Florida Water Resources Journal - July 2023

Page 1

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711

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Business Office: 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 Web: http://www.fwrj.com

General Manager: Michael Delaney

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President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

Secretary: Mish Clark Mish Agency


The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions

FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com

FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions

FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com

FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information

DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500

FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820

Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751

FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org

FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318


Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com

FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org

FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org

FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org

Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org

Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.


Technical Articles


6 Let’s Talk Safety: Climb on to Ladder Safety

20 C Factor—Patrick “Murf” Murphy

24 FWEA Focus—Suzanne Mechler

28 Test Yourself—Charles Lee Martin Jr.

30 FSAWWA Speaking Out— Greg D. Taylor

32 Reader Profile—Dustin Chisum


45 New Products

51 Classifieds

54 Display Advertiser Index

Education and Training

FSAWWA Fall Conference General Information

41 FSAWWA Fall Conference Registration

42 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions

43 FSAWWA Fall Conference Water Distribution System Awards

44 FSAWWA Water Conservation Awards for Excellence

47 CEU Challenge

49 Treeo Center

ON THE COVER: The Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant in Key Biscayne. To learn how the plant is addressing climate adaption and resilience, go to page 8.

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 News and Features 4 2023 AWWA State of the Water Industry Report Now Available 16 2023-2024 FWEA Board of Directors 17 2023-2024 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors List 34 Contractors Roundup: Safety: It’s More Than Just Common
Sense— Eric Komanowski
Florida Stormwater
District Governing Board Elects Officers for 2023-2024 Term
8 Stormwater Master Planning: An Important Tool for Climate Adaptation and Resilience—Sussette Irizarry, Gabriel Milian, Marlon Medina, and Christine Wartman 36 Don’t Get Caught With Your Pumps Down: Using Analytics to Improve Pump Reliability and Performance— Mike Bernard
Florida Water Resources Conference 27 FWPCOA Training Calendar 40
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 3
(photo: Stantec)
Volume 74 July 2023 Number 7

2023 AWWA State of the Water Industry Report Now Available

Even with climate change-related challenges, aging infrastructure, threats to water supply, and other obstacles, the water community is feeling more optimistic year-over-year about the sector’s ability to overcome major issues and support and improve water systems and service.

Produced annually by the American Water Works Association (AWWA), this year’s State of the Water Industry report marks the 20th edition of the industry’s most trusted source of data. The responses continue a six-year trend of increasing optimism, rating 5 on a scale of 1 to 7 (with the exception of 2021, which was during the COVID-19 pandemic) about the water industry, now and in the future.

This year’s report offers a fresh perspective on the water industry’s most pressing challenges. With its comprehensive analysis of current trends and

future projections, the State of the Water Industry report is an essential tool for water community professionals seeking to stay ahead of the curve. The report covers hot topics such as aging infrastructure, financing capital improvements, long-term supply, public value of water resources, and workforce. Plus, this year’s executive summary views the data through the lens of AWWA’s Water 2050 think tank drivers:

S Sustainability

S Technology

S Economics

S Governance

S Social Demographics

This most recent survey asked utility respondents if their utility has considered and/or implemented plans to assess risk and resilience and

emergency preparedness. Overall, 88 percent of all utility respondents have fully implemented or are in the process of preparing emergency response plans, and 72 percent of all utility respondents have fully implemented or are in the process of implementing a risk and resilience assessment.

As stewards of public health and the environment, water professionals understand the importance of protecting water supplies, securing physical and cyber systems, and planning for routine and extreme events. By incorporating resilience into a risk management framework, utilities can improve their response and recovery strategies, thereby mitigating the potential for loss of service.

To download the 2023 State of the Water Industry report or request a copy go to www. awwa.org. S

4 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Climb on to Ladder Safety

Fall protection and prevention are ongoing major concerns of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Year after year, falls from ladders rank as one of the leading single causes of occupational fatalities and injuries.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 81 percent of fall injuries, which are the leading source of fatalities among construction workers, involve the use of ladders. Regardless of the type of ladder used, you risk a fall if the ladder is not safely positioned. It needs to be set on stable, level ground to keep it from slipping or moving. You can lose your balance by simply getting on or off an unsteady ladder.

Safety Checklist

Here are key safety tips to keep in mind when using a ladder:

q Position the ladder so its side rails extend at least 3 feet above the landing. When a 3-foot extension is not possible, secure the side rails at the top to a rigid support and use a grab device.

q Make sure the weight on the ladder can’t cause it to slip off its support. Also, never put more weight on the ladder than it’s designed for. Be sure to include the weight of the tools and materials you are using. The safe-weight load should be labeled on the ladder.

q Before you use the ladder, inspect it for cracked or broken parts, such as rungs, steps, side rails, feet, and locking components. By law, if it has any damage, it must be removed

from service and tagged until repaired or discarded.

q Avoid electrical hazards. Never use a metal ladder near power lines or exposed energized electrical equipment. Look for overhead power lines before raising the ladder, and never allow the ladder to get closer than 10 feet to power lines. Also make sure that once you’ve climbed the ladder, your body and tools cannot come in contact with the power lines

q Do not use ladders in high winds or storms.

q Never use a self-supporting ladder (such as a stepladder) as a single ladder or in a partially closed position.

q Never use the top step/rung of a ladder as a step/rung unless it was designed for that purpose.

q Always maintain a three-point (two hands and a foot, or two feet and a hand) contact on the ladder when climbing.

q Keep your body near the middle of the step and face the ladder while climbing.

q Only use ladders and appropriate accessories for their designed purposes.

q Keep the rungs free of wet or slippery materials. Make sure that your shoes and hands are dry and clean before stepping onto the ladder.

q Never place a ladder on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.

q Only one person at a time is permitted on a ladder unless the ladder is specifically designed for more than one climber (such as a trestle ladder).

q Ladders must not be placed in front of doors that can open toward the ladder. The door must be blocked open, locked, or guarded.

q Do not try to move or shift a ladder while a person or equipment is on the ladder.

q The proper angle for setting up a ladder is to place its base a quarter of the working length of the ladder from the wall or other vertical surface.

q A ladder placed in any location where it can be hit or displaced by other work activities must be secured or a barricade must be erected to keep traffic away from the ladder.

q Be sure all locks on an extension ladder are properly engaged.

q Wear clean slip-resistant shoes. Shoes with leather soles are not appropriate for ladder use.

q Do not carry any objects in either hand that can interfere with a firm grip on the ladder.

q Only descend a ladder while facing it.

Your new employee orientation should include ladder safety training if ladders are used in the workplace, but your responsibility doesn’t end there. You are also responsible for retraining employees to keep the information fresh and topof-mind.


For additional safety information go to the American Ladder Institute website at www. americanladderinstitute.org or the OSHA site at www.osha.gov. S

6 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.
Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


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Stormwater Master Planning: An Important Tool for Climate Adaptation and Resilience

Sussette Irizarry, Gabriel Milian, Marlon Medina, and Christine Wartman

The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) currently operates three wastewater treatment plants that serve one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Its largest facility is the Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant (CDWWTP), which was constructed in 1956 and is the oldest treatment facility in Miami. The CDWWTP is also adjacent to the Biscayne Bay, which is considered an aquatic preserve. The plant is currently located in Virginia Key, a low-lying barrier island that is vulnerable to flooding and designated as a flood hazard area.

Over time, increased episodes of flooding have increased stormwater runoff, and sea level rise (SLR) has become an integral consideration in planning and adaptation strategies for WASD, focusing on protecting essential facilities within the wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this project is to develop a stormwater master plan (SWMP) that identifies improvements to reduce stormwater discharges and considers groundwater table increases due to SLR.

A SWMP was developed in 2017 for the CDWWTP focusing on a long-term stormwater management strategy for the site. The report evaluated limitations of the existing stormwater system, additional impervious areas anticipated by 2027, potential disposal options, and stormwater management alternatives. A comparative model analysis of alternatives was conducted and final recommendations were

provided. The selected alternative proposed a stormwater drainage system collecting and pumping stormwater from seven drainage subbasins into a centralized dry retention area.

The SWMP update will consider gradual implementation of stormwater system improvements based on the selected alternative within the 2030 time horizon. An interconnected pond routing (ICPR) model will be used to conduct modeling analysis, refine the selected alternative, and develop new asset recommendations. The SWMP will then be used to update the existing plantwide environmental resource permit (ERP).

This project provides an example of the design challenges faced when transforming an aging stormwater drainage system and identifying conveyance, pumping, and storage options at a location with unique site constraints. In addition, coordination with multiple interested parties is critical to understanding the needs of the plant and defining a stormwater design criteria incorporating SLR. Stormwater master planning in vulnerable areas such as southeast Florida, which are susceptible to SLR and flooding, is an important tool used to apply climate change adaptation strategies for longterm stormwater control.


There are several drivers leading to infrastructure improvements at WASD’s three

Sussette Irizarry, PSM, is an associate project manager with an environmental engineering background, and Marlon Medina, P.E., is a senior associate project manager, with Stantec in Coral Gables. Gabriel Milian, P.E., is a senior project engineer with Milian, Swain & Associates in Miami. Christine Wartman, P.E., is a senior professional engineer with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department in Miami.

wastewater treatment plants, including the consent decree (CD), ocean outfall legislation (OOL), repair and replacement projects (R&R), and capital improvement projects (CIP). There are many challenges facing WASD in replacing aged equipment, protecting its existing infrastructure, and prioritizing critical assets vulnerable to flooding. As a result, WASD incorporated SLR as an important design criterion in hardening efforts for all treatment plants. The Central District, North District, and South District wastewater treatment plants are currently operated by WASD, and CDWWTP, located in Virginia Key, is its oldest existing WWTP (Figure 1).

The plant has undergone numerous expansions and upgrades from its original permitted capacity of 47 mil gal per day (mgd) as a modified activated sludge process to its current configuration as a 143-mgd, highpurity oxygen activated sludge facility. The raw wastewater that is pumped to the CDWWTP is hydraulically split into two treatment plants: Plant 1 and Plant 2. Plant 1 has a treatment capacity of 60 mgd based on annual average daily flow (AADF), and Plant 2 has a treatment capacity of 83 mgd based on AADF. Although the treatment capacities are different, the treatment processes used are identical. The treatment process used at CDWWTP consists of pretreatment (grit removal), high-purity oxygen activated sludge process, secondary clarification, and basic disinfection using chlorine.

The CDWWTP stormwater collection system consists of a network of drainage inlets and approximately 6,926 lin ft of stormwater

8 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Figure 1. Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant site location. (photo: Stantec) Continued on page 10
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piping that convey the runoff to pump stations and infiltration trenches. The system is over 40 years old and collects and pumps stormwater from seven drainage basins. The pump stations are located throughout the site and discharge to various process trains within the plant. Excess stormwater is collected and sent to infiltration trenches, which percolate into the groundwater. Figure 2 illustrates the seven drainage basins. Various stormwater management options were evaluated as part of the 2017 SMWP, including exfiltration trenches, dry retention, and drainage wells. The selected alternative proposed a hybrid approach of incorporating both dry retention and drainage wells, in addition to conveying all stormwater via force main to a centralized location. An existing solids drying bed will be converted to a dry retention area with drainage wells within the retention area. This

hybrid option allows water to drain through the drainage wells, but also percolate in the dry retention area.

Stormwater must also be contained within the site. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) water quality standards will be followed for dry retention swales that will provide water quality enhancements. Mechanical components that will handle water quantity, such as the pump stations and wet wells, will be sized for the 100-year storm event. The existing stormwater pump stations will be upsized to convey the stormwater via force main to the centralized dry retention area.

The proposed stormwater collection system under the SWMP update also incorporates existing infrastructure where possible to reduce cost and underground utility conflicts that may be encountered in congested areas of the plant. An existing conditions

assessment will be completed to identify sections of the existing system that may require replacement. The system will include an interconnection of stormwater manholes and the collection system will be piped by gravity to the proposed wet wells or interconnected basins and then pumped via force main to the dry retention area.

Modeling Analysis: Interconnected Pond Routing Model

The SWMP update considers gradual implementation of the selected alternative within the 2030 planning horizon. An ICPR model was developed as part of this project to evaluate the current operation of the CDWWTP’s drainage system under three storm-event conditions: 10-year, 24-hour; 25-year, 72-hour; and 100-year, 72-hour storm events, and the impact of proposed improvements on the stormwater drainage system. The model also incorporated pervious and impervious areas based on existing topographic survey data and projected impervious areas estimated for future projects.

Stormwater runoff collected prior to the 2030 time horizon will depend on in situ measures. Stormwater runoff collected during the 2030 time horizon will depend on the stormwater pump stations and associated wet wells, drainage wells within the retention pond, and new force mains. The ICPR model considered an estimated SLR projection of 54 in. for the year 2070 in accordance with the 2019 Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact Unified Sea Level Rise Projections. This approach was based on WASD guidance documents; specifically, the “Design Guide for Hardening Wastewater Treatment Facilities Against Flooding from Surge, Sea Level Rise, and Extreme Rainfall” developed by the OOL program. Due to the proximity to the ocean and transmissivity of soil in the area, increases in the groundwater table were factored as a result of SLR.

The new stormwater system will also

10 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Return Interval Rainfall (in) 10-year, 24-hour 9.2 25-year, 72-hour 14.4 100-year, 72-hour 19.4
Figure 2. Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant drainage basins (2017 stormwater master plan). Table 1. Rainfall by Return Interval
Continued on page 12 8
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include a level of redundancy to mitigate future mechanical failures. Redundant pumps will be provided for the 10-year, 24-hour storm event, and larger storm events will require all stormwater pumps to be in service. Table 1 shows the rainfall depths based on the National

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14, and an additional rainfall volume was incorporated based on the 2016 report, “South Florida Water Management District Determination of Future IntensityDuration-Frequency Curves for Level of Service Planning Projects.”

Stormwater Pump Stations and Wet Wells

The CDWWTP currently has six stormwater pump stations; each pump station contains two pumps and the redundant pump turns on for larger storms events. As part of the new stormwater improvements, one pump will run for the 10-year, 24-hour storm event and two pumps will be required for the 25-year, 72-hour and 100-year, 72hour storm event. Table 2 lists the number of pumps and horsepower needed based on the pumping capacity required by the ICPR model for the 2030 time horizon. Existing stormwater pump stations will be upsized to accommodate the additional pumping capacity. A wet well storage volume was also

dimensions were determined based on that volume. Existing wet wells will be modified to meet the new design criteria.

Drainage Wells

Based on the ICPR model, approximately 10 drainage wells are needed within the retention pond. Drainage well capacity computations were developed considering a groundwater elevation of 7.1 National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) and a 3.0 safety factor. The groundwater elevation considers increases due to SLR. Figure 3 shows the detention box dimensions calculated for the drainage well. The detention box is comprised of a pollutant-retardant baffle that provides a second level of water quality, as well as a well head pipe that is sized according to a calculated amount of discharge required. This design incorporates multiple drainage wells to provide redundancy and maintain stormwater runoff onsite.

Dry Retention Pond

On the north side of the CDWWTP an existing solids drying bed will be converted to a dry retention area. The retention area will be excavated to an elevation of 7.6 NGVD, removing the existing concrete lining and excavating additional soil below the drying bed. The 7.6 NGVD elevation will also provide a safety factor above the SLR groundwater table elevation of 5.6 NGVD. The top of the berm will be placed at an elevation of 16.5 NGVD, which will also provide a 6-in. freeboard for the 100-year, 72-hour storm event. The SWMP update proposes infrastructure improvements based on the 2030 time horizon of development and the NOAA 2070 SLR. Beyond 2030 it’s recommended that additional pumps be used to aid the drainage wells. An existing berm borders the CDWWTP property to maintain stormwater onsite and all stormwater is planned to be contained within the site. The 100-year, 72-hour storm will be used to determine the minimum boundary berm elevation.

As the future scenarios are modeled, additional inlets, pump stations, and drainage wells may be needed to offset future areas of pavement, building, and impervious areas.

Design Approach and Challenges

The CDWWTP is undergoing several infrastructure improvements in various stages of design and construction driven by the CD, OOL, R&R, and CIP programs. An overall site plan (Figure 4) was created

Continued on page 14

12 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Pump Station Horsepower Number 1 60 2 2 60 2 3 30 2 4 60 2 5 30 2
Figure 3. Detention box dimensions.
from page 10
Table 2. Stormwater Pump Stations

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incorporating all programmed projects. Impervious area calculations were performed for each project and a total net impervious area was calculated for the overall plant. The intent of this exercise was to capture impervious areas not shown on the plant’s site topographic survey.

Collecting data and calculating the impervious footprint for projects in different stages of design and construction were challenging tasks because the projects were managed under multiple programs and by different consultant teams. Estimating a net impervious footprint was an important step to inform the ICPR model and run scenarios for the 2030 planning horizon. Coordination and communication among the various stakeholders were key steps in bringing the overall site plan and phasing plan together.

The project site had many unique site constraints that posed additional challenges. Due to the plant’s proximity to Biscayne Bay, containing stormwater onsite was critical and percolation rates for the site varied in range based on the sub-basin. Increases in groundwater elevations due to SLR were also a concern because of the plant’s designation as a flood hazard area based on Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood maps. Solutions that incorporated redundancy in handling both water quality and quantity were a key component in addressing site constraints and allowed adaptability for longterm stormwater control.


The SWMP update for the CDWWTP

provides a robust solution to protecting critical infrastructure in vulnerable communities susceptible to SLR and is an example of how stormwater master planning is an integral part of planning and adaptation strategies for wastewater utilities. Knowledge of the southeast Florida unified sea level rise projections, NOAA Atlas 14, and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) depth-duration-frequency (DDF) report is also important for future planning when considering SLR and flooding.

The CDWWTP has many unique site constraints and multiple ongoing construction projects contributing to an increased impervious footprint. Coordination among all stakeholders was a key component to developing holistic stormwater design criteria that meet both current and future stormwater needs for the wastewater treatment plant and incorporates SLR.


We would like to express our sincerest gratitude to the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department for the opportunity to work on this project. This project was a collaborative effort with the OOL program.


• “Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant Stormwater Master Plan.” MWH (now Stantec). 2017 (pdf).

• “Design Guide for Hardening Wastewater Treatment Facilities Against Flooding from Surge, Sea Level Rise, and Extreme Rainfall.” Jacobs Engineering. 2019 (pdf).

• South Florida Water Management District Determination of Future IntensityDurationFrequency Curves for Level of Service Planning Projects. SFWMD. 2016 (pdf). S

from page 12
Figure 4. Site plan.

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FWEA Board of Directors

16 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Suzanne E. Mechler President Michael Sweeney WEF Delegate Sondra W. Lee Past President Manasi Parekh Director at Large Kristina Fries Director at Large Jeff Greenwell Utility Council President Tim Ware Director at Large David Hernandez Secretary/Treasurer Dustin Chisum Director at Large Lynn Spivey Director at Large Joan Fernandez Vice President Joseph Paterniti President-Elect Jody Barksdale Director at Large James Wallace WEF Delegate Ioannis (Yanni) Polematidis Director at Large Megan Nelson Director at Large Kartik Vaith Executive Director of Operations Bradley P. Hayes Operations Council Representative

2023-2024 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors

The following officers, directors, committee leaders, chapter leaders, and student chapter advisors will serve through April 30, 2024.



Suzanne E. Mechler, P.E. CDM Smith 561-571-3800 mechlerse@cdmsmith.com


Joseph Paterniti, P.E. Clay County Utility Authority 904-424-2412 jpaterniti@clayutility.com


Joan Fernandez, P.E. Arcadis U.S. Inc. 954-882-9566 joan.i.fernandez@arcadis.com


David Hernandez, P.E., ENV SP Hazen and Sawyer 305-443-4001 dhernandez@hazenandsawyer.com


Sondra W. Lee, P.E. City of Tallahassee 850-891-6123 Sondra.Lee@talgov.com


James J. Wallace, P.E. Tetra Tech 904-451-2013 jamey.wallace@tetratech.com


Michael Sweeney, Ph.D. Toho Water Authority 407-944-5129 msweeney@tohowater.com


Jody Barksdale, P.E., ENV SP

Carollo Engineers Inc.




Dustin Chisum, P.E.

Ardurra Group 239-849-5093



Kristina Fries, P.E. City of Orlando



Manasi Parekh, P.E. Ardurra (904) 318-9028 mparekh@ardurra.com


Megan Nelson, P.E. Orange County Utilities (407) 254-9927



Ioannis (Yanni) Polematidis, P.E., BCEE CDM Smith 904-527-6722



Lynn Spivey City of Plant City




Tim Ware, P.E. Arcadis U.S. Inc. 813-353-5773



Jeff Greenwell, P.E. Hillsborough County Public Utilities




Bradley P. Hayes Woodard & Curran




Kartik Vaith, P.E.






David Hunniford

V&A Consulting Engineers Inc. (941) 928-3421



Damaris Noriega

Orange County Utilities (407) 254-9538



Manuel Moncholi, PhD, P.E. Stantec (832) 880-6263



Samantha Hanzel, P.E. Jacobs (405) 639-9774



Josh Burns Wharton-Smith Inc. (407) 402-7528





Melody Gonzalez, E.I. Black & Veatch (786) 226-3960



Joan Fernandez, P.E., IAM Arcadis U.S. Inc. 954-882-9566



Chris Fasnacht

Orange County Utilities (407) 254-7724


Continued on page 18

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 17

Continued from page 17


Arpita Meher

Arcadis (407) 659-5552 arpita.meher@arcadis.com


Steve Johnson

HDR (813) 365-9089 steven.johnson@hdrinc.com


Manasi Parekh, P.E. Ardurra (904) 318-9028 mparekh@ardurra.com


Nicole Cohen, P.E. Carollo Engineers Inc. (941) 893-6482 ncohen@carollo.com


Kenny Blanton, P.E. Hazen and Sawyer (407) 362-1101 kblanton@hazenandsawyer.com


Randy Brown City of Pompano Beach (954) 545-7044 randolph.brown@copbfl.com


Tonya Sonier, P.E. Mead & Hunt (386) 414-5057 tonya.sonier@meadhunt.com


Ryan Messer, P.E.


(813) 361-6241 Ryan.Messer@hdrinc.com



Felicity Appel, P.E. Kimley-Horn (850) 553-3537



Tucker Hunter, P.E. Kimley-Horn (407) 704-0153



Dave Rasmussen

Ardurra (904) 567-7754 drasmussen@ardurra.com


Madeline Kender, P.E. Kimley-Horn (941) 379-7604 madeline.kender@kimley-horn.com


Arturo Burbano Black and Veatch (305) 570-7501



Alexander Kraemer

Thermal Process Systems (561) 846-0334



Tom Meyers

FJ Nugent & Associates, Inc. (239) 224-8422



Alex Maas

Heyward Florida Incorporated (407) 948-4191



Weston Haggen CHA Consulting, Inc. (813) 819-0562




Florida Atlantic University

Daniel Meeroff, Ph.D. 561-297-2658



Florida International University

Berrin Tansel, Ph.D., P.E. 305-348-2928



University of Central Florida

Anwar Sadmani, Ph.D., P.Eng. 407-823-2781



University of Florida

John Sansalone, Ph.D, P.E. 352-373-0796



University of Miami

David A. Chin, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE 305-284-3508



University of North Florida Cigdem Akan, PhD 904-620-5536



University of South Florida

Sarina J. Ergas, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE 813-974-1119



FAMU/Florida State University

Youneng Tang, Ph.D. 850-410-6119



Florida Gulf Coast University

Jong-Yeop Kim, Ph.D, P.E 239-590-1363


18 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 19

Florida Water Resources Conference 2023!

Conference Registration and Florida Water Resource Conference and Journal Board Meetings

being the trustees). This was immediately followed by the 10 to 11 a.m. FWRJ board meetings, with the same intent—to help with the success of both organizations.

he 2023 Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) was amazing! The conference was held May 31-June 3, 2023, in Orlando at the Gaylord Palms. If you weren’t ridden hard and put away wet by the end of this event, you must have been hiding somewhere! With meetings, technical programs, exhibits, awards luncheons, competitions, networking—

Wednesday, Day 1, from 9 to 10 a.m., was the FWRC and Florida Water Resources Journal (FWRJ) board meetings. The meeting with the FWRC officers and representatives from the three member associations (Florida Section American Water Works Association [FSAWWA], Florida Water Environment Association [FWEA], and Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association [FWPCOA]), is the culmination of meetings throughout the year to establish a successful conference. Each association has seven board members and three trustees, and both

Many thanks go to the executive board members of FWRC and FWRJ and the other member associations for all they have done, but in particular to Mish Clark, the conference executive director, for getting a new software program up and running for this year. I absolutely have an “app” disability, but even I was able to download the conference app (new this year!) and navigate through it during the conference, even though I still had my copy of the June FWRJ (it was available onsite and included the conference program) with highlighted and red-lined sections to fall back on.

Registration for the conference was pretty fantastic. At the times that I volunteered at the registration booths, almost everyone was able to put their last name in and—bingo!— out came their badge with the QR code that would allow them into the conference events they signed up for, and get their continuing education units (CEUs) or professional development hours (PDHs).

It seemed like I should have had more time before getting to the Operators Showcase, but by the time I got checked in, moved my truck, unloaded, and got lost on the wrong floors trying to get back from the hotel to the conference center, I just made it.

Operators Showcase and Workshop

On Wednesday, Day 1, from 2 to 4 p.m., the FWPCOA Operators Showcase was held and was much more successful this year! I believe some of the Constant Contact notifications helped with that, because the lure of free beer last year didn’t seem to (which we had this year, too!). I do believe we also had a better location this year and we had several powerhouse speakers:

Dr. Chris Owen, associate vice president and director of water and reuse innovations with Hazen and Sawyer, spoke on the effects of perand polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) on the utility industry to lead off the showcase.

John O’Brien, chair of the Direct Potable Reuse Certification Committee for FWPCOA and an A licensed operator working for Seacoast Utilities, provided an overview of direct potable reuse (DPR).

Dr. Carlyn Higgins, an engineer with Hazen and Sawyer, talked about indirect potable reuse (IPR), equipment, and operator certification,

Patrick “Murf” Murphy President, FWPCOA The Florida Water Resources Conference and Florida Water Resources Journal board meetings. FWPCOA Operators Showcase, with Dr. Chris Owen presenting (standing left) and Tom King moderating (right).

and the City of Plant City’s indirect potable reclaimed water pilot project that successfully completed over a year of piloting.

Those who did attend were very interactive with the presenters. Thank you, Dr. Owen, John O’Brien, and Dr. Higgins, for providing an excellent showcase presentation, and thank you Tom King for moderating.

Conference Showcase: FWEA, FSAWWA, and FWPCOA

On Wednesday, Day 1, from 5:30 to 6:30 p.m., the three member associations had an area on the exhibit floor during the President’s Reception. Each association had the opportunity to showcase their association, committees, and products and services, and encourage membership. Thank you to those who staffed this section and all who visited our area!


On Thursday, Day 2, at the FWRC awards luncheon and annual meeting, held from 12 noon to 1:30 p.m., Renee Moticker, FWPCOA Awards Committee chair, presented numerous FWPCOA awards:

S Three categories for the David B. Lee Award: Frank O’Neal, Region 10; Jason Jennings, Region 10; and Carel Bent, Region 7.

S The Vogh Award went to Katherine Kinloch, Region 10.

S Theresa “Terry” McVeigh received the Pat Flanagan Award this year. It was awarded posthumously and accepted by her husband Tim McVeigh.

S David Pickard received the 50+ Membership Award.

Thank you, Renee—well done!

Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers

After the WEF awards, and the “Emergency Mutual Aid Amongst Utilities Recognition” acknowledgment done by Lisa Rhea of Hillsborough County, new members were inducted into the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers.

This is a FWEA award that’s given annually to honor an engineer, an operator, and a “peddler” (vendor), if they are deemed to have contributed outstanding and meritorious service above and beyond the call of duty to FWEA.

This year, the inductees were:

S Chuck Nichols Sr. from Polk County, Region 10, in the “operator” category.

Operations Challenge and Collections Relay

I sadly missed the exhibit hall during the whole conference, running around doing other tasks, and it pains me to no end to have missed these events. I heard that they were exciting and entertaining, and a tight competition took place there.

The winners in the Operation Challenge were:

S Polk County Utilities Bio-Wizards – First Place overall. Total points: 489

S St. Pete Dirty Birds – Second Place overall.

Total points: 371.21

S Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA) The Fecal Matter – Third Place overall. Total points: 370.4

The Collections Relay, where participants from the crowd jump in for pipe-cutting or holesawing contests, had over 28 participants divided among seven teams, and over 50 percent were women!

Pipe donations were made by Ferguson for

for the competition designed specifically for the different skill tests, even though their utility was unable to send a team this year.)

Many, many thanks go to all those who judged these events, to all who supported the teams, and to those who participated. If you’ve never seen what these folks are doing, you can’t imagine how impactful and impressive this is to the people who are not in our industry. The true and sad part is that some of the people in our industry, such as coworkers and bosses, never realize what these folks are capable of and get done in the field—only that it gets done! These teams are truly next-level, and if you can make it happen, you need to send your employees to the conference to witness the safety, knowledge, and skills that are needed.

Volunteering for Registration and Technical Events

On Thursday, Day 2, from 2:00 to 5:00 p.m., I volunteered at one of the registration booths (because that’s what we do) and assistance is really needed for so many of the aspects of the

Continued on page 22

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 21
John O’Brien (at front) speaking at the FWPCOA Operators Showcase. Dr. Carlyn Higgins (far left) presenting at the FWPCOA Operators Showcase.

Continued from page 21

conference; not just the door registrations, but as moderators and general help.

The traffic seemed slow at that time, and I questioned Mish if I was really going to be needed for the time slot I also signed up for on Friday morning from 6:30 to 8:30 a.m. on Day 3 of the conference. When she said that we hit over 2,700 registrations that night, and she expected at least another 300 plus on Friday, you could have picked my jaw up off the floor. I got to the booth around 6 a.m., and the software people were busy buzzing around and helped with the setup. Sure enough, it was busier that morning than it was the night before!

I was very happy to see Deb Monteleone (Al’s wife) step in to volunteer, as I really needed to go back to my paying job with CEUs for the technical sessions this year, since that’s part of why I was there (not just to help promote FWPCOA and have a great time networking with everyone). So, off I went to the technical sessions, and boy were they good; the rooms were packed, and there weren’t any of those green cards that I always seemed to forget to fill out. I was scanned by the door checker

The last technical session I attended on Friday finished at 5 p.m., and the walk back to the hotel seemed endless.

I want to give a giant thank you to Al Monteleone, who has for many years staffed the FWPCOA exhibit hall booth (along with a number of other reliable booth volunteers). Al makes sure the booth is set up, staffed during the entire conference, and broken down.

Young Professionals Workshop

Saturday, Day 4, usually has a Utilities Council meeting and everyone else is gone. This year there was a full day of young professionals (YP) activities, workshops, design competitions, personality evaluations, and more.

I want to give a special thank you to Nicole Cohen, lead engineer with Carollo for inviting FWPCOA to participate in the organization’s introductions. Representatives from FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA shared information with the YPs about the organizations and an overview of mission statements, and there was a chance for attendees to ask questions. I didn’t have my

sure I bumbled my way through most of it (like I have most of my life), so I was also very happy that Athena Tipaldos, FWPCOA vice president, was able to come and be part of our association’s representation. Thank you, Athena!

I couldn’t tell you what I said the moment I left, but I do know there were three things that I wish I’d emphasized instead of alluded to:

S You can’t fly as high with the eagles if you’re out all night hunting with the owls!

S Having a mentor doesn’t necessarily mean they agreed to be one!

S Don’t be afraid to communicate with the old fat guy in the room!

Okay, so I kind of remember pointing to almost everyone in the room (YPs included) that they are now my mentors, whether they wanted to be or not. They may not be personally advising me on a daily or weekly basis, and our interaction might be once in a blue moon, but I figure I can learn from every single person out there. I’ve told some people that they are my heroes, to some I’ve said how much I admire them, and others I just try to listen to and learn from. Probably the bulk of them would be frightened if I asked them to be my

We all must talk to each other: operator to operator, operator to engineer, and operator to vendor. This is the essence of learning, listening, talking! Don’t be afraid to initiate a discussion. I’d give anything to have been able to retain as much as I’ve learned over the years, and truly wished I’d asked more stupid questions questioning). I sometimes can see the fear on faces when the scary old guy is walking toward them, and so many times over the years, the young folks that I’ve talked to years ago have later turned into my bosses.

Get involved with whichever organization you prefer, but you don’t have to be an operator to be an associate member with FWPCOA.

FWPCOA 2023 Fall State Short School

The FWPCOA 2023 Fall State Short School will be held Aug. 7-11, 2023, at the Indian River State College in Fort Pierce. For more information go to www.fwpcoa.org.

The website has details about other events and the FWPCOA calendar. For all events contact Shirley Reaves at (321) 383-9690 or fwpcoa@ gmail.com, or Darin Bishop at (561) 840-0340 or memfwpcoa@gmail.com.

Remember—let’s keep that water clean! S

Young Professionals panelists include (at head table, center) Maria Bertelli, Florida Department of Environmental Protection; Amanda Guillory, Garney; Meera Joshi, Carollo; Zachary Loeb, Clay County Utility; and Alex Maas, Heyward Inc. At the Young Professionals Workshop Mish Clark (center with microphone) asks for ideas and input before member association representatives speak individually.
2,775 Attendees 386 Booths Thank You! for an amazing 2023 conference! 73 Sponsors 1,253 Downloads 113 Technical Sessions See you in 2024: April 2 - 5, 2024 @ Gaylord Palms, Kissimmee FL

Florida Water Resources Conference in Review

What to say—a whirlwind! This year was the 98th Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC). I’m going out on a limb by saying there probably wasn’t a FWRC app at the first one (or the 97th!), but we had one this year and the technology worked well, including making registration easier, allowing connectivity and schedule

tracking, and providing a smoother way of gathering education credits for professional development hours (PDHs) and continuing education units (CEUs).

Conference Highlights

There were so many fun times and good events, but I wanted to use this column to highlight a few items.

Water Stories

We asked for your stories and we got them! Over the three-day period, we heard from over 50 of you, the attendees, about how you got into the water industry, what you’re passionate about, and ideas to encourage choosing a

career in water. We can’t wait to go through all the footage and share your stories; I learned so much just by listening. Thanks to Joan Fernandez, Lisa Kelley, and Jody Barksdale for interviewing and to you for the excitement and participation. If you missed giving your water story, you can do it any time at www. wefwaterfuture.org.

Operations Challenge

Each year I’m impressed with the high level of competition at this event, also known as Ops Challenge. This year was no different— plus we filmed it! The teams, which were BioWizards (Polk County), Dirty Birds (St. Pete), and The Fecal Matter (JEA), put on a great show in the exhibit hall. They competed in each

24 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Suzanne readies Mike Darrow for his Water Stories taping. Sondra Lee, past FWEA president, at the Collections Relay in the exhibit hall. Sondra in action. Attendees cheer on a team at the Operations Challenge. Bio-Wizards takes first place in the contest.

of the five contest categories: process control, laboratory, maintenance, collections, and safety. In the end, the Bio-Wizards came out on top—congratulations!

This year, they also ramped up the pipe cutting relay competition for all those interested. I saw a lot of sore arms afterward, but it was great fun. Special thanks to Bradley Hayes, Chris Fasnacht, Ada Levy, and all the Ops Challenge teams for representing the operations community!

Young Professional Events and Workshop

The Student and Young Professionals (S&YP) Committee put on a poster competition, YP reception, YP workshop, and Student Design Competition (SDC). The allday Saturday YP workshop, in collaboration with FSAWWA, which started at 7:30 a.m., was a crash course in how to boost your career potential with some amazing speakers.

Following that was the SDC with the University of South Florida, University of Florida, and Florida International University participating. With FWRC held later this year, they participated even after school let out—what commitment! A big shout out to Nicole Cohen, chair of the S&YP Committee, for taking such a strong leadership role and making this conference such as success.

Exhibit Hall, Technical Sessions, Awards, and Networking

I enjoyed walking the exhibit hall and seeing all the amazing products and services that support our industry, reconnecting with so many of my friends and colleagues (new and old), watching our awards ceremony celebrating the great work you all do, and listening to the engaging and educational technical workshops.

It’s quite amazing that our industry

identified the importance of collaboration so long ago and we have continued to do it ever since. It constantly reminds me that our ability to work together sets us apart and I appreciate the continued relationship FWEA has with the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) and the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) to make this conference a success!

Priorities for this Coming Year

As I said in my speech at the FWEA awards luncheon at the conference, my priority for this coming year is to elevate you. To do that, we will focus on the following:

S Expand our connectivity. By providing more opportunities to hear from you and incorporate your ideas, we can better

connect the dots. We want this organization to reflect you and represent you while, at the same time, creating collaboration and partnerships that are integral to the future of our industry. This includes inviting everyone to the table who has influence and/or an impact on what we do: information technology, laboratory staff, procurement, etc.

S Provide more value. I would say that our technical committee chairs do a bang-up job on this already, but we will put an added focus on aligning our technical content with upcoming priorities. We recognize some of the biggest challenges, both regulatory and technical, will not be solved in the next year, but we can collaborate with you and your customers

Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 25
Greg Chomich takes a turn in the relay. The panel at the Young Professionals Workshop. Group photo of attendees at the Students and Young Professionals Reception on Friday night shows the great turnout. This is the future of this organization.

to support immediate needs and solutions that better position us to move forward. S Communicate a common message. More important than ever, we need to develop and support education and outreach to our members and the public that’s informed, emphatic, and consistent. Our goal is to advertise the magnificent work this community does every day. We have started this process with the Water Stories and Operations Challenge footage collected on the FWRC exhibit floor and our long-term goal is to leverage our stories to advance our industry.

Innovation and Emerging Technologies

The excitement of the conference and the movement of our industry keep me focused on the future, which includes innovation, emerging technologies, and new partnerships.

I talked to so many amazing people at the conference who are trying to implement change with innovative solutions, sometimes so simple in concept, but not aligned with our normal operating procedure. As FWEA, we have no intent to disrupt this industry, but we recognize that we need to help move it forward and, if needed, to help remove limitations or constraints.

For example, can we really separate stormwater, water, and wastewater anymore? This month’s theme for the Journal is stormwater management and emerging technologies and all I can think is that many of the technologies for stormwater either came from the water/wastewater market or will eventually influence these markets. In Florida, improving water quality impacted many stormwater requirements initially, but we have also, more recently, seen the impact of septic-to-sewer, ocean outfalls, and reuse regulations.

There is so much overlap; not one thing

is to blame for water quality concerns and all play a role in maintaining long-term water supplies. These issues create a world of innovation in monitoring techniques, as well as implementation of projects, such as alternative delivery and public-private partnerships. The water management districts in Florida are looking at mini-water treatment plants ahead of their aquifer storage and recovery systems. Water reclamation facilities are looking at mini-stormwater treatment areas to discharge reuse water that also allow for recreation and additional natural treatment.

In the hopes of continuing to support innovation, FWEA has added a new committee this year, the Intelligent Water Technology Committee. The intent of this committee is to promote the overall understanding of the application of intelligent systems and management of that information in the water environment. This will include process instrumentation, control equipment and automation, and computers and telecommunications, as well as monitoring devices and fully contained smart systems.

This committee mirrors some of the work that the Water Environment Federation (WEF) is already doing. If you are interested in this committee, please reach out to me at mechlerse@cdmsmith.com or Tim Ware, our director at large, at tim.ware@arcadis.com. S

26 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Students at the Young Professionals Poster Session. The Student Design Competition covers wastewater and environmental design.
Continued from page 25
July 17-20 ............... Wastewater Collection B .................................................................................. Deltona ............................. $325 24-28 Reclaimed Water Fields Site Inspector Winter Garden $350/380 August 7-11 Fall Sate Short School Ft. Pierce 21-24 ............... Backflow Tester................................................................................................... Deltona ............................. $375/405 24 ............... Backflow Tester recertification ........................................................................ Deltona ............................. $85/115 28-31 Wastewater Collection C Deltona $325 September 11-14 Backflow Tester Deltona 3275/405 14 ............... Backflow Tester recertification ........................................................................ Deltona ............................. $85/115 18-21 ............... Wastewater Collection B ................................................................................ Deltona ............................. $325 October 2-4 Backflow Repair Deltona $275/305 4 Backflow Tester recertification Deltona $85/115 16-60 ............... Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ........................................................... Deltona ............................. $350/380 16-20 ............... Wastewater Collection C .................................................................................. Orlando ............................ $325 16-20 Wastewater Collection B Orlando $325

What Do You Know About Hardness Removal?

1. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water And Wastewater defines hardness as a result of

a. the aluminum and lead cations measured.

b. the arsenic and mercury cations measured.

c. the manganese and sodium cations measured.

d. the calcium and magnesium cations measured.

2. Source waters with high levels of hardness can

a. shorten the life of fabrics.

b. plate out and form scale within boilers.

c. cause scale to form within hot water heaters.

d. All of the above.

3. The method(s) traditionally used to reduce or remove hardness is (are)

a. ion exchange and chemical precipitation.

b. reverse osmosis.

c. slow sand filtration.

d. greensand filtration.

4. What is the minimum hardness level that can be obtained via chemical precipitation, i.e., lime-soda ash softening?

a. 100 to 150 mg/l as calcium carbonate (CaCO3)

b. 0 to 30 mg/l as CaCO3

c. 80 to 90 mg/l as CaCO3

d. 30 to 40 mg/l as CaCO3

5. What is the minimum hardness level that can be obtained via ion exchange?

a. 15 mg/l as CaCO3

b. 30 mg/l as CaCO3

c. 0 mg/l as CaCO3

d. 50 mg/l as CaCO3

6. Adding lime to source water with high levels of calcium bicarbonate in order to raise the pH around 10 will result in forming which compound?

a. Calcium carbonate

b. Lead carbonate

c. Aluminum carbonate

d. None of the above.

7. Split lime treatment may be utilized to reduce the cost in treating source waters with high levels of

a. manganese bicarbonate.

b. magnesium bicarbonate.

c. calcium bicarbonate.

d. iron bicarbonate.

8. Split lime treatment may reduce the cost of softening due to its ability to reduce the use of which gas?

a. Nitrogen

b. Oxygen

c. Carbon dioxide

d. None of the above.

9. Source waters that cannot be softened to the desired level using lime only have high levels of

a. permanent or noncarbonate hardness.

b. temporary or carbonate hardness.

c. permanent or carbonate hardness.

d. temporary or noncarbonate hardness.

10. Which two constituents of source water must be removed before applying such water to an ion exchange unit?

a. Manganese and lead

b. Iron and lead

c. Lead and copper

d. Iron and manganese

Answers on page 50

References used for this quiz:

• Water Treatment Plant Operation, Volume 2, Seventh Edition, CSU

Sacramento, Chapter 2 - Softening

Send Us Your Questions

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: charmartin@msn.com

28 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Legislative and Regulatory Updates Impacting the Water Industry

e are in July, which means heat and humidity, when the need for drinking water is higher than ever. Be sure to drink plenty of water and encourage others to drink the tap water that our members have a hand in delivering to our customers.

It’s also hurricane season, so please be sure to update those safety and emergency plans. In addition, if you see an operator, distribution technician, or any other utility worker, remember to say “thanks!”

We’re all impacted by laws, regulations, and rules perpetuated by federal, state, and local governments. The Water Utility Council represents FSAWWA in coordinating with our utility members, partner associations, advocates, lawmakers, and regulators. Working collaboratively, we help utilities in executing their missions through public comment that

includes regulatory clarifications and ensuring that rules make sense, and information on funding to benefit our customers. At their core, water laws and regulations are enacted to protect public health and the environment without causing an unreasonable financial burden, as water is a vital resource in all its forms.

As such, I want to provide you with some state and federal regulatory highlights, as well as some from the latest legislative session. To learn full details and to keep up to date on potential legislation and proposed rules that may impact you, as well as many other member benefits, please consider joining the Water Utility Council. Information is available at www.fsawwa.org/page/WaterUtilityCouncil.

State Regulatory News

Here’s an update on some Florida regulations.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection Potable Reuse Rulemaking

The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Phase II rulemaking effort regarding potable reuse includes revisions to Chapters 62-600, 62-610, 62-625, 60-550, and 60-555, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.).

The FDEP initially embarked on this effort in

December 2020 and since then only two public workshops have been held: the first on Jan. 14, 2021, and the second on June 2, 2021.

Because the latest and last draft rule language published in May 2021 was dramatically different from the recommendations presented in the Potable Reuse Commission (PRC) report, FDEP has received many comments from the Florida Water Environmental Association Utility Council (FWEAUC) and other water-related organizations. These comments reiterated the need to develop and amend the drinking water rules simultaneously with the reclaimed water rules. Since then, FDEP has postponed many rulemaking workshops, including the workshop previously scheduled for May 25, 2023.

The latest buzz on the street, confirmed by FDEP on Jan. 31, 2023, and in the Notice of Rule Development for Chapter 62-565, F.A.C., is that FDEP is now taking the PRC’s first recommendation listed previously and is creating a new Chapter 62-565, F.A.C., Permitting, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Advance Treatment Water Facilities and Associated Systems. The leadership from the utility councils is currently working with FDEP on this huge undertaking, and we hope there will be draft language and a workshop scheduled soon.

Stay tuned for further developments!

To stay abreast of any future activities, I recommend you bookmark these FDEP webpages:

S Water Reuse News and Rulemaking Information (www.floridadep.gov/water/ domestic-wastewater/content/water-reusenews-rulemaking-information)

S Water Resource Management Rules in Development (www.floridadep.gov/ water/water/content/water-resourcemanagement-rules-development)

Florida Department of Environmental Protection State Revolving Fund

The State Revolving Fund (SRF) is providing exceptions for certain SRF rules for Bipartisan Infrastructure Law funding for emerging contaminants, such as perand polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and lead service line replacement (including for

30 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT

inventory implementation). As recently as May 25, 2023, FDEP emailed the availability of the lead pipe replacement and inventory funds. It requested that interested eligible entities complete a request for inclusion by June 30, 2023, to be considered. Hopefully you were able to take part in that funding opportunity.

State Legislative News

Here’s an update on some Florida legislation.

Senate and House Bills

S Florida Senate Bill 162, Water and Wastewater Facility Operators, amends the Florida Statutes for reciprocity for water and wastewater operators. There is a critical need for additional water and wastewater treatment operators in Florida, and this bill is one step to help attract operators from other states. In order to maintain the high level of quality of our state’s operators, this bill was amended to note that the operators requesting reciprocity must be in good standing in their state and pass a licensure examination, and we will work with FDEP to help craft the requirements.

Another key portion of this bill is that it now explicitly states: “Water and wastewater facility personnel are essential first responders.” We see this as a huge win and recognition of the importance of this aspect of our utility staff.

S House Bill 1379, Environmental Protection, has been signed into law and is effective July 1, 2023. This bill contains many amendments to the law on issues such as advanced waste treatment, onsite sewage and disposal systems, Indian River Lagoon, sanitary sewer services, basin management action plans (BMAPs), and a wastewater grant program.

S House Bill 1405, Biosolids, establishes a biosolids grant program and defines eligible projects.

S House Bill 7027, Ratification of Rule of the Department of Environmental Protection, ratifies F.A.C. rules relating to domestic wastewater facilities, which are amended to:

• Require a pipe assessment, repair, and replacement plan and an annual report.

• Include statutory requirements for a power outage contingency plan.

• Include statutory requirements for an annual report on utilities’ expenditures on pollution mitigation efforts.

• Require certain domestic wastewater facilities’ emergency response plans to address cybersecurity.

Federal Regulatory News

There’s been a lot of activity at the federal level, too.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was in a “spring fever” of activity as we headed into summer 2023.

The agency has accomplished the following:

S Released Fiscal Year 2023 Allotments for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund based on the Seventh Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment. These allotments directly affect FDEP’s SRF activities. Interestingly, Florida ranked first in the country for lead pipes in the assessment as reported by several news outlets, which provided a larger share of the SRF allotment from EPA.

• FSAWWA and utility members know that Florida should not be ranked first in the country for lead service lines, and likely not even ranked in the top 30. Most of Florida’s drinking water infrastructure was installed after lead service lines were no longer allowed, and many utilities installed galvanized steel or copper lines, even when lead service lines were permitted.

S Released the long-awaited proposed PFAS National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) at 4 parts per trillion, but also released an unexpected hazard index for four other PFAS compounds.

• The Water Utility Council is currently encouraging utilities to determine what technologies, costs, and timelines are needed to meet the new regulations by December 2026 (expected compliance date).

• The Water Utility Council, in close coordination with AWWA’s Government Affairs Office in Washington, D.C., developed comments and submitted them to EPA by the due date of May 30, 2023, for the federal docket.

S Issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) for input regarding potential future hazardous substance designations of seven PFAS compounds

beyond the proposed rule for PFOS and PFOA under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund.

• The Water Utility Council submitted a comment letter to the EPA federal docket similar to a November 2022 comment letter submitted for the proposed PFOA and PFOS CERCLA rule.

S Proposed Consumer Confidence Report Rule revisions, with comments due on May 22, 2023, at the federal docket. The Water Utility Council submitted comments after working closely with AWWA’s Government Affairs Office. The EPA expects to release the final rule by March 2024 and compliance begins in 2025. (We recommend you educate yourself on the proposed changes to be ready for this fast turnaround time.)

S Mandated that state agencies use their sanitary survey or propose an alternate process to address public water systems’ cybersecurity systems and released a guidance document.

• Three states subsequently sued EPA over the “rule” and AWWA supported this action and recently joined the lawsuit.

Stay tuned for more updates.

In congressional news, a CERCLA PFAS exemption bill now exists. Sen. Cynthia Lummis (R-WY) is sponsoring S.1430 - Water Systems PFAS Liability Protection Act with several cosponsors. The water sector, along with the National League of Cities, National Association of Counties, and United States Conference of Mayors, has advocated for an exemption for EPA’s proposed designation of PFOA and PFOS as hazardous under CERCLA for the last few years and this is a hopeful start for the 118th Congress.

The Water Utility Council will be coordinating a communication plan to reach our Florida congressional delegation as this evolves.

Lead Issues

A recently published article summarizing an EPA report stated that Florida has the most

Continued on page 32

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 31

Work title and years of service.

I’ve just started as senior client services manager with Ardurra.

What does your job entail?

I am leading the effort to open a new office for Ardurra southwest Florida operations and provide the overall leadership for our growing team. My primary responsibilities include developing client relationships, capturing new business, and delivering projects for clients in the southwest Florida region. To this end, I develop and manage pursuit efforts, proposals, business strategies, presentations, and contract negotiations, and provide technical support and oversight on projects.

What education and training have you had?

I have a bachelor of science degree in environmental engineering from Florida Gulf Coast University.

What do you like best about your job?

The long-term relationships developed with clients and partners over the years as my career has progressed. The trust and confidence those relationships are founded upon gives me the opportunity to understand our clients’ needs, which allows me to provide the tailored solutions they deserve.

What professional organizations do you belong to?

I belong to FWEA, FSAWWA, and Florida Section American Water Resources Association (FSAWRA).

How have the organizations helped your career?

I’ve been involved with FWEA since I was a student and my participation in the organization has had a tremendous impact on my professional success. It started with presenting at the Student Design Competition to now serving on the board as a director at large overseeing the activities of several chapters and committees. The ability to grow your professional network and actively participate in professional organizations is an invaluable benefit of membership.

What do you like best about the industry?

The incredible people I’ve met and had the opportunity to work with throughout my career, solving problems, advancing the industry, and making a difference in people’s lives (even though we go unnoticed most of the time).

What do you do when you’re not working?

I am passionate about providing opportunities for the next generation of engineers to find their place in the industry. Over the past decade I’ve initiated, led, or volunteered with several organizations, including the STEM Team (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) of southwest Florida, Architecture Construction Engineering (ACE) mentor program of southwest Florida, SunChase Solar GoKart Race, and Thomas Del Torto Memorial Foundation.

I also help with multiple charity golf and sporting clay tournaments with several organizations that raise funds for local scholarships for students to pursue engineering or construction management, or attend trade school. I also love to fish and golf any chance I get in my spare time. S

Continued from page 31

lead service lines of any state in the U.S. Based on input from our drinking water members and their historical compliance with the EPA Lead and Copper Rule monitoring and reporting requirements, the incidence of lead service lines for customers in Florida is expected to be far less than the EPA’s determination of 1.16 million lead pipes. The methodology EPA used in making this determination is unknown. As utilities complete their lead service line inventories, our members will provide additional information to EPA to ensure the risk of lead exposure through drinking water service lines in Florida’s communities continues to be addressed.

One benefit resulting from the report stating that there are a large number of potential lead service lines in Florida is that the state will likely receive a larger portion of SRF loans to aid utilities in developing their inventories and removing any lead service lines.

Since the publication of the EPA revised Lead and Copper Rule on Jan. 15, 2021, each of our drinking water members has been diligently working on compiling an inventory with information about the materials used on both the “utility” as well as the “customer” side of their drinking water service lines. The revised rule requires this inventory to be completed by Oct. 16, 2024. The use of lead materials in constructing drinking water service lines was prohibited after 1986, which means that any home constructed after 1986 has a nonlead drinking water service line.

In addition, EPA has requested clarification from the states on some of the data used for its report and we expect EPA to provide further clarification once the final report is published. With the Flint, Mich., water crisis issue from almost 10 years ago still ringing in people’s ears, we need to be transparent and diligent with the information we provide so proper context and evaluation can occur.

Reaching Out

How utilities relate to the public, promote confidence, and convey information is more important than ever. How customers consume and process information is changing and the water industry needs to keep up. The FSAWWA is looking at marketing strategies, information sharing, and social media to help utility members generate content and keep customers informed.

Visit www.fsawwa.org to learn more and www.drinktap.org to find resources and guidance on the importance and safety of tap water. S

32 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Dustin Chisum, P.E. Ardurra, Fort Myers

Safety: It’s More Than Just Common Sense

A phrase my boss often uses is “Hope is not a strategy.” But what are we hoping for everyday when we come to work? Are we hoping that we get done in time to make it home for the game? Are we hoping that we can finish all our tasks before our deadline, or are we hoping that someone is competent enough to not go near the edge of that excavation?

These are just a few examples of what could cross someone’s mind each day, but when it comes to construction, these thoughts can be the difference between going home the way we came to work—or not.

When contractors are working on a project, we’re often not just considering our own employees in how to execute a project safely. A water or wastewater treatment plant or facility is open 24/7, day-in and day-out, and has a variety of staff onsite when the contractors leave for the night. This accounts for the maintenance staff that needs to get around, operations personnel who might need to go operate a valve, or even laboratory technicians collecting samples. So, how do we plan and interact with the plant employees?

Do we hope their work doesn’t require them to enter the work zone, they don’t misstep into that excavation, or that stack of lumber isn’t in the way of their instrumentation? It’s our job to plan and remove all possible hazards from the site to minimize the risks for everyone.

The most common safety incidents on construction projects are slips, trips, and falls. Per the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), from 2015 to 2019 these seemingly simple incidents led to 38 percent of fatalities. It takes communication, planning, and scheduling to eliminate these incidents and make sure everyone on the project site doesn’t become a statistic.


Communication is pivotal in construction for all aspects of the project and among all stakeholders. In a work zone, in its simplest form, you may see caution tape or a “Do Not Enter” sign. We would hope that these signs would be respected, but human nature tells us that isn’t always the case (it’s often just pure curiosity). If the project team is properly communicating with everyone onsite, understanding where access is needed for construction or plant

operations can prevent someone walking into a risky situation. Through communication, we can plan our work to coincide with their needs and we are then able to plan our safety measures around them. What good would it be to just fence off an area so that when a plant employee needs access for an emergency he takes the fence down and walks through, exposing himself to potential injuries?

Work Planning

One method contractors often use to communicate is work plans. A written plan, involving the operators and maintenance staff to help put it together, should include a plant map showing pedestrian and vehicle access, laydown areas, and work zones that can or cannot be entered.

Working at existing plants can introduce additional challenges for the amount of workspace that’s available and can cause plans to change daily. This can be communicated through an updated information board, daily email or text updates, or pre-activity meetings. A plan is only as good as it’s communicated, so it’s our responsibility to not just hope everyone knows and agrees to the plan, but has bought into and follows the plan for a safe work environment.

34 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Example of a site plan with designated access.

Meeting With Contractors, Clients, and Staff

Every contractor has a version of scheduling meetings, whether it be every three weeks, weekly, or even daily. This is another great opportunity to invite the client and plant employees to attend and make sure we are all on the same page with upcoming activities. We need to know where the plant has maintenance duties or repairs just as much as the plant needs to know where we will be setting pipe that may, for instance, block their typical chemical delivery route.

Verbal communication is key, but it’s not the only solution to address safety hazards on a project. After we communicate the plan, we then must execute it in the field and update it for changes in conditions. We must go that extra mile to ensure not only our people, but everyone, can make it home safe at night. For example, when excavating, the plan should include delineating the excavation away from access around all sides and provide contact information for the responsible person in

charge, show the proper access in/out of the excavation, and offer reminders to keep tools and materials away from the edge and on flat and level ground. We should also take the extra time before leaving an operation to check for any possible hazards that could get someone hurt and eliminate them.

Hoping Doesn’t Get the Job Done

If you’re only hoping that everyone around you has common sense when it comes to safety, then you have already given up. Like the risks I mentioned and more, we must remove the word hope when it comes to

safety. We must communicate the plan to all stakeholders and eliminate all possible risks, even if it seems like overcommunicating.

Hope is not enough to get home the way you came to work.

If you’re interested in learning more about the Contractors Council or would like to request support, please visit the Florida Section AWWA website at www.fsawwa.org.

Eric Komanowski is a project engineer for Kiewit Water Facilities Florida Co. working from the Tampa office. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 35

Don’t Get Caught With Your Pumps Down: Using Analytics to Improve Pump Reliability and Performance

Much has been written about the potential for plugging pumps in both wastewater and raw water pumping applications. The prolific use of variable frequency drives on pumps offers both improved process control and the potential to reduce energy expenditures. Unfortunately, operating these pumps at reduced speeds is leading to

do not provide much insight into their overall performance potential.

The Case for Closely Monitoring Pumps Using Advanced Analytics

Data analytics of individual pump performance provides a more-holistic approach

that systems are operated, maintained, and even designed properly for the given service.

Simple illustrative dashboards convey live operating data and actionable alerts in the case of abnormal operation much more effectively than screens full of numbers. It’s perplexing that even today’s economy cars have simple dashboards (Figure 1) based on complex analytics that can calculate current fuel efficiency and whether it’s operating within the car’s performance envelope (tachometer), and yet today’s multimillion-dollar pumping stations don’t have anything similar to help operators make better decisions and take decisive action to prevent incidents like SSOs.

This no longer has to be the case.

Just like a car’s dashboard that summarizes important information into graphics, the proper use of analytics can summarize pump station operations into easily understood graphics that quickly convey actionable recommendations. It only takes a second to look at a car’s dashboard to tell whether the car is operating properly and water and wastewater operators shouldn’t have to spend any more time than that looking at their pump station “dashboards” to know if they are performing optimally.

In addition to simple dashboards, analytics platforms can include monthly summary report cards that allow managers to proactively plan for the refurbishment or replacement of worn equipment before that equipment leads to unplanned outages. Simple access to raw or analyzed data also allows engineers to design supplemental or replacement pumps to better fit the actual conditions of service and potentially identify changes in those conditions that may indicate issues with upstream or downstream piping.

In short, pump analytics empowers utility personnel to work together across disciplines

36 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Mike Bernard is vice president of business development at Specific Energy in Georgetown, Texas. Figure 2. Functional pump curves before and after cycling. Figure 1. Automobile dashboard.

to protect the environment, reduce energy expenditures, and extend the life of equipment.

Recognizing and Correcting Abnormal Pump Conditions

The City of Chattanooga (city) in Tennessee implemented an analytics platform on its Citico Pump Station in 2020. This combined sewage pumping station is the largest in the system and was scheduled for a major refurbishment of its pumps and electrical components. The city desired a comprehensive analysis of the pump sizing and current force main hydraulics to determine if changes should be made.

The analytics platform provided this information, but also indicated that there was a significant amount of deterioration of the impellers on two of the four pumps. This deterioration reduced the real firm capacity of the station from its design of 120 mil gal per day (mgd) to an actual capacity of 102 mgd. Additionally, the analytics platform indicated that plugging or ragging occurs in the pumps when operated at reduced speeds. While adversely impacting energy efficiency, this ragging also robs the station of capacity.

During extreme instances, individual pumps have lost as much as 50 percent of their capacity. This is significant as the station’s true firm capacity has been reduced to as low as 80 mgd during heavy inflow and infiltration events. Regaining this capacity is essential in the city’s efforts to reduce overflows and comply with its consent decree.

Fortunately, the analytics platform uncovered a positive and useful trend in pump performance connected to daily purging of the bubble level control system. During a purge, the signal from the bubbler indicates that the wet well is empty, so the programmable logic controller (PLC) either reduces pump speed to a minimum or turns off the pump. Five minutes later, the signal returns, indicating that the wet well level is too high. The PLC ramps the pump speed to 100 percent to pull the level back down before stabilizing several minutes later.

The periodic pump cycling is often enough to remove a majority of the foreign material from the impeller. This behavior is illustrated by data in Figure 2, which shows that the Pump 2 capacity increased by approximately 55 percent and the efficiency essentially doubled simply by cycling the pump during the bubbler purge.

The city is now evaluating automated pump cycling based upon a preset level of “lost capacity” provided by the analytics platform. Before a major rainfall event begins, operators can proactively check the real firm capacity of

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 37
Figure 4. Effect of operation outside of the preferred operating range on efficiency. Figure 3. Elevated specific energy during operation at low speeds. Figure 5. Barringer-Nelson curve (Centrifugal Pump Flow Operating Regions and Impact on Reliability, Budris, WaterWorld 2016). Continued on page 38

the station and perform any additional “cleaning cycles” on the pumps to assure that the station is performing to its potential.

How to Optimize for an Oversized Pumping System

Orange Water and Sewer Authority (OWASA) in Carrboro, N.C., implemented the same platform at the Rogerson Drive Pump Station, its largest regional wastewater pumping station, in early 2022. The initial finding from the analysis is that these pumps were operating too slowly almost 100 percent of the time.

Like most wastewater pumping stations, this one was designed to convey peak flows during heavy rainfall events; however, these events occur only 10 to 15 times per year. The unfortunate consequence of designing like this is that these pumps are operating outside of their preferred operating range (POR) almost all of the time.

Two things happen when pumps operate outside of their POR:

They waste energy. During low flow periods every night, these pumps consume 300 percent more energy per gal pumped than they would if they were in POR. This is indicated in Figures 3 and 4.

Wasted energy harms pumps. Conservation of energy dictates that this energy must go somewhere. In pumping systems, if it’s not going to pumping water, then it likely manifests as heat, damage, or noise. All of these are damaging for the pumps, which is why the Barringer-Nelson

curve (Figure 5) indicates that operation of pumps outside of POR significantly reduces the life of these critical assets.

The insights provided by the analytics platform have provided OWASA the data and opportunity to evaluate two potential modifications to its system.

The first is to simply increase the minimum speed set point of the existing pumps from 45 hertz (Hz) to 50 Hz. This will move the operation of each pump into its POR, but it will also cause the station to revert to a fill-and-drain mode of operation.

Operations was concerned that this could lead to odor complaints along the force main and a slugging effect at the wastewater treatment plant, so the second alternative is to add a jockey pump at the station that will handle the lower nighttime flows. The addition of a smaller 100-horsepower (HP) pump could both reduce the overall energy expenditure at the facility, as well as extend the life of the 200-HP pumps, so that OWASA doesn’t get caught with its pumps down when it needs them.

Using Analytics to Predict Obstructions in Suction and/or Discharge Piping

Analytics can also identify issues in the piping to or from the pumping systems.

This was one of the most important benefits for a utility in Texas at one of its raw water pumping facilities. The facility experienced issues in both the suction and discharge piping systems. The barrel strainers on the suction side of the canned turbine pumps were blinding due

to algae buildup, which starved the pumps and reduced output. The analytics platform provides a simple graphical indication to operators when this situation occurs so that operators can know to proactively clean the screens.

The discharge-side obstruction was more challenging to diagnose. The system hydraulics indicated that there was, at times, as much as 250 ft of additional head on the system that should not be there. This additional head, coupled with wear and tear on the pump impellers, increased the amount of electricity needed, while reducing the station’s potential output as much as 28 percent. Fortunately, the utility was able to reduce the head by running foam pigs through the 22 mi of 30-in. diameter main.

With the help of analytics, the system identified that the issue was caused by a combination of sediment and perched air bubbles in the piping due to faulty air release valves. Figure 6 illustrates the hydraulics before and after pigging. The data show that, after pigging, the current pump system hydraulics perfectly match the hydraulics from the original system design. The analytics package allows the utility to monitor the health of both the pumps and the piping systems and enables proactively scheduling maintenance activities to ensure that the utility has the capacity needed to make it through the hot summer months in Texas and keeps the systems operating optimally.


Almost every water and wastewater pumping system in the world today has some level of instrumentation that generates data. Unfortunately, most of these data are not being properly analyzed to give the operators, managers, and engineers who work with them the actionable insights they need to translate data into optimal system operation.

The application of a powerful analytics platform can provide these insights, reduce energy expenditures, extend the useful life of equipment, and protect the environment by reducing unplanned outages. All of this ensures that water and wastewater operators, managers, and engineers have the information they need to make sure that they don’t get caught with their pumps down.

This article first appeared in the spring 2023 issue of NC Currents, a publication of NC One Water (originally the North Carolina Section of the American Water Works Association and the North Carolina Member Association of the Water Environment Federation). S

38 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued from page 37
Figure 6. Performance Improvements from pipeline pigging.

Sedimentation has served as an effective method for water and wastewater treatment, but that doesn’t mean the technology can’t be upgraded. The Leopold Texler Lamella Clarifier from Xylem is a great example as its lamellae are made from a recyclable, durable, high-density polyethylene geotextile material that reduces service and maintenance requirements, while cutting solids by more than 80 percent.

The lamella plates typically found in clarifiers are made from heavy stainless steel, which require extensive support structures and significant capital investment. When exposed to sun, steel reflects ultraviolet rays and promotes algae growth in the clarifier, reducing the clarification performance and requiring regular, manual cleaning. The repellent and flexible nature of the geotextile prevents sludge accumulation on the lamella sheets, reducing the need for regular cleaning.

Lamella sheets are installed at an inclined 55-degree angle. Solids settle as the water travels upward between the lamella sheets and flows through trough covers featuring an integrated v-notch weir, resulting in even distribution of flow throughout the clarifier.

The inclined plate arrangement of the Texler system allows for an increase in the clarification

area and higher surface overflow rates, reducing the required basin dimensions by up to 80 percent for new builds, or allowing more than a 100 percent increase in flow within existing sedimentation basins. The geotextile material has been proven in similar applications to last over 20 years. The width of the lamella sheets can be adapted to optimize the use of existing basins. As a result, water treatment capacity of existing rectangular clarification systems can be increased by up to 100 percent, with over 80 percent reduction in solids and turbidity values reaching levels less than 1 NTU. The solution’s modular design allows for easy maintenance, as each lamella sheet can be easily removed independently. The flexible design allows for cost-effective retrofitting of existing rectangular basins, significantly reducing the overall construction costs while significantly increasing flow capacity. (www.xylem.com)

The Flowrox FinFlex Check Valve from Valmet Flow Control helps prevent sewage overflow, malodors, and backflow of waterways. The cover and sleeve are designed to easily slip into the existing pipe and are affixed to a pipe with heavy-duty stainless steel expandable clamps.

They can be installed in either a vertical or horizontal application and have very low headloss and cracking pressures. This type of check valve uses a rubber flap that is molded internally to its thick rubber housing, which allows the valve to be completely closed until a small water column discharges via gravity through the valve. It also allows the runoff to occur until back pressure exceeds the inlet pressure.

The rubber flap is manufactured to reduce headloss across the valve when compared to other designs, such as a swing or ball check valve. When used for odor control, the valve will seal completely on itself, compared to the duckbill styles that rely on increased backpressures to seal the duckbill lips closed. The check valve ranges in size from 3 to 72 inches, with backpressures up to 50 feet. (www. valmet.com)

The MD3 Multi-Diaphragm Metering Pump from Blue-White Industries delivers smooth, continuous chemical feed, even when injecting chemicals that off-gas, like peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. The cutting-edge hyperdrive technology allows for alternating pumping action

Continued on page 46

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 45 NEW PRODUCTS

between two diaphragms: when one diaphragm is in the suction phase the other is in the discharge, resulting in a smooth chemical feed profile and eliminating the chance of vapor lock and loss of prime. The diaphragms will last the life of the pump, eliminating the need for expensive rebuild kits. (www.blue-white.com)

The Microsystems GD-4000 Multi-Channel Gas Detector from Eagle Microsystems monitors and detects the hazardous gases often found in water and wastewater treatment environments. This high-performance detector is designed to provide accurate and reliable readings of gas concentrations, ensuring the safety of workers and the public. Featuring NEMA 4X enclosures, it’s built to withstand harsh environments and is resistant to dust, water, and extreme temperatures. Its user-friendly, color touch-screen interface and field-programmable alarms and settings make it easy to use. Calibration is accomplished through the same menu drive touch-screen interface. It has four 4-20 mA DC outputs and is capable of housing up to four precision sensors for common gases like chlorine and sulfur dioxide. Its sensor

technology can detect gas concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm, ensuring maximum protection against potential leaks or other hazardous situations. (www.eaglemicrosystems.com)

Sherwin-Williams Protective & Marine recently launched its Water Tank Color Designer, an online tool for conceptualizing, visualizing, and optimizing water storage tank coating projects. It’s a comprehensive tool that engineers, contractors, and applicators can all use to accurately and creatively design water storage tank projects. The tool helps customers bring their visions to life and makes it easier to share designs for approval from everyone involved.

The tool presents an array of customizable options, including tank styles, paint colors, logos, icons, and fonts. Users can create multicolor designs with different colors for various areas of the tank, including the top, bottom, and legs. Users can also upload their own logo designs to help make their visualization as real as possible.

There are eight different tank styles provided: ground storage, standpipe, legged, spheroid, hydropillar, hydrotank, cone roof, and composite. There’s also access to any of the Sherwin-Williams

Color System 4000 Series industrial colors, as well as the most popular exterior tank colors. Users can also add in their own messaging and imagery. With the visualization tool, users can select the appropriate environment for showcasing their tank design, depending on whether the realworld project will stand against, for instance, a city skyline or a field. The virtual tank view is also fully rotatable for examination of the design from all angles. (www.swcoloryourtank.com)

The Duperon FlexRake IQ platform provides real-time smart screening for maximum resilience at the headworks. It tackles high peaking factors due to extreme weather and handles difficult debris like flushable wipes, first flushes, and settled solids. This is accomplished by system improvements and a sequence of operations that automatically respond in real time to optimize the screen field. The reimagined design focuses on smart enhancements to the raking device to manage heavy solids-loading events with four times the increased debris removal capacity, improved grit and rock handling and greater solids capture. (www.duperon.com) S

46 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal Factory Trained Technicians - Emergency Repair Services - PM Service/Plans Gas Feed Systems Dry Chemical Feed Systems Peristaltic Pumps Fiberglass Enclosures Metering Pump Skids Tablet Feeders Analyzers Scale Systems Serving the Southeast since 1976 800–826-7699 watertc@watertc.com watertc.com
from page 45

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge!

Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available.

This month’s editorial theme is Stormwater Management and Emerging Technologies . Look above the set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Don’t Get Caught With Your Pumps Down: Using Analytics to Improve Pump Reliability and Performance

1. The analytics platform revealed that the Citico pumps were under-performing due to

a. a malfunctioning variable frequency drive.

b. improper pump selection.

c. unanticipated high head conditions.

d. impeller deterioration.

2. Which of the following corrective actions was taken to correct the pump operating speed at the Carrboro, N.C., station?

a. Discharge lines were pigged.

b. Downstream air release valves were repaired.

c. Minimum speed set points were increased.

d. Motor horsepower was increased.

3. _________________ is often enough to remove a majority of foreign material from the pump impeller and improve pump efficiency at the Chattanooga site.

a. Periodic manual cleaning

b. An influent screen

c. Periodic pump cycling

d. Reversal of pump rotation

4. Which of the following was not identified as contributing to a loss of pump efficiency at the Texas raw water pumping station?

a. Impeller wear

b. Algae buildup on suction strainers

c. Perched air bubbles in downstream piping

d. Discharge piping sediment

Article 1

(561) 625-4858

providing the following information:

5. The _________________ curve demonstrates that operating pumps outside their preferred operating range significantly reduced pump life.

a. Hazen

b. Barringer-Nelson

c. Total Efficiency

d. Best Practice

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 47
SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)
LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded
If paying
credit card, fax
(Credit Card Number) (Expiration Date) EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Florida Stormwater Rule Update

In 2020, the Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill (SB) 712, Clean Waterways Act (CWA), requiring the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the state’s water management districts (WMDs) to initiate rulemaking to update the statewide stormwater design criteria program by Jan. 1, 2021. A 2007 report provided to FDEP determined that the existing criteria were (in most cases) not adequate to attain the goal of 80 percent reduction in pollutant loadings that would cause or contribute to violations of state water quality criteria, or the goal of a 95 percent reduction in pollutant loadings when discharging to outstanding Florida waters.

A subsequent series of FDEP recommendations (drafted in March 2010) were never adopted. Section 5 of SB 712 directed FDEP and the WMDs to update the design criteria and the Environmental Resource Permit (ERP) Applicant’s Handbook using the most recent scientific information available.

Committee Review

To assist in that effort, FDEP appointed a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of 13

credentialed professionals representing a wide variety of stakeholders and interest groups, who were very familiar with stormwater permitting policy and practices throughout Florida.

Starting on Nov. 2, 2021, the TAC met over a dozen times to identify and outline recommendations for strengthening stormwater design and operation regulations. A final summary report of the TAC’s recommendations was published by FDEP in March 2022. The Florida Stormwater Association (FSA) was actively engaged in this process, developing a position paper on the design criteria.

Workshops and Hearing Held

As part of the rulemaking process, FDEP held four rulemaking workshops to review proposed revisions to Volume I of the ERP Applicant’s Handbook.

Members of FSA attended and actively participated in each workshop, providing detailed comments by the requested deadline of Dec. 28, 2022. In addition, as a part of the rulemaking effort, a letter was sent to the FDEP secretary from members of FDEP’s Technical Advisory Committee.

On Feb. 24, 2023, FDEP published a Notice of Proposed Rule in the Florida Administrative Register for proposed amendments to Chapter 62-330, FAC. On March 22, 2023, FDEP held a lower cost regulatory alternative (LCRA) hearing, to review the four alternatives to the proposed rule.

The FDEP is now reviewing the evidence and information submitted through the end of the hearing and is preparing a notice of change to

Committee (JAPC) comments. This change will require an additional review period and open the proposed rule for comments.

On March 24, 2023, FDEP published a Notice of Change to the Proposed Rule in the Florida Administrative Register. The change includes a revised estimated regulatory cost, and with the change, a 21-day comment and challenge period was required, which ended on April 14, 2023. Some concerns were expressed with some of the proposed changes, but there was support for FDEP to get the rule delivered to the Legislature for ratification this year. No legal challenges were filed on the rule and FDEP did initiate the process to introduce the bill for ratification during the 2023 legislative session.

Rule Ratification

Ratification of the rule is required by the Legislature due to its fiscal impact. The Legislature did not accept the bill for deliberation and ratification, thus the rule was not ratified. At this time, the rule is considered adopted, but not effective for implementation, leaving it in a holding pattern until next year’s session where FDEP is expected to file a ratification bill. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 49 15-17 AUG 22 AUG 23 AUG 24 AUG 28-31 AUG 28-30 AUG 7 SEP 11-15 SEP 19-21 SEP 25-29 SEP 3-4 OCT 11-13 JUL 25-27 JUL Water Distribution Systems Operator Level 1 Training Course Virtual | $575 CEUs 2.4 DS DW WW Intro to Lift Station Maintenance Water Tower, Buford, GA | $325 CEUs 0.8 DS WW Basic Water and Wastewater Pump Maintenance Water Tower, Buford, GA | $300 CEUs 0.8 DS WW WW Water Distribution System Pipes and Valves Water Tower, Buford, GA | $180 CEUs 0.5 DS DW WW Water Distribution Systems Operator Level 2 & 3 Training Virtual | $699 CEUs 3.2 DS DW WW - Level 2 & 3 SCADA Systems Gainesville, FL | $575 CEUs 1.2 DS DW WW Intro to Lift Station Maintenance Virtual| $325 CEUs 0.8 DS WW Wastewater Class A Certification Review Virtual | $720 Intro to Electrical Maintenance Gainesville, FL | $605 CEUs 2.0 DS DW WW Water Class A Certification Review Virtual | $720 FDEP SOPs for Water & Groundwater Sampling & Meter Testing Gainesville, FL | $310 CEUs 1.2 DW DS WW Train the Trainer: How to Design & Deliver Effective Training Gainesville, FL & Virtual | $745 CEUs 2.4 DS DW WW Microbiology of Activated Sludge Gainesville, FL | $699 CEUs 2.2 WW Visit www.treeo.ufl.edu for a full schedule of courses including: Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Recertification Register online at go.ufl.edu/FWRJTREEO EXCELLENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Southwest Florida Water Management District Governing Board Elects Officers for 2023-2024 Term

The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) governing board recently voted to elect officers for the 20232024 term.

Ed Armstrong was elected chair of the governing board. Armstrong represents Pinellas County and is an attorney with Hill Ward Henderson in Clearwater. He was appointed to the board in June 2014 and was reappointed in October 2020 and June 2022. His term expires March 1, 2026.

Michelle Williamson was elected vice chair of the governing board. Williamson represents Hillsborough County and is

the operations manager of G&F Farms. Williamson was appointed to the board in August 2016 and reappointed in December 2020. Her term expires March 1, 2024.

John Mitten was elected secretary of the governing board. Mitten represents Hernando and Marion counties and is the franchise owner of Chick-fil-A in Spring Hill. Mitten was appointed to the board in October 2020. His term expires March 1, 2024.

Jack Bispham was elected treasurer of the governing board. Bispham represents Manatee County and is the owner and operator of Red Bluff Plantation. Bispham

was appointed to the board in November 2019 and was reappointed in May 2021. His term expires March 1, 2025.

All of the officers assumed their positions for the 2023-2024 term 24 hours before the June 2023 governing board meeting.

Governing board members are unpaid, citizen volunteers who are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Florida Senate. The board sets policy for SWFWMD, with the mission to protect water resources, minimize flood risks, and ensure that the public’s water needs are met. S

50 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal


CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $22 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


The City of Delray Beach invites you to apply for: Assistant Water Sewer Network Manager

$62,420.80 - $99,860.80/yr.

Please visit our website: https://www.delraybeachfl.gov/home to learn more about what Delray Beach - “The Village by the Sea” has to offer and submit your on-line application today!

Clay County Utility Authority - Multiple Positions Available Senior Design Engineer /project manager, GIS & Asset System manager, Water treatment plant operator trainee, Wastewater Mechanic, and electrician. Apply at WWW.CLayutility.org

and communication skills that can assist the Director with planning and execution of organizational priorities and policies. This position requires a high-energy individual with self-initiative, vision, strategic thinking, and creative problem-solving abilities. The Deputy Director is expected to:

• Provide technical support and direction to managers as well as mentoring and engaging employees in the organization

• Prepare and review budgets and capital improvements priorities

Orange County Government is an employer of choice, embracing innovation, collaboration, and inclusion. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from worldfamous tourist attractions. Orange County continues to build a thriving economy and a welcoming community that works for everyone.

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility service providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We have over 1,000 employees and own and operate 4 regional and 8 satellite water supply facilities; 4 regional water reclamation facilities; over 4,700 miles of pipelines; over 12,000 fire hydrants; 847 wastewater pump stations; the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; 2 solid waste transfer stations; and manage the garbage, recycling, yard waste and large item collection of over 230,000 residents. Orange County Utilities provides water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services to a population of over 800,000 citizens and 75 million annual guests. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, innovation, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development.

This position requires a minimum of 10 years of experience in a leadership role with focus on utilities management and strategic initiatives. Specific knowledge and leadership experience in alternative water supply projects, integrated water resources, potable reuse and/or innovation are preferred.

We are seeking a highly qualified individual with great leadership

• Attend public meetings, prepare and make presentations, and create a culture of public confidence

• Build strong relationships with internal and external stakeholders

• Identify challenges for the organization and develop solutions and recommendations

• Actively engage in regulatory processes by participating, evaluating, and drafting language for proposed rules and regulations

• Have strong technical competence in water resources to create and implement innovative and environmentally feasible projects

• Show proficiency in developing, reviewing, and negotiating complex contracts

• Lead the preparation and submittal of permits and negotiation of permit conditions

• Lead and implement innovative and sustainable projects

• Responsible for personnel matters including hiring, training, employee development, disciplinary actions, and performance appraisals

• Have a passion for public service and community engagement

• Other duties requested by the Director

This is an appointed position that serves at the pleasure of the county mayor.

Deputy Director of Utilities

(Water/Water Reclamation/Solid Waste)

Annual Salary

$128,356 Min, $205,379 Max

Starting salary of external candidates is based on qualifications

Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers

Search for Job ID 31536

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 51

The Coral Springs Improvement District

A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life!

CSID offers…

Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts Promotions from within for qualified employees

Continuing education courses to develop your skills and further your growth

Retirement plans where an employee can earn 18% of their salary by contributing toward their future

The Coral Springs Improvement District is seeking qualified employees in the following field:

Lead Wastewater Plant Operator:

Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater Treatment license and a minimum of three years’ experience.

Experienced in the operation of sewage treatment, sludge processing, and disposal equipment in wastewater. This lead position is responsible for keeping within the permit discharge limits and routinely monitoring the flow of wastewater and chemical levels. Employees in this class receive minimal supervision and reports to the Chief Waste Operator.

Salary range $81,328. – 95,680. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field.

Wastewater Plant Operator:

Applicants must have a valid Class C Wastewater Treatment license or greater.

Operates sewage treatment, sludge processing, and disposal equipment in wastewater (sewage) treatment plant to control flow and processing of sewage. This employee is responsible for keeping within permit discharge limits and routinely monitors the flow of wastewater and chemical levels. Employee in this class receives general supervision and reports to the Lead Operator.

Salary range: $54,029. - $86,112. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field.

Water and Waste Plant Maintenance Supervisor:

Supervises and performs maintenance and repairs on a variety of mechanical, plumbing, and electrical equipment, including pumps, motors, controllers, valves, charts, and plant instruments. Responsible for overseeing all installation, repair and upkeep operations of the District’s facilities. Purchases equipment, materials, and supplies performs cost comparisons for services, equipment, and supplies; performs inventory duties; operates a variety of hand and power tools; operates heavy equipment. Education and experience require a high school diploma or GED equivalent. Must have knowledge and level of competency commonly associated with the completion of specialized training in the field of work.

Salary range: $68,000. - $88,478. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field.


Excellent benefits which include health, life, disability, dental, vison and a retirement plan which includes a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match up to 6%. EOE. All positions require a valid Florida Drivers license, high school diploma or GED equivalent, be COVID-19 vaccinated and must pass a pre-employment drug screen test Salaries for the above position based on level of licensing and years of experience.

Submit your resume to or fax your resume to 954-753-6328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Mead & Hunt - Senior Project Leader

Tampa, Orlando or Daytona Beach

Mead & Hunt, a nationally recognized professional services consulting firm, is experiencing exciting success and sustainable growth. As a result, we have a full-time position available for a senior project leader. Complete the online application process for this job posting at www.meadhunt.com/careers.

City of Temple Terrace Water Plant Operator

Technical work in the operation of a water treatment plant and auxiliary facilities on an assigned shift. Performs quality control lab tests and other analyses, monthly regulatory reports, and minor adjustments and repairs to plant equipment. Applicant must have State of Florida D.E.P. Class “A”, “B”, or “C ” Drinking Water License at time of application. Excellent benefits package. To apply and/or obtain more details contact City of Temple Terrace, Chief Plant Operator at (813) 506-6593 or Human Resources at (813) 5066430 or visit www.templeterrace.com. EOE/DFWP.


$22.13 - $35.42 per hour • w/”C” Certificate

$24.34 - $38.96 per hour • w/”B” Certificate (+10% above “C”) $26.77 - $42.86 per hour • w/”A” Certificate (+10% above “B”) $1,000 Hiring Bonus!

Water Reclamation Facility Operator III

(IRC58876) This is skilled technical work, with supervisory responsibilities, in the inspection and operation of a water reclamation plant. The person in this position fills the role as the shift leader. Work involves responsibility for the safe and efficient operation of a water reclamation facility, routine adjustments to equipment and machinery operating controls, inspection of equipment inside and outside the plant site. An employee in this class exercises considerable independent judgment in adjusting machinery, equipment, and related control apparatus in accordance with established procedures and standards to produce a high-quality reclaimed water product. An employee in this class must be able to report to work outside of normally scheduled work hours at the discretion of management.

Required Qualifications:

♦ Possess a valid high school diploma or GED equivalency.

♦ Possess and maintain a valid Driver License.

♦ Possess and maintain a State of Florida Wastewater Operator “B” License.

♦ Must be able to perform shift work.

♦ Acknowledge this position is designated as Emergency Critical (EC) and if hired into the position, you must be immediately available to the department before, during, and after a declared emergency and/or disaster.

Salary: $29.97 - $39.90 hourly


52 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

City of Plantation- Multiple Positions Available Electrician

Licensed Field Technician I, II, or III

Process Control System Specialist

Plant Mechanic I, II, or III

Plant Operator Water/Wastewater Class A, B, or C



The Ocean Reef Community Association (ORCA), located in North Key Largo, FL, has a Full-Time position available for a Wastewater Treatment Operator. The Wastewater Treatment Operator is responsible for recording and interpreting data to generate reports of the plant.

Water/Wastewater Project Manager

Jacksonville and Fort Myers, Florida

Weston & Sampson is currently seeking a Project Manager with 8-15 years of experience to work in Florida. The Project Manager will preferably be someone who has knowledge of municipal water, wastewater, and reclaimed water-related client services.

Join us as we grow!


Selected candidate assist with the operation of a secondary level 350,000 gal/day wastewater treatment plant, wastewater collection system, and a reverse osmosis water treatment plant and ancillary facilities. In addition, selected candidate will collect samples and perform routine laboratory analyses. Selected candidate must respond to emergency call outs during weekends, holidays, and nonbusiness hours to ensure continued operation of public facilities. High School Diploma or equivalent is required. Community College and/or Correspondence courses in utility infrastructure are desirable. A valid Florida Driver License is required. A Florida Class C Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator License is required. One (1) to three (3) years of experience is preferred.

Please visit orcareef.com to view the full job description/requirements and apply online.

Human Resources

OCEAN REEF COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION orcaemployment@orcareef.com

Okeechobee Utility Authority

Lift Station Technician.

U.S. Water Services Corporation Multiple Positions Available

• Engineer

• Operations Manager

• Project Manager

• Utility Billing Supervisor

• Utility Construction Technician

• Water/Wastewater Plant Operators

Are you ready to join our team?

Please Apply online at www.uswatercorp.com/careers/ www.uswatercorp.com

Utility Lead Worker

The City of Eustis is seeking a Utility Lead Worker. Please visit eustis.org for full job description, salary, & online app. Background check/drug screen required. EOE, V/P, DFWP

For salary and information and to apply, visit www.ouafl.com/employment-opportunities

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2023 53

Editorial Calendar

January ....... Wastewater Treatment

February ...... Water Supply; Alternative Sources

March ........... Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship

April ............. Conservation and Reuse

May .............. Operations and Utilities Management

June Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production

July .............. Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies

August ......... Disinfection; Water Quality

September... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management

October ....... New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades

November.... Water Treatment

December .... Distribution and Collection

Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue).

The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue).

For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index

Test Yourself Answer

Continued from page 28

1. D) the calcium and magnesium cations measured. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater defines hardness as a result of the calcium and magnesium cations measured.

2. D) All the above.

Source waters with high levels of hardness can shorten the life fabrics, plate and form scale within boilers, and cause scale to form within hot water heaters.

3. A) ion exchange and chemical precipitation. The methods traditionally used to remove hardness are ion exchange and chemical precipitation.

4. D) 30 to 40 mg/l as CaCO3

The minimum hardness level that can be obtained via chemical precipitation, i.e., lime-soda ash softening, is 30 to 40 mg/l as CaCO3

5. C) 0 mg/l as CaCO3

The minimum hardness level that can be obtained via ion exchange is 0 mg/l as CaCO3

6. A) Calcium carbonate

Adding lime to source water with high levels of calcium bicarbonate in order to raise the pH around 10 will result in forming calcium carbonate, thereby removing calcium hardness.

7. B) magnesium carbonate.

Split lime treatment may be utilized to reduce the cost in treating source waters with high levels of magnesium bicarbonate.

8. C) Carbon dioxide

Split lime treatment may reduce the cost of softening due to its ability to reduce the use of carbon dioxide gas, which lowers the pH of the treated water to acceptable levels.

9. A) permanent or noncarbonate hardness. Source waters that cannot be softened to the desired level using lime only have high levels of permanent or noncarbonate hardness and thus must be treated with limesoda ash or lime-caustic soda.

10. D) Iron and manganese

Iron and manganese must be removed from the source water before applying such water to an ion exchange unit as it will reduce the removal efficiency of the unit.

54 July 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal Anue Water Technologies 11 Blue Planet Environmental Systems 51 CEU Challenge ........................................................................................... 47 Dataflow Systems 35 Engineered Pumps 15 FJ Nugent 33 Florida Aquastore 50 Florida Water Resources Conference ...................................................... 23 FSAWWA Fall Conference 40-44 FWPCOA Training Calendar 29 Gerber Pumps 9 Heyward 2 Hudson Pump & Equipment ...................................................................... 39 Hydro International 5 Lakeside Equipment Corporation 7 PolyProcessing 45 Smith and Loveless 19 Stantec 13 UF TREEO Center 49 US Submergent 27 Water Treatment & Controls Technology 46 Xylem ........................................................................................................... 52