribution System Awards
ON THE COVER: Spiractors used for lime softening at Village of Palm Springs Utilities. For more information go to page 34.(photo: Fred Bloetscher)
Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.
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Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Water Quality Association Releases National Opinion Survey Consumers increasingly take ownership for their water quality, ready to spend money on home water treatment
Emerging from the coronavirus pandemic, Americans are more positive about their household drinking water quality, less likely to depend on government oversight, and increasingly ready to spend money on home water treatment, according to a new 2021 national survey of consumer opinions about drinking water released by the Water Quality Association (WQA). “The study shows that consumers recognize that they have a part in providing their home with safe drinking water, whereas in the past most thought it was solely the responsibility of a third party, such as a public water supplier,” said Pauli Undesser, executive director of WQA. “With postpandemic economic growth expected, people are spending more on home improvement, which includes water filtration systems.”
Homeowners Feel Increasing Responsibility for Their Water Less than a third (31 percent) of the survey respondents think federal laws on drinking water are not tough enough, a dramatic decrease from
the 49 percent holding that opinion in 2019. Although half of American households say their municipality is responsible for monitoring and providing safe water, which is down from 63 percent in 2019 and 75 percent in 2017, they responded that they rely on home treatment systems (32 percent) or bottled water (18 percent) for quality drinking water in their homes. Consumers interviewed in January 2021, after 10 months of quarantine, said concerns about contaminants and a desire for a healthy lifestyle are the most important factors influencing their decision to purchase a water filtration product. About a quarter of those who do not have water filtration in their homes said they are likely to install products in the near future, with 10 percent saying the possibility was very likely. Almost half of the households (46 percent) have a refrigerator with a filtered drinking water dispenser, and 22 percent have a whole-house filter system.
Quality Concerns Still High, but Decreasing Thirty-eight percent of those surveyed indicate that they are concerned or very concerned about the quality of their household water supply, a significant decrease from 51 percent in WQA’s 2019 consumer opinion study.
In 2021, more than half (57 percent) think the water supply is safe, while only 15 percent think it unsafe, the survey demonstrated.
Bottled Water Usage Slips Although still significant, bottled water usage has trended down in the last two years. Seven out of every 10 Americans (70 percent) regularly consume bottled water, which is down from 78 percent in 2019. More than half (52 percent) of the respondents think bottled water is better than tap water (down from 60 percent in 2019), with nearly a third saying it is “purer” than tap water or a more convenient way to drink it. At the same time, consumers increasingly believe bottled water is not much different from tap water (38 percent) and some feel it might be worse than tap water because of plastic bottling (10 percent). Environmental concerns have encouraged consumers to switch to reusable water containers (18 percent), and the 19 percent who say they bought a filtration system so they wouldn’t feel the need to buy bottled water is twice as high as it was in 2019.
Water Softener Usage Increases This year’s survey saw a major increase in water softener ownership, with one in four households having a system installed, up from 19 percent in 2019 and only 13 percent in 2017. Nearly three-quarters (72 percent) of those buying a water softener said they did it within one year of buying or leasing a home.
Survey Methodology The report presents the findings of a national online survey conducted by Applied ResearchWest Inc. in January 2021. A total of 1,413 adults over the age of 18 and living in private households were interviewed. A random sampling procedure was used by ARW, and the survey results are accurate within +/-2.6 percent. The results are representative of all adults in the United States over 18. A report is available to the public and can be downloaded at wqa.org, while a more indepth report and analysis is provided to WQA members. S
4 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Improving Water Quality for an Island Community Timothy A. Vanderwalker
s development and tourism showed a steady increase in the last decade— barring the global stand-still due to the COVID-19 pandemic—the challenges facing Florida’s coastal communities became more apparent and increasingly troublesome. Not only does the increasing interest in visiting and living in an “island paradise” lead policymakers to take a hard look at how to best handle the influx of people, but the increase in residents and visitors results in additional water quality issues that must be addressed. As quaint beach communities become more developed and populated, stormwater systems are prone to be impacted and harmful pollutants are more likely to enter recreational and environmentally sensitive waters. In Florida the annual rainfall averages approximately 54 in., and rainfall is commonly highest from June through September. Rainfalls of more than 8 in. may occur during hurricanes and other naturally occurring events. Hurricane season starts in June, although recent trends have it starting in May and lasting until the end of October, overlapping the rainy season.
The risk of severe coastal surge events further complicates coastal community concerns. Many factors limit the ability to apply a wide-sweeping water quality approach that will address all the issues presented by increases in stormwater pollutants, such as nutrients, sediment, litter, and other waste. Opportunities to provide water quality treatment within public spaces can be extremely limited; these locations typically include parks, rights-of-way, or other municipal-owned properties. The topography of these communities, especially barrier islands, is low and flat and provides little to no relief for drainage. Additionally, the cost of property in these communities inhibits the purchase of repetitive-loss properties, and shallow everpresent groundwater inhibits these properties for usage as stormwater storage and treatment facilities.
Infrastructure in Fort Myers Beach The town of Fort Myers Beach (town) is a prime example of one of these communities,
Figure1.1.Location Locationmap mapofofFort FortMyers MyersBeach. Beach. Figure
6 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Timothy A. Vanderwalker, P.E., is project manager at Tetra Tech Inc. in Orlando.
being a barrier island located in southwest Florida on the Gulf of Mexico. See Figure 1 for a map showing the location of the town. The existing stormwater infrastructure is typical for a coastal community first developed in the mid-20th century: no master planning of the area, limited drainage inlets, shallow swales, piped outfalls through private property, and narrow roadways with no crown or longitudinal slope. In many instances, the outfalls are historic and not located within recorded drainage easements. Consistent tidal backflow into the right-ofway slowly degrades the roadways and limits access to private property. Typical water quality treatment facilities, such as retention ponds, are few within the town’s system. The town was incorporated in 1995, and at that time, Lee County (county) transferred Continued on page 8
Figure ThereFRESH reFRESHEstero EsteroBoulevard Boulevard project project limits. Figure 2. 2. The limits.
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3. Outfall locationsmaintained maintained byby Fort Myers Beach. FigureFigure 3. Outfall locations Fort Myers Beach.
Figure bafflebox boxcross cross section. Figure4. 4. Nutrient-separating Nutrient-separating baffle section.
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Continued from page 6 the maintenance responsibility of the publicly maintained residential streets (side streets), downtown district, north segment of Estero Boulevard, and public drainage easements adjacent to these rights-of-way to the town. The county retained maintenance responsibility of Estero Boulevard (from San Carlos Boulevard to the south end of the island), and Amberjack Drive, the main thoroughfare of the island and a historic island ingress and egress roadway. Generally, the island water quality design was intended to be swale drainage along the side streets, with intermittent connections to dredged canals. The town continues to experience flooding in many areas of the island. Existing storm drainage was either nonexistent or nonfunctional and lacked both drainage inlets and outfall connections, with little to no water quality treatment. Additional issues to the system were caused by tidal backflow (surges) and saltwater intrusion. Less than 30 percent of the town’s roadways were maintained for stormwater and over 80 percent of the existing outfalls were undersized and failing. Additionally, private
property owners’ encroachments into the right-of-way further reduced the effectiveness of the swales and culverts. The shallow swales that were intended for stormwater capture/ conveyance were filled in or disconnected from the out-falls. With this information, the town updated its stormwater management plan. Along with the apparent need of stormwater improvements on the island, the state of Florida mandates that water quality improvements be made where possible. The town recognized the problems that development and tourism present to water quality management and began taking measures in the late 2000s to address these issues within the right-of-way and existing easements, where possible, to develop costeffective solutions, utilize proven technology, and secure the funding necessary to provide effective and environmentally beneficial water quality enhancement. The North Estero Improvement, constructed in 2009, included a slot drain system along the curb line and provided treatment via exfiltration chambers located within portions of the undeveloped right-of-way, the town-owned potable water
8 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
storage, and the pumping site adjacent to the project limits.
ReFRESH Fort Myers Beach In 2013, the town and the county commenced coordinated projects, dubbed reFRESH Estero Boulevard, to revitalize the infrastructure within the Estero Boulevard right-of-way from San Carlos Boulevard to the south end of the island. This project includes potable water improvements performed by the town and sanitary and roadway improvements performed by the county. In conjunction with the county roadway revitalization, stormwater management facilities discharging to Estero Bay were provided by an enhanced town system. This coordinated effort between the town and the county has provided an opportunity for improved water quality within the town through a wet exfiltration system constructed by the county and pollutant collection through sumped inlets and nutrient-separating baffle boxes. The town has undertaken the responsibility to provide an improved stormwater management system throughout the island, looking at each outfall individually, and determined what can be done to provide at least some level of pollutant removal prior to discharge into the bay. See Figure 2 for an illustration of the reFRESH project limits.
Where’s the Money? At the commencement of the reFRESH project, the town opted to utilize the funding mechanism provided through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Continued on page 10
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Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Continued from page 8 (FDEP) State Revolving Fund (SRF), with payback provided through a stormwater utility established by the town through resolution. As part of the SRF process, a facilities plan was developed to determine the scope, cost, and preferred design alternative for a townwide system. The town has also secured grant funding through other programs administered by state and federal governments, which includes a FDEP total maximum daily load (TMDL) grant, and multiple Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) grants. In total, the town identified over $30 million in potential stormwater improvements, including swale reclamation, establishment of proper roadway grading, installation of collection and conveyance facilities to meet level of service goals, installation of water quality devices, and tidal backflow prevention measures to help reduce salt intrusion.
Existing water and stormwater issues reported by the town were additional factors in selecting streets for infrastructure improvements. The facilities plan also considered three options for providing improvements to the remaining town to maintain right-of-way that had not been constructed. Within the limits of the planning area for the facilities plan, the town is responsible for the maintenance of 132 acres of right-of-way. The combined residential and town right-ofway runoff area, which is a drainage basin area included in the plan, is approximately 409 acres; of this, approximately 10 acres have been identified as having no infrastructure. Fifty-nine basins, with a total area of 200 acres, contain a minimal amount of infrastructure (along 25 percent or less of the roadways); 18 basins, with a total area of 65 acres, contain a medium amount of infrastructure (along 25 to 75 percent of the roadways); and 29 basins, with a total area of 134 acres, contain the largest amount of infrastructure (along greater than 75 percent of the roadways). Private commercial development accounts for 320 acres of basin area and is responsible for its own stormwater management. A majority of these developments drain to the bay and do not contribute runoff to the town’s stormwater management system. The county right-of-way within the town totals 57 acres, which is solely Estero Boulevard right-of-way, and the total basin area that contributes to this area comprises 236 acres. To provide the most-economical solutions to the deficiencies identified, alternatives were evaluated that would help reduce the cost of the project. Although the
stormwater issues being experienced within the town are primarily caused by a lack of conveyance infrastructure within the system, the town continually desires to provide water quality treatment as a part of its overall plan; therefore, the alternatives explored in the plan had, as one of its main objectives, a means of treating the quality of the stormwater prior to discharge into the bay. In addition to improvement alternatives, a “no action” alternative was developed to determine the baseline costs of operating and maintaining the existing system.
Treatment Alternatives The first of the improvement alternatives explored consists of the installation of nutrient-separating baffle boxes, or sediment boxes. These units are installed immediately upstream of basin outfalls with the purpose of collecting sediment, suspended solids, floating debris, and other pollutants prior to discharging to open water. Basins exceeding 3 acres in runoff area are proposed for installation of these devices. The second alternative proposed in the Treatment and Discharge plan involved the installation of exfiltration chambers within the town’s right-of-way to For the Estero Boulevard improvements, impound stormwater runoff, provide water engineers for the county and the town quality treatment, and reduce the peak flows worked together to determine effective outfall into the receiving water body. In order to locations. The county performed modeling minimize the cost associated with this system, to determine the number and spacing of only areas with available right-of-way, but outfalls, while the town modeled basins limited green space, as well as larger basins and conveyance to determine pipe sizing. with peak flows above 13 cu ft per second Locations were selected based on the Estero (cfs), were selected as suitable for exfiltration Boulevard improvements modeling results, chambers. See Figure 3 for a map of the outfall with input from the town’s engineers and staff locations within the town. to determine the feasibility of the joint system. Based on the life cycle analysis, the cost differential between the two alternatives was negligible; therefore, the sediment basin alternative was chosen due to its lack of recurring capital costs that would require additional construction, roadway closures, pavement replacement, and long-term maintenance/replacement of the system. Each street, however, is evaluated at the time of design and the most-appropriate method of improvement is made on a street-by-street basis. For water quality improvements, 46 nutrient-separating baffle boxes, 11 grate inlet skimmers, and over 250 sumped inlets were proposed for treatment of stormwater runoff. As of the end of 2020, the town has completed the joint outfall phases of the reFRESH project, which includes retrofit stormwater improvements on nearly 30 side streets. These joint outfall drainage improvements provided Figure 5. Lower half of Figure 6. Pollutants collected infrastructure for 23 streets within Figure 5. Lower half of nutrient-separating baffle box. by a nutrient-separating baffleupgraded box. nutrient-separating baffle box. Figure 6. Pollutantsbycollected a nutrient-separating baffle box. the town, including over 20,000 lin ft of storm priorr
10 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
pipe, 219 drainage structures, 23 nutrientseparating baffle boxes, and 26 tidal backflow devices. The crux of the water quality treatment comes via nutrient-separating baffle boxes. These precast structures are fitted with the latest technology to separate and clean pollutants from runoff prior to discharge into the receiving waterbody. A study performed in 2010 entitled, “Final Report Baffle Box Effectiveness Monitoring Project DEP Contract NO. S0236,” states that nutrientseparating baffle boxes averaged 67.2 percent total suspended solids (TSS) removal, 19 percent total nitrogen (TN) removal, and 15.5 percent total phosphorus (TP) removal. Table 1 provides treatment flow rate data for removal efficiencies of the Oldcastle Nutrient-Separating Baffle Box®, or NutrientSeparating Baffle Box (NSBB™). Figure 4 shows a cross section of the device illustrating the multiple treatment technologies included in the design. The NSBB technology was selected due to its low head/high flow application. Multiple technologies are included within the box that aid in the treatment of stormwater flows, which includes internal concrete baffles, turbulence deflectors, centrally located screen system, and Bold and Gold Media chamber and floating skimmers. Turbulence deflectors slow water down to enhance sediment capture and resistance to scouring. The screen system is designed to rest above the static water column, which prevents any organic matter from leaching nutrients back into the water. Additionally, the screen system is centrally located, providing a significant amount of area for the water to bypass around to the sides or above the screen system so as not to cause flooding during large rain events. The media chambers contain a biosorption activated media that treats for TSS, TN, and TP. Additionally, floating skimmers are able to retain most, if not all, of the debris as their skimmer floats up and down with the water table. Figure 5 shows the lower half of a baffle box prior to installation on Lazy Way in the town. Figure 6 shows the amount of pollutants that can be collected within the NSBB.
county have worked together to provide the residents and visitors with upgraded utilities, roadway, and stormwater infrastructure, it became paramount that water quality be included in the design to improve the ecosystem and meet the desires of the public and government regulation. Due to limited space to provide conventional stormwater treatment ponds, swales and sediment boxes have been installed to increase the
level of benefit provided by the stormwater management system. These improvements will not solve all of the flooding issues within the town, but major strides have been taken to improve the water quality and reduce the recovery time after S storm events.
Summary The town has seen tremendous growth and buildout over the past 50 years. Upon incorporation as a town, it inherited a stormwater management system that performed to bare minimum standards and provided little to no water quality treatment to stormwater runoff. As the town and the
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Disinfection: Part Two • Salmonella • Bacillus • Cholera
S Viruses • Norovirus • Polio • Hepatitis
reetings everyone. August brings us the oppressive heat and humidity we are accustomed to, as well as our hurricane season. Keeping our utilities operating efficiently and safely is always job one. July’s C Factor focused on the history of disinfection. This month’s column is going to review disinfection and the disinfection methods that we practice today.
What is Disinfection? Disinfection Versus Sterilization Disinfection is the process designed to kill or inactivate most microorganisms, including all pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria. Sterilization is the complete destruction of all organisms, but it is not necessary and would be rather difficult for water utilities to perform. When done properly, disinfection is sufficient to ensure that the water provided to your customers is safe to drink, which is what the term potable means. We also want to provide a product to our customers that’s palatable, meaning it smells good, taste good, and looks good. So, what are examples of some of the pathogenic organisms transmitted by water that are targeted when disinfecting? S Bacteria • Legionella
S Intestinal Parasites • Giardia lamblia • Cryptosporidium Disinfection Standards The treatment of water for the inactivation of pathogens is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which is responsible for setting and enforcing drinking water standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is responsible for: S Setting standards for primary and secondary contaminants. S Defining what to do if a maximum contaminant level (MCL) is exceeded. S Defining standards based on raw water source and treatment methods. S Setting standards for disinfection byproducts. Effective and proper disinfection is a balance between providing the best protection against pathogens and control of disinfection byproducts. Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-550, Disinfection Byproducts, uses the EPA Federal Register Subpart L, 40 CFR Part 141, as guidance for MCLs for disinfection byproducts. Organics from source water combine with chlorine compounds to form byproducts, specifically, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5). There are four specific
12 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
THMs compounds and five defined HAA5, but the EPA standard for MCL regulates them on a combined total. The MCLs for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and HAA5 are: S TTHMs - 0.08 mg/L or 80 parts per billion (ppb) S H AA5 - 0.06 mg/L or 60 ppb The THMs and HAA5 are suspected of causing liver, kidney, and reproductive system damage; cancer in humans; and other health issues. These standards apply to all community water systems that disinfect their water. Other disinfectant byproducts that are regulated are bromate and chlorite. Bromate can form when using ozone as a disinfectant. With the presence of bromide, ozone will combine with it to produce bromate. The pH has a significant effect on the formation of bromate above a pH value of 6.5. The MCL for bromate is: S B romate - 0.010 mg/L Chlorite byproducts are usually a result of disinfection with chlorine dioxide or with hypochlorite. The MCL for chlorite is: S C hlorite - 1 mg/L Factors Influencing Disinfection There are many factors that can influence the effectiveness of disinfection: S pH – Generally, the lower the pH, the faster the disinfectants work. S Temperature – The higher the temperature of the water, the more efficient it can be treated. Lower temperatures require longer contact time. S Turbidity – High turbidity greatly reduces disinfectant efficiency and can create a higher demand for chlorine. S Organic Matter – Consumes disinfectant while forming byproducts, such as THMs and HAA5. S Inorganic Matter – Free ammonia in the water can combine with oxidizing chemicals, like chlorine, causing a partial loss of disinfection power. Silt and other debris can create demand as well. S Reducing Agents – Iron, hydrogen sulfide, manganese, and nitrite can react with the chlorine, causing greater demand, as well as produce solids during the oxidation process. S Microorganisms – The higher the number of microorganisms, the greater the demand for disinfectant. Resistance varies greatly with different microorganisms.
Removal of Microorganisms Through Treatment These processes can reduce the influence (demand) on disinfection: S Coagulation can remove 90 to 95 percent of pathogenic microorganisms. S S edimentation can remove 20 to 70 percent of pathogenic microorganisms. S F iltration can remove 20 to more than 99 percent of pathogenic microorganisms. When determining the required inactivation of pathogens for a particular system, these treatment processes provide credits toward the inactivation. Disinfection Considerations Some considerations to take into account are the different types of disinfectants available and what is suitable for the characteristic of your system based on source water and other factors, like residence time. S Free Chlorine – The most common disinfectant in the absence of source water organics where disinfection byproducts are not an issue. S Monochloramine – Ammonia plus chlorine is longer-lasting and more stable than free chlorine. Monochloramines can reduce the production of disinfection byproducts. S Chlorine Dioxide – Not commonly used and can increase chlorite and chlorate. There is a maximum residual disinfection level (MRDL) of 0.8 mg/L for chlorine dioxide residual. S Ozone and Ultraviolet (UV) – Used mostly in plants as a primary disinfectant; they are very effective when applied properly. Ozone and UV do not produce a disinfection residual and therefore are not suitable for secondary disinfection. When applied, disinfection has two specific purposes: primary disinfection is applied to achieve the inactivation of pathogens, and secondary disinfection is applied to maintain a barrier against recontamination or regrowth within the water distribution system. A system must maintain a residual in the distribution system per FAC 62-555350 (6). A minimum residual of 0.2 mg/L for free chlorine and 0.6 mg/L for combined or total chlorine is required. The MRDL for free chlorine and monochloramines is 4 mg/L. By maintaining a residual, the system can prevent contamination due to new main installations, cross connections, main breaks, and biofilms. Monochloramine is more effective in controlling biofilm and is a more-stable disinfectant than free chlorine, as well as
Reactions associated with breakpoint chlorination.
helping to control disinfection byproducts. An absence of residual in the distribution system is indication of contamination that has created a high demand for the disinfectant. Disinfectants may be the cause of taste and odor and other issues in the distribution system. Free chlorine may cause a chlorinous taste and odor, especially if overdosed. Dichloramine causes taste and odor problems and poor disinfection, but increasing the chlorine dose can remedy this problem. Free chlorine may increase copper corrosion and monochloramine may be the cause of deterioration of some types of rubber products. When disinfecting with chlorine, it should be added until the demand is met. The chlorine demand is the amount of chlorine used to react with organic and inorganic materials to form chlorine compounds. When the reactions with these materials stop, the chlorine demand has been satisfied. Adding additional chlorine will leave a residual. The residual is the total of all compounds with disinfecting properties, plus any remaining free (uncombined) chlorine. A residual indicates that all reactions have taken place and there is available chlorine to kill microorganisms. S D ose = demand + residual S R esidual = dose – demand S D emand = dose – residual
- A s more chorine is added, monochloramine and chlororganics are formed, shown in segment 2. - Continuing to add chlorine forms dichloramine and destroys monochloramines in segment 3. - Additional chlorine will oxidize ammonia to trichloramine at the beginning of segment 4. This is referred to as breakpoint. Any further addition of chlorine will result in free chlorine residual.
Breakpoint Chlorination Explained
I would also make note here that in segment 2 is where the monochloramine is formed. This is where the chlorine-to-ammonia ratio would be maintained for chloramination. This ratio is usually maintained between 3:1 and 5:1 chlorine to ammonia. One of the potential issues for chloraminated systems, or any system with excessive free ammonia, is nitrification. Ammonia can be released when it’s unbound from the chloramine in the distribution system. Nitrification occurs when free ammonia breaks down into nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3). This is caused by Nitrosomonas bacteria eating the free ammonia (NH3) that is present in the system and converts it to nitrite. Then Nitrobacter bacteria eat nitrite and convert it to nitrate. High nitrates are left in water, which can cause health issues for humans and increased waterborne bacteria aftergrowth.
The chart at the top of the page explains the reactions associated with breakpoint chlorination. - When chlorine is first added to water, it’s destroyed by reducing compounds, which is illustrated in segment 1.
Nitrification Prevention and Control Nitrification can be controlled by following proper treatment techniques and a well-defined distribution system maintenance program. Continued on page 14
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Continued from page 13 Signs of Nitrification The following is a list of some signs of nitrification: S A decrease in ammonia levels S A decrease in total chlorine level S A decrease in pH (release of H+ ions when ammonia breaks down) S A n increased nitrite levels S A n increase in heterotrophic plate count Methods of Controlling Nitrification The following are some preventive measures to take to help control nitrification: S D ecrease detention time in the system, especially in warmer months. S D ecrease free ammonia by increasing chlorine-to-ammonia ratios from 3:1 to 5:1. S E stablish a distribution system flushing program. S F lushing reduces detention time. S V elocity removes sediments and biofilms that harbor bacteria. S F lushing draws higher residuals into the problem area. S I ncrease chloramine residual in the distribution system to greater than 2 mg/L. Blending chloraminated water with free residual systems may drop or lose free residual if free ammonia is present. When disinfecting with chlorine compounds the monochloramines will react with the free chlorine before getting a free residual. Always measure total chlorine residual when testing for chloramines.
Distribution System Maintenance Disinfection Anytime a distribution system needs maintenance or repair, maintaining the integrity of the rest of the system needs to be considered.
Preventing contamination of the existing system through proper isolation and disinfection of repairs and new construction is necessary to maintain that system’s integrity. Disinfection of Water Mains Water main disinfection is defined in Standard Methods, AWWA Standard C651-14, Disinfection of Water Mains. Procedures to Follow Before Disinfection S Preventive Measures – Keep outside debris out of pipe. S Preliminary Measures – Flush before disinfecting and clean fittings and valves before disinfecting. Disinfection Alternatives Deciding which disinfectant is right for your disinfection process depends on the method you choose. The three primary chlorine compounds used are: S Chlorine Gas – 100 percent concentration S Calcium Hypochlorite – 65 percent concentration S Sodium Hypochlorite – 10 to 12 percent concentration Decide Which Disinfection Method to Use AWWA Standard C651-14 defines three methods of disinfection with chlorine: S Tablet Method – Place calcium hypochlorite tablets in the water main as it is being installed
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and then fill the main with potable water when completed. Place calcium hypochlorite granules at the upstream end of the first section, at each branch main, and at 500-feet intervals. Fill the pipe and hold for 24 hours. You must have a detectable residual. S Continuous Feed Method – Place calcium hypochlorite granules during construction and then fill with potable water. Hold for 24 hours. You must have 10 mg/L chlorine residual after 24 hours. Optionally, calcium hypochlorite granules can be placed at pipe sections before flushing. Flush the main at a velocity of 2.5 feet/second. Add potable water to the main and add chlorine at a rate to have no less than 25 mg/L residual. Use a chlorine solution of mixing calcium hypochlorite or use sodium hypochlorite and continuously feed until the entire main is chlorinated and hold for 24 hours. Open and close valves and hydrants to ensure contact with the chlorine. After 24 hours the entire main must have a chlorine residual of 10 mg/L. S Slug Method – Place calcium hypochlorite granules in the main during construction. Flush the main and then slowly flow a slug of water with a concentration of 100 mg/L of chlorine. The main must be exposed to the highly chlorinated water for a minimum of three hours. If the residual drops below 50 mg/L the procedure must stop and the feed started again at the beginning to maintain 100 mg/L. Operate valves and fittings to make sure they are exposed. Flush the main until the water reaches normal distribution chlorine residual. Disinfection for Final Connection to Existing Mains S Connections equal to less than one pipe length (<18 feet) – Spray or swab with a 1 to 5 percent chlorine solution just prior to installation. S Connections greater than one pipe length (>18 feet) – Pipe is to be set above ground, disinfected, and bacteriological samples taken.
Once samples have cleared, the main can be installed. Ends must remain sealed until the main is installed. Disinfection Procedures When Cutting Into or Repairing a Main S Trench Treatment – Treat the excavation with hypochlorite to lessen contamination. Tablets work best for slow release. S Swabbing With Hypochlorite Solution – Swab the interior of the pipe and fittings with a 1 percent hypochlorite solution before they are installed. S Flushing – Flushing is the most practical means of removing contaminants. Flush from both ends toward the work location if possible. Flushing After Disinfection S Flush until residual is less than 1 mg/L. S Velocity is not a factor. S Dechlorination must be applied to discharged water to remove remaining chlorine. Testing After Disinfection S After 24 hours test at least one sample for each section disinfected in a chlorinated system.
S T est at least two samples for each section in a nonchlorinated system. S For long lines in excess of 2,500 feet, test samples along the line. If Samples Fail, Disinfect Again and Repeat Samples S Flush again and resample. S If sample fails again, then dewater main and rechlorinate. Emergency or Maintenance Disinfection S Spray with a 1 to 5 percent solution at 100 pounds per square inch (psi). This concludes the second and final part of the disinfection series. I hope this will provide some insight into the history and methods of disinfection for all of you, especially those new operators who are preparing for advancement in their careers.
FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690.
Online Training Institute In the meantime, and as always, our Online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at firstname.lastname@example.org. Fall Short School I want to remind everyone that we will be holding the FWPCOA Fall Short School at the Indian River State Collage in Ft. Pierce August 9-13, 2021. If you have not already registered for your classes now is the time to do it. Some classes will fill up quickly. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S
Veterans in the Water Industry: O O O O Share Your Story! O O O O After the recent celebration of Fourth of July, which for many people was their first one since COVID-19 hit in early 2020, it’s time to think about the fourth salute to veterans in the water industry that will be highlighted in the November 2021 issue of Florida Water Resources Journal. If you served in any branch of the United States military and are a current employee in any facet of the water industry, please share some facts about your military experience and how it has helped you in your current position. We’re honored to highlight the brave men and women who proudly served their country, both here and abroad, and who are again serving American citizens by working as water professionals. To tell your story, go to www.fwrj.com, download the veterans form, complete it, and return it to me as an attachment to email@example.com by Sept. 24, 2021. I look forward to receiving your form and including you in the November issue! S Rick Harmon Editor Florida Water Resources Journal
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Disinfection and Water Quality. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!
Rapid Design and Construction of a Membrane Water Treatment Plant to Treat Water Quality Issues Kira Iles, Michael Sherer, and Trooper Smith II (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW02015390) 1. O f the four full-scale water treatment options considered, which had the smallest footprint? a. Conventional surface water b. Pre-engineered package c. Cartridge filters d. Microfiltration membrane 2. W hich of the following is identified as a characteristic of Trinity Wellfield water? a. Unexpectedly hard b. High salinity c. Small particle turbidity d. Consistently high organic color
3. R aw water quality sampling revealed a. stable water quality irrespective of weather. b. consistently low concentrations of all metals. c. E. coli counts elevated within 12 hours following rain events.. d. that aquifer water quality is directly under the influence of surface water.
4. M embrane racks were _________________ to accommodate an unforeseen decline in raw water quality. a. elevated b. built but not connected to the system c. oversized by 20 percent d. arrayed with thicker vessels
SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)
Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded
If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:
___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)
___________________________________ (Expiration Date)
5. Th e trailer-mounted membrane system demonstrated a ____ log removal of Cryptosporidium. a. 2.36 b. 3.50 c. 4 d. 5.68
EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at firstname.lastname@example.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.
16 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Water Issues in Florida: How Extension Can Facilitate Stakeholder Engagement and Involvement Erica Odera, Alexa Lamm, Michael Dukes, Tracy Irani, and Hannah Carter This article, which originally appeared as an Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) of the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Extension, is a brief description of discussions and policies surrounding water management, use, and quality in Florida. It was originally published in August 2013 and reviewed in February 2019. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication. The goal of the article is to provide brief, but clear, information about the trends in policies that can be used by Extension agents to increase educated conversations about water issues. Water in Florida is a contested issue, and Extension agents may be called upon as a source of unbiased information by the public. Having an understanding of important agricultural and natural resources issues in Florida, including water, can help facilitate conversation, raise awareness, and lead to informed decision making. The article is part of a series developed by the UF/IFAS Center for Public Issues and Education, the UF/IFAS National Public Policy Evaluation Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources to address the communication, evaluation, and leadership needs of stakeholders in Florida’s agricultural and natural resource sectors.
The Importance of Water in Florida Water is one of Florida’s most abundant natural resources. It’s a crucial resource that impacts not just the environment, but other important industries in Florida’s economy, such as tourism, agriculture, retail, and real estate development. Due to high population growth, development, and the agricultural needs of the state, the freshwater resources that Florida so heavily depends upon are being depleted. Additionally, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) has recently established new water quality regulations, and the process of establishing these guidelines has been fraught with conflict and disagreements. To avoid future water conflicts, different interest groups need to understand the water concerns of all users in Florida and work together to find sustainable solutions. Extension agents work in every county in Florida and are seen as representing federal and state agencies, as well as the state’s land-grant universities. They can therefore be a crucial point of contact for questions and information regarding water policy and policy implications. Their networks and connections within the community can help foster conversations about the changing water policies in Florida. By staying informed on these changing policies, regulations, and reactions regarding water, Extension agents can help decision makers, and those who will be affected by changes in their counties, understand these important topics.
This article addresses the following issues related to water: Heavy Demand While Florida has an unusual abundance of freshwater resources, high levels of commercial, real estate, and agricultural development have caused withdrawals to increase over time, putting pressure on natural resources. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), from 1970 to 2010, withdrawals increased from an average of 5.6 billion gallons per day (bgd) in 1970 to 8.2 bgd in 2000. From 2000 to 2010 water use decreased to an average of 6.3 bgd (USGS, Florida Water Science Center, 2010). Changes in Water Use Agricultural production and public supply are the largest users of freshwater resources in Florida. In 2010, agricultural production used 2.5 bgd of water, while public supply used 2.2 bgd. Large demands occur in municipal water supply systems as a result of landscape irrigation of lawns and golf courses. In 2010, the total freshwater withdrawals for recreational irrigation were 0.39 bgd (USGS, Florida Water Science Center, 2010). Environmental Consequences Depletion of groundwater resources can have negative environmental consequences, such as saltwater intrusion into freshwater resources and sinkhole development. Water Use Strategies Strategies to balance water use include reducing the overall demand for water (through means such as increased water prices or restrictions) or increasing the supply of water (through means such as desalination of seawater). Water Quality Recent U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) nutrient requirements, designed to protect water quality, have sparked debate between environmental and agricultural interest groups, which has resulted in the adoption of less-stringent requirements. These debates illustrate the differences in opinions of various water users in Florida. Continued on page 20
18 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Background Throughout its history, Florida has developed an elaborate series of canals to divert water away from floodplains in order to reduce flooding and make areas of southern Florida hospitable for real estate and business development (Barnett, 2007). The average rainfall in Florida is 54 inches per year, which is about twice the national average (Carriker, 2000). Additionally, Florida has an abundance of lakes (nearly 8,000) and the mostconcentrated amount of freshwater springs (over 700) anywhere in the world (Barnett, 2007). The Floridan aquifer is large and productive enough to supply groundwater resources, not just to Florida, but to regions of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina as well (Carriker, 2000). Unlike other regions of the United States, particularly western states, Florida relies more heavily on its abundant groundwater resources to supplement rainfall to irrigate crops and provide drinking water for the population. Surface water provides approximately one-third of the water consumed in Florida, while groundwater supplies twothirds (USGS, Florida Water Science Center, 2010). Florida has five water management districts, which were established in 1972 to manage all water sources within the specified district boundaries. While not all states have water management districts, they play a vital role in Florida. The functions that are performed by the districts include researching water resources and their changes over time, creating plans for water use in times of shortage or drought, managing water consumption by various users, and carrying out stormwater management strategies required by FDEP (FDEP, 2012).
Water Use in Florida In 2010, agriculture accounted for 40 percent (2.5 bgd) of freshwater withdrawal in Florida, closely mirroring domestic and public use of water, which accounted for 39 percent (2.2 bgd) of withdrawals (USGS, Florida Water Science Center, 2010). A recent report from FDEP estimates that, by 2025, the average daily water use in Florida will increase to 8.5 bgd (FDEP, 2007). While agriculture is currently the largest user of water, during this time it will decrease to just 34 percent of total daily water use, while public use will increase to 43 percent due to population growth and demand for water (FDEP, 2010). Public demand for water has been increasing over time. From 1990 to 2005 the public demand for water increased by 30 percent (Marella, 2008). The water needs of the developing areas of Florida—particularly southern Florida—are complex. Not only do these areas need water for basic living and businesses, but golf courses and homeowners associations that require extensive irrigated landscapes put pressure on individuals to use water resources abundantly, causing large demands on municipal water supplies. In 2010, the total fresh water withdrawals for recreational irrigation were approximately 0.39 bgd (USGS, Florida Water Science Center, 2010). Allocating water resources appropriately is therefore an important challenge for state officials, business people, and the general public. Highly populated areas need a higher supply of water resources, making it likely that less-populated areas will have to give up some of their own water resources (Carriker, 2000). This redistribution is a source of conflict among Florida’s residents.
Figure 1. Florida Water Management Districts (source:http://www.dep.state. fl.us/water/waterpolicy/ districts.htm)
20 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Environmental and Natural Resource Consequences Population increase plays a large part in demand for water. In certain areas of southern Florida, where population has increased and where water resources are more limited than in other areas of the state, naturally occurring water resources (such as aquifers) have been depleted significantly. For example, in the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), the aquifer has been withdrawn enough that saltwater intrusion into the Floridan aquifer is a concern (Carriker, 2000). Water restrictions now occur throughout Florida, including restricting the hours when lawns can be irrigated, especially during months when rainfall is scarce. Excessive demand for water resources can have other negative consequences. While sinkholes occur naturally, overwithdrawing groundwater, moving large amounts of water from one area to another, creating artificial ponds, and drilling new wells are all activities that can lead to or exacerbate sinkhole development (St. Johns River Water Management District [SJRWMD], 2012). For example, during the particularly cold winter in 2010, water needed to protect berry and citrus crops near Plant City was pumped at a rate of more than 1 bgd for 11 days. As a result, 140 sinkholes opened up in communities near the city, and 750 wells used for drinking purposes dried up (SWFWMD, 2011).
Water Use Strategies While public water use is a challenge, there are currently ways in place to address the need to increase the supply of water, as well as the need to manage the high demand. Capturing and storing surface and rainwater, using reclaimed water, and desalinating water are three strategies (from least expensive to most expensive) to expand the public stock of water. Unfortunately, all these strategies require substantial financial resources, and in the case of desalination plants, can have adverse environmental consequences and high energy use (Borisova et al., 2009). Another way to handle water supply issues is to manage the public’s demand for water resources. This can be done through enforcing irrigation restrictions for lawns, increasing the price of water that’s used during droughts, offering rebates to encourage people to replace inefficient appliances with efficient ones, creating educational programs, and establishing certification to show that a house, community, or lawn is waterefficient. While these strategies are much cheaper, they may be less effective, and they rely on public perception and actions. These strategies may also decrease a utility’s profits and may adversely affect low-income customers (Borisova et al., 2009).
Water Quality Regulations in Florida The agricultural industry faces its own water management challenges and requirements. Many of the water management restrictions farmers face deal with water quality, particularly since runoff from agriculture can pollute nearby streams, rivers, and lakes. Recently, there has been a debate over nutrient standards proposed by EPA. Essentially, EPA established nutrient requirements for Florida as a result of a legal suit (Table 1) by environmental groups that were concerned that the state was not complying with a set of federally mandated numeric nutrient requirements. The Florida water nutrient requirements developed by EPA were then highly contested by those in the agricultural industry. They argued that following the EPA requirements would cost the industry enormous amounts of money. Eventually, EPA’s requirements were legally contested and replaced with new regulations composed by FDEP (Hiers, 2012; Obreza et al., 2010). The conflict over nutrient requirements demonstrates the complexity of Florida’s water quality issues. One of the challenges FDEP cited was that the abundance of varieties of water sources in Florida made creation of numeric nutrient requirements for each source very timeconsuming. On the environmentalists’ side, the need to protect streams, lakes, and other bodies of water from algae blooms and other signs of pollution that can be harmful to humans, wildlife, and tourism was very important. To be able to face current and future water quality and quantity issues, it’s important that all sides of the water use issue are able to understand and make informed decisions about how water is managed and used in Florida.
Perspectives of Opinion Leaders on Water Issues in Florida Agricultural and natural resource sectors have their own perceptions of water issues in Florida. It’s important that Extension agents, who may be perceived as a “neutral party” between the public and agricultural sectors, understand these perceptions. In the spring and summer of 2011, a study took place with opinion leaders representing diverse agriculture and natural resource industries in Florida. Respondents were asked questions about water regulations, water quality, and water supply. A cross section of all the major agriculture and natural resource industries was represented. The 30 participants in the study were involved in the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources (WLIANR). The WLIANR participants were selected as the target audience based on their opinion-leadership roles, nominations from
Table 1. Summary of the Nutrient Requirement Legal Suit Year Action Taken 1998 EPA tells all states to set limits by 2004 for the amount of harmful nutrients that can be allowed to enter state water. 2004 FDEP and EPA begin working together to develop a plan for Florida. 2008 A lawsuit emerges by environmentalist groups claiming EPA has not upheld its original mandate. 2009 EPA decides that what FDEP had created so far is not sufficient; EPA and environmentalist groups settle the suit, with EPA agreeing to set numeric nutrient standards for Florida. 2010 The numeric nutrient standards for Florida are published by EPA; a debate ensues on the cost of compliance for agricultural businesses. 2011 FDEP develops revised rules; Florida Legislature votes and approves them; environmental groups petition these new rules; Florida Judge Bram Canter rules FDEP acted within its authority and upholds the new rules.
the industry, representation from agriculture and natural resource industries, and geographic representation across Florida. Participants of WLIANR underwent a two-year training program where they learned interpersonal leadership skills, discussed critical agricultural and natural resource issues, and developed skills for working collaboratively with decision makers to build a sustainable agricultural and natural resource agenda. Of the 30 participants for this study, 60 percent were male and 40 percent were female, ranging in age from 27 to 55. All 30 participants responded to an online survey asking them about water issues in Florida. The first set of questions dealt with where the respondents get their information about water. Overall, the most-common source of information was from the water management districts and agricultural associations and publications. Government entities (including EPA) and the internet were also cited. The least likely sources of information included news media and other people. Next, respondents were asked what they thought policymakers needed to know regarding water, regulation, and irrigation. These three issues had been previously identified by this group as being important to the agriculture and natural resource sectors. Respondents were asked what they thought policymakers should know about how these issues affect professionals and opinion leaders in this industry. When asked about water regulations and restrictions, respondents reported that they would like policymakers to know (in order of importance) that: 1. More science is needed. 2. The cost of implementation is burdensome. 3. It’s difficult to comply with regulations. 4. There is a need to be and stay educated on issues of water regulation and restriction. When asked about water quality issues, respondents reported that they would like policymakers to know (in order of importance) that: 1. Water quality regulations are “an unfair burden on agriculture.” 2. Realistic goals are needed.
When asked about water supply issues, respondents reported they feel that it’s important for policymakers to understand their economic concerns when it comes to altering water quality and quantity requirements for agriculture. Finally, when asked about water management issues and what they thought policymakers need to know, the respondents did not come to a consensus on what they thought was most important. Overall, respondents reported that they share information regarding water mostly with their friends, family, coworkers, and business associates. They were least likely to report sharing information with government officials and the news media. Respondents were then asked about what outcomes they predicted in conjunction with each of the previously mentioned water issues. Regarding water regulations and restriction issues, respondents predicted that increased regulation, positive revisions, and compliance challenges were likely to occur. Regarding water quality issues, respondents predicted that there would be “more regulation” and, in their opinion, “impossible” standards to meet. With regards to water supply and water management, the respondents did not come to a consensus about what was likely to occur in the future.
Discussing Water Issues For land-grant universities, Extension plays a crucial role in bringing the university’s applied research to people who can use it to improve their knowledge and their lives. Research has shown that Extension agents are a trusted source of information for producers and serve as opinion leaders within their communities. In order to be effective opinion leaders, Extension agents must have specific competencies, including understanding the challenges associated with specific issues, their stakeholders’ perspectives on these issues, and the communities in which they reside (Scheer, Cochran, Harder & Place, 2011).
Conclusion The information provided in this EDIS article has been designed to enhance Extension agents’ Continued on page 22
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Continued from page 21 understanding of the history behind water issues in Florida and the perspectives of stakeholders from an opinion-leader standpoint. Extension agents are the best source of information within their own communities when addressing the needs of their particular audiences. No matter how comfortable an agent might be with his or her clients, discussing volatile issues is never an easy task. The following questions are offered as a way of framing the issues and starting discussion: 1. Why do you believe water issues are commonly referred to as the top issue facing the agriculture and natural resource industries in Florida? 2. Why do you think increasing/decreasing water quality and quantity regulations will assist in creating an environment that will allow for essential agricultural production, while protecting natural resources? 3. What do you believe are the largest issues facing you as you deal with water issues? 4. How does water regulation impact your business? 5. How do you plan to deal with the impacts water regulation have or will have on your business? Agricultural access to water is an important public consideration because agricultural crops and livestock need water to successfully grow and supply the food system that feeds Floridians. Sustaining agricultural production, while ensuring long-term environmental safety, is a crucial consideration when it comes to how water is used in the state. Florida, while endowed with an abundance of freshwater resources and rainfall, faces challenges in managing and preserving the quality of these resources. Population growth, agricultural production, and commercial and residential development all require water use. Because stakeholders have different water needs and different opinions about how water resources should be used and maintained,
challenges and disagreements have occurred. Understanding these complex issues and knowing the right questions to ask when discussing water issues is an important step toward avoiding future conflict.
References • B arnett, C. 2007. Mirage: Florida and the Vanishing Water of the Eastern U.S. Ann Arbor, Mich. The University of Michigan Press. • Borisova, T., C. Rawls, & D. Adams. 2009. Balancing Urban Water Demand and Supply in Florida: Overview of Tools Available to Water Managers. FE811. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe811. • Carriker, R. 2000. Florida’s Water: Supply, Use, and Public Policy. FE207. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ fe207. • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2012. Water management districts. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved from http://www.dep. state.fl.us/secretary/watman/. • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2010, Sustaining Our Water Resources: Annual Report on Regional Water Supply Planning. Retrieved from http:// www.dep.state.fl.us/water/waterpolicy/docs/ sustaining-our-water-resources.pdf. • Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2010, October. Water Use Trends in Florida. Retrieved from http://www.dep.state. fl.us/water/waterpolicy/docs/factsheets/wrfsswater-use-trends.pdf. • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2007. Tapping New Sources: Meeting 2025 Water Supply Needs. Retrieved from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/water/waterpolicy/ docs/RWSP_ASR_2006.pdf.
• H iers, Fred. 2012, July 3. “Water Quality War Rages On: Lawsuit Could Come Soon.” The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved from http:// www.gainesville.com/article/20120703/ ARTICLES/120709869. • M arella, R.L. 2008. Water Use in Florida, 2005 and Trends 1950–2005. (USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3080). Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs. gov/fs/2008/3080/. • Obreza, T., M. Clark, B. Boman, T. Borisova, M. Cohen, M. Dukes, T. Frazer, E. Hanlon, K. Havens, C. Martinez, K. Migliaccio, S. Shukla, & A. Wright. 2010. A Guide to EPA’s Numeric Nutrient Water Quality Criteria in Florida. SL316. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss528. • Scheer, S. D., G. R. Cochran, A. Harder, & N. T. Place. 2011. “Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Model With an Extension Human Resource Management Model.” Journal of Agricultural Education, 52(3) 64–74. • St. Johns River Water Management District, 2012. “How Sinkholes Form.” Retrieved from http://www.sjrwmd.com/watersupply/ howsinkholesform.html. • Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), 2011, June 16. New Regulatory Rules Take Effect in the Dover/Plant City Area. Southwest Florida WMD Newsroom. Retrieved from http://www.swfwmd.state. fl.us/news/article/1680/. • United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2010. Water Use Data Tables, 2010. Florida Water Science Center. Retrieved from http://fl.water. usgs.gov/infodata/wateruse/datatables2010. html. Erica Odera is a research analyst with UF/IFAS Center for Public Issues Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources. Alexa Lamm is assistant professor with Agricultural Education and Communication and associate director of the UF/IFAS Center for Public Issues Education. Michael Dukes is a professor in agricultural and biological engineering and director of the Center for Landscape Conservation and Ecology. Tracy Irani is a professor with Agricultural Education and Communication and director of the UF/IFAS Center for Public Issues Education. Hannah Carter is associate professor with Agricultural Education and Communication and director of the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources. Odera, Erica, Alexa Lamm, Michael Dukes, Tracy Irani, and Hannah Carter. 2013. “Water Issues in Florida: How Extension Can Facilitate Stakeholder Engagement and Involvement.” EDIS 2013 (11). https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-wc151-2013. S
22 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.
Exhibitor Registration: Registration opens June 1, 2021 www.fsawwa.org/2021exhibits
• Potable Reuse • Alternative Water Supply Options • Utility Finances in Challenging Times • Strategies to Communicate Your Message in the Changed World
• Increasing Optimization of Utility
Attendee Registration: Starts August 2, 2021 fsawwa.org/2021fallconference
For more information: fsawwa.org/2021fallconference
Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2021hotel
Host hotel is Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress CHEER for Meter Madness!
Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!
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Systems (Pipes, SCADA, Sewer Systems) Asset Management PFAS, PFOS, Lead and Copper, and Other Regulatory Strategies What’s New with Covid-19? And How Does it Affect our Workplace? The New Workplace Normal – Zoom, Remote, Home and Office Challenges for Utilities Water Conservation
• BBQ Challenge &
Incoming Chair’s Reception
• Operator Events:
E W O RM
Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition
• Young Professionals Events:
Luncheon Water Bowl Fresh Ideas Poster Session
• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Poker Tournament Monday, November 29, 2021 Starts at 9:00 pm Golf Tournament Thursday, December 2, 2021 8:00 am Shotgun start
REGISTRATION Online Registration is strongly recommended.
Includes: Monday Workshops, BBQ, Technical Sessions, Exhibits, Meet & Greet (Does not include Utility Systems Symposium and Business & Awards Luncheon)
By Nov. 1
After Nov. 1
By Nov. 1
After NonNov. 1 Member Member
$170 $170 $95 $50
$220 $220 $150 $50
$225 $225 $125 $50
$275 $275 $175 $50
$250 $250 $180 $50
$300 $200 $50
Workshops, Technical Sessions and Exhibits Please select a day:
Monday (Includes all Monday events, except Utility Systems Symposium) Tuesday Wednesday (Business & Awards Luncheon not included) Exhibit Hall Only
Speaker (One-day only)*
Retired AWWA member Spouse
*Free with full or one-day registration
(lunch not included)
Students - Free (registration required if attending)
Utility Systems Symposium (Includes lunch) Water Conservation Symposium
0.8 CEU/8.0 PDH
(registration required if attending) Wednesday AM
Membership/Young Professionals Luncheon
FSAWWA Business & Awards Luncheon
BBQ after Meet & Greet
(registration required if attending) Monday PM
Register online is strongly recommended at: www.fsawwa.org/2021 fallregistration Questions:
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org | Phone: (407) 979-4804 Note: A 30% service fee will be retained on any cancellation by Nov. 1. No refunds after Nov. 1, 2021.
Host hotel is Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. The special rate is $159. Visit fsawwa.org/2021hotel
Exhibit Schedule Monday, November 29 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm
Tuesday, November 30
Accepting Exhibitor Registrations on or after June 1, 2021
Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm
Wednesday, December 1 Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm
Standard Booth @ $800 Includes:
• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs
Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.
Online Registration is strongly recommended to help adhere to social distancing guidelines. Online Exhibitor registration at:
Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2021hotel
15% discount on 8’x10’ booth
Platinum | $850
15% discount on 8’x10’ booth
Gold | $600
10% discount on 8’x10’ booth
Silver | $400
E W O RM
Premier | $1500
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:
Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.
Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.
Poker Night & Happy Hour Monday, November 29, 2021 9:00 pm to midnight Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress
Opportunities to Sponsor Straight | $50
• One of four at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed
sponsor board at the registration table
Registration will open August 2
fsawwa.org/2021poker It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Terry Gullet at email@example.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.
Pre-Paid Buy-ins: Blackjack Buy in | $20.00 (2000 in chips) Poker Buy In | $40.00 (5000 in chips) At the Door Buy-ins: Blackjack Buy in | $30.00 (2000 in chips) Poker Buy In | $50.00 (5000 in chips)
Full House | $150
• One of two at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed •
sponsor board at the registration table 2 Blackjack or 2 Poker Buy-ins
Royal Flush | $250
• Sole game table sponsor • Logo on a prominently displayed •
sponsor board 4 Poker Buy Ins or 5 Blackjack Buy-ins
15% discount for bundled Eagle Golf and Royal Flush Poker Sponsorships: $765
Grand Prize: 50” HDTV!
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Any contribution of prizes is greatly appreciated for the worthwhile cause. Pre-purchase Buy-In and Table Sponsorships through Conference Registration. Buy-Ins may be purchased at the door during first hour of play with a credit card, personal check, or cash. Space is limited so pre-purchase to ensure that you have a chance to win. Entry tickets and chips have no cash value. Once they are purchased no refunds will be given. Only paid entries and sponsors will be allowed access to the hall.
Golf Tournament Thursday, December 2, 2021 8:00 am Shotgun start Grand Cypress Golf Club
Register Today: Registration will open August 2
It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Chase Freeman at Cfreeman@spiritgroupinc.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.
Grand Cypress Golf Club 1 N Jacaranda Street Orlando, FL 32836 (407) 239-1909 | www.golfgrandcypress.com
Player Gift Bag or Raffle Donations: We are requesting firms or individuals to donate items such as golf balls, tee packs, drink coolers, hats, shirts, towels, umbrellas, clubs, your logo items, etc. These items will be used in each golfer’s gift bag or be raffled off to help with our purpose of raising money to benefit Water Equation and Water for People. Your generosity and support are appreciated.
Opportunities to Sponsor Eagle Sponsor | $650
• Your company’s name prominently • • •
displayed on a special sponsor banner on the beverage cart. Your company’s name prominently displayed at one of the tournament course tees or holes. One foursome in the tournament. Recognition at the awards ceremony.
Birdie Sponsor | $550
• Your company’s name prominently • •
displayed at one of the tournament course tees or holes. One foursome in the tournament. Recognition at the awards ceremony.
Par Sponsor | $200
• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. Lunch Sponsor | $250
• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. 15% discount for bundled Eagle Golf and Royal Flush Poker Sponsorships: $765
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Divisions based on the Number of Water Services
2021 Water Distribution System Awards
Division 1 = 1 - 5,999 Division 2 = 6,000 - 12,999 Division 3 = 13,000 - 19,999
The FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section.
Division 4 = 20,000 - 29,999
The Award Criteria is based upon the following:
Division 7 = 70,000 - 129,999
Water Quality Operational Records Maintenance Professionalism Safety Emergency Prepardness Cross Connection Control Program Must be an AWWA member (Organizational or Individual) Actively supports the activities of the FSAWWA Demonstrates high standards and integrity The selection committee is under the Manufacturers/Associates Council.
Division 8 = 130,000+
• • •
Division 6 = 46,000 - 69,999
Send applications to: Mike George 10482 Dunkirk Road Spring Hill, FL 34608 firstname.lastname@example.org
2020 Winners: Division 1: Division 2: Division 3: Division 4: Division 5: Division 6: Division 7: Division 8:
Division 5 = 30,000 - 45,999
Ozello Water Association, Inc. Destin Water Users, Inc. City of Tamarac Village of Wellington Not Awarded Charlotte County Utilities Not Awarded Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department
Friday, October 22, 2021 Download the application form:
E W Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.
Join the Competition
Tuesday & Wednesday November 30 - December 1, 2021
Let loose at the RODEO!
fsawwa.org/2021fallconference FSAWWA hosts fun and lively competitions between municipalities to find the most skilled person or team in the Meter Madness, Tapping, and Back Hoe Rodeo contests. Please join us as a spectator or visit our website to download the application to complete. Join the Tapping FUN!
Back Hoe Rodeo: Tuesday | 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Backhoe operators show off their expertise by executing several challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time.
Tapping Contests: Tuesday | 11:00 am - 2:30 pm
In a contest of skill and dexterity as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time while they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Penalties are assessed in seconds for infractions of rules such as leaking connections or safety violations. Only two taps are allowed per team.
CHEER for Meter Madness!
Ductile Iron Tap: 11:00 am - 12:00 pm Fun Tap: 1:00 - 2:30 pm
Meter Madness: Tuesday | 4:00 - 5:00 pm
Contestants are challenged to put together a completely disassembled meter against the clock. To make the contest more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket of meter components. Once the meter is assembled, it must operate correctly and not leak.
Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!
Hydrant Hysteria: Wednesday | 9:00 - 11:00 am
Hydrant Hysteria is a fast paced two person competition as to who can assembly a fire hydrant quickly, totally, and accurately. Two or more teams go head to head while assembling the hydrant. All parts will be assembled in proper manner and reassembled hydrant shall be tested by the judges for ability to operate correctly.
Sponsorship Opportunities Please Contact: Mike George email@example.com (352) 200-9631
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on 2021 November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.
PROCE S S PAG E Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This month’s column will highlight the Hillsborough County Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility. This facility won the Earle B. Phelps Award in the category of advanced wastewater treatment in 2021.
Award-Winning Hillsborough County Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility: Advanced Technology and Operational Excellence Jason Hopp The Hillsborough County (county) Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility (NWRWRF), shown in Figure 1, is the largest of five wastewater treatment facilities operated by Hillsborough County Utilities. The facility was recognized by the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) in 2021 as the Earle B. Phelps Award winner in the advanced wastewater treatment category for outstanding operations and environmental stewardship. The Earle B. Phelps Award is presented annually to the wastewater treatment plants that demonstrate exceptional effluent quality throughout the year and maintain the highest removal of major pollution-causing constituents, such as total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP). This award
demonstrates the county’s dedication and commitment to environmental stewardship.
Recent Facility Expansion The Board of County Commissioners (BOCC) approved a regionalization plan in 2014 for the northwest portion of the county that included the expansion of the NWRWRF. As with many utilities in Florida, the catalyst was aging infrastructure and unprecedented population growth. At $193.3 million, the plan developed by the county was the largestever capital improvement project. The project would retire two aging wastewater plants and consolidate treatment at the NWRWRF. The Dale Mabry Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) and River Oaks WWTF were both more than 40 years old and beyond their useful life.
Figure 1. Aerial view of the Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility.
30 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
These facilities were decommissioned and converted to master pump stations as part of the project. In addition to decommissioning these two facilities, the county would expand the existing NWRWRF from 10 million gallons per day (mgd) to 30 mgd to meet the region’s wastewater needs through 2040. The goal of the BOCC was to improve wastewater service, improve reliability, and minimize future rate impacts. The expansion of the NWRWRF was the cornerstone of the project and provided many operational benefits. One of the main benefits included improved overall operations and treatment efficiencies by consolidating all of the plant maintenance and operations into one facility. Another benefit was the addition of flow equalization to reduce peak demands and promote a more-uniform treatment process. The county also took exceptional measures to minimize the impacts to the community. The county utilized advanced technologies to minimize odors and noise, preserved natural habitats while using them as natural buffers, and even incorporated a multiuse recreational trail through the restored wetlands for the local residents. Along with the NWRWRF being the county’s largest wastewater treatment plant, it’s also the most advanced. As part of the expansion, the county incorporated a 6-megawatt natural gas microturbine (Figure 2) to supply all the power to the facility, which provided resiliency, reliability, and redundancy of its power sources. It’s the first such facility in Florida, and also the first in the United States, to be fully powered by this kind of microturbine. By generating its own power, the facility is capable of uninterrupted service, even when electricity in the area is knocked out by a natural disaster, such as a hurricane. The facility will continue to rely on land power and backup generators for redundancy purposes. The plant expansion took approximately three years to finish and was substantially
completed in April 2020. During the construction process, the county’s operations staff worked very closely with the contractor to coordinate activities to minimize the impact on the treatment process. As a result, the facility maintained complete compliance during the entire construction period.
Process Overview The NWRWRF utilizes a five-stage Bardenpho® Process to treat domestic wastewater to advanced wastewater treatment standards of 5 mg/L carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), 5 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), 3 mg/L TN, and 1 mg/L of TP. The influent enters the process through a headworks with three dual mechanical screening systems, a backup manual bar screen, and two forced-vortex grit removal systems prior to entering the flow equalization basin. Influent is then introduced to the 10 parallel biological nutrient removal (BNR) treatment trains, each consisting of a fermentation, first anoxic, aeration, second anoxic, and reaeration zone. The foul air from the headworks, equalization (EQ) basin, and the covered sections of the BNR is scrubbed through three odor control systems. Following the BNR, the activated sludge is sent to eight final clarifiers for settling, return sludge, and waste sludge. An optional alum injection system is available before and after the clarifiers for chemical phosphorous removal on an asneeded basis. Secondary effluent from the clarifiers is then sent to 20 dual-media deep-bed filters. The tertiary effluent is sent to two dualchambered, covered chlorine contact chambers for final disinfection and dechlorination. The highly treated effluent is then transferred by a series of effluent pumps to onsite storage tanks, surface water discharge locations, and groundwater injection wells. The facility has four reclaimed water storage tanks, with a total of 20 million gallons (MG) of storage, three reject storage tanks with a total volume of 13 MG, and one lined 5-MG reject storage pond. The residuals handling facility includes: S O ne holding tank with 470,000 gallons total capacity S F our gravity belt thickeners S F our aerobic digesters with 6 MG of total capacity S F our centrifuge dewatering units Biosolids from both the NWRWRF and the Van Dyke WWTF are processed at this location (Figure 3). Residuals are transported to a permitted biosolids facility for treatment and disposal to a Class I or II landfill.
Figure 2. The 6-megawatt natural gas microturbine.
Figure 3. Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility process flow diagram.
Operational Efficiencies and Nutrient Removal
The operations and maintenance staff at the NWRWRF take a tremendous amount of pride in providing the best possible effluent, while maintaining its equipment and aesthetics. The facility employs numerous technologies, including water information management software, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), continuous monitoring analytical equipment, and cover systems to improve the wastewater treatment process, while also reducing maintenance requirements. The biological treatment system utilizes oxidation reduction potential (ORP) within the aeration basins of the BNR to control the
mechanical aerators. The ORP allows the facility to operate at a target oxidation state, rather than a dissolved oxygen (DO) set point, which is ideal for creating an environment that is optimal for complete nitrification and denitrification. Since ORP is a relative measurement and can vary from plant to plant, the county worked diligently to determine the optimum set points, which are key to producing low nutrients. The operations staff members, along with their internal process engineer, performed an 18-month study to profile the process and develop the current control strategy. The operators utilize two ORP probes per basin. One probe is set up at the midway point of the aeration basin for monitoring only, and Continued on page 32
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Continued from page 31 the second probe that controls the aerators is located at the effluent end of the aeration basin prior to entering the second anoxic zone. By utilizing ORP, the facility has been able to significantly reduce the power related to aeration and has improved nitrogen removal, as compared to pre-expansion performance. The plant improvements associated with the expansion and the process control measures have enhanced biological phosphorous removal and eliminated the use of 400 to 500 gallons of alum per day. In 2020, this control strategy consistently produced an effluent that was very low in TN and TP. The average effluent TN for the year was 1.54 mg/L, which is almost half of the regulatory limit; the average effluent TP
was 0.10 mg/L and was achieved biologically without the use of any chemical addition. The Bardenpho Process also produced exceptional removal efficiencies for CBOD, TSS, TN, and TP, as detailed in Table 1. The county has added some additional upgrades to the NWRWRF that have reduced maintenance requirements and provided considerable savings in chlorine. The county utilizes cover systems on its clarifiers to prevent algae growth and on the chlorine contact chambers (Figure 4) to eliminate environmental effects (ultraviolet [UV], wind, etc.) that can decrease the chlorine residual. The launder covers (Figure 5) on the clarifiers drastically reduced the maintenance requirements and improved effluent quality by preventing algae growth on the weirs.
Table 1. Removal Efficiencies
Number of Days Out of Compliance
Figure 4. View of the covered chlorine contact chamber.
32 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Since the implementation of the covers, plant staff has eliminated the weekly cleaning requirements, while also removing the use of chlorine; the staff now only performs periodic inspections. The chlorine contact chambers were covered in an effort to reduce the chlorine demand, prevent algae growth, and eliminate staining due to iron oxidation. The covers have eliminated the need to clean the chambers and the chlorine demand has also been significantly reduced. These covers, along with the exceptional effluent quality produced by the BNR, have allowed the operations staff to reduce the chlorine demand to approximately 1 mg/L and meet the regulatory limits for dichlorobromomethane and dibromochloromethane without the use of UV disinfection. The plant currently averages about 96 gallons of 12 percent sodium hypochlorite per day and per million gallons treated.
Hard Work Rewarded The county and its staff at the NWRWRF are dedicated to providing the best possible wastewater treatment and protecting the environment. The performance of the facility and its staff speaks for itself and exemplifies what the Earle B. Phelps Award is all about. Congratulations to the county and the NWRWRF staff for being selected as the best advanced WWTF in the state of Florida in 2021. Jason Hopp is a sales representative with Heyward Florida Inc. in southwest Florida and a member of the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee. S
Figure 5. View of the clarifier launder covers.
Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association
FWPCOA STATE SHORT SCHOOL August 9 - 13, 2021
Indian River State College - Main Campus – FORT PIERCE –
Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester .............................$375/$405 Backflow Prevention Assembly Repairer ........................$275/$305 Backflow Tester Recertification ........................................$85/$115 Basic Electrical and Instrumentation ..............................$225/$255 Facility Management Module I........................................$275/$305 Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B & A ........................$325/$325 (Abbreviated Course) ....................................................$125/$155
Stormwater Management C, B & A..................................$325/$325 Utility Customer Relations I, II & III...............................$325/$325 Utilities Maintenance III & II ...........................................$325/$325 Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A .......$325/$325 Water Distribution System Operator Level 3, 2 & 1............$325/$325 SCADA .........................................................................................$225/$255 Wastewater Process Control ............................................$225/$255 Wastewater Troubleshooting ...........................................$225/$255
For further information on the school, including course registration forms and hotels, visit: http://www.fwpcoa.org
SCHEDULE CHECK-IN: August 9, 2021 8:00 a.m. CLASSES: Monday – Thursday........8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friday........8:00 a.m. to noon
FREE AWARDS LUNCHEON Wednesday, August 11, 11:30 a.m.
For more information call the
FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT
Celebration of Lime Softening Using Lime Softening Correctly Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA
e use lime softening extensively in certain areas of Florida and have been for over 70 years. In many communities lime softening processes do a relatively good job at removing hardness, and they do it inexpensively. Removing the hardness helps the pipe systems and keeps calcium out of customers’ water heaters. While lime softening does struggle with organics and is not appropriate for surface waters or brackish supplies, it has proven to be an excellent solution for treatment of hard waters and has served Florida groundwater systems well for nearly a century.
Figure 1. Carbonate/Alkalinity Diagram
Over the past couple years, however, I have come across a number of situations where ongoing operational issues with lime softening plants have made local officials consider lime softening to be an old technology that has little value as a treatment solution today. The challenges they face seem to have much to do with money; cutting costs means less lime is used, which leads to a host of problems, like poor settling, poisoned ion exchange resins, more chlorine use, cloudy water, and deposits on filter media. When the proper principles are applied, these issues are avoided. Perhaps a little review would help. Hard water is typically caused by large amounts of calcium bicarbonate in the water, which is caused by the dissolution of limestone. By definition, hardness is the sum of all polyvalent positive ions (Hammer and Hammer, 2013). Calcium and magnesium are generally the major constituents, but iron factors in as well. Lime reactor units (conical-shaped, open reactor vessels) are used to mix slaked lime with raw water to create a chemical reaction. Lime reacts with the calcium bicarbonate, making calcium carbonate, which settles very quickly. Then, the magnesium reacts with hydroxide (OH-), which also settles, thereby removing calcium and magnesium hardness, along with iron and other metals, in a clarification zone. Clear water rises to the top and the precipitating calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide settle to the bottom as lime sludge.
Figure 2. Poor Settling (pH<9)
34 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The chemistry behind lime softening is to precipitate compounds (causing hardness) by creating a chemical reaction with lime and the hardness particles (primarily calcium and magnesium) as follows:
Because of the fast reaction that occurs, the clarifiers are small, followed by filters to remove the remaining fine, unsettled particles. If iron or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is present, aeration will help remove a portion of the iron and liberate H2S (note that H2S is biologically generated by bacteria in the groundwater). One of the benefits of lime softening is that, as a chemical reaction, one can very quickly determine how much lime is required, if one knows the milliequivalents of carbon dioxide, calcium and magnesium bicarbonate, or sulfate, that exists in the water (Hammer and Hammer 2013). Because calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) ionizes in the lime softening reactor, the lime raises the pH of the water. The pH rise is critical to the speed of the reaction, the quality and quantity of the sludge, and the clarity of the water going to the filters. Figure 1 shows the alkalinity diagram; when the pH is greater than 10, carbonate (CO3-2) will dominate. The CO3-2 and OHare the form of alkalinity that settles, so the pH is critical; however, as the magnesium
Figure 3. Better Settling (pH>10)
Figure 4. Filter of a Properly Operated Lime Softening Plant
hydroxide begins to settle, the pH starts to be reduced, which will slow the settling of the calcium carbonate. Bicarbonate (HCO3-) then dominates. While HCO3- reacts with calcium, it does not settle, which is the normal condition in raw water supply. This is why the concept of lime softening works most efficiently when the pH is raised to around 10 via milliequivalent calculations; otherwise, settling will be hindered. Using the hardness and alkalinity of the water, one can determine the milliequivalents of calcium and magnesium bicarbonate that exist in the raw water, which can easily be used to determine the lime dose required for treatment. This can be confirmed with Imhoff cones.
A Tale of Four Plants One of the better-operated lime plants in south Florida uses 1800 lbs of lime/million gallons (MG) based on a hardness of 260 mg/L. This plant has minimal carryover, and has run the sand filters with no bed expansion (caused by the particles increasing in size) for over 20 years (replacing the media only because of an underdrain failure). Another plant, in the same area, with a hardness of 168 mg/L, uses 1380 lbs/MG and runs just as well. The fact that the carryover from the lime softening reactor is minimal indicates good settling and proper lime dose, as verified by milliequivalent calculations. Compare these two plants with two others that have ongoing issues, including filter expansion and solids/turbidity issues in the water distribution system, and consider their lime use. The first used 570 lbs/MG of lime and reported 10 years of turbidity in the distribution system. Based on the use of
Figure 5. Comparison of Anthracite and the Media Removed From a Filter
milliequivalent calculations, 1350 lbs/MG of lime should be used. The operators claimed cases where the plant could not treat the water correctly, but had not adjusted the lime feed. The city where this plant is located was looking at spending tens of millions of dollars to replace the lime plant as a result. The second plant reported using 700 lbs/ MG of lime. Based on the use of milliequivalent calculations, 1400 lbs/MG of lime should be used. The chief operator at the plant reduced the lime feed to save money. The second plant’s operator saved money on lime, but fixing the plant and the distribution system cost the utility about $20 million. Consider the impact of too little lime. When the pH does not reach 10, the reaction is incomplete and creates a series of cascading failures as a result. First, sludge settles poorly (less solids, more liquid); compare Figures 2 and 3. Since the sludge settles poorly, there is more of it, so disposal costs more. The second problem is that, if lime sludge does not settle, it will move from the lime softening reactors to the filters. As is known from the lime reaction in spiractors, the sand (and, we have found, the anthracite) in the filters acts as a catalyst for the calcium bicarbonate. Hence the sand particles accumulate the calcium carbonate and the particles get bigger, resulting in bed expansion. The intent of the filter media is to remove fines via grain size. Sand and anthracite are specified to remove certain-size particles. If the grain sizes get larger, small particles will not be removed and filter efficiency is reduced, meaning solids can wash through the filters more easily. Turbidity then results. Figure 4 shows the filter of a properly operated lime softening plant, and Figure 5 shows a comparison of anthracite and the media removed from a filter that did not use
enough lime (note it is no longer black due to the calcium carbonate carryover that covered it). In the worst case, the particles can cement together, which will completely undermine the filtration process. Instead of filter media removing particles, the particles will travel through the channels that occur—just like in the Biscayne aquifer. Filters need to be periodically backwashed to address plugging, which needs to be done more often if there is carryover. At one plant, the operation staff noted that backwashing takes place at a frequency exceeding 150 hours. This is a long time for lime softening systems and most backwash is done at lesser intervals (under 100 hours; the two betteroperated ones at 50 hours) to lessen the impact of plugging.
Lime Softening Plants Work To celebrate lime softening, I have included photos of some of the many lime softening plants that I have visited over the years. Despite some of these plants being over 50 years old (one is over 70), they continue to work well. Sure, they need periodic maintenance, but the most-common operational issues appear to be the reduction of lime usage for cost or other reasons. That will compromise the treatment veracity and can create cascading issues that might indicate plant problems. Lime softening remains a solution for groundwater treatment from limestone aquifers in Florida. So let’s take another look at our lime plants and make sure they are being operated as intended. We should celebrate this process and its cost-effectiveness. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Florida Lime Softening Plants
Village of Palm Springs Spiractors
Palm Beach County
Dania Beach shown empty. The calcium carbonate sticks to the side and protects the metal.
36 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Davie Lime Plant
Dania Beach full.
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Peter Selberg II
Charlotte County Utilities, Port Charlotte Work title and years of service. I’ve been the inventory supervisor for Charlotte County Utilities for 16 years. What does your job entail? The crew and I are responsible for purchasing and stocking materials used by the distribution and wastewater departments, as well as the plants. Our department also handles acquisitions of items for special situations or projects. What education and training have you had? I have been very lucky to be part of an organization that supports education and training. I received most of my certifications through the Georgia Institute of Technology, Federal Emergency Management Agency
What do you like best about your job? First would be the crew I have the privilege to work with. They are true professionals and make our area one of the most efficient and best-run in our industry. We have had numerous organizations visit to observe and learn from our procedures. Second, in this position you get to be part of so many aspects within the utility department. This is due to the position being both operational and relational. Having that exposure also allows you to work alongside just about everyone in the organization. I’m lucky to have known so many colleagues for years that have turned into an extended family. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FWPCOA. How has the organization helped your career? The FWPCOA has been a tremendous asset to my career. I have had such a great experience to be an instructor for the organization. This has opened many other opportunities to teach other courses, and many of them are right here within the utility department. It’s amazing how many years have passed since I’ve been instructing in a classroom. Being the chair of the association’s
Peter and his wife enjoying a weekend getaway.
38 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Customer Relations Committee, and an instructor, I get to meet so many professionals at the short schools. You get to hear and learn from the experiences of all the students. By the end of a week you see that we all face the same challenges no matter where we are. The students always teach me more than I teach them. What do you like best about the industry? My role is to be successful in this industry because so much is dependent upon it. We’re fulfilling basic needs for our citizens and protecting the environment in which they live. Nothing in our community would function without the services we provide. Next is that the industry is always changing, with new technology and better processes and procedures. This increases the chance for a better tomorrow for future generations. I enjoy being part of something much larger than myself. What do you do when you’re not working? I spend most of my time away from work with my family; they are the biggest driving force in my life. They give support and great advice before I screw something up! I also love to be at the gym. Everyone has that place where the world’s issues go away for a bit. Exercising is where I find a great deal of S peace.
Peter (center) with his parents.
What Do You Know About Industrial Wastewater? Donna Kaluzniak
1. P er the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) industrial wastewater website, industrial wastewater includes
a. agricultural and mining wastewater only. b. all wastewater that is not defined as domestic wastewater. c. commercial and manufacturing wastewaters only. d. wastewater from manufacturing that is discharged to a domestic wastewater plant. 2. P er the FDEP industrial wastewater website, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) authorizes FDEP to issue permits for discharge to surface waters under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Industrial wastewater permits are issued by the district offices, with two exceptions: NPDES permits for steam electric power plants are issued by the industrial wastewater in the Tallahassee office, and industrial wastewater permitting for the phosphate industry is handled by the a. b. c. d.
EPA. domestic pretreatment program. local government environmental agency. phosphogypsum management program.
3. P er Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-660 Industrial Wastewater Facilities, facilities discharging industrial wastewater to waters of the state must meet uniform technology-based effluent limitations as a minimum. Two levels of effluent limitation are established. The first level is the “best practical control technology currently available” (BPT); the second level is defined as either “best available technology economically achievable” (BAT) or
a. best advanced systems technology (BAST). b. best conventional pollution control technology (BCT). c. best management practices (BMP). d. technology-based effluent limitation (TBEL).
4. Per FAC 62-660, an effluent limitation that may be more stringent than a technology-based effluent limitation as determined necessary by FDEP to ensure that water quality standards in a receiving body of water will not be violated is defined as a(n)
a. advanced treatment standard (ATS). b. basin management action plan (BMAP). c. total maximum daily load (TMDL). d. water quality-based effluent limitation (WQBEL). 5. Per FAC 62-660, what level of treatment is required for industrial wastewater that is discharged to groundwater? a. b. c. d.
dvanced treatment A Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment The level of treatment needed to meet FAC 62-520, Groundwater Classes, Standards, and Exemptions.
6. Per FAC 62-660, what type of plan is required under a general permit for sand and limestone mines? a. b. c. d.
est management practices (BMP) plan B Emergency management plan (EMP) Process safety management (PSM) plan Risk management plan (RMP)
7. Per the FDEP website, NPDES Generic Permit for Discharges From Petroleum Contaminated Sites Frequently Asked Questions, coverage under such a permit covers what type of discharge to surface waters of the state?
a. D ewatering discharge from gas station construction sites. b. Groundwater contaminated with gasoline or diesel. c. Stormwater contaminated with gasoline or jet fuel. d. Treated groundwater or stormwater that has been contaminated with gasoline, jet fuel, or diesel. 8. Per FAC 62-660, under a general permit for a wastewater disposal system for a laundromat, design flow must be less than
a. b. c. d.
5,000 gallons per day. 10,000 gallons per day. 15,000 gallons per day. 20,000 gallons per day.
9. Per FAC 62-660, under a general permit for car wash systems, the water contained in the system (tanks, pumps, and piping) that is no longer suitable for use, because of the longterm buildup of salts or other contaminants, must be disposed of at a pretreatment facility or a permitted wastewater treatment facility. This water is defined as
a. b. c. d.
rinse water. spent process water. recycled water. wash water.
10. Per FAC 62-660, under a general permit for disposal of tomato wash water, the hydraulic loading rate of the land application site shall be no more than
a. b. c. d.
0.25 inches per day. 0.56 inches per day. 0.66 inches per day. 1.5 inches per day. Answers on page 62
References used for this quiz: • Florida Department of Environmental Protection Industrial Wastewater website: https://floridadep.gov/water/industrial-wastewater • Florida Department of Environmental Protection NPDES Generic Permit for Discharges From Petroleum Contaminated Sites Frequently Asked Questions website: https://floridadep.gov/water/industrialwastewater/content/npdes-generic-permitdischarges-petroleum-contaminated-sites • Florida Administrative Code 62-660 Industrial Wastewater Facilities: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-660
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Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
FWEA C H A P TE R CO R N E R Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water EnvironmentvAssociation hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Melody Gonzalez at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Biscayne Bay Recovery: Challenges and Opportunities
n April 14, 2021, the South Florida Chapter of FWEA had the pleasure of hosting a seminar series for our membership, with the main event being a presentation from Irela Bagué, Miami-Dade County’s chief bay officer (CBO). Ms. Bagué is the first person in the
county to hold this position, directly appointed by Mayor Daniella Levine-Cava. The CBO focuses on water quality issues, policies, and appropriations related to the health and recovery of Biscayne Bay. She acts as an advisor to the county mayor and county commission and is a liaison with county departments and boards; external agencies; stakeholder groups; and local, state, and
federal governments on water quality issues, policies, and appropriations related to the health and recovery of Biscayne Bay. The main priorities of this newly formed office are to support the county to move forward on projects in areas that show the highest levels of nutrient pollution for the Biscayne Bay area: S S eptic-to-sewer conversion S W astewater and stormwater improvements S R estoration of coastal habitats S I mprove public education on the importance of restoring Biscayne Bay and report on progress In this presentation, the focus was to discuss the latest developments from the Biscayne Bay Task Force, including the key findings from the recent report issued by this group in August 2020. The task force was created in 2019 and consisted of nine members (a blend of professionals and the community at large) who evaluated available information, such as prior studies and reports, as well as relevant date related to Biscayne Bay, and made detailed analyses on how various issues may affect residents and property owners. The task force was unseated in August 2020. The task force recommendations addressed the areas within the watershed with the most-significant water quality issues, based on the currently available water quality data, resources, and existing funding sources. They also emphasized infrastructure recommendations that will not only help restore the watershed, but can provide a path toward economic recovery and help the county get back to work postpandemic. Ms. Bagué emphasized the collaborative approach that is needed among multiple stakeholders to achieve viable mid- and long-term results. She discussed in detail the specific steps that have been put in place
40 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
following the task force recommendations, such as: S B iscayne Bay Annual Report Card Program S P lan of action for septic-to-sewer conversion S $ 20 million state and county partnership for the preservation and restoration of the bay S H er appointment as CBO to boost efforts to continue the implementation of priority projects and water quality improvements After the presentation, a question and answer session was held to address multiple inquiries from the attendees, and Ms. Bagué provided her contact information for further discussion with interested parties. She also highlighted the opportunities presented for our local universities, such as Florida International University, and local businesses to foster innovation and produce viable solutions to address the multiple issues that affect the bay. In her final remarks, Ms. Bagué indicated that, “Our activities matter when it comes to
the environment; we know that what happens on the land ends up in our bay. The Biscayne Bay Task Force report provides our leaders information to help begin to restore Biscayne Bay and make cleaner, more sustainable choices for residents and visitors alike.” If you would like more information about the Biscayne Bay Task Force, or the chief bay
office of the county, feel free to reach out to me at GonzalezM@bv.com or directly to Irela Bagué at ChiefBayOfficer@miamidade.gov. Melody Gonzalez, E.I., is a civil engineer with Black & Veatch in Miami and is secretary/ contact for the South Florida Chapter FWEA. S
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Drop Savers Poster Contest Winners Announced Melissa Velez Every year the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) sponsors the “Drop Savers” Water Conservation Poster Contest. Students in Florida schools, from Kindergarten to 12th grade, are encouraged to create a poster depicting a water conservation idea in slogan form, drawing form, or both. The contest allows students to promote water awareness and the importance of water conservation in their daily routines.
Poster Guidelines Posters are designated in one of the following categories: Division 1 - Kindergarten and First Grade Division 2 - Second and Third Grade Division 3 - Fourth and Fifth Grade Division 4 - Middle School: Grades Six, Seven, and Eight Division 5 - High School: Grades Nine, Ten, Eleven, and Twelve S P oster are drawn on 8 ½ x 11-inch white paper (horizontally or vertically). S E ach poster must portray a water conservation idea in a slogan, drawing, or both. Students may use crayons, paint, color pencils, or markers. No highlighters, photos, or computer graphics are permitted. S S tudents must work on posters individually, otherwise posters will be disqualified. S O nly original artwork will be accepted (i.e., no trademarked or copyrighted materials).
Poster Committee Responsibilities The Drop Savers Committee invites and provides each water utility in Florida with the guidelines for running their own poster contest. Once water utilities select their first-place winners, they send the posters to the committee, where they participate in the state competition. The 2021 contest was challenging for many utilities to participate in due to COVID-19, but we received higher participation than expected. This year, there were 99 posters from 27 water utilities that participated in the contest.
FIRST PLACE JEA Vidyat Arjon
SECOND PLACE Village of Wellington Alani DiAntonio
Poster Prizes The prizes for this year included: S First-Place Winners: • $100 Amazon gift card • Plaque displaying the poster • Calendar displaying the poster • Water conservation kit • Certificate S Second-Place Winners: • $75 Amazon gift card • Calendar displaying the poster • Water conservation kit • Certificate S Third-Place Winners: • $50 Amazon gift card • Calendar displaying the poster • Water conservation kit • Certificate
The winning Drop Savers posters are pictured here.
42 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
THIRD PLACE Leesburg Lanah Newell
FIRST PLACE Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department Nicholas Arias
SECOND PLACE City of Hollywood Fernanda Castellano
FIRST PLACE Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department Lorenzo Jose Carnero
SECOND PLACE City of Melbourne Lizzy Tinkey
THIRD PLACE Hillsborough County Eva Aadil
THIRD PLACE Hillsborough County Amayah Evans
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
FIRST PLACE City of Hollywood Adam Flietstra
FIRST PLACE St. Johns County Sophie Flynt
SECOND PLACE Englewood Sarah Colbert
SECOND PLACE NMB Water Christine Pierre
THIRD PLACE City of Melbourne Alaina Antenucci
THIRD PLACE JEA Esabella Barnes
Melissa Velez, P.E., LEED AP, is an engineering manager at Black & Veatch in Coral Springs. S
44 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
F W R J
Rapid Design and Construction of a Membrane Water Treatment Plant to Treat Water Quality Issues
Kira Iles, Michael Sherer, and Trooper Smith II
he City of New Braunfels is a rapidly growing community located on the Interstate 35 corridor in Texas, between San Antonio and Austin. In May 2015, construction was completed on a 3.74-milgal-per-day (mgd) well field intended to draw water from the Trinity aquifer to supply 25 percent of the average daily water demand for New Braunfels Utilities (NBU). Based on water quality observed in test wells, and during interim approval sampling, the wells would only require treatment using disinfection before distribution. During start-up, the new wells produced discolored water characterized by periodic spikes in turbidity and hydrogen sulfide, which limited NBU’s ability to use the wells as a water supply source. After encountering water quality issues at start-up, subsequent sampling in November 2015 revealed aluminum and iron concentrations above the secondary maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), as well as the presence of coliform bacteria and E. coli. Since turbidity spikes appeared to occur or increase in severity following rain events, NBU operators suspected the groundwater to be under the direct influence of surface water (GUI). Freese and Nichols Inc. (FNI) developed a complex sampling plan to confirm that the Trinity wells were influenced by surface water and to provide a more-complete characterization of raw water quality to serve as a basis for treatment design. Eight weeks of sampling took place in late summer/early fall of 2016. Once conclusive evidence of surface water influence was collected, recommendations were provided for treatment approaches to NBU, with membrane filtration emerging as the approach best-suited for treating water subject to rapid shifts in quality and turbidity spikes caused by very fine particles with poor settleability. A preliminary engineering report for the 3.74-mgd membrane treatment system was submitted to NBU in May 2017 and it
decided to move forward with the project with the goal of having the system operational before summer 2018 peak water demands. The total proposed schedule allowed only 15 months for design, piloting, construction, and commissioning of the plant. To meet the accelerated design schedule, the construction manager at risk (CMAR) project delivery method was selected, the membrane manufacturer was preselected, and piloting of the membrane took place concurrently with the design. As NBU needed water from the Trinity Well Field to meet water supply demand during the summers of 2017 and 2018 while the project was being designed and constructed, FNI worked with the preselected membrane manufacturer, Pall Water, to provide a trailer-mounted membrane system capable of supplying 1.15 mgd of filtered water to NBU customers during the high-demand summer months. As the project site was located in an environmentally sensitive area—the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone—multiple coordination meetings with regulatory authorities were held during design to obtain approval for the temporary trailermounted membrane system and to ensure that the design of the permanent system met all the relevant requirements. This article provides insight on techniques that can be used to facilitate rapid design and construction of a new water facility, including: S U sing the CMAR project delivery method to help meet an accelerated schedule. S H olding biweekly review meetings with the owner and the CMAR to quickly incorporate design updates. S P reselecting a membrane manufacturer and conducting membrane piloting concurrently with design. S U sing a trailer-mounted membrane system on a temporary basis to meet customer demands during the summer months, which are typically the period of highest demand. S C oordinating with regulatory authorities during design to ensure that projects meet all relevant requirements.
46 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Kira Iles is project manager, and Michael Sherer is design engineer, with Freese and Nichols in Austin, Texas. Trooper Smith II, P.E., is division manager with Freese and Nichols in Tampa.
Water Quality Sampling And Treatment Selection Water Quality Sampling In addition to issues with turbidity, which could be visually observed, various water quality sampling events detected aluminum, iron, and hydrogen sulfide above their respective regulatory limits, as well as the presence of E. coli. Due to the apparent correlation between rain events and turbidity levels, the project team suspected that the wells were likely GUI wells; however, the project team wanted to develop a definite correlation (if present) so that the cause of the water quality issues would be known. Additionally, more data were needed to characterize raw water quality and evaluate potential treatment options. The project team developed a sampling plan that would help determine whether the wells were GUI. The sampling plan consisted of the following components: S Collect additional data on aluminum, iron, hydrogen sulfide, and E. coli levels during dry and wet weather conditions. S Collect data from online turbidimeters installed at each well and compare with data from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring stations, noting any correlations. S Complete a microscopic particulate analysis (MPA) during dry and wet weather conditions. At the conclusion of the sampling period, the project team had collected strong evidence that the wells were GUI. Concentrations of aluminum, iron, and E. coli counts tended to be elevated 24 to 36 hours following rain events and then to decrease over time. A correlation
Treatment Selection The project team evaluated four options for treating water at the Trinity Well Field: S C onventional surface water treatment plant S P re-engineered package treatment plant S C artridge filters S M icrofiltration membrane system These options were evaluated based on robustness, expandability, footprint size, staffing requirements, residuals handling, schedule, and life cycle cost. Following the evaluation, a membrane filtration system was selected for treating water at the Trinity Well Field. The primary reasons for selecting membranes were as follows: S B est-Suited Technology for Treating Raw Water Quality – The water from the Trinity Well Field consistently had low levels of turbidity, and a particle-size distribution analysis revealed that the turbidity was comprised primarily of very small particles (1 to 5 microns) that exhibited poor settleability characteristics. Jar testing indicated that large doses of coagulant (~100 mg/L) would be needed to settle the particles, and even then, the maximum turbidity reduction achieved was 75 percent. Additionally, water from the wells was subject to extreme spikes in turbidity following rain events, anywhere from 20 to 100 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). A membrane treatment system was selected as the most-effective treatment approach because it could easily remove the small particles contributing to turbidity and accommodate spikes in raw water turbidity with more frequent backwashing. S Easy Expandability – During final design, the membrane system was sized to treat the full well field flow of 3.74 mgd with one rack out of service for backwashing; however, the racks were oversized by 20 percent so that additional modules could
Flow in Dry Comal Creek Turbidity
Flow in Dry Comal Creek (cfs)
was found between turbidity in the wells and flow in the Dry Comal Creek, which is typically dry unless heavy rain occurs (Figure 1). Flow in the creek was more useful to correlate with water quality data than precipitation, as flow did not manifest in the creek unless rainfall was sufficiently heavy to saturate soils and generate a significant amount of runoff. Additionally, flow in the creek was measured continuously in 15-minute increments, while precipitation could only be found as daily totals and varied significantly over small distances. Finally, the dry weather MPA indicated a low risk for surface water contamination, while the wet weather MPA (Figure 2) indicated a high risk for surface water contamination, as Cryptosporidium oocysts were present.
Figure 1. Flow in Dry Comal Creek and Turbidity in Well 4 (June 2016)
Figure 2. Wet Weather Microscopic Particulate Analysis
be added if raw water quality worsened over time and backwash frequency became excessive. Space was also left in the membrane building for additional racks to facilitate easy expansion if more wells are drilled in the future. S Small Footprint – Of the treatment options considered, the membrane system had the smallest footprint after the cartridge filters. Additionally, the only deep excavation required was for the lift station, which was needed for all treatment options. Limiting footprint size and the amount of excavation was important because the site has hard limestone 1 to 6 ft below grade, making excavation more expensive than typical projects. S C ost and Schedule – The life cycle cost for
polymeric membranes was the lowest of all the options considered. Although the capital cost of cartridge filters was significantly lower than other options, a cartridge filter pilot test found that the cartridges plugged in a matter of hours when exposed to the typical low turbidity that is present in the wells, which made cartridge filters the highest life cycle cost option due to the frequency of cartridge replacement that would be required. The schedule for completing design and construction of a membrane system was longer than for cartridge filters, but various strategies were used to accelerate the schedule, as discussed further. Continued on page 48
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Continued from page 47
Strategies for Facilitating Rapid Design And Delivery
Water supplied from the Trinity Well Field was needed when the project was brought online in 2015, but continuing water quality issues limited its use. Additionally, the project team collected enough data to be reasonably sure that the wells were GUI by the end of summer 2016, and the wells were officially designated as GUI by the state’s regulatory authority in a letter dated March 14, 2017. Once treatment
options had been evaluated and membranes were selected to provide treatment, NBU needed design and construction to proceed as quickly as possible to avoid running out of water in the high-demand summer months. Multiple strategies were used to facilitate rapid design and construction, including alternative project delivery, frequent design review meetings, preselecting a membrane manufacturer, installing a temporary trailermounted membrane system to provide water during high-demand summer months, and
Competitive Sealed Proposals (CSP) Advantages
Table 1. Competitive Sealed Proposals Advantages and Disadvantages
Best value, not low bid price
Selection made based on predetermined criteria
Opportunity to include modifications to the proposal during the negotiation phase
May not be lowest price
Opportunity for collaboration limited to negotiation phase
Table 2. Construction Manager at Risk Advantages and Disadvantages
Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR) Advantages
Timely and cost-effective procurement process
May not be lowest price
Can select based on nonprice factors
Accelerated project schedule; construction can start prior to completion of design
Potential new procurement method for owner; may have a learning curve initially
Contractor input into design, schedule, and cost estimating
Procurement advisor and preconstruction services is an additional cost
Life cycle costing, operability, and ease of maintenance considerations easily incorporated into design
Engineer may reject some CMAR input as the engineer of record
Can reduce overall project risk compared to designbid-build due to preconstruction services
Can reduce design misunderstandings, requests for information (RFIs), and change orders
Earlier cost certainty; GMP provided during design; open book GMP and construction procurement; full transparency
Design according to budget
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increased coordination with regulatory authorities throughout the design phase. Alternative Project Delivery Multiple project delivery options were considered for construction of the project facilities, including traditional design-bid-build, competitive sealed proposals (CSP), and CMAR. The CSP is a selection process in which the owner requests proposals at the completion of design, ranks the offerors, negotiates on the final contract price, and then awards a contract to the selected contractor. It allows the owner to choose a contractor based on submitted qualifications and a proposed schedule, as well as cost. With CMAR, a construction manager is selected during the design phase (typically around 30 percent design) and provides input on cost and constructability during final design. The CMAR provides a guaranteed maximum price (GMP) to the owner near the end of the design phase and is responsible for covering the cost difference if the total construction cost is above the GMP. In Texas, the CMAR acts as the project construction manager and is required to bid out all construction elements of the project, typically in multiple bid packages, but is allowed to self-perform the work if they are the lowest bidder for an element. Summaries of the advantages and disadvantages of CSP and CMAR delivery methods are presented in Tables 1 and 2. The CMAR project delivery method was selected for the project, which allowed it to be split into multiple construction packages. The CMAR worked with the project team to develop three bid packages, as follows: S Membrane Equipment Package – This construction package consisted of all equipment to be provided by the preselected membrane manufacturer, Pall Water, including feed pumps and variable frequency drives (VFDs), prefiltration strainers, membrane racks and modules, backwash pumps, blowers and VFDs, air compressor system, clean-in-place chemical transfer pumps and skid, inlet and filtrate turbidimeters, and various ancillary equipment needed for the membrane treatment system. S Site Work, Building, and Lift Station Package – The site work consisted of clearing approximately 1.6 acres of undisturbed land on the existing Trinity Well Field site to make room for the membrane treatment system building and facilities. This construction package also included the prefabricated metal building, wastewater lift station, and force main. S Facility Construction Package – This package Continued on page 50
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Continued from page 48 included construction of all components of the membrane treatment system facilities, including electrical equipment, backwash recycle pumps and tanks, chemical tanks, process piping, concrete feed water tank, backwash clarifier, and access roads and paving.
to the project drawings to the meeting, and the project team would review them together. This allowed the engineering team to receive design feedback, constructability reviews, and value engineering ideas as the project progressed, which greatly sped up the design schedule and helped keep the project under budget.
Splitting the project into different bid packages allowed the CMAR to mitigate long equipment lead times and get an early start on site work, which helped reduce the overall duration of construction. The CMAR provided value engineering input throughout final design, which helped keep the final project cost within NBU’s budget. Finally, using a CMAR reduced risk to the owner by locking in a GMP for the project near the end of final design. Biweekly Design Review Meetings It's common for the engineer to submit in-progress drawings to the owner at specified intervals, usually at 30, 60, and 90 percent. The owner reviews the drawings and provides comments to the engineer, which are then incorporated into the work. For this project, the project team decided to replace these standard submittals with biweekly meetings among the engineer, the owner, and the CMAR. The engineer would bring the most-recent updates
Preselecting a Membrane Manufacturer One method for reducing design time was to preselect the membrane manufacturer, which sped up the design by eliminating the need for alternate designs to accommodate different manufacturers. It also helped the project team refine the layout of the membrane system and building more quickly by requiring submittal of equipment layout drawings from the selected manufacturer early in the design. Each of the membrane systems considered had different layouts and cleaning methods, so knowing which system was being supplied early in the design allowed the final plans and specifications to be better defined. To facilitate equipment preselection, a set of procurement documents was assembled and released as a request for proposals. The equipment manufacturer was selected through a competitive sealed proposal process; the contract documents clearly specified the conditions for preselection and the performance requirements of the equipment being prepurchased.
Figure 3. Temporary Trailer-Mounted Pall Water Aria FAST Membrane System Installation in New Braunfels, Texas
Temporary Trailer-Mounted Membrane System Although design and construction proceeded rapidly, NBU had planned on utilizing water from the Trinity Well Field to send to customers in 2015. A target of May 2018 was set for substantial completion of construction of the new membrane system, but NBU was concerned about having enough water to meet demand during summer 2017. To meet this interim demand, a trailer-mounted membrane system was rented from Pall Water to treat water from one of the highest-producing wells onsite. The trailer-mounted membrane system was a Pall Water Aria™ FAST system, which had recently been approved for emergency use in Cisco, Texas, following a flood event. The system utilized Pall Water microfiltration membranes, which demonstrated 5.68 log removal of Cryptosporidium in a challenge test approved by TCEQ, thereby meeting treatment requirements for a Bin 4 classification as defined in the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Additionally, the Pall Water Aria FAST system had a “full system” National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) 61 certification. Normally, a pilot would be used to determine the flux at which a facility would be rated, but as this was a temporary rental system, a facility rating was not necessary. Furthermore, Pall Water’s system was conservatively designed to produce 800 gal per minute (gpm) of treated water at a variety of possible raw water qualities. All of these factors allowed the project team to make a case for accelerated regulatory review, which was granted due to the emergency nature of the project. Additionally, use of the trailermounted system had the added advantage of providing NBU operators with hands-on experience operating a Pall membrane system before completion of the permanent water treatment plant. The temporary membrane system is shown in Figure 3. Coordinating With Regulatory Authorities Throughout Design Regulatory approval is a common component of projects, and if not managed properly, it can significantly impact the schedule. Various aspects of this project required review and approval by different regulatory agencies, including TCEQ, the City of New Braunfels, and the Edwards Aquifer Authority (EAA), the latter because the site is located in an environmentally sensitive aquifer recharge area. To mitigate possible schedule
Table 3. Regulatory Submittal Tracker Example Item Permit/Authorization/ No. Approval 1
Responsible Party FNI
Regulatory Contact SA Regional Office
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Supporting Documents Site plan, BMPs, geologic report
Notes Comments expected between 8/18 and 9/18
impacts, the project team developed a regulatory submittal tracker, which was used to determine when documents needed to be submitted to avoid project delays and to ensure that responses to questions from regulatory reviewers were submitted in a timely fashion. Table 3 shows an example of the regulatory tracker. In addition to using a regulatory submittal tracker, the project team met with all relevant regulatory entities prior to starting design in order to develop a clear understanding of what was expected. One example of how this coordination led to further time savings is evidenced in TCEQ granting permission for the project team to decouple the results of the membrane pilot from the plan review process. The standard TCEQ regulatory approval process for a membrane drinking water treatment plant is to first review a membrane pilot protocol, then the membrane pilot results, and finally the membrane system design plans and specifications. Only when approval is received for the design plans and specifications can construction begin, and the review duration for each step typically ranges from 60 to 100 days, making this a lengthy process. By meeting with TCEQ before starting
design and explaining the emergency nature of the project, the project team obtained permission from TCEQ to submit the design plans and specifications prior to completing the membrane pilot, with the understanding that the plant’s rated treatment capacity would not be assigned until the pilot results were reviewed. The risk in this approach was that the membranes may not have performed as well as expected, leading to a lowerrated plant capacity, but this risk was mitigated by leaving space for additional membranes on each rack. Additionally, the owner was protected by the contract documents, which established a minimum-rated capacity for the membrane plant without increasing the GMP. This is a project-specific example, but preliminary meetings with regulatory authorities can be helpful when undertaking an emergency project to put the project on the reviewers’ radar and give them context for any requests for an expedited review.
of the owner, the engineer, and the CMAR. The following techniques were used to help accelerate the design: S U se of the CMAR project delivery method to allow construction to begin before the design phase was complete. S B iweekly design review meetings in which the owner and CMAR provided design feedback, constructability reviews, and value engineering ideas to the engineer. S P reselection of a membrane manufacturer to reduce uncertainty and eliminate the need for alternate designs. S I nstallation of a temporary trailer-mounted membrane system to meet peak demands during the summer months. S P reliminary meetings with relevant regulatory agencies to understand the review process and required submittals, and utilizing a regulatory submittal tracker to anticipate the impact of regulatory review periods on schedule and mitigate when S possible.
Delivering this project on an accelerated schedule required close collaboration among the project team members, which consisted
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
The Water Tower Annual Report ShowcasesYear of Firsts Report highlights significant progress made through impactful programming and campus construction The Water Tower (TWT), the new water innovation hub in Buford, Ga., has released its first annual report titled, “The Year of Firsts.” The report highlights significant progress made through impactful programming and campus construction at TWT during its first full year of operation. Established in late 2019, TWT’s mission is to be a thriving ecosystem of water innovation that’s fueled by imagination, informed by research, and powered by pioneers. It’s especially invested in helping utilities devise strategies to benefit from digital advancements in water supply and quality. “It’s truly awesome how much we’ve accomplished in the first 16 months,” said Nick Masino, founding TWT board member and chair. “The work completed so far— and what’s planned—will bring incredible technologies, water-related businesses, innovative researchers, and next-generation employees to Gwinnett County.” Accomplishments in TWT’s four key pillars of applied research, technology innovation, workforce development, and
A rendering of The Water Tower headquarters in Gwinnett County, Ga.
52 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
community engagement are featured throughout the report, as well as strategic partnerships that enhanced and supported the success in these areas. The TWT’s founding partners, including Mueller Water Technologies, Siemens, JEA, Gwinnett County, and Gresham Smith, as well as TWT’s innovation partners, are highlighted. The past year saw the first workforce development classes with TWT partner Georgia Water and Wastewater Institute (GWWI), which recently announced that its northern Georgia training campus will be housed at TWT. The Lake Lanier Watershed Five-Year Research Plan, developed with stakeholders and technical experts over the past year, was published and the applied research projects to protect the lake will begin this year. A technology developed by Olea Edge Technologies, demonstrated at TWT, provides an advanced asset management tool for water utility revenue. Engagement with the community included the first “Watering Hole” golf tournament fundraiser, and virtual events, such as networking, panels, and book clubs. “Through hard work, dedication, and a little bit of elbow grease, what started as an idea is coming to fruition before our eyes,” said Melissa Meeker, chief executive officer of TWT. “We are energized as we continue to build on the momentum from our first year to serve water and wastewater utilities in our community and across the United States.” Construction of TWT’s phase-one campus, funded through a key partnership with Gwinnett County and the Gwinnett Water and Sewerage Authority, is ahead of schedule. Beginning in early 2022, TWT will open its doors to innovators from across Georgia, the Southeast, the U.S., and the world to contribute to its ecosystem of water innovation. For more information visit www.theh2otower.org. S
FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! Please go to the FWPCOA website
for the latest updates on classes August
9-13....... FALL STATE SHORT SCHOOL...........................Ft. Pierce.......... check website
13-15....... Backflow Repair.................................................St. Petersburg... $275/305 13-17....... Wastewater Collection C...................................Deltona............. $325 20-23 ....... Backflow Tester.................................................Deltona............. $375/405
7....... Reclaimed Water Distribution C,B,A (1-day)....Deltona............. $125/155 18-20....... Backflow Repair.................................................Deltona............. $275/305
15-18....... Backflow Tester.................................................St. Petersburg... $375/405 15-19....... Water Distribution Level II.................................Deltona............. $325 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or email@example.com. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also
You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.
Don’t Let Chemicals Get You!
ater utility operators and laboratory staff are often exposed to chemicals that can cause severe harm—or even death. Many chemicals are extremely toxic, and even small quantities of them can be lethal. The effects of chemical exposure can be local (at the point of contact) or systemic. Systemic exposure occurs when the chemical agent is absorbed into the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body, affecting one or more organs. If you are exposed to a toxic chemical, the severity of damage will depend on the toxicity of the substance, its solubility in tissue fluids, its concentration, and the duration of exposure.
Avenues of Chemical Exposure A person can be exposed to dangerous chemicals in the following ways: ■ Dermal contact ■ Inhalation
■ Ingestion ■ Ocular exposure ■ Injection Dermal Contact Spills and splashes in the laboratory or when loading chemicals into vats or mixing bays can result in contamination of exposed skin. When chemicals come in contact with the skin or the mucous membranes, they can cause surface irritation at best. At worst, the chemicals can be absorbed into the bloodstream, causing systemic poisoning. Chemicals primarily penetrate the skin through hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and cuts or abrasions. Touching contaminated hands to the mouth, nose, and eyes can also cause chemicals to be absorbed into the body. Inhalation Inhalation is the most common road of entry for toxic substances. Toxic vapors,
mists, gases, and even dust and particulates can be absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose, and subsequently travel into the throat and lungs and cause serious damage to those tissues. The effects are further compounded if the substances pass through the lungs into the circulatory system. Ingestion Mouth pipetting in the laboratory can lead to the ingestion of chemicals, but an even more common cause of unintentional ingestion of toxic substances is from foods that were stored in containers, such as beverage jars, that had been used to store nonfood items (paint, plant food, or other substances). Another unsafe—but common—practice that can lead to ingestion is storing food in a place where chemicals are stored or storing chemicals in a refrigerator used for food.
The 2020 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the 2020 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.
54 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Ocular Exposure Unprotected eyes can become contaminated by splashing, aerosol contamination, or from rubbing with contaminated hands. Many chemicals are capable of causing burns and loss of vision. Absorption into the bloodstream from ocular exposure can also occur quickly, because eyes contain many blood vessels. Injection Inattentive laboratory workers can have accidents with needles; an accidental stick can inject chemicals into someone inadvertently. Broken glass containers that stored toxic chemicals can also cut through skin, exposing a worker’s blood to unwanted contamination.
Avoiding Chemical Exposure Remember these safety tips when working with and around chemicals: S Use personal protective equipment (PPE) as required. S Do not work alone in the lab. S Always work in properly ventilated areas. S Never eat, drink, or smoke while using hazardous chemicals. S Always read the chemical’s Safety Data Sheet (SDS) prior to use. S Make sure all chemical containers are properly labeled. S Always wash up after using chemicals. S Never smell or taste a chemical to identify it. S Do not pipette by mouth. S Know and practice all emergency evacuation and containment procedures. S Learn the locations of fire alarm pull stations and fire extinguishers. S Store all hazardous chemicals properly. S Always use hazardous chemicals as intended. S Avoid creating aerosols in the laboratory. S Do not use open vessels for processing chemicals. S In the event of a chemical splashing into your eye(s) or on your skin, immediately flush the affected area(s) with running water for at least 20 minutes. S Report all injuries, accidents, and broken equipment or glass right away, even if the incident seems small or unimportant. Always follow these basic safety practices to minimize risks when working with hazardous chemicals. For more information go to the U.S. Chemical Safety S Board’s website at http://www.csb.gov.
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
Wet Weather Management Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA
Coauthor: Kevin Frank
ater quality has continued to be a high-profile issue in the state of Florida by the governor, state legislature, news media, and the public at large. Several environmental bills have been passed by
the legislature, including the Clean Waterways Act (SB 712) in 2020 and the Reclaimed Water Bill (SB 64) in 2021. The Clean Waterways Act addressed several environmental issues, including provisions specifically related to water quality improvement. One of the major components of the Clean Waterways Act directed the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to develop requirements for the establishment of asset management programs and associated reporting for domestic wastewater collections systems. With increased emphasis on mitigation of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs), the FWEA Utility Council sought to change the emphasis
away from increasing fines and penalties for SSOs that occur to promoting best management practices for operation, maintenance, assessment, and repair and/or replacement of infrastructure in order to improve resiliency, reduce SSOs, and ensure long–term sustainability. While the emphasis on mitigating SSOs has to some extent been on helping to ensure that utilities are investing in their collection systems, another option (or part of the solution) is to increase the wet weather flow treatment capacity. Although the abatement of inflow and infiltration (I&I) will help to reduce wet weather flows in the collection system, the cost of identifying excessive I&I and rehabilitation can be significant and may not completely address the problem. Increasing the wet weather flow treatment capacity is another tool in the toolbox to help utilities mitigate SSOs. An approach that utilities can take to help “ride out the storm” and increase flow through the wastewater treatment plant is using a step feed functionality and “solids-holdup” process. The focus of this month’s column is a general description on this innovative approach.
Increasing Wet Weather Flow With the Solids-Holdup Process
Figure 1. Illustration of typical dry weather, wet weather, and wet weather solids-holdup treatment.
56 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Step feed functionality and the solidsholdup process can be particularly useful in handling high wet weather flows. For most plugflow aeration tanks, all secondary influent enters the aeration tank at the influent end and the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) is mostly homogeneous throughout the length of the reactor. The aeration tank effluent MLSS is then settled in secondary clarifiers, which is usually the process bottleneck that dictates wet weather flow capacity. Most secondary clarifiers can handle solids loading rates (SLRs) up to about 20 to 30 lbs/d/ft2, depending upon the sludge settling quality. A typical dry weather flow condition is illustrated in the first diagram of Figure 1, where the influent flow, MLSS, and SLR are respectively at 1 million gallons per day (mgd), 3,000 mg/L, and 20 lbs/d/ft2. When a wet weather flow event occurs, the influent flow can often peak up to two or three times the dry weather flow; if the peak flow reflects a three-fold increase, the SLR also increases three-fold. This is shown in the second diagram of Figure 1, where the influent flow is at 3 mgd and the SLR has increased to 60 lbs/d/ft2. Such a high SLR would likely cause the sludge blanket to rise and result in a major solids loss and possible effluent violation.
If a plant has step feed functionality, however, the solids-holdup process can be implemented, giving plant operators a major advantage in handling peak wet weather flows by increasing the plant’s wet weather treatment capacity. When a wet weather event occurs, the secondary influent is conveyed to a downstream aeration tank feed point, while the return activated sludge (RAS) is continuously fed to the aeration tank influent. The process is like contact stabilization, where the mixed liquor in the downstream zone contacts and adsorbs pollutants, is subsequently settled in the secondary clarifiers, and finally, is stabilized/ biodegraded in the upstream zones with the RAS. The wet weather benefit of the solidsholdup process is that the aeration tank effluent MLSS is lowered by dilution, thereby lowering the secondary clarifier SLR, while at the same time, RAS solids are safely stored in upstream zones, protecting them from wet weather flow. As depicted in the third diagram of Figure
1, the same three-fold increase in secondary influent flow with the solids-holdup mode in effect shows that the SLR is maintained at 20 lbs./d/ft2. For this wet weather operating mode, the secondary influent is conveyed to the last onequarter of the aeration tank (Zone 4), causing the MLSS to drop to 1,000 mg/L, keeping the SLR at a manageable 20 lbs/d/ft2 and thus preventing solids loss in the effluent. The MLSS in the upstream aeration tank zones also increase, thereby storing and protecting the RAS from wet weather flow. With the contact zone sized to provide at least 20 minutes of contact time, the process can provide very good carbonaceous material adsorption and subsequent removal to meet secondary treatment standards for shortterm wet weather events. Lastly, the process provides fast recovery time because the aeration tank solids inventory is safely stored away in upstream zones, making it ready for use after a wet weather event has passed.
Conclusion The step feed solids-holdup process may be a cost-effective approach that utilities can use to help improve their resiliency, mitigate SSOs, and ensure long–term sustainability.
References • F WEA Utility Council 2020 and 2021 annual reports
About the Coauthor Kevin Frank, P.E., is a wastewater process engineer with AECOM Technical Services Inc. and focuses on process simulation modeling, nutrient removal, and the design of engineered oxygen transfer systems. He has worked on projects across the United States and internationally. S
Drop Savers Contest Prizes Shipped to Winners The "Drop Savers” Water Conservation Poster Contest, sponsored every year by the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association, encourages students in Florida schools, from Kindergarten to 12th grade, to create posters depicting a water conservation idea on how to be “drop savers” for water. The 15 contest winners receive an array of prizes, including Amazon gift cards, plaques and calendars displaying their posters, water conservation kits, and certificates. Melissa Velez, with Black & Veatch in Coral Springs, who coordinates the contest, enlisted help from her two boys to mail the prizes to the winners. They were “drop savers” themselves, keeping the boxes on the dolly and in the cart, so they could be safely shipped. To see the 2021 poster winners, go to page 42. S Martin maneuvers some boxes on a dolly.
The boxes of prizes ready to be mailed.
Melissa with hers sons Benjamin (left) and Martin (right).
Jack in the box? No, Benjamin in the box!
Martin shows his muscles.
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
NEWS BEAT Freese and Nichols Inc. has added Viraj deSilva, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, an internationally experienced engineer, to its rapidly growing Florida team as a senior treatment process leader. With broad-ranging expertise developed over three decades, deSilva can assist cities, counties, and other entities with water and wastewater solutions, from biosolids management to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) treatment. In addition to project leadership roles, he has worked with vendors to improve technology and equipment, leading to more-efficient processes. His experience, developed on projects across a dozen countries, includes: • Wastewater treatment process design (municipal, industrial, and landfill leachate) • Biosolids management (anaerobic digestion and biogas enhancement) • Water treatment process design • PFAS treatment and PFAS waste management • Environmental investigations and remediation • Capacity building and technology transfer for international communities “We’re excited that Viraj can bring a special combination of practical experience and knowledge as a researcher to serving our clients as a trusted adviser,” said Trooper Smith II, the company’s southeast U.S. division manager. “He has insights from working all over the world that can benefit our clients in the southeastern U.S. and also across all the regions we serve. His expertise on PFAS will be especially valuable as new federal regulations develop to make sure utilities are providing safe drinking water.” DeSilva is licensed as a professional engineer in Florida and Ohio and is a board-certified environmental engineer. He has served on multiple committees of the Water Environment Federation and is vice director of the landfill management technical division of the Solid Waste Association of North America. He’s also a member of the American Water Works Association, American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists, and Society of American Military Engineers. He received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University and earned master’s and bachelor’s degrees in Japan and Ukraine.
Adam Blalock, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) deputy secretary for ecosystems restoration, and the Division of Water Restoration Assistance (DWRA) Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) staff visited the City of Marianna for a plaque presentation and tour of the Marianna Solar
Array Project. The city received the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2020 George F. Ames PISCES Recognition for Excellence in Problem Solving for the project. The Performance and Innovation in the SRF Creating Environmental Success (PISCES) program recognizes assistance recipients for exceptional projects and highlights them nationally. Selected projects exemplify evaluation criteria, such as innovative financing, system partnerships, community engagement, environmental and public health protectionm and/or problem solving. The DWRA’s CWSRF provided a $5 million low-interest loan for the construction of two solar facilities to provide nearly all of the energy needs for the wastewater system. By reducing the operational cost by over 20 percent, the small rural community’s wastewater rates are controlled and made more affordable for the future. As a direct result of this project, electrical costs have been reduced by more than 90 percent. This reduction is especially important since the city was devastated by Hurricane Michael. Completed approximately one year after the hurricane, these cost savings are greatly assisting the city’s residents in their recovery. The loan includes $3.7 million in principal forgiveness, as well as a $301,354 state grant, which will not have to be repaid by the city.
Ed Torres has joined Orange County Utilities as the new director. Torres brings decades of service and experience with him to the position, including over 10 years as the director of public works and utilities for the City of Altamonte Springs. Torres is well known for his innovation and leadership in the field. A true public servant, Torres has dedicated his career to managing public works and innovating within that space. In addition to the City of Altamonte Springs, he worked to ensure that efficient and sustainable services were delivered to residents in Seminole County, City of Casselberry, City of Palm Bay, and other locations. He has also worked for private engineering firms in the region. With over 30 years in the industry, Torres has garnered experience in a full range of utilityrelated programs, including solid waste collection and recycling. “I am pleased to welcome Ed Torres as the new director of utilities,” said Orange County Mayor Jerry L. Demings. “He has dedicated his career to ensuring that critical services are delivered safely and efficiently to residents. I’m looking forward to working with him to meet our community’s utility needs.”
58 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
During his time with the City of Altamonte Springs, Torres led several innovative sustainability programs. These projects included a floating solar array at a water reclamation facility, combining stormwater from the I-4 Ultimate project with wastewater and treating it to reclaimed water standards as an alternative water supply, and using sewage surveillance to track COVID-19 prevalence before testing was widely available. “Improving the lives of Orange County residents is my priority,” said Torres. “I’m honored to work with the knowledgeable staff at Orange County Utilities to drive a positive impact for our customers and the environment.” Torres holds both bachelor’s and master’s degrees in civil engineering from the Florida Institute of Technology and is a board member of the Florida Water Environment Association Utility Council. Formerly, Torres served as a board member for both the Florida Stormwater Association and the University of Central Florida’s Stormwater Management Academy. He is also a strong advocate of education and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs for the community. Torres is a licensed professional engineer in Florida and a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Accredited Professional (LEED AP).
A unusually large bloom of toxic red tide is being blamed for a massive fish kill in Florida’s environmentally sensitive Tampa Bay. Officials say more than 600 tons of dead fish and other marine life have been scooped up in recent weeks along the St. Petersburg shoreline. There’s no immediate sign of relief and some experts say the problem could linger for months. St. Petersburg Mayor Rick Kriseman said at a recent news conference that state assistance is needed to tackle the red tide bloom. So far, no emergency declaration has been forthcoming from Gov. Ron DeSantis. “Right now, it’s all about clean up,” Kriseman said. “It’s pretty awful. The odor sticks to you. Plus, there’s the emotional toll of seeing dead animals wash up day after day.” Red tide is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has been observed in the Gulf of Mexico since the days of the Spanish explorers but can be exacerbated by nutrients such as nitrogen. The presence of the toxin-producing microorganisms of this magnitude in Tampa Bay is unusual, with some samples showing concentrations 10 to 17 times above what is considered a high level. One potential cause is the April leak of tens of millions of gallons of contaminated water from the old Piney Point fertilizer plant along the bay in nearby Manatee County. Scientists have not yet pinpointed the reason for the massive red tide bloom, but said the leak is a chief suspect. S
NEW PRODUCTS The Flomatic Model C000/CA000 Main Valve from Flomatic Valves is a self-contained hydraulically operated, single diaphragm-actuated globe or angled body valve with no pilot controls. The valve has three major components: the body with a removable seat, the cover with bushing, and the diaphragm assembly. The diaphragm assembly is the only moving part. The cover forms a sealed chamber above the diaphragm to separate operating pressure from line pressure. Long service life and dependable operation are ensured due to packless construction. The valve is designed for use with various types of pressure and/or electric controls to provide the desired control of pressure or flow for a variety of water system applications. The Flomatic Model C000/CA000 is the basic valve used for all Flomatic full-port automatic control valves. (www.flomatic.com)
The BEACON® Advanced Metering Analytics (AMA) cloud-based software suite from Badger Meter offers a wide choice of traditional fixed network, mobile, and consumer engagement solutions to meet all meter reading and reporting needs. The BEACON AMA utilizes proven ORION® endpoints to capture interval meter reading data through cellular, fixed network, or
mobile communication technologies. The data are then transmitted using secure encryption to ensure that they're sent and received reliably to provide utilities with increased visibility, a focus on water management, and integration with billing systems. (www.badgermeter.com)
The Grundfos high-efficiency IE5 motors and pumps with integrated frequency converter are designed for total control, customer convenience, and environmental sustainability. The company’s MGE E-motors exceed the IE5 requirements by more than 2 percent, with a motor efficiency of 95.7 percent at 380 V/2,600 rpm. The built-in application control in the MGE E-motors reduces the energy consumption of the pump and also optimizes the performance and efficiency of the entire system. The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are designed specifically for frequency converter operations and optimized for pump applications and high part-load efficiency. The PMSM also has a built-in frequency converter that enables variablespeed operation with benefits in pump applications ranging from energy savings, process control, extra functionalities, built-in motor protection, higher performance and more
compact pumps, reduced water hammer due to long ramp times, and low starting currents. (www.grundfos.com/us)
The bulk water fill station from Franklin Miller provides water utilities with a complete engineered solution for automatic dispensing of bulk water. The system consists of enclosed plumbed hardware, as well as control and proprietary HaulerLogic software. An easy-touse touch-screen user interface allows haulers to operate the system without operator assistance. The control system authenticates users and monitors and records all transactions. With the water fill station and HaulerLogic software, users can monitor the station activity, administer accounts, and collect payments for dispensed water from a computer or with a mobile device. The station comes complete with all piping and equipment housed in an attractive, insulated equipment enclosure. The system’s hauler station control communicates with the proprietary HaulerLogic software for maintenance of accounts, balances, and payments. It’s available in a variety of pipe sizes and capacities, and a wide range of options can be added. (www.franklinmiller.com) S
Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. firstname.lastname@example.org
City of West Palm Beach Assistant Director of Public Utilities
Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!
Available Positions Include:
Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com
Broward County Government - Engineering Inspector with Broward County Water and Wastewater Services, Engineering Division
Summary: Reporting to the Department Director of Public Utilities, oversees, directs, and administers the daily operations of the Public Utilities Operations Divisions assisting the Director of Public Utilities. Assumes full management responsibilities of utility operations assigned that may include a number of the following areas: Water Treatment Plant, Water Distribution and Sewer Collection, Laboratory Services, and Industrial Pretreatment, Water Resources and Water Supply, Storm Water and Wastewater Pumping; and Reclaimed and Waste Water Treatment. Qualifications: Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university with a major in Engineering, Public Administration or Construction Management, or related field, and seven (7) years progressively responsible working experience in water, wastewater and/or public utilities, or equivalent combination of training and experience. Three (3) years supervisory/managerial experience, required. Professional Engineer Certification (PE) and three (3) years experience as a professional engineer, highly desired. A current and valid Florida driver’s license is required. For application purposes, a valid driver’s license from any state (equivalent to a State of Florida Class E) may be utilized; with the ability to obtain the State of Florida driver’s license within thirty (30) days from date of employment.
Salary Range: $47,715.20 to $76,153.17 – Compensation: $95,133 - $142,700 (Pay grade GM15) Dependent on Qualifications Broward County is seeking an Engineering Inspector for our Water Benefits: Health, Vision, and Dental Insurance, Basic Life and Wastewater Services, Engineering Division, a large water and Insurance, Long Term Disability Insurance, Defined Contribution wastewater utility in South Florida serving 600,000 customers. Plan (401a) with employer match (6.5%); 11 holidays, accrued vacation, and sick time. Management Category II Benefits: Four (4) For more information and to apply, please visit: Days of Management Leave per Year and additional $50,000 life https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/broward/jobs/ insurance policy. 3079956/engineering-inspector-water-wastewater If you are interested in applying for this position visit website at https://www.wpb.org/government/human-resources/jobPosition is open until filled. opportunities and apply online. OPEN UNTIL FILLED
Are you a Water Plant Operator Rockstar?
Then come join our incredibly awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $37,000 $39,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or a Class A or B. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti. EEO/AA/V/H/ MF/DFWP.
60 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The City of West Palm Beach is an equal employment opportunity employer. The City values the service of veterans to our country, supports recruitment of veterans and veterans’ preference will be given in accordance with Chapter 295 of the Florida Statutes for those who met the minimum requirements of the position. Background investigation, physical, and drug and alcohol screening are required as condition of employment.
CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C
Florida Rural Water Association Energy Efficiency Program Circuit Rider
The Florida Rural Water Association is hiring a full-time Energy Efficiency Circuit Rider to provide training and technical assistance in the development of energy audits and energy savings plans for public water utilities in Florida. For complete information go to https://www.frwa.net/employment.
Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.
Weston & Sampson - Project Manager Weston & Sampson is currently seeking a Project Manager with 8-12 years of experience for Southwest Florida. The Project Manager will be primarily serving municipal water, wastewater, and reclaimed water-related client services. PM will assist with the pursuit and production of work associated with planning, design, and construction administration of a variety of water/wastewater/reclaimed water related projects for public clients. PM will have direct communications with clients on technical design topics and project schedule/budget/scope. Requirements: B.S. in Environmental Engineering required/M.S. Degree in Environmental Engineer is a plus
Water Treatment Plant Operator
Location: Florida City, FL Salary Range: $51,113 - $78,345 The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/ technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a water treatment plant according to local, state, and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment. htm EEO, VPE, ADA
P.E. license in Florida or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire 8-12 years in working with municipal clients in engineering or project management roles
LOOKING FOR A JOB
Experience with design of municipal water/wastewater/reclaimed water facilities and/or conveyance infrastructure
The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help!
Demonstrated capabilities and success in managing medium to large projects on-time and within budget, multi-office projects and/or multiple projects. Please apply directly online to www.westonandsamspon.com/joinour-team
Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.
FRWA - Apprenticeship Program Coordinator
The Florida Rural Water Association is hiring a full-time Apprenticeship Program Coordinator in the Tallahassee area. Position requires overnight travel. Salary negotiable Generous benefit package. For more information please go to o ur website at: https://www.frwa.net/employment or email email@example.com. Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2021
SERVING FLORIDA’S WATER AND WASTEWATER INDUSTRY SINCE 1949
Test Yourself Answer Key Continued from page 39
January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.
Display Advertiser Index Blue Planet Environmental Systems �������������������������������������������������������� 63 CEU Challenge ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Data Flow ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Attendee Registration �������������������������� 24 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Competitions ���������������������������������������� 29 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Exhibit Registration ����������������������������� 25 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Overview ����������������������������������������������� 23 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Poker Night and Happy Hour �������������� 26 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Golf Tournament ���������������������������������� 27 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Water Distribution Systems Awards �� 28 FWPCOA State Short School �������������������������������������������������������������������� 33 FWPCOA Training Calendar ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 53 FWRC Call for Papers �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Gerber Pumps ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Heyward �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Hydro International �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Lakeside Equipment Corporation �������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Poly Processing ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59 Smith & Loveless ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 UF TREEO Center �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Vaughn Nugent ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 37 Water Treatment & Controls ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Xylem ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19,64
62 August 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
1. B ) all wastewater that is not defined as domestic wastewater. Per the FDEP industrial wastewater website, “In Florida, all wastewater that is not defined as domestic wastewater is considered industrial wastewater. . . Sources of industrial wastewater include manufacturing, commercial businesses, mining, agricultural production and processing, and wastewater from cleanup of petroleum- and chemical-contaminated sites.”
2. D) phosphogypsum management program.
Per the FDEP industrial wastewater website, “Industrial wastewater permits are issued by the district offices, with two exceptions: NPDES permits for steam electric power plants are issued by the industrial wastewater in the Tallahassee office, and industrial wastewater permitting for the phosphate industry is handled by the phosphogypsum management program located in Tampa.”
3. B ) best conventional pollution control technology (BCT).
Per FAC 62-660.400(1)(a)2. Effluent Limitations, “The second level is defined as either ‘best available technology economically achievable’ (BAT) or ‘best conventional pollutant control technology’ (BCT).”
4. D ) water quality-based effluent limitation (WQBEL).
Per FAC 62-660.200(2)(p) Definitions, “‘Water quality-based effluent limitation (WQBEL)’ means an effluent limitation, which may be more stringent than a technology-based effluent limitation, that has been determined necessary by the department to ensure that water quality standards in a receiving body of water will not be violated.”
5. D . The level of treatment needed to meet FAC 62520, Groundwater Classes, Standards. and Exemptions.
Per FAC 62-660.400(1)(o) Effluent Limitations, “Notwithstanding technologybased effluent limitations contained in this section, industrial wastes discharged into groundwaters shall receive treatment needed to comply with water quality standards contained in Chapter 62-520, F.A.C.”
6. A ) Best management practices (BMP) plan
Per FAC 62-660.804(5)(b) General Permit for Sand and Limestone Mines, “A best management practices (BMP) plan shall be developed and implemented for the facility. The BMP plan shall include elements designed to prevent or minimize the potential for the release of pollution to waters of the state from ancillary activities. Ancillary activities may include material storage areas, plant site runoff, in-plant transfer, process and material handling areas, and loading and unloading operations through plant site runoff, spillage or leaks, or drainage from raw material storage.”
7. D) Treated groundwater or stormwater that has been contaminated with gasoline, jet fuel, or diesel. Per the FDEP website, NPDES Generic Permit for Discharges From Petroleum Contaminated Sites Frequently Asked Questions, “Coverage under Department’s NPDES Generic Permit for Discharges From Petroleum Contaminated Sites, Rule 62-621.300(1), F.A.C., constitutes authorization to discharge treated groundwater and stormwater that has been contaminated with automotive gasoline, aviation gasoline, jet fuel, or diesel fuel to surface waters of the state pursuant to the department’s federally approved National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program, provided all criteria specified in this generic permit are met.”
8. B) 10,000 gallons per day.
Per FAC 62-660.801(1)(g) General Permit for a Wastewater Disposal System for a Laundromat, “The design volume of flow shall be less than 10,000 gallons per day. The design flow shall be determined by multiplying the maximum hourly rate by 12. The maximum hourly rate shall be based on the number of washing machines, the water used per cycle, and the maximum expected number of cycles per machine per hour.”
9. B) spent process water.
Per FAC 62-660.803(3)(d) General Permit for Car Wash Systems, “‘Spent process water for car wash recycle systems means the water contained in the system (tanks, pumps, and piping) is no longer suitable for use because of the long-term buildup of salts or other contaminants.”
10. C) 0.66 inches per day.
Per FAC 62-660.805(5)(a) General Permit for Disposal of Tomato Wash Water, “The hydraulic loading rate of the land application site shall be no more than 0.66 inches per day. The hydraulic loading rate shall not cause toxicity to the cover crop.”