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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office:

P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs

News and Features

4 Stormwater Testing and Evaluation: Improving Water Quality 9 Reduction in U.S. Water Utility Revenue May Result in $32.7 Billion Economic Hit 12 FWEA Awards 25 EPA Selects Eighth Annual Campus RainWorks Challenge Winners 42 Florida Stormwater Association: An Advocate for This Precious Resource—Danielle Hopkins

43 News Beat

Technical Articles

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

16 Reuse, Reduce, Recharge, Restore, and Recreate: Ocala Wetland Park—Allison

Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

34 Caloosahatchee River West Basin Storage Reservoir: Geographic Information System Applications for Quality Assurance and Quality Control—Shawn Waldeck,

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Lewis, Rachel Slocumb, and Rafael Vazquez-Burney

Joseph Albers, Thomas McKernan, and Jennifer Jacobs

Education and Training

15 CEU Challenge 28 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers 29 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview 30 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibits 31 FSAWWA Fall Conference Golf, Happy Hour, and Poker Night 32 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions 33 FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards 41 FWPCOA Training Calendar 45 FWPCOA Online Training Institute 47 TREEO Center Training

Columns

10 FWEA Focus—James J. Wallace 22 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski 39 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 44 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak

Departments

48 Classifieds 50 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: The City of Stuart wetland restoration project is located on a 6-acre site near the heart of downtown and was completed in 2019. The site provides public access, passive environmental education, and stormwater treatment for 395 acres of upland area. (photo: City of Stuart)

July 2020

Number 7

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

3


Stormwater Testing and Evaluation: Improving Water Quality

T

he Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative seeks to improve water quality in the United States with the implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies and by removing current barriers to innovation, creating regulatory confidence, minimizing duplicative performance evaluation efforts, and establishing a common framework for testing and evaluating both public domain and proprietary stormwater control measures. As stormwater-related pollution has increased, regulatory programs have been established at the state and federal levels to address the effects of stormwater runoff. Various stormwater control measures (SCMs), such as proprietary products and public domain practices, have been developed and have evolved to address runoff issues. As the diversity and complexity of SCMs has grown, the need to develop a process to test, categorize, review, evaluate, verify, and certify/approve stormwater runoff controls became evident. This process ensures that the efficacy of products and practices meets performance expectations, which often are tied to permit requirements. Some programs to test and evaluate SCMs have arisen at the state, regional, and national levels, but these have had mixed results.

Beginning of the Initiative The STEPP initiative was triggered, in part, by the end of the only national evaluation program for stormwater technologies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

environmental technology verification (ETV) program. The STEPP program was created from a 2012 meeting of interested parties representing the product manufacturing, consulting, and regulatory sectors. The Water Environment Federation (WEF) volunteered to investigate the need for a national testing and evaluation program for stormwater products and practices, and formed a STEPP workgroup. A white paper was released (2014, WEF) that summarized the findings of the workgroup. The report noted that a national SCM testing and evaluation program would be beneficial to multiple stakeholders (regulators, municipalities, technology providers, consumers, etc.). The result of this 2014 investigation was that agreement existed on the feasibility and the need for a national program. With support from EPA to move beyond the investigatory phase, a STEPP steering/ advisory committee was assembled. It became part of the WEF Stormwater Institute in 2015, which morphed the steering committee into a work team. This second phase sought to develop a report to recommend the scale, scope, architecture, funding, and leadership for a national program. The committee used five stormwater and nonstormwater technology

4 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

evaluation programs as models for the potential design components to be considered for the STEPP program. Additionally, two informal surveys of states and municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) permitees assessed their needs and how they might use such a program. A feasibility report was released in 2016 that laid out the potential framework and policy options for the STEPP program (WERF, 2016). Findings from this document include: S E  nhance and further implement recruitment strategies through partnerships with stakeholder groups. These include individual states, MS4 permittees, EPA, academic researchers, the development community, nongovernmental organizations, and others. S P  romote the adoption of a flexible “cafeteria plan� approach for a national program that is envisioned to evolve continually over time. A cafeteria plan option allows both technology proponents and regulatory entities to have flexibility in designing a SCM study and determining how to meet specific state and local regulatory requirements. Individual program features that were explored included mission and objectives, program services, organizational relationships, operational structure, governance, funding, stakeholder engagement and transparency, testing purpose and scope, the setting for testing, and reciprocity. Continued on page 6


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Initiative Participants Selected and Meetings Held The STEPP program continued to evolve. In the summer of 2017, WEF hosted a meeting to consider the potential of a multiorganizational partnership to work together by leveraging the respective strengths of each organization to further the goals of the STEPP concept (June 2017, meeting synthesis). The result is the STEPP consortium group, which is led by WEF and includes the following participants:

S A  merican Society for Testing Materials (ASTM International) S I nterstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) S W  ater Research Foundation S W  ashington State Department of Ecology, University of Washington – Washington Stormwater Center, Technology Assessment Protocol – Ecology (TAPE) S N  ew Jersey Corporation for Advanced Technology (NJCAT)/New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) These

organizations

have

worked

Figure 1. Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices Consortium Group Partners

Figure 2. Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices Consortium Group Partners Proposed Tasks

6 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

together to articulate an initial understanding of their respective roles as STEPP matures into an independent program, which is outlined in the document, “Stormwater Testing and Evaluation of Products and Practices (STEPP) Consortium Overview.” The work team and the consortium met and reviewed this document with no major disagreements, which suggests that the work team supports the members of the consortium, as well as their roles as outlined in the document. This document formed an initial basis of understanding regarding the various roles that the consortium group members would play as STEPP continues its work. To help move the STEPP initiative forward, the meeting focused on two areas. First, the roles outlined in the consortium document needed to be developed in greater detail. Second, the activities and schedule associated with the STEPP initiative over an estimated six to 12 months needed to be fleshed out. These two proposed and preliminary focus areas underpin the development of memoranda of understanding (MOUs) that needed to be created to formalize the relationships among the consortium group partners, and to the program overall. The next meeting, held July 2018 and hosted by WEF, again brought the organizations together, along with the WEF Stormwater Institute STEPP work team, to refine the roles each organization could play in the STEPP program, consider more detailed policies, and identify initial coordinating activities among the consortium group partners (July 2018, meeting summary). The focus for discussion was on SCM verification programs and issues, with a specific focus on the STEPP program initiative. Objectives for the discussion included: S Provide an overview of the STEPP consortium group. S Develop a more detailed/enhanced understanding of the roles of consortium group members in the STEPP program. S Identify and discuss key areas of focus that will enable the STEPP program to progress. S Develop a list of near-term activities for consortium group members, along with a schedule for activities. S Discuss the nature of the MOUs, along with proposed MOU elements, articulating the relationship of consortium group members with the STEPP program initiative, and the contributing products and/or activities that each member can provide toward the further development of the STEPP program. Continued on page 8


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Continued from page 6 S Develop a list of areas for further and deeper understanding and research. S Develop a list of next steps in the STEPP program initiative for work team and consortium group members. Another topic discussed at length during the meeting focused on the number of storm events needed for statistical significance and/or confidence in product or practice performance. A related issue that was discussed was the concept of developing a single standard for data collection associated with field testing and evaluation, rather than a series of standards based upon geographic, physiographic, or ecographic regions. Related to this would be the concept of a base level of data collection required in a verification effort, with no prescriptive information related to certification at all, as STEPP will only be a testing and verification program. Certification will be done at the state and local levels, with testing information based on standard verification protocol. An area of agreement on this topic was the need for research funding to develop a deeper understanding of the relationship between data sample size for storm events and the statistically defined level of confidence associated with product or practice performance. It was suggested that the STEPP program could develop guidance based upon this type of research, which could be referenced in an ASTM standard on the issue of data collection for field testing and evaluation. The significance of this issue is related to the cost and time required for stormwater product or practice testing and evaluation. A central tenant of the STEPP initiative is the need to reduce testing/evaluation time and costs in order to drive further innovation in the sector, as well as providing greater

opportunities to responsibly drive new and emerging technologies to the market and into implementation. Associated with further partner engagement is the need to interact with the states. The STEPP program has been working closely with the Association of Clean Water Administrators (ACWA), which represents state regulatory staff for the wastewater and stormwater sector. In a survey of ACWA stormwater committee members, over 95 percent of those who responded did so favorably when asked about support for STEPP. It was recognized that some states may be more interested than others to actively engage in and support the STEPP program. Those involved groups most closely aligned with state regulators suggested that an outreach strategy should be developed to target those states that would be most supportive in order to gain support of a critical mass in a moreefficient manner. The bottom line is that states that are not supportive of STEPP and will not certify products or practices based upon STEPP verification results will undermine the potential success of the program; therefore, it was recognized that gaining support from a critical mass of state regulatory programs is likely needed to show value in terms of market size for product manufacturers.

Letters of Support From Other Organizations The STEPP group has received unsolicited letters of support from several jurisdictions, states, and organizations, such as: S Associated General Contractors of America

8 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S I nternational Council of Shopping Centers S Leading Builders of America S National Apartment Association S National Association of Home Builders S National Multifamily Housing Council S National Association of Realtors S Retail Industry Leaders Association These groups are pleased to support the development of a STEPP program, as outlined in the recent report, “Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program Based Upon the STEPP Initiative.” Other groups and entities offering support include: S The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), Water Resources Division, supports the recommendations of the national STEPP workgroup steering committee. Letters of support from other states have been received as well. S It’s the understanding of NJDEP that WEF is determining the feasibility of creating a national protocol for the testing and evaluation of manufactured treatment devices. The department fully supports the development of such a protocol and applauds WEF’s leadership and efforts in this matter. S The Washington State chapter of the American Public Works Association’s Stormwater Managers Committee expresses its support for developing a national testing and evaluation program for stormwater products and practices. S The State of Washington Department of Ecology supports the idea of a national program that provides a level of detail comparable to its program and that addresses its concerns.


Next Steps The July 2018 meeting covered a lot of topics and found areas of agreement and common interest upon which to progress in the future. Clarity on the roles for consortium group partners was gained and enhanced understanding on key difficult issues was found, such as the time required to develop an ASTM standard and a strategy to address the number of storm events needed within a field testing and evaluation effort. Currently, STEPP is working closely with ASTM to establish performance testing standards based upon the New Jersey and Washington State programs, as well as working to support the establishment of a new stormwater committee within ASTM to expand the number of standards in the stormwater sector overall. Also, STEPP is working with interested parties in Minnesota to better understand how STEPP can be integrated into a state program. A list of future efforts and activities were identified during the meeting, including: S Business plan development S Need for research funds to address the number of storm events question S Development of a market analysis to determine quantified understanding of demand for STEPP-related services S Development and deployment of an outreach/engagement strategy targeted to state regulatory programs S Engagement with philanthropy entities to identify potential funding sources to aid in the launch of the STEPP program S Begin ASTM standards development for TAPE and NJCAT protocols Efforts to build momentum, further develop the STEPP program initiative, and solidify partnerships are moving ahead. Stormwater pollution continues to grow in many parts of the United States, and having the tools available to enhance the confidence in treatment options will help to successfully address this issue. For further information regarding STEPP, contact Seth Brown, WEF Stormwater Institute senior advisor, at seth.brown@ stormandstream.com.

Reduction in U.S. Water Utility Revenue May Result in $32.7 Billion Economic Hit Revenue shortfalls at drinking water utilities in the United States from the coronavirus pandemic may reduce economic activity by $32.7 billion and cost 75,000 to 90,000 private-sector jobs, according to a new analysis prepared by Raftelis for the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA). The report estimates drinking water utilities in the U.S. will see revenues from customer payments drop by nearly $14 billion. The impacts result from the elimination of water shutoffs for nonpayment, increased late payments due to high unemployment, reductions in nonresidential water demands, and fewer new customers. “Water utilities are laser-focused on protecting public health to prevent the spread of COVID-19,” said David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer. “That means assuring safe water is always available for hand-washing and other purposes—especially to households that are struggling financially. “AWWA is working with our elected leaders in the U.S. Congress to assist both lower-income customers and water utilities facing significant financial hardships due to the pandemic,” he added. “We urge Congress to support new investments in our critical water infrastructure to help put Americans back to work.” The drop in revenue will require utilities to scale back projects by as much as $5 billion (annualized) to help manage cash flows due to the crisis. These reductions will have a cascading effect on economic activity in communities across the country. “The economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic is being felt by every community in the nation, and water systems are not immune from the impacts,” said Diane VanDe Hei, chief executive officer of AMWA. “This analysis makes clear that community water systems have been dealt a severe economic blow, and emergency federal assistance for water systems and their ratepayers must be a central component of future COVID-19 response legislation.”

The anticipated financial impacts were estimated by: S O  btaining recent and relevant data regarding observed or anticipated financial and operational water utility impacts S M  onetizing the impacts S S caling up or aggregating available data to estimate the impacts on a national level Drinking water utilities may also experience additional future revenue losses estimated at approximately $1.6 billion in aggregate as a result of deferrals of planned water rate increases, bringing the total combined impact of the crisis on drinking water utilities to more than $15 billion. These deferrals will further exacerbate community economic impacts by reducing capital spending and will put the water sector further behind in addressing its capital infrastructure needs. The financial impact of the COVID-19 crisis on drinking water and wastewater utilities combined is estimated to exceed $27 billion. The Raftelis report, “Financial Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on U.S. Drinking Water Utilities,” was prepared with funding from the AWWA Water Industry Technical Action Fund (WITAF). The fund, which is supported by organizational member dues, allows AWWA to provide analyses that help inform important public policy decisions.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

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FWEA FOCUS

Recharge, Reset, Renew! James J. Wallace, P.E. President, FWEA

W

ow! It’s clear that 2020 is shaping up to be one of the more challenging, stressful, and exhausting—but important—years in recent memory. Amazingly, we’re only at the halfway mark, and yet most of us feel like we’ve lived multiple years’ worth of experiences in these six months. So, as we navigate the summer, especially with those who have children on a break from school, it’s a great time to take stock of our own physical and mental health. It’s time to recharge (your mental and physical energy), reset (your expectations and goals) and renew (your outlook and purpose).

Recharge I don’t know about you, but to me, it sure feels like I am working harder today than ever before. While the additional time spent with family is a huge bonus (as well as the lack of a commute), the hours I spend each day working, and the overall efficiency in doing that work,

seem to be at a peak. Add to it the fact that most of our offices are now within a few steps, 24 hours per day, seven days per week, and it’s easier than ever to work on nights and weekends, too. With this increased output, the need to recharge more effectively and more often is key. In my company, we have used many personality assessment tools over the years. Recently, we used Insights® Discovery, but have also used Myers-Briggs® and many others. The value of this insight to our personality is the ability to know your work and personal tendencies, which also helps educate you on what types of activities are best to recharge your batteries. For instance, knowing you lean toward introversion or extroversion can help you understand if you will recharge most effectively in solitude (e.g., nature hikes, small family getaways, reading books, etc.) or whether you recharge through being around other people (e.g., socialization, active travel, and nonwork interactions), which admittedly is harder to do these days—more than any other time in recent history. Whatever your optimum way to recharge, plan to do it before this summer ends! Your physical and mental health are worth the effort.

Reset Now this one can be tough. I’m not suggesting you abandon your goals and expecta-

tions for 2020; however, a slight adjustment of those expectations and goals may be necessary. There are just some things we will not be able to do as originally planned in the current COVID-19 environment. For example, the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) was unable to be held in 2020, and many local chapter/committee events had to be postponed, rescheduled, or cancelled; therefore, a slight adjustment to our goals and expectations is appropriate and timely. Trying to achieve the previous goals and expectations that have been rendered impossible due to the coronavirus would have a negative effect on our physical and mental health. Be honest with yourself, talk to your leadership, and adjust your goals and expectations as necessary. This will help to shift your focus to things that can be accomplished in the time that remains this year.

Renew Once you’ve completed the steps I’ve mentioned, and now that you have recharged your batteries and reset your goals and expectations, go forth and do great things! Your renewed energy and revised outlook will support your purpose-driven successes in the remainder of the year. While some are pushing to end 2020 as soon as possible, and get to 2021, you will do great things this year and salvage what has been an extraordinarily difficult time. One final word, while I have your attention. My suggestions are important and valuable, but now is not the time for complacency or withdrawal. It’s very important to recharge, reset, and renew, but please remain vigilant. We are now knee-deep in hurricane season, and while the peak is usually in August and September, now is the time to confirm your plans. So be prepared, be aware, and put your plans into action when needed. My request to guard against complacency and disengagement also extends to these trying times that we’ve experienced regarding some of the injustices we have witnessed this year. Please always do what’s right, stand up for what’s right, and as my CEO recently encouraged us to do: “Speak up. Speak out.” Let’s drive positive change in this world and finish 2020 as a year that led us forward to some of the most productive, just, inspiring, and prosperous times of our lives. As Martin Luther King Jr. stated, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”

10 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

11


Florida Water Environment Association Awards Announced Each year the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA), Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), and Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) honor outstanding individuals, utili-

ties, and other organizations for contributions to the state’s water and wastewater industry at the Florida Water Resources Conference. Because of the cancellation of this year’s conference due to the coronavirus, the awards for

FWPCOA and FSAWWA will be presented later in the year. The FWEA held a virtual annual meeting on April 28, where its awards were presented. Several of those awards are shown here.

Earle B. Phelps Awards

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place City of Plant City Accepted by (left to right) Lynn Spivey, Kellee Wanson, Mark Nunes, Bambi Adams, Zoe Chaiser, Josh Lawson, and Mike Darrow.

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Less Than 5 MGD First Place Lee County Pine Island Water Reclamation Accepted by (left to right) A. Cortes, Darryl Parker, Rob Haszinger, Andrea Browning, Bobby Dick, Lyssa Lott, and Zack Munoz.

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Greater Than 10 MGD First Place Southwest Water Reclamation for the City of Cape Coral Accepted by Pat Long and Matt Astorino.

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility 5 to 15 MGD First Place City of North Port Utilities Accepted by (left to right) Nick Topolnycky, James Colvin, Marc Beauregard, and Robert Davies. Not pictured are Ward Wright, Andy West, Rebecca Rodriguez, Mark Sutton, and Michael McHale Jr.

12 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility 5 to 15 MGD Runner-Up JEA Accepted by Joseph Rehberg.

Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Less Than 1 MGD First Place Collier County Northeast Wastewater Treatment Plant Accepted by Robert Edge, Collier County Water-Sewer District.


David W. York Reuse Awards

Collection System of the Year - Large

Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department

Public Education Award Gainesville Regional Utilities

Accepted by Jennifer McElroy (left) and David Warm. Reuse Project of the Year City of North Port Utilities/Tommy’s Car Wash Accepted by members of the North Port Wastewater Treatment Plant team that include (left to right) Robert Davies, Marc Beauregard, James Colvin, and Nick Topolnycky. Not pictured are Ward Wright, Andy West, Rebecca Rodriguez, Mark Sutton, and Michael McHale Jr.

L.L. Hedgepeth Award

Presented to Julie Edwards, Northrop Grumman.

WR3 Reuse Project of the Year JEA Water Purification Project Accepted by Ryan Popko.

Arthur Sidney Bedell Award

Presented to Kristiana Dragash, Carollo Engineers.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

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Albert B. Herndon Award

Samuel R. Willis Award

Presented to Kevin G. Shropshire, City of Rockledge.

Presented to Angela Coppock, North Port Utilities.

Leroy Scott Award

William D. Hatfield Award

Presented to Bryan Elliott, Orange County Utilities Department/Eastern Water Reclamation Facility.

Presented to Patrick Murphy, City of Plant City.

FWEA Environmental Stewardship Award for Odor Control

OneWater Professional of the Year Presented to Ryan Popko, JEA.

Golden Manhole Award

Presented to Samantha Hanzel, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc.

Presented to Sean Chaparro, Arcadis U.S. Inc.

Outstanding Service Awards

Presented to Greg Kolb, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc.

Presented to Shea Dunifon, Pinellas County Utilities.

14 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Presented to Kristiana Dragash, Carollo Engineers.

Presented to Karen Wallace, FWEA.


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Stormwater Management and Emerging Technologies. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Reuse, Reduce, Recharge, Restore, and Recreate: Ocala Wetland Park Allison Lewis, Rachel Slocumb, and Rafael Vazquez-Burney (Article 1: CEU = 0.1WW02015368) 1. In projecting the wetland systems nitrogen removal capability, the average monthly water reclamation facility (WRF) #2 effluent nitrogen concentration of ______ mg/l was assumed. a. 1 .62 b. 5 c. 3 d. .001 2. W  hich of the following is not listed as a process by which nitrogen compounds are transferred from one wetland point to another? a. N  itrification b. D  enitrification c. Ammoniation d. D  egasification 3. _____________ in underlying wetland soils provide supplemental nitrate reduction. a. F  iltration mechanics b. A  erobic conditions c. Anaerobic conditions d. O  xidation 4. C  urrently, all of the City of Ocala’s excess reclaimed water is conveyed to ___________ for disposal. a. a deep injection well b. p  ercolation ponds c. spray fields d. s urface water discharge 5. A  2012 Florida Department of Environmental protection (FDEP) report indicates that nitrate concentration in these water bodies has increase by ______ from the 1960s to the 2000s. a. 0 .5 mg/l b. 4 00 percent c. 1 mg/l d. 1 .5 mg/l

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

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F W R J

Reuse, Reduce, Recharge, Restore, and Recreate: Ocala Wetland Park Allison Lewis, Rachel Slocumb, and Rafael Vazquez-Burney

S

ilver Springs, located in north central Florida, is one of the state’s largest first-magnitude springs and has attracted many visitors since the 19th century. World famous for its crystal clear waters, it’s the ecological and economic engine in the area; however, flow and water quality data over the past nine decades show a significant decline in spring flow and increase in nutrient concentrations, which has led to the ecological degradation of the Silver Springs and Silver River systems. Thus, the Silver Springs system is subject to re-

strictive total maximum daily load (TMDL) regulations for nitrate, and to help meet its established minimum flows and levels (MFLs), it has a recovery strategy (Florida Department of Environmental Protection [FDEP], 2012; St. Johns River Water Management District [SJRWMD], 2017a). While not yet required by regulations, the City of Ocala (city), located within the springshed, is implementing a treatment wetland designed for groundwater recharge to offset its use of groundwater and nutrient loads to

Figure 1. Conceptual Design of City of Ocala Wetland Groundwater Recharge Park

16 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Allison Lewis, P.E., is project technologist, and Rafael Vazquez-Burney, P.E., is principal technologist, with Jacobs Engineering Group in Tampa. Rachel Slocumb is water resources conservation coordinator with City of Ocala Water Resources Department.

Silver Springs associated with municipal water and wastewater management. Groundwater recharge wetlands provide a unique opportunity to address water supply and water quality, while giving back to the community through a new park amenity, educational opportunities, and community gathering space. In support of the design and permitting of this project, an onsite hydrogeologic investigation, consisting of soil borings and the construction of pumping and monitoring wells across the site, was conducted to produce site-specific data. A groundwater model was then calibrated to this data and used to evaluate the site’s capacity to recharge the aquifer, and the fate of the applied water to recover flows in the Silver Springs system. These efforts included innovative applications of a calibrated groundwater model (combined with a wetlands treatment model) to quantify recharge, while ensuring the protection of water quality. It was determined that this system will have a capacity of up to 5 mil gal per day (mgd) and will reduce nitrate levels to background concentrations. The wetland will consist of a 35-acre organically shaped flowpath designed as an ecological park, with an education area, walking trail, boardwalks, and other park amenities. The system, currently under construction, is expected to receive and polish up to 5 mgd of treated municipal wastewater that will infiltrate to the underlying aquifer to augment flow to Silver Springs, while protecting its water quality. This wetland is expected to reduce nitrate loads to Silver Springs by 10 tons a year. This article will highlight the factors that led the city to plan this forward-thinking project, the ecological design principles applied to maximize the ecological value of the site, the


anticipated water quantity and quality benefits, and the plans to use this as a teaching and recreational tool for the community.

Introduction Silver Springs Located just outside of the city in Marion County, Silver Springs has one of the world’s largest artesian springs, consisting of more than 30 contributing spring vents, which serve as the headwaters of Silver River, an outstanding Florida waterway, and is encompassed by Silver Springs State Park. Much like many Florida springs, excess nutrients (particularly nitrate) from anthropogenic effects throughout the 1,200-sq-mi springshed have degraded the water quality and habitat of Silver Springs and the Silver River. With the increase in nutrients over the years, much of the native submerged aquatic vegetation of the springs has been covered or replaced by thick filamentous algae. The decline in spring flows has only exacerbated the degradation of the spring’s water quality and habitat. Groundwater Recharge Wetlands Wetlands are an important natural resource in Florida. They provide a wide range of ecological and environmental functions. These functions include biological, physical, and chemical processes that take place among water, soil, vegetation, and microbial communities to improve water quality. Treatment wetlands are constructed wetlands designed to capitalize on these natural biogeochemical processes to achieve high-quality treatment of nutrient-laden water, with little energy that results in environmental enhancement. Groundwater recharge wetlands are constructed treatment wetlands that do not have a wetland outflow, and therefore, contribute to aquifer augmentation. These systems are strategically located where the confining unit between the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems is discontinuous, and where groundwater use has resulted in excessive drawdown and caused adverse effects to lakes and wetlands. Groundwater recharge wetlands are especially efficient at reducing nitrate to nitrogen gas through microbial processes. Additionally, anaerobic conditions in the underlying soils beneath the wetland cells provide further nitrate reduction as water infiltrates to the underlying aquifer. Water infiltrating to the shallow groundwater beneath a treatment wetland must pass through the sediment interface of accumulated organic matter (i.e., detritus) where conditions are anaerobic (i.e., low ox-

Figure 2. Nitrate and Total Nitrogen Trends at the Silver Spring Main Boil (data source: FDEP, 2012)

ygen) and, therefore, ideal for denitrification. Groundwater recharge wetlands are a key technical approach for a state such as Florida, which both increase water supply and improve water quality, particularly in springsheds. City of Ocala Wetland Groundwater Recharge Park Understanding the plight of Silver Springs, the city desired to evaluate its role and resources to positively impact the health and future of the Silver Springs springshed. The city recognized that the groundwater recharge wetland technology could provide far greater benefits to the region than its current practice of disposing excess reclaimed water through spray fields. Thus, in 2016 the city hired CH2M HILL, now Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (Jacobs), to design and permit a groundwater recharge wetland park that would beneficially reuse and recharge its reclaimed water, and also serve as a public park. The designed wetland system consists of 35 acres of infiltration wetlands divided into three cells to receive up to 5 mgd of reclaimed and stormwater on a project area of 60 acres (Figure 1). Layout of the groundwater recharge treatment wetland cells was developed based on onsite hydrogeologic characteristics evaluated during field investigations and the current location of open fairways and ponds on the project site. The cells are designed to mimic the shape of natural wetlands with their organically

shaped perimeters and are graded in-place without the need for import or export of material to construct berms. The design maximizes wetland habitat diversity by creating different ecotones across the cells that range from deep open water to shallow wetlands, islands, and rookery areas. The wetland cells will be planted with native wetland vegetation, which will vary in species, depending on the ecotone to be planted. The design also includes an innovative valve manifold that controls reuse flows from the city’s water reclamation facilities (WRF) #2 and #3, and in the future, potentially stormwater to distribute to each cell independently based on water level setpoints in each wetland cell. Each cell would be operated remotely and individually supplied with reclaimed water and stormwater from the valve manifold. This will allow for seasonal operation of water levels to maximize recharge and wetland ecological value by mimicking wetland hydroperiods that are driven by seasonal rainfall patterns. The park component of the project will include an educational pavilion and walkways, with signage about the park benefits, ecological communities, and wildlife habitat. The project design will include boardwalks and trails throughout the park, and observation areas in key locations to provide wildlife views. Larger oak hammocks will be maintained onsite and downstream ponds will be used for both observation and catch-and-release fishing. Continued on page 18

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

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Continued from page 17

Reuse: Beneficial Water Reuse of City of Ocala’s Reclaimed Water Currently, all of the city’s excess reclaimed water is conveyed to spray fields for disposal. Although spray fields have been critical in the management of surplus reuse water for many years, they provide no ecological value or significant removal of nitrate. Most water is lost to evapotranspiration (ET) and little nitrate reduction occurs within the water that does percolate. As the city’s population size increases, the amount of excess reclaimed water sent to these spray fields will continue to increase, driving the city to consider other reuse man-

agement options. In addition, due to regulatory restrictions on daily water consumption and projected population increases, the city also needed to determine ways to offset the daily use of potable water. To help with reuse management and groundwater supply augmentation, the city decided to implement a groundwater recharge wetland park that will reuse its excess reclaimed water and provide the Upper Floridan aquifer with up to 5 mgd of water. By recharging the excess reclaimed water, the city essentially offsets 5 mgd of its consumption through groundwater withdrawals. This project allows for potential water use permit revision and helps the city secure its water supply into the future, while beneficially reusing its reclaimed water.

TNReduction by wetland= 34,000 lb/yr (74%)

Q1 = 3.3 mgd [TN] = 3.0 mg/L TNMass= 46,000 lb/yr

Emergency Spillway Qoutflow from subsurface = 3.3 mgd [TN]outflow from subsurface = 1.1 mg/L TNMass = 12,000 lb/yr

Wetland Infiltration System (32.3 ac) Figure 3. Ocala Wetland Total Nitrogen Performance Forecasting

NO3Reduction by wetland= 23,000 lb/yr (96%)

Q1 = 5 mgd [NO3] = 1.6 mg/L NO3 Mass= 24,000 lb/yr

Emergency Spillway Qoutflow from subsurface = 3.3 mgd [NO3]outflow from subsurface = 0.1 mg/L NO3 Mass = 1,000 lb/yr

Wetland Infiltration System (32.3 ac) Figure 4. Ocala Wetland Nitrate Performance Forecasting

18 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Reduce: Springshed Nutrient Reduction Through Groundwater Recharge Wetlands Both Silver Springs and the Upper Silver River have been identified by FDEP as impaired due to a biological imbalance with excessive epiphytic algal growth and increased filamentous algae caused by high concentrations of nitrate (above 0.6 mg/L) in the water. A recent study (Munch et al., 2006) cited by FDEP reported several changes in the submerged aquatic and algal communities of Silver Springs over a 50-year period. The study found that average annual epiphytic algal biomass has increased by about 171 percent over the last 50 years and that benthic algal biomass has increased from biomass estimates that were too low to estimate in the 1950s, to a biomass estimate comparable to other macrophyte and epiphytic biomass estimates (Munch et al., 2006, and FDEP, 2012). Figure 2 displays the nitrate and total nitrogen (TN) trends reported by FDEP in the “Nutrient TMDL for Silver Springs, Silver Springs Group, and Upper Silver River” (FDEP, 2012). As shown in Figure 2, TN and nitrate trends have steadily risen over the years. Nitrate levels have increased over 1 mg/L, with nitrate levels below 0.5 mg/L in the 1960s to nitrate levels above 1.5 mg/L in the 2000s. Due to the well-documented increase in both nitrate levels and algal biomass over the last 50 years, FDEP deemed Silver Springs impaired due to consistently elevated concentrations of nitrate (above 0.6 mg/L) and the documented biological imbalance caused by algae smothering. In 2012, FDEP established a TMDL for nitrate as a water quality restoration target for both Silver Springs and the Upper Silver River in 2012. A TMDL is the maximum amount of a given pollutant that a waterbody can assimilate and still meet water quality standards. The TMDLs are developed for waterbodies that are verified as not meeting water quality standards (FDEP, 2012). The TMDL for Silver Springs was established as 0.35 mg/L nitrate on a long-term monthly average basis and would require a 79 percent reduction in nitrate concentrations based on the existing spring’s mean concentration of 1.69 mg/L (FDEP, 2012). The 0.35 mg/L nitrate concentration was determined by FDEP to be the limit at which an imbalance in the ecology of Silver Springs would not occur. To help meet this TMDL, FDEP also developed and adopted a basin management action plan (BMAP) for Silver Springs in June 2018. The BMAP was developed to restore and protect Florida’s water quality and identify


1400

1050

Discharge (cfs)

the actions, policies, and projects that reduce springshed nutrient loads to a level where the spring will meet its TMDL. In 2018, the Silver Springs BMAP listed the city’s Wetland Groundwater Recharge Park as a “stakeholder project to reduce nitrogen sources in the Silver Springs BMAP area.” The listing of this project as a stakeholder in nitrogen reduction within the Silver Springs basin is due to the estimated wetland nitrogen reductions expected from the groundwater recharge wetland (FDEP, 2018). Nitrogen reduction estimates were originally calculated by Jacobs during the feasibility study and design of the wetland groundwater recharge park in 2016. Wetland nutrient reduction calculations were based on reclaimed water flows and water quality, infiltration rates, wetland areas, wetland background concentrations, temperature correction and nutrient weather factors, and first-order removal rate constants documented in the literature. These parameters were used to model the reduction of nitrogen and nitrate by the wetland system (both surface treatment and subsurface treatment) through an area-based treatment wetland model developed by Kadlec and Knight (1996) and updated by Kadlec and Wallace (2009), known as the P-k-C* model. Nitrogen processing is assumed to consist of conversions of nitrogen in the water and exchanges with sediments, biomass, and the atmosphere. The rate at which these nitrogen processes occur is defined by the first-order removal rate constant, and the exchanges with sediment, biomass, and the atmosphere are defined by wetland background concentrations. These processes are the fundamental basis for simulating nitrogen flows and conversions in treatment wetlands; a number of processes transfer nitrogen compounds from one point to another in the wetlands. The predominant nitrogen cycling processes include ammonification (conversion of organic nitrogen to ammonia), nitrification (conversion of ammonia to nitrate nitrogen), and denitrification (conversion of nitrate nitrogen to nitrogen gas). These conversions are quantified in the treatment wetland forecast model. For nutrient removal forecasts of the wetland park for nitrogen, both surface treatment and subsurface treatment were evaluated. Water quality estimates were calculated under average monthly temperature, rainfall, and ET conditions for the project location. The model was applied for the maximum annual influent flow anticipated for the wetland groundwater recharge park of 5 mgd annual average daily flow. To calculate the system’s nitrogen removal, the WRF #2 average 2016 monthly effluent nitrate concentration of 1.62 mg/L was used as the ini-

700

350

0 5/2/1930

6/30/1952

8/30/1974

10/28/1996

12/28/2018

Figure 5. Silver Springs Daily Flow From U.S. Geological Survey Station 02239501 (data source: USGS, 2019)

Table 1. Silver Springs Minimum Flows or Levels (data source: SJRWMD, 2017a)

Minimum Flows

Flow (cfs)

Duration (days)

Return Interval (years)

Frequent High (FH)

828

30

5

Minimum Average (MA)

638

180

1.7

Frequent Low (FL)

572

120

3

tial influent nitrate concentration to the surface wetland water quality performance model runs. Since the ammonia is already fully nitrified at the wastewater treatment facility, the initial influent concentrations of ammonia for the model run was assumed to be 0.001 mg/L ammonium as nitrogen. Since the TN advanced wastewater treatment standards are 3 mg/L TN, the organic nitrogen influent concentration from the reclaimed water system was assumed to be a conservative concentration of the difference between 3 mg/L TN and 1.62 mg/L nitrate, resulting in an influent concentration of 1.38 mg/L organic nitrogen. Thus, the model simulated receiving an effluent with a TN concentration of 3 mg/L. Based on the P-k-C* wetland treatment model performance calculations, it’s estimated that this system will remove 34,000 lbs of TN per year (Figure 3) and 23,000 lbs of nitrate per year (Figure 4). These reductions equate to an annual mass removal of 74 percent and 96 percent, for TN and nitrate, respectively.

Recharge: Recharging the Silver Springs Springshed The Silver Springs flows have declined by approximately 30 percent since the 1930s

(SJRWMD, 2017a) Figure 5 displays the Silver Springs discharge flow rates measured at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Station 02239501 for the period of record from December 1932 through March 2019. Spring flow reduction has been evaluated by numerous studies and attributed to several factors. According to SJRWMD hydrological statistical and modeling analyses, a long-term rainfall deficit, flow suppression related to submersed aquatic vegetation, and groundwater pumping from the Upper Floridan aquifer system are the three primary contributors to flow reduction (SJRWMD, 2017a). In July 2017, SJRWMD established MFLs for Silver Springs that determine the flow or level limits and further consumptive use withdrawals that would cause significant harm to the ecology and water resources of the area of concern. Table 1 provides the recommended and adopted minimum flows for Silver Springs: the minimum frequent high, the minimum average, and the minimum frequent low flows. While the three MFLs for Silver Springs are currently being met, water use model projections indicate that these MFLs will not be met by 2025. Since these conditions are not anticipated to be met during the next 20 years, SJRWMD has adopted a prevention strategy to Continued on page 20

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Continued from page 19 determine the necessary projects and regulatory measures that would ensure the MFLs are met in the future (SJRWMD, 2017a; SJRWMD, 2017b). As reported in “Prevention Strategy for the Implementation of Silver Springs Minimum Flows and Levels,” SJRWMD included the wetland groundwater recharge park as a project anticipated to help meet future MFLs under its prevention strategy (SJWRMD, 2017b). The listing of this project as a benefit to the Silver Springs flows is based on SJRWMD recharge calculations and analysis and was supported by Jacobs’ extensive hydrogeological investigation and groundwater modeling analysis during the feasibility study and design of the wetland groundwater recharge park. In 2016, Jacobs began an onsite hydrogeologic investigation of the wetland park site at Pine Oaks Golf Course. The hydrogeologic investigation, consisting of soil borings and the construction of pumping and monitoring wells across the site, was conducted to produce site-specific data. Except for localized areas assumed to be affected by karst solution, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the project site were found to be relatively uniform, and infiltration testing in this area indicated that adequate levels of infiltration can be expected for the proposed infiltration wetland cells. A groundwater model was then calibrated to the site-specific data and was used to evaluate the site’s capacity to recharge the aquifer and the fate of the applied water to recover flows in the Silver Springs system. A calibrated groundwater model was developed to simulate hydraulic loading rates and groundwater mounding underlying the constructed wetland infiltration cells. Hydraulic loading rates (equivalent to normal pool elevation loading depths in the wetland cells) were simulated over 10 years of observed regional and site-specific hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions, and future loading rates were estimated based on the simulated relationship between total monthly rainfall and loading rates. In general, simulated loading rates based on observed conditions varied between 1.1 and 5.8 mgd monthly, with an average loading rate of 3.3 mgd during that period, corresponding to an average hydraulic loading rate of approximately 3.8 in. per day. A maximum permitted loading rate of 5 mgd was requested to allow for operational flexibility during drier conditions and for deeper loading depths. Groundwater model results found that approximately 0.2 to 1 mgd of the loaded volume is predicted to benefit Silver Springs. The remaining fraction of the loaded volume

is predicted to go to Silver River and other surface waters and increases to storage in the surficial aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer system (CH2M, 2017). Based on the SJRWMD assumption that 2.8 mgd of reclaimed water would actually be available and be recharged through the wetland park, the calculations estimate a benefit of 1.4 cu ft per second (cfs) to Silver Springs. If additional reclaimed water becomes available, the benefits of the project could potentially exceed those estimated (SJRWMD, 2017b).

Recreate: Providing Public Recreational and Educational Opportunities Related to Springshed Since this park will feature 2.5 mi of walking trails and boardwalks, it will provide an opportunity for environmental recreation and ecotourism. Since 2017, the city has provided more than 30 presentations to various community groups and held two public meetings to promote the park. These groups have provided invaluable community input into the park design and offerings. The local Audubon Society and the Native Plant Society Chapter have been interested stakeholders and instrumental in guiding park features and benefits, and both groups have offered to assist in leading interpretive programming for visitors to the park. Community collaboration during the wetland park design has been integral for the public’s acceptance and excitement towards this project. In addition, it’s planned for the trails to be lined with over 20 educational kiosks that will inform visitors of the functions and importance of wetlands and nonpoint source pollution, and the species they will likely see on their visit. A designated education area will also be incorporated in the park, with the potential for a future education center to be built.

Restore: Multibenefit Project Provides Opportunity for Silver Springs Silver Springs may be considered a prime example of the degradation that many of Florida’s springs have experienced over the years. Silver Springs’ unique and extensive data period of record indicates that nutrient concentrations continue to increase, springflows continue to decline, and the ecological imbalance continues to widen; however, with this problem there is also opportunity for Silver Springs.

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Through implementation of local projects focused on improving water quality and quantity, Silver Springs has the opportunity to showcase the restoration potential of Florida’s springs. The city’s Wetland Groundwater Recharge Park is an exemplary project that supports the restoration of Silver Springs through water quality benefits of nitrate reduction and augmentation of groundwater supply through aquifer recharge. In addition, the wetland park is a community asset providing public education of the local environment and its associated issues and public recreation. This park also benefits both society and the natural environment by repurposing reclaimed water to support the restoration of Silver Springs.

References • C  H2M HILL (CH2M), 2017. “City of Ocala Wetland Groundwater Recharge Park Engineering Report.” • K  adlec, R.H., and S. Wallace, 2009. Treatment Wetlands, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, Fla. CRC Press. • K  adlec, R.H., and R. Knight, 1996. Treatment Wetlands. Boca Raton, Fla. CRC Press. • M  unch, D.A., D. Toth, C. Huang, J.Davis, and C.M. Fortich et al., 2006. “Fifty-Year Retrospective of the Ecology of Silver Springs, Florida.” St. Johns River Water Management District Publication, SJ2007SP4. • F  lorida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), 2012. “Nutrient TMDL for Silver Springs, Silver Springs Group, and Upper Silver River.” November. • F  lorida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), 2018. “Silver Springs and Upper Silver River and Rainbow Spring Group and Rainbow River Basin Management Action Plan.” June. • S t. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD), 2017a. “Technical Publication SJ2017-Two Minimum Flows Determination for Silver Springs Marion County, Florida.” • S t. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD), 2017b. “Prevention Strategy for the Implementation of Silver Springs Minimum Flows and Levels.” April. • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Stream Site Station 02239501. Stream Discharge Data 1932-2019. Accessed March 15, 2019. https:// waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory/?site_ no=02239501&agency_cd=USGS. 


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Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

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FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT

FSAWWA and Our Youth Kim Kowalski Chair, FSAWWA

T

he Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) is dedicated to ensuring Florida’s present and future generations with a sufficient supply of high-quality drinking water by providing critical information and opportunities to over 2,800 members. Our membership is diverse, consisting of students, consultants, contractors, water operators, manufacturer’s representatives, and the manufacturers who help to build the framework of our success. The student sector is important as we try to instill a passion for water and water conservation in the youth of today through our Water Drop Savers Poster Contest. Every year FSAWWA sponsors the poster contest, where students from Kindergarten to 12th grade are encouraged to create a poster depicting a water conservation idea in slogan form, drawing form, or both. The contest allows students to promote water awareness and help instill the importance of water conservation in their daily routines. Posters are designated in one of the following categories: Division 1 – Kindergarten and First Grade Division 2 – Second and Third Grade Division 3 – Fourth and Fifth Grade Division 4 – Middle School: Grades Six, Seven, and Eight Division 5 – High School: Grades Nine, 10, 11, and 12 SP  osters are drawn on 8 ½- x 11-in. white paper (horizontally or vertically). S Each poster must portray a water conservation idea in a slogan, drawing, or both. Students may use crayons, paint, color pencils, or

markers. No highlighters, photos, or computer graphics are permitted. S Students must work on posters individually, otherwise posters will be disqualified. S Only original artwork will be accepted (i.e., no trademarked or copyrighted material) The responsibility of the Drop Savers Committee is to invite each water utility in Florida to participate and provide them with the guidelines for running their own poster contest. Once water utilities select their winners, they send the first-place winner’s poster to the committee, where they will participate in the state competition. This year there were over 100 posters from 33 water utilities that participated in the contest. The 2020 contest was unique since, because of COVID-19, it was difficult to keep our traditional prizes and recognitions with the students. Many utilities were not able to present the winners at their commissioner meetings or display the posters in city hall, as they usually do. This is only a temporary change for FSAWWA and all the utilities; the Drop Savers Contest will be back stronger in 2021. The FSAWWA still wanted to recognize the winners and give them a little joy during this tough time. Because of the situation, we limited the prizes to 15 winners, due to the logistics and for everyone’s health and safety. The prizes for the first-, second-, and third-place winners included Amazon gift cards and a plaque displaying the poster. The 2020 winning posters are pictured here. I would like to thank Melissa Velez, P.E., LEED AP, an engineering manager with Black & Veatch in Coral Springs, for all of her hard work on this contest. This was Melissa’s 13th year organizing the state contest and it has become close to her heart as she is able to influence young minds in water conservation and the arts. Thanks for a job well done Melissa! As always, thank you to our volunteers; the section could not do what it does without you. As Florida starts to reopen and adjust to a “new normal” please continue to stay safe and healthy!

22 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

DIVISION 1 – FIRST PLACE Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Daniella Valera

DIVISION 1 – SECOND PLACE City of Clermont Katla Mata

DIVISION 1 – THIRD PLACE City of Oldsmar Eric Tatarzewski


DIVISION 3 – FIRST PLACE City of Hollywood Vivienne Horvath

DIVISION 2 – FIRST PLACE City of Sunrise Reign Pryce

DIVISION 2 – SECOND PLACE Pompano Beach Rossy Arcos

DIVISION 3 – SECOND PLACE NMB Water Carlatcheen Noel Saint

DIVISION 2 – THIRD PLACE City of Hollywood Fernanda Castellano

DIVISION 3 – THIRD PLACE City of Clermont Elizabeth Yang

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

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DIVISION 5 – FIRST PLACE City of Hollywood Diego Maglione

DIVISION 4 – FIRST PLACE City of Sunrise Claire Myers

DIVISION 5 – SECOND PLACE Cocoa Utilities Kaitlyn Sollberger

DIVISION 4 – SECOND PLACE Village of Wellington Ava Grave de Peralta

DIVISION 4 – THIRD PLACE Hillsborough County Michele Tran

DIVISION 5 – THIRD PLACE Town of Jupiter Utilities Maria Domingo

24 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


EPA Select Eighth Annual Campus RainWorks Challenge Winners

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced the winners of its eighth annual Campus RainWorks Challenge, which tasks teams of college students in the United States with devising green infrastructure (GI) implementation plans that make their campuses and surrounding communities environmentally resilient. Implementing GI refers to a variety of practices that restore or mimic natural hydrological processes. While “gray” stormwater infrastructure is largely designed to convey stormwater away from the built environment, GI uses soils, vegetation, and other media to manage rainwater where it falls by capture and evapotranspiration. By integrating natural processes into the built environment, GI provides a wide variety of community benefits, including improving water and air quality, reducing urban heat island effects, creating habitat for pollinators and other wildlife, and providing aesthetic and recreational value.

Student Involvement The design competition seeks to engage with the next generation of environmental professionals, foster a dialogue about the need for innovative stormwater management techniques, and showcase the environmental, economic, and social benefits of GI practices. Tomorrow’s stormwater professionals demonstrate how GI can protect water quality and mitigate flooding, while improving local property values and quality of life. This year’s RainWorks Challenge attracted entries from 50 student teams representing institutions in 20 states. Participants submitted proposals in two categories: S Master Plan: For broad, campuswide GI implementation programs. S Demonstration Project: Focuses on projects that demonstrate GI’s environmental, social, and economic benefits in a single location.

Innovative Projects Inspire Judges Each year, EPA collaborates with stormwater experts from the Water Environment

Federation (WEF), American Society of Landscape Architects, and American Society of Civil Engineers to judge the entries. For this year’s competition, six volunteers from the WEF Stormwater Committee participated as judges. “It’s comforting to know that those of us entering our twilight years can rest knowing that a new, high caliber of young people will be taking over the mantle of rainwater, stormwater, and watershed management, with a determination to continue national efforts to protect and preserve our hydrology cycle, surface water quality, water supply, and aquatic systems, and involve the people linked to water,” said Neal Shapiro, watershed program coordinator for the City of Santa Monica (Calif.), and one of the WEF Stormwater Committee judges. “This year’s review indicated that a multidisciplinary team can lead to a more wellrounded design and that students are able to utilize classroom concepts to develop stormwater management solutions for the benefit of their campus and the wider community,” said Suha Atiyeh, project manager for the District of Columbia Department of Transportation, who also represented the WEF Stormwater Committee as a judge. “Congratulations to this year’s winners and to all the teams for submitting entries that embodied the application of innovative stormwater management solutions beyond the classroom.”

2019 Winners For the 2019 challenge, the first-place team in each design category will receive a student prize of $5,000, to be divided evenly among the team, and a faculty prize of $5,000. The secondplace team in each category will receive a student prize of $2,500, to be divided evenly among the team, and a faculty prize of $2,500. The winners, who all submitted their projects in video format, are as follows: Florida International University — First Place, Master Plan Category The winning project in the master plan category, “Coastal Eco-Waters: Adapting for a Resilient Campus,” was submitted by students from Florida International University (FIU). Particularly during hurricane season, FIU’s Biscayne Bay campus experiences frequent inland and coastal flooding. By 2050, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) estimates that sea levels along Florida’s eastern coastline could rise by more than 2 feet,

which the team explains would also raise the local water table and overwhelm the nearby wetlands that the campus relies on for flood protection. Their proposal, developed in close cooperation with FIU facilities staff, involves constructing a series of such GI measures as green roofs, vertical gardens, parking lot filtration gardens, permeable walkways, and bioswales throughout campus, which would supplement five new, interconnected constructed wetlands. According to project documents, NOAA modeling tools indicated that the team’s proposed interventions would diminish runoff-related water pollution by removing up to 84 percent of total suspended solids and 66 percent of metals in runoff compared to current conditions. An array of 13 green roofs would capture about 9.2 million gallons of runoff per year for potential reuse applications. University of Arizona — Second Place, Master Plan Category Second place in the master plan category went to a team from the University of Arizona for its project, “Against the Grain.” During the Sonoran Desert’s rare rainy months, the University of Arizona campus currently misses potential for runoff capture and use, instead diverting heavy rainfall off campus as efficiently as possible. Not only can the current practice cause flooding issues in other parts of Tucson, the team explains, but it can also turn the widest roads and walkways on campus into untraversable “temporary rivers.” At the same time, most of the main thoroughfares for pedestrians and cyclists on campus run east-west, resulting in “awkward” movement patterns for students traveling north-south. The team’s project addresses two issues—one environmental and one social—by carving three new, north-south pedestrian and bicycle corridors designed to divert surface-level runoff into a series of basins that slow, capture, and infiltrate it. The design consists of GI elements, including rain gardens with native vegetation, curb cuts, sidewalk scuppers, and bioretention facilities. According to the team’s performance estimates, implementing the design on campus would result in a 19 percent decrease in peak flow and a 40 percent runoff capture rate for a twoyear storm event, a 71 percent increase in average runoff concentration time, and as much as 19.6 acre feet of stormwater storage capacity for reuse in irrigation by installing cisterns. Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

25


Continued from page 25 University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) — First Place, Demonstration Project Category A team from UCLA earned first place in the demonstration project category for “Little Steps to a Sustainable Future,” which involves plans for retrofits and redesigns of the campus of a local elementary school. During heavy storms, the mostly impervious Brockton Elementary campus routinely floods, keeping students at home, while necessitating costly repair work. At the same time, demand for stressed water supplies continues to grow in the Los Angeles area, where stormwater runoff is the primary source of local water pollution. The team focused on flood mitigation, with a particular emphasis on runoff capture and use. Their recommendations call for a 7,600-squarefoot green roof consisting of drought-tolerant dune sedge grass, three bioretention areas aimed at removing silt and pollution, four natively planted rain gardens, and about 4,800 square feet

of permeable pavement that drains into a large, underground cistern. Each GI installation would also include educational signage in both English and Spanish that teaches students and faculty about the nature-based systems at work in their community. As part of the project, team members visited classrooms at the school to demonstrate the filtration process for students using simple terms and hands-on models. Arizona State University — Second Place, Demonstration Project Category Students from Arizona State University also focused their project on a local elementary school, earning second place in the demonstration project category. The “Ready! Set! Activate!” project would redesign the playground at Paideia Academy in south Phoenix to improve both stormwater management and the student experience. Located on an alluvial floodplain, with poor

26 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

flood-control infrastructure in place, the school experiences chronic seasonal flooding that often necessitates class cancellations. The team’s recommended redesign focuses on interactivity, creating “resilient, natural learning and play landscapes” that mitigate flooding, reduce heat island effects, create new gathering areas and play equipment for students, and more. The design includes, for example, a four-square court made of permeable decomposed granite covered by steel shade structures, and a large parking lot redesign that removes more than 7,000 square feet of impervious concrete. In all, the proposed design increases stormwater retention volumes by about 65 percent and introduces at least 15 native plant species that are distributed through an array of new rain gardens, bioretention areas, and bioswales. To sign up for email updates or ask a question about the Campus RainWorks Challenge go to RainWorks@epa.gov.


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Call for Papers

Abstracts must be submitted by: Wednesday, July 15, 2020 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Abstract Submittal Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to: Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category

Potential Session Categories

b) Paper Title

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

c) Names of Authors

Potable Reuse Improving our Piping Systems Innovations in Water Treatment Role of Membranes for the Future Tools for Assessing our Assets Total Water Solutions Financing the Future Water Systems Resilience Water Conservation

d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper� Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.


Benefiting

The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund

The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.

Exhibitor Registration: Registration is NOW OPEN www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits

Attendee Registration: Starts August 3, 2020 fsawwa.org/2020fallconference

For more information: fsawwa.org/2020fallconference Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2020hotel Host hotel is Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate.

Technical Sessions

• Potable Reuse • Improving our Piping Systems • Innovations in Water Treatment • Role of Membranes for the Future • Tools for Assessing our Assets • Financing the Future • Water Systems Resilience • Water Conservation Conference Highlights

• BBQ Challenge &

Incoming Chair’s Reception

CHEER for Meter Madness!

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Let loose at the RODEO!

Join the Tapping FUN!

• Operator Events:

Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition

• Young Professionals Events:

Luncheon Water Bowl Fresh Ideas Poster Session

• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Duck Race Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser

Events Poker Tournament Monday, November 30, 2020 Starts at 9:00 pm

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Golf Tournament Thursday, December 3, 2020 8:00 am Shotgun start


Exhibit Registration Accepting Exhibitor Registrations on or after June 1, 2020 www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits

Standard Booth @ $800 Includes:

• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs

• Company sign • Wastebasket • Two (2) exhibit staff registrations • Additional exhibit staff $50/each

Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.

Online Registration is strongly recommended to help adhere to social distancing guidelines. Online Exhibitor registration at: www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits Or return form with payment to: Stacey Smith Wall, Register With EaseSM 3037 Golfview Drive, Vero Beach, FL 32960 Phone: (863) 325-0077 | Fax: (863) 325-0051 No reservations accepted by phone.

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2020hotel Host hotel is Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate.

Exhibit Schedule Monday, November 30 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Tuesday, December 1

Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Wednesday, December 2 Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm

Please check our refund policies at fsawwa.org/2020refundpolicy

Sponsorship Levels Premier | $1500

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Platinum | $850

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Gold | $600

10% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Silver | $400 For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:

www.fsawwa.org/2020sponsor

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.


Benefiting

The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund

Poker Night & Happy Hour

Opportunities to Sponsor

Monday, November 30, 2020 | 9:00 pm to midnight Straight | $50 Omni Orlando Resort ChampionsGate

• One of four at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor

Register Today

board at the registration table

Registration will open August 3

Full House | $150

fsawwa.org/2020poker

• One of two at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor

It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Terry Gullet at tgullett@neptunetg.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.

board at the registration table

• 2 Blackjack or 2 Poker Buy-ins Royal Flush | $250

• Sole game table sponsor • Logo on a prominently displayed

Buy-ins Blackjack Buy in | $20.00 (2000 in chips) Poker Buy In | $40.00 (5000 in chips)

Golf Tournament

Thursday, December 3, 2020 8:00 am Shotgun start Omni Orlando Resort ChampionsGate

Register Today

sponsor board 4 Poker Buy Ins or 5 Blackjack Buy-ins

Opportunities to Sponsor Eagle Sponsor | $650

• Your company’s name prominently displayed on a •

special sponsor banner on the beverage cart. Your company’s name prominently displayed at one of the tournament course tees or holes. One foursome in the tournament. Recognition at the awards ceremony.

Registration will open August 3

• •

It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Chase Freeman at Cfreeman@spiritgroupinc.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.

Birdie Sponsor | $550

fsawwa.org/2020golf

15% discount for bundled Eagle Golf and Royal Flush Poker Sponsorships: $765

• Your company’s name prominently displayed at one of the tournament course tees or holes.

• One foursome in the tournament. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. Par Sponsor | $200

• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. Lunch Sponsor | $250

• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate


2020 Competitions

Tuesday & Wednesday | December 1-2, 2020

Join the Competition

fsawwa.org/2020fallconference FSAWWA hosts fun and lively competitions between municipalities to find the most skilled person or team in the Meter Madness, Tapping, and Back Hoe Rodeo contests. Please join us as a spectator or visit our website to download the application to complete.

Let loose at the RODEO!

Back Hoe Rodeo: Tuesday | 10:00 am - 12:00 pm

Backhoe operators show off their expertise by executing several challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time.

Tapping Contests: Tuesday | 11:00 am - 2:30 pm

Join the Tapping FUN!

In a contest of skill and dexterity as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time while they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Penalties are assessed in seconds for infractions of rules such as leaking connections or safety violations. Only two taps are allowed per team. Ductile Iron Tap: 11:00 am - 12:00 pm Fun Tap: 1:00 - 2:30 pm

Meter Madness: Tuesday | 4:00 - 5:00 pm

CHEER for Meter Madness!

Contestants are challenged to put together a completely disassembled meter against the clock. To make the contest more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket of meter components. Once the meter is assembled, it must operate correctly and not leak.

Hydrant Hysteria: Wednesday | 9:00 - 11:00 am

Hydrant Hysteria is a fast paced two person competition as to who can assembly a fire hydrant quickly, totally, and accurately. Two or more teams go head to head while assembling the hydrant. All parts will be assembled in proper manner and reassembled hydrant shall be tested by the judges for ability to operate correctly.

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Sponsorship Opportunities

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Please Contact: Mike George tapitflorida@att.net (352) 200-9631


2020 Water Distribution System Awards The FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section.

The Award Criteria is based upon the following:

Divisions based on the Number of Water Services Division 1 = 1 - 5,999 Division 2 = 6,000 - 12,999 Division 3 = 13,000 - 19,999 Division 4 = 20,000 - 29,999

Water Quality

Division 5 = 30,000 - 45,999

Operational Records

Division 6 = 46,000 - 69,999

Maintenance

Division 7 = 70,000 - 129,999

Professionalism Safety

Division 8 = 130,000+

Emergency Prepardness Cross Connection Control Program Must be an AWWA member (Organizational or Individual) Actively supports the activities of the FSAWWA Demonstrates high standards and integrity The selection committee is under the Manufacturers/Associates Council.

• • •

2019 Winners: Division 1:

Not Awarded

Division 2:

Destin Water Users

Division 3:

City of Coral Springs

Division 4:

Bonita Springs Utilities, Inc. Distribution & Collection

Division 5:

Not Awarded

Division 6:

Charlotte County Utilities

Division 7:

Collier County Water-Sewer District

Division 8:

Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department

Send applications to: Mike George 10482 Dunkirk Road Spring Hill, FL 34608 tapitflorida@att.net

Deadline Monday, October 19, 2020

Download the application form:

www.fsawwa.org/ distributionawards

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate


F W R J

Caloosahatchee River West Basin Storage Reservoir: Geographic Information System Applications for Quality Assurance and Quality Control

T

Shawn Waldeck, Joseph Albers, Thomas McKernan, and Jennifer Jacobs

he Caloosahatchee River has experienced the consequences of altered flow patterns and degraded water quality as the natural system hydro patterns were affected by development over time. Large influxes of fresh water due to Lake Okeechobee discharges and heavy rainfall during the wet season (and reduction in flows in the dry season) have impacted the delicate balance of salinity levels in the Caloosahatchee Estuary. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is responsible for implementing projects for the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) to help improve water quality and regulate water flows into the Everglades system. Located on 10,700 acres of former citrus grove in Hendry County, the Caloosahatchee River West Basin Storage Reservoir (C-43 Reservoir) will store approximately 57 bil gal (~170,000 acre ft), for the Congressionally authorized CERP project. The $800 million project, expected to be completed in 2024, will include construction of two

5000-acre reservoir storage cells (cells 1 and 2), three pump stations, a perimeter canal with several water control structures, and required improvements to the State Road 80 Bridge and the Townsend Canal, ultimately connecting to the Caloosahatchee River. Given the immense effort to construct the project, this article will focus on automated data collection systems using geographic information system (GIS) applications for quality assurance and quality control (QA/ QC). The resulting data collection efforts must be efficiently organized and effectively documented in order to produce the final dam completion report in accordance with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) guidance for dam safety.

Project Background Everglades Restoration Strategies Plan The Caloosahatchee River and Estuary, shown in Figure 1, includes an important es-

Figure 1. Caloosahatchee Estuary (source: USACE, Reference 1)

34 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Shawn Waldeck, P.E., is senior program manager with Jacobs Engineering Inc. in Palm Beach Gardens. Joseph Albers, P.E., is principal project manager, and Thomas McKernan, CM, is principal construction manager, with South Florida Water Management District in West Palm Beach. Jennifer Jacobs, GISP, is GIS project manager with Jacobs Engineering Inc. in Dallas/Fort Worth.

tuarine and marine ecosystem that contains aquatic preserves, along with several other federal, state, and local parks and recreation areas. Restoration of a healthy, productive aquatic ecosystem in the river is essential to maintaining the ecological integrity and associated economic activity in these publicly owned and managed areas. The C-43 Reservoir, shown in Figure 2, was originally authorized in accordance with the requirements of Section 601(d) of the Water Resources Development Act of 2000 (WRDA, 2000). In October 2003, SFWMD initiated the Acceler8 Program to move forward with major CERP reservoir projects in parallel with the development of the project implementation report by USACE. The project was shelved in 2008 due to the downturn in the United States economy, and, in 2014, it was resurrected and implemented as part of the SFWMD restoration strategies program to finalize design and initiate construction on the C-43 Reservoir. Lessons learned from the levee failures after Hurricane Katrina resulted in the project being redesigned to incorporate the updated engineering standards from USACE. The project is being incrementally delivered as each of the contracts are redesigned and moved forward into construction. The purpose of the C-43 Reservoir project is to assist in the restoration of the Caloosahatchee Estuary as part of CERP for restoring the south Florida ecosystem. The volume in the two-cell


reservoir includes normal pool depths (when the reservoir is full), varying from 15 ft at the southeast corner to 25 ft at the northwest corner. Major features of the project include external and internal embankments, canals, pump stations, water control structures, and environmentally responsible design features. Some water quality benefits may be realized in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, since some of the nutrient-laden runoff and lake water will be stored in the reservoir, allowing for the settling of nutrients within the reservoir cells prior to delivery to the estuary. C-43 Reservoir Project Site Location and Conditions The C43 Reservoir project site is located west of the City of LaBelle in Hendry County, south of SR 80 and along the C-43 Canal, and approximately 30 mi east of Fort Myers. The reservoir is about 6 mi long and approximately 3 mi wide and averages approximately 17 ft deep. The top of the perimeter dam is at an elevation higher than 54.5 ft North American Vertical Datum (NAVD). The bottom of the reservoir varies from approximately 16 to 26 ft in elevation. Most south Florida water storage facilities experience excessive seepage flows. The C-43 Reservoir site geology consists, primarily, of a thin and variable surface layer of top soils, underlain by sands and clayey sands down to a deposit of clays of marine origin. This formation, which comprises the bottom impermeable layer, generally extends from about 0 to -20 ft. The formation is an area of unique geological character in south Florida, and when combined with a soil bentonite cut-off wall, the reservoir will efficiently “hold” water. The project will help to reduce the frequency and intensity of harmful freshwater discharges into the Caloosahatchee Estuary. Once completed, the project will provide immediate environmental restoration benefits by: S C  apturing and storing stormwater runoff from the C-43 Basin and regulatory discharges from Lake Okeechobee, thus reducing excess freshwater flows to the estuary. S H  elping to maintain a desirable salinity balance by controlling peak flows during the wet season and providing essential freshwater flows during the dry season. S H  elping to sustain a healthy estuarine nursery that supports recreational and commercial fisheries. S R  educing nutrient loading to the Caloosahatchee Estuary, an incidental benefit resulting from settling of nutrient-rich particulate matter in the reservoir. The SFWMD is currently collaborating with USACE to build the reservoir project to current state and federal dam safety standards.

Figure 2. Caloosahatchee Watershed (source: USACE, Reference 1)

Figure 3. C43 Reservoir Project Site Plan

The project will be executed in four construction packages, which are currently underway: S Package 1 – Preloading and Demolition: Construction complete S Package 2 – Bypass Pumping Station S-476 (195 cu ft per second [cfs]): Construction complete S Package 3 – Inflow Pump Station S-470 (1500 cfs): Construction underway S Package 4 – Reservoir and Water Control Structures: Construction underway

Design and Construction Overview The design and construction of the project includes improvements to the existing Townsend Canal and serves as a direct connec-

tion from the reservoir to the Caloosahatchee River. An improvement to the level of flood protection and preservation of water supply for the surrounding agriculture is an added requirement of the project. An overall site plan of the project is shown in Figure 3.

Project Design and Construction C-43 Reservoir: Construction Package 4 Designed to contain an average depth of approximately 17 to 18 ft, the reservoir is expected to store more than 170,000 acre ft of water. The water will be captured during wet season releases and released during dry season demand. Characteristics of the site include: Continued on page 36

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

35


Continued from page 35 1. It’s a large, rectangular, contiguous piece of land close to the Caloosahatchee River (C43 Canal). 2.  A connection to the C43 Canal exists through the Townsend Canal under SR 80 and to the C-43 Reservoir (within approximately 1 mi). 3. Townsend Canal, with some improvements, has the required conveyance capacity to operate the reservoir. 4. It’s in the approximate middle of the C43 Canal drainage basin. 5. The geologic formation beneath the reservoir footprint contains a clay (relatively impermeable) layer within 20 ft of the surface and runs relatively consistently across the entire site (see the general soil profile in Figure 4). 6. The dam is classified as a high hazard above ground impoundment and is surrounded by sparse development to date. Impacts to the local community were minimized during the design of this project. The dam’s typical cross section is shown in

Figure 4. As noted, the majority of the embankment materials will be excavated and reused onsite. The soil cement drainage, chimney, and blanket drains will be constructed of imported materials produced at a nearby aggregate pit determined to be suitable for the project. The soil bentonite cut-off wall extends from EL +47 (the top of the red bar, within the top one-third of the dam embankment) and 5 ft into the clay layer below the reservoir. The soil cement is proposed to be 12 in. thick and will be batched onsite utilizing existing surficial sandy materials determined to be sufficient for design. The C-43 Reservoir is surrounded by a perimeter canal, tow roads, and maintenance roads. There are over a dozen water control structures in the perimeter canal, and in the dam itself, to regulate discharges and manage water supply and stormwater from the adjacent properites. These structures include numerous gated culverts, gated spillways, uncontrolled emergency spillways and wiers, ogee weir discharge structures, and bridges.

Figure 4. Typical Cross Section of the Dam at the C-43 Reservoir

Quality Assurance and Quality Control The reservoir dam embankment is classified as a high-hazard embankment, and early in the redesign phases of the project, SFWMD recognized the need for a robust QA/QC program. As the project is federally cost-shared, the project design was conducted in accordance with the USACE dam safety policy and procedures outlined in ER 1110-2-1156, along with other applicable USACE design guidelines. The contract documents included a detailed and comprehensive QA/QC plan as part of the specifications that followed the USACE three-phase control system. Definable features of work (DFOW) were pre-established in the contract to clearly identify individual activities and specific locations of work to be entered into the quality process. Each DFOW represents a specific feature of work as generally identified by the contract specification work items. There were over 100 DFOW identified in the design and they included all aspects of the project’s construction activities, including foundation, embankment, soil bentonite, concrete, and electrical and mechanical features. The DFOW checklists were preprepared to serve as inspection sign offs for each feature as the project is completed. Due to the sheer size of the project, the reservoir was divided into segments and individual structures (Figure 5). The DFOW checklists were then assigned to each specific segment of the dam and each structure. As a result, the data collection and data management efforts are anticipated to be very

Figure 5. Dam Segments Figure 6. Inspector Daily Reports

36 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Figure 7. Definable Features of Work Checklists

significant. It’s expected that the project will generate over 100,000 data records to properly document construction. The project requires that a completion report be developed consistent with the requirements of ER 1110-1-1901, “Project Geotechnical and Concrete Materials Completion Reports for Major USACE Projects.” This completion report will serve as a record of the quality activities associated with the construction of the project and will be used as future reference for dam safety inspections and evaluations for the reservoir. Efficient and effective project completion report development requires an automated system of data collection, sampling, testing, reporting, and display. The intent is to have all of the inspector daily reports, inspection test plans (ITPs), quality management systems (QMS) data, and inspection/DFOW checklists consistent with the three-phase process and integrated into an automated data collection system. During contract document development, the SFWMD worked with USACE to develop a data management specification requirement to effectively manage the vast amounts of data expected to be generated by the QA/QC teams. The USACE developed SIMDAMS®, a GIS database system to store and display data associated with construction and maintenance of USACE dam projects. The SFWMD developed its own GIS-based platform that included significant enhancements to capture and display a wider array of data and make it user friendly for the construction and QA management teams. Data will be extracted from the SFWMD site and translated to the SIMDAMS format for delivery to USACE.

Figure 8. Drone Photography for Foundation Preparation

Geographic Information System Applications for Data Collection and Display The SFWMD platform is composed of a comprehensive and cutting-edge set of technology solutions that support field data collection and multi-user editing, as well as QC. Ultimately, these data are consolidated into a Microsoft SQL Server-based QA dashboard that’s accessible to the team via a password-protected, role-based website. The platform integrates the various records and data collected from the project site and displays real-time data in a format easily viewed and analyzed by the project team, including the engineer of record, construction management teams, QA/QC teams, and inspectors. The reports that feed into the QA dashboard include: S Inspection Daily Reports S DFOW Checklist S Foundation Preparation and Mapping S Proof of Concepts S Materials Testing (QMS) Inspector Daily Reports The inspector daily reports (IDRs) are collected in the field using tablet devices with digital forms that can be populated offline and later synchronized to the QA dashboard when a Wi-Fi network is available. Forms automatically track the data and user names are based on preset variables to the degree possible in order to maintain QC for data entry. Photos associated with forms are also tagged with location details for display in the QA dashboard (Figure 6).

Definable Features of Work Checklists The DFOW checklists consist of a list of critical requirements associated with a particular feature of work on the site. These checklists are also collected in the field and have the same basic functionality as the IDRs; however, these forms are available to both contractors and inspectors and are password-protected and role-based. A contractor can update the status of a particular requirement and provide a description and photos of the work being completed. Upon syncing these forms with the QA dashboard, inspectors can view contractor comments on tablets or the QA dashboard and provide their own comments and photos. A DFOW requirement is not considered to be complete until QA/QC is marked as complete in the form (Figure 7). Foundation Preparation and Mapping The initial application of the dashboard has been the foundation preparation and mapping DFOW. Data collected during the foundation preparation and mapping phase of the project are transmitted for storage in the SQL database, and some are linked to the QA dashboard through the document library on the SFWMD SharePoint site. These files include location details used to link to the QA dashboard map. Users can identify a location of interest and link back to the SharePoint repository to retrieve associated documents, including drone imagery and documents provided by the engineer of record (Figure 8). Proof of Concepts In addition to foundation preparation and mapping, there are several proof of concepts activities to verify construction means and methods results in the intended engineered quality. Continued on page 38

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

37


Summary and Conclusions

Figure 9. C-43 Quality Assurance Dashboard

Continued from page 37 These activities precede the full production construction of features in order to gain insight into how the finished product will be built and make adjustments to construction and QA/QC procedures, if required. The proof of concepts will be shown separately in the QA dashboard and are available for reference to the team. These proof of concepts include: S F  oundation Preparation and Mapping (described) S Soil Bentonite Cut-Off Wall Construction S Drains and Filters S Embankment Construction S Sand Relief Columns S Soil Cement Slope Protection Materials Testing and Quality Management System The QMS is a proprietary system developed for field and laboratory test data management, which allows for electronic review, acceptance, and reporting. It plays a significant role in data management. The SFWMD and the contractor have constructed QA and QA materials testing laboratories on the project site, which are USACEvalidated materials labs and will handle sampling and testing anticipated during the course of construction. The labs are equipped with state-ofthe-art materials testing equipment for soils, slurry walls, and concrete. Both the SFWMD QA and contractor QC will have access to the QMS, designed to schedule, track, and record/ report all materials testing collected onsite. Data collected in the QMS system are posted to the SFWMD SharePoint site daily and published on the QA dashboard using a scheduled automated process. The test results are associated with the

map locations and can be searched, filtered, and queried by a number of attributes. The site also provides sliders to select specific ranges for date and elevation of tests to be displayed. C-43 Quality Assurance Dashboard All data collected in the field forms or QMS system and posted to the SFWMD SharePoint site are consolidated into the QA dashboard. This website is password-protected and role-based, and users can view IDRs, DFOW checklists, or geotechnical testing results (Figure 9). The summary data are displayed in a tabular grid and are associated with locations on a map; more-detailed views of the data can also be displayed in a details pane. Photos collected during inspections are published with locations and bearing details on a map. The site also allows users to filter, sort, and query the data to find specific information. Additional functionality is available to the construction and quality managers that allows for review and approval of submitted forms. Completion Report The completion report will be generated based on USACE requirements in ER 1110-1110-1-1901, “Project Geotechnical and Concrete Materials Completion Reports for Major USACE Projects.” The data will be pulled from the QA dashboard using the history and attributes from GIS and SharePoint document libraries in order to efficiently generate this document and maintain a high level of quality, given the anticipated size of the data repository. This completion report will serve as a record of the quality activities associated with the construction of the project and will be used as future reference for dam safety inspections and evaluations for the reservoir.

38 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

This article presented the C43 Reservoir project and reviewed the project design and construction features to help restore America’s Everglades. Sustainable project features include capture of stormwater flows and storage for use in dry season flows to the Caloosahatchee Estuary. Given the size of the project and the vast volumes of data to be collected, organized, reviewed, and documented, a custom automated data collection system was established. Integrated with GIS tools developed by Jacobs, the project can effectively and efficiently collect and store the mountains of data for visual display in the C43 dashboard created specifically for this project. The data will then be converted to the USACE SIMDAMS model for record of construction on this very important project.

Acknowledgments The information presented was generated from a number of sources. Selected graphics from the design-phase submittal documents prepared by the design team are gratefully appreciated. The authors would like to thank the following organizations, including their subcontractors, for their efforts and contributions during the planning, design, and construction of this project and for its ultimate success: S South Florida Water Management District (owner) S U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (federal partner) S JTech JV, Joint Venture Jacobs Engineering Inc., and Tetra Tech (site management lead) S Terracon Inc. (geotechnical engineering lead)

References 1. “Caloosahatchee River (C-43) West Basin Storage Reservoir Project Final Integrated Project Implementation Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement.” U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, November 2010. 2. “Quick Facts on Restoration Strategies for Clean Water for the Everglades.” South Florida Water Management District. Splash Newsletter Publication, October 2013. 3.  “Restoration Strategies Regional Water Quality Plan.” South Florida Water Management District, April 27, 2012.


C FACTOR

Summer Tips for Fall Protection and Prevention of accidents at work is related to walking-working surfaces.

Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA

G

reetings everyone. Here we are with nearly half the year gone already. Wow, how time flies when you’re having fun. Hopefully by now we are getting back to some routines in our work and pleasure. Our work is important, but don’t forget to take some time out for yourself as well. Everyone needs to take a little mental health time to clear the mind and to remember who we are and why we are here. Having good mental health also gives us a clear mind to be more alert on the job and at home. Don’t become a victim of fatigue, which can lead to a loss of awareness and a failure in mental judgement. When we become less aware in our workplace, we open ourselves up for the potential of having an accident. One of the primary causes

Walking-Working Surface Safety These types of hazards can be present anywhere in our work environment and are ones that we probably have the most control over. A majority of the hazards are related to poor housekeeping. Let’s talk about walking-working surfaces a bit. Slips, Trips, and Falls S Slips, trips, and falls constitute the majority of general industry accidents. They cause 15 percent of all accidental deaths and are second only to motor vehicles as a cause of fatalities. S Most of these types of accidents can be prevented with improved housekeeping, such as appropriate guardrails, maintenance of walking surfaces, and remaining alert to the work surroundings. Housekeeping S Keep places of employment, passageways,

storerooms, and service rooms clean and orderly and in sanitary condition. S Keep floors clean and dry. Where wet processes are used, such as dishwashers and cage washers, equip the area with drainage and gratings, mats, or raised platforms. S Remove items that present tripping hazards, such as mats that do not lay flat. S Return equipment to designated storage areas after use. Aisles and Passageways S Keep aisles and passageways clear of obstructions or objects that may present a tripping hazard. S If mechanical handling equipment is used, ensure there is enough room in the aisle or passageway for employees to walk and for emergency egress. S Clearly mark permanent aisles and passageways in machinery and equipment rooms. For example, paint or tape markings on floors. These few simple tips will help keep your employees and customers safe. Continued on page 40

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

39


Continued from page 39

Committee Chair Change After 16 years as the Systems Operators Committee chair, Ray Bordner has decided to step down. Ray has been the committee chair for this group since 2004 when it was called the Distribution and Collection Committee. He has been the go-to person for the system operators program, planning both state and regional short schools and training, and has been an instructor for backflow training as well. I cannot even begin to tell everyone the number of training classes Ray has put together over the time he chaired this committee, plus the many years he has been actively setting up short schools for Region IV before he took on the committee chair role. Ray is one of the most recognized members in our organization for what he has done for FWPCOA members and the utility industry. Ray still plans to continue instructing as much as possible, but may have to cut back the on-the-road training he does. Ray has recommended Jeff Elder to take over as the committee chair in his stead. Jeff has been an instructor for many years and is quite familiar with the system operators programs.

Jeff has been working in the utilities field going on 31 years and has worked for the City of Deltona for 15 years, where he is currently the utilities system manager. Jeff has been an instructor for FWPCOA for 14 years, teaching almost every class that the organization offers. Jeff has a water distribution level 1 license, wastewater collection A certification, reclaimed water B certification, stormwater A certification, and is a reclaimed water inspector. He is trained in backflow testing and repair, maintenance of traffic, and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Jeff is a member of FWPCOA Region IX, which provides as many as 30 classes a year and proctor exams every month. Jeff has organized or assisted in organizing short schools and is an excellent person to take over as committee chair. Jeff was also instrumental in the development of the wastewater collection C manual.

Training I want to remind everyone again about our wastewater collection C online training course. This course has been newly revamped to include a manual developed by the association. The cost of the course is $275, which in-

cludes the new manual and a membership to FWPCOA for a year. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper righthand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. I’m sorry to say the Fall State Short School at the Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce, which was scheduled for the week of August 10-14, will not be held. Indian River State College informed us that they will not be opening their campus in August. We may be able to schedule the class later in the year, but they’re not sure when they will open. In the meantime, we are actively working on getting training on track utilizing other venues, like utility training rooms. We’re implementing COVID-19 guidelines following recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ensure everyone attending will be protected. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work!

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https://www.adsenv.com/floridasolutions 40 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! Please go to the FWPCOA website www.fwpcoa.org for the latest updates on classes July

13-15..... Backflow Repair* ......................................... St. Petersburg .. $275/305 13-17..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....... Orlando ........... $350/380

13-17..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....... Osteen ............ $350/380 31..... Backflow Tester recerts*** .......................... Osteen ............ $85/115

August

10-14..... FALL STATE SHORT SCHOOL ................ Cancelled

September

14-18..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....... Orlando ........... $350/380 14-18..... Wastewater Collection C............................. Osteen ............ $325 21-23..... Backflow Repair........................................... Osteen ............ $275/305 21-24..... Backflow Tester* .......................................... St. Petersburg .. $375/405 25..... Backflow Tester recerts*** .......................... Osteen ............ $85/115

October

5-9..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....... Osteen ............ $350/380

19-23..... Backflow Tester ........................................... Osteen ............ $375/405

Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

1


Florida Stormwater Association: An Advocate for This Precious Resource

Danielle Hopkins The Florida Stormwater Association (FSA) is a statewide, nonprofit organization, which believes that local governments and stormwater professionals should exercise initiative and leadership in dealing with Florida’s water resource and environmental problems, especially those such as stormwater flooding, water quality, financing, and other related stormwater management issues.

Founded in 1993, FSA began as the Florida Association of Stormwater Utilities, serving professionals in stormwater management and finance. In June 2001, the organization changed to its current name to more accurately reflect its broader interest in stormwater management services, in addition to stormwater finance. The FSA membership includes over 4,600 individuals representing 324 organizations across the state. Its total membership represents local governments, consultants, special districts, manufacturers, academia, and water management districts. Key services that FSA provides include: S Advocacy S Training and Education S Information Sharing Advocacy - The FSA has been heavily involved

42 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

in advocating for local stormwater interests at the agency level and has been directly involved in legislation affecting stormwater policy, finance, and funding for the past 27 years, including the passage of major revisions to the total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) statutes in 2005 and the adoption of the numeric nutrient criteria (NNC) in 2013. The FSA has been instrumental in stopping measures that limit the ability of city and county governments to implement actions protecting water quality, such as those relating to the use of consumer fertilizer and local development regulations. It has filed briefs at the trial and appellate levels in both state and federal courts, including at the U.S. Supreme Court, defending the ability of city and county governments to impose user fees for stormwater management and supporting a rational frame-


work for NNC and other aspects of the Clean Water Act. The FSA was the first association of local governments to challenge the 2015 Waters of the United States (WOTUS) regulations and remains the primary plaintiff representing a coalition of local governments in that lawsuit. The FSA members have served on numerous statewide technical and policy advisory committees, and their recommendations have had regulatory or financial impacts on city and county governments. Training and Education - The FSA Fogarty Training Center was created to meet the training and educational needs of stormwater management. The center offers a comprehensive series of classes for stormwater field personnel, field supervisors, and professional staff designed to help ensure a consistent level of knowledge. Completion of FSA’s classes is recognized by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) as fulfilling the municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) permit requirements for training and refresher training of stormwater staff. Statewide conferences conducted by FSA are regarded as being the best-of-the-best in stormwater policy, management, and best practices. The conferences offer a well-balanced blend of technical and research presentations, regulatory and policy matters, and keynote addresses by speakers with statewide and national recognition. The FSA Excellence Awards program recognizes professionals for outstanding stormwater projects and programs each year. Information Sharing - First published in 1998 and updated in 2003 and 2013, the FSA manual, Establishing a Stormwater Utility in Florida, is unique in the U.S. and has assisted numerous jurisdictions, both in Florida and in other states, in creating such user-fee funding mechanisms. The results of FSA’s “Survey of Stormwater Utilities” are published every two years and the FSA-FDEP manual on the TMDL program is the only such publication in Florida. In addition, the FSA Educational Foundation oversees FSA’s research programs and presents scholarships to graduate students in Florida whose research is focused on stormwater management or surface water quality. For almost three decades, FSA and its members have played an integral role in enhancing the capacity of stormwater management practices through research, dissemination of information, and active participation in the legislative decision process and education. Want to know more? Visit www.floridastormwater.org. Danielle Hopkins, CMP, is executive director of Florida Stormwater Association. S

NEWS BEAT Nine leading water associations have urged the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to use “sound science and robust analyses” as it evaluates drinking water standards for two per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS). In a letter to Andrew Wheeler, EPA administrator, the Association of California Water Agencies (ACWA), Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC), Irrigation Association, National Association of Water Companies (NAWC), National Ground Water Association (NGWA), National Rural Water Association (NRWA), and National Water Resources Association (NWRA) asked EPA to employ a holistic regulatory approach that protects source water from PFAS contamination, addresses public health concerns, and ensures public confidence. On Feb. 20, 2020, EPA announced its proposal to regulate perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), two PFAS compounds, and requested comment on regulatory approaches for other PFAS. In the absence of a federal standard, several states have moved forward with setting their own regulations for various PFAS. “We ask that EPA move expeditiously to prepare the requisite analyses critical to proposing sound drinking water standards,” the associations wrote. “The implications of regulating these substances will be far-reaching.” The PFAS are a large group of man-made chemicals used in consumer products and industrial processes. In use since the 1940s, they have properties that make them persistent in the environment. The letter asked EPA to: 1. Provide the resources required to complete the technical and economic analyses necessary to support a proposed Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) action for PFOA and PFOS. 2. B egin engagement with outside experts to develop and review a public health risk assessment for PFAS beyond PFOA and PFOS to guide which PFAS or groups of PFAS should be targeted for data collection and risk management measures. 3. Actively engage water systems, local governments, state agencies, and other key stakeholders in the practical implementation of PFAS risk management, including establishing the adequacy of analytical methods and capacity, effective risk communication, and sustainable treatment options, among other important factors. 4. Accelerate research on water treatment, occurrence, and health effects to support future decision making and contaminant prioritization. 5. Leverage available regulatory tools in other statutes to gather occurrence and health risk assessment data and organize them to support research and decision making, using regulatory tools that include the Toxics Release Inventory, Sections 4 and 8 of the Toxic Substances Control Act, and the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule.

R

Community water supplies nationwide must do more to slow the spread of bacteria that cause the deadly waterborne Legionnaires' disease, engineering and technical experts warn in a new article published in the Journal of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), a prominent engineering and standards publication. "The call for stronger federal regulations on community water systems is even more urgent with COVID-19 economic shutdowns," argues Daryn Cline, technology and science director for the Alliance to Prevent Legionnaires' Disease (APLD) and co-author of the article. "Bacteria buildup in water utility distribution systems can occur during water stagnation caused by lower water consumption, and then are released during increased water flow demand as economic activity restarts." Legionnaires' disease is a form of pneumonia caused by inhaling or aspirating small water droplets containing Legionella bacteria, which build in community water systems and spread to people through drinking and decorative fountains, showContinued on page 46

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

43


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Water/ Wastewater Grants and Loans? Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) website, the CWSRF program provides low-interest loans for planning, designing, and constructing water pollution control facilities. What types of loans are available? a. Construction loans only b. D  esign loans only c. D  esign and planning loans d. P  lanning, design, and construction loans 2.  Per FDEP’s CWSRF website, the Small Community Wastewater Construction Grants Program helps small communities with wastewater projects if the per capita income is less than the state average and the total population is a. 5 ,000 or less. b. 10,000 or less. c. 2 5,000 or less. d. 50,000 or less. 3. P  er Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-505, Small Community Wastewater Facilities Grants, small community construction grants are only available if the project sponsor adopts and implements what type of plan? a. Asset management plan b. Inflow/infiltration plan c. P  rocess safety management plan d. R  isk management plan 4. P  er the drinking water SRF construction loan process flowchart, what is the first step toward obtaining an SRF loan or grant? a. C  ompleting project engineering documents b. P  reparing planning documents c. S  igning the loan agreement application d. S  ubmitting a request for inclusion form 5. P  er FAC 62-552, Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Loan Program, an environmental review must be completed for each project to be funded. Who performs the environmental review? a. Consultant for the utility receiving funding b. U  .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) c. F lorida Department of Environmental Protection d. W  ater management district

6. P  er the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development Water and Waste Disposal Loan and Grant Program in Florida website, this program provides long-term, low-interest loans and grants to rural areas and towns with populations of a. 5,000 or less. b. 10,000 or less. c. 15,000 or less. d. 20,000 or less. 7. The Florida Rural Water Association (FRWA) can assist with funding requests. Per the FRWA website, the Florida Small Cities Community Development Block Grant Program is a competitive grant program that awards funds to eligible cities, counties, towns, and villages. To be eligible, a city must have a population of under 50,000 and a county’s population must be under a. 75,000. b. 100,000. c. 200,000. d. 500,000. 8. Per the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) website, FEMA can provide funding to restore or repair water/wastewater facilities after a. a presidentially declared disaster. b. any man-made disaster. c. any natural disaster. d. any tropical storm. 9. P  er the EPA Fact Sheet, “Public Assistance for Water and Wastewater Utilities in Emergencies and Disasters,” work that is eligible for supplemental federal disaster grant assistance is classified as either a. administrative or construction work. b. emergency or permanent work. c. repair or replacement work. d. water or wastewater work. 10. P er FDEP’s document, “Funding Assistance for Water Projects in Florida,” the Florida Legislature may solicit applications directly to projects, including water projects. The utility would contact its local representative to check for available opportunities. These grants are a. community budget issue requests. b. community development block grants. c. economic development administration funds. d. rural utilities service grants.

44 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Answers on page 50 References used for this quiz: • Clean Water State Revolving Fund website: https://floridadep.gov/wra/srf/content/cwsrf-program • Drinking Water State Revolving Fund website: https://floridadep.gov/wra/srf/content/dwsrf-program • State Revolving Fund Construction Loan Process Flowchart: https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/SRF_ Loan_Process.pdf • FAC 62-503, State Revolving Fund Loan Program • FAC 62-505, Small Community Wastewater Facilities Grants • FAC 62-552, Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Loan Program • FDEP Document, “Funding Assistance for Water Projects in Florida” https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/Funding_ Florida_DWRA.pdf • Federal Emergency Management Agency’s webpage, “Public Assistance Grant Program Available to Water and Wastewater Utilities” https://www.epa.gov/fedfunds/femas-publicassistance-grant-program-available-water-andwastewater-utilities • Florida Rural Water Association Florida Financing Programs website:https://www.frwa.net/funding • USDA Rural Development Water and Waste Disposal Loan and Grant Program in Florida website: https://www.rd.usda.gov/programs-services/ water-waste-disposal-loan-grant-program/fl • U.S. EPA Fact Sheet, “Public Assistance for Water and Wastewater Utilities in Emergencies and Disasters,” available on FEMA’s webpage: https://www.epa.gov/fedfunds/femas-publicassistance-grant-program-available-water-andwastewater-utilities

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plantoperations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com


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News Beat

Continued from page 43 ers, faucets, humidifiers, and other water use equipment and appliances. "We're also concerned that people contracting Legionnaires' disease from their water systems may be misdiagnosed as COVID-19 patients, which makes prevention efforts in our community water systems even more critical," added Cline. Current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations do not require community water systems to test directly for Legionella in their systems. Because it’s not an enforceable requirement, water systems do not have to monitor for or take action to minimize Legionella. Treatments that virtually eliminate many microbes are expected to also remove or neutralize Legionella, but key research indicates that it does not happen. "Typically, after Legionnaires' disease outbreaks, water suppliers state that the water 'meets all EPA regulations.' This may be true, but that does not mean that the water is Legionella-free," authors Cline and Sarah Ferrari write. They point to three key studies in the United States of hundreds of water samples from water storage tanks, tap water, and cooling towers—all along the water pipeline after leaving the community facility to reaching the end user. The studies found collectively that one-third of drinking water samples tested positive for L. pneumophila, including more than one-quarter of them posi-

46 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

tive for the most lethal strain of bacteria responsible for 90 percent of Legionnaires' cases. The authors recommendation that water systems monitor and test for Legionella bacteria at the water plant and along the distribution system will complement the work of states like Illinois, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania that have improved state regulations to require stronger antimicrobial treatment throughout the water system, from source to tap. "A focus on efforts to better control pathogens in the public water supply upstream by strengthening EPA requirements is the rational approach to addressing the increased threat of waterborne pathogenic bacteria-related disease cases in the future," they write. The authors' full article, along with many other important resources on Legionnaires' disease, is available at the APLD website at https://preventlegionnaires.org/category/pdf-report/ and is the first report listed. The APLD is a national nonprofit organization formed to educate public officials about the science and investments needed to promote a more comprehensive, proactive approach to fighting waterborne disease. Legionnaires' disease draws national headlines with each outbreak, causing concern in communities with each case that results in death or serious illness.

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Researchers at Vanderbilt University have discovered that perchlorate inhibits the uptake of iodide, an essential component of thyroid hormones, in a more pronounced and fundamental way than commonly considered. This discovery was recently published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, just as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its decision to not regulate the levels of perchlorate in drinking water. Nancy Carrasco, professor and chair of the university’s department of molecular physiology and biophysics, and the paper’s lead author, believes it’s a decision that may endanger public health in many communities across the United States. “The end effect of perchlorate exposure on thyroid hormones is that the transport of iodide is impaired,” Carrasco says. “Much less iodide will be transported. Now that we understand exactly what perchlorate does, we can clearly see that contamination of drinking water with this chemical is more worrisome than previously thought.” Thyroid hormones, which are crucial to human development, deliver the signals needed to promote healthy growth beginning at the earliest stage: uterine life. Its production relies on the sodium/ iodide symporter (NIS), a key protein present in thyroid cells that actively transports iodide from the bloodstream into the thyroid gland. Humans receive iodide through their diet. The new study demonstrates that perchlorate exposure fundamentally alters the mechanism by which NIS transports iodide into the thyroid, making it less efficient. This work builds on Carrasco’s groundbreaking cloning of NIS, which revealed how the protein ushers iodide from the bloodstream into the thyroid. Even what would be considered low concentrations of perchlorate significantly decrease iodide transport and the resulting production of thyroid hormones. Because of the outsize influence of thyroid hormones on human cognitive and physical development, the populations most vulnerable to perchlorate-contaminated drinking water are pregnant and nursing women, developing fetuses, and newborn babies. Continued on page 49


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MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Wastewater Treatment Operator

Funny and talented Wastewater Treatment Operator needed to join our incredibly awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $35,000 - $37,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or a Class A or B.  Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Melissa Tuck.  EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

48 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Join this exceptional, dedicated and high-performing team at Sarasota County Government! Enjoy great benefits including Health, Dental, Vision, and Life Insurance, Short-Term and LongTerm Disability, Flexible Spending Accounts, free gyms and classes, EAP, Florida Retirement System (FRS) and many, many more! Open Positions: Solid Waste Division Manager Liftstation Maintenance: Electrical & Mechanical Equipment Treatment Plant Operator Financial Specialist III Capacity Fee & EDU Coordinator Apply online today at www.scgov.net/jobs


News Beat City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Industrial Electrician, Foreman, Plant Operator, Maintenance Mechanic. Apply at www.titusville.com

Multiple Positions Available

Water Distribution Field Supervisor, Water Production Plant Operator C, Construction Engineering Inspection Manager, Utilities Mechanic and others.   Please visit our website for complete job description and to download an application. https://www.cityofnewportrichey.org/city-departments/humanresources/job-opportunities/

Water Treatment Plant Operators

The Water Treatment Plant at Village of Wellington is currently accepting applications for a full-time Water Operator Level A, and a part-time Water Operator. Apply online. Job postings and application are available on our website: https://wellingtonfl. munisselfservice.com/employmentopportunities/default.aspx We are located in Palm Beach County, Florida. The Village of Wellington offers great benefits. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585.

POSITONS WANTED Looking For Employment In Lake County, Fla Area Steven J. Oles, Sr. Dual Licensed Operator B Wastewater & C Water Call Between 8 am & 7pm Available For Immediate Employment Contact # (352) 728-0824

Continued from page 46 Pregnant women exposed to perchlorate risk unintentionally exposing their fetuses to significant harm. Typically, iodide is transported by NIS from the placenta into the fetus’ bloodstream, enabling the fetus to produce thyroid hormones. When a pregnant woman drinks perchlorate-contaminated water, the fetus does not receive or produce enough thyroid hormones to develop into a healthy baby. Because NIS is also present in the lactating breast, nursing newborns receive both more perchlorate and less iodide when the mothers have been exposed to perchlorate. This causes the newborns to produce less of their own thyroid hormones. As a result, the central nervous system and other tissues can be irreversibly damaged in infancy if the iodide deficiency is not treated. According to EPA, perchlorate is a naturally occurring chemical compound found in the arid regions of the U.S., in fertilizer deposits in Chile, and in potash ore in the U.S. and Canada. The chemical is used to manufacture rocket fuel and explosives. Because perchlorate dissolves easily and is mobile in water, it’s frequently detected in water supplies near sites where rocket fuel is used or made. The Carrasco laboratory and its collaborators have previously shown that NIS has at least a 10 times greater affinity for perchlorate than for iodide, meaning that if there were equal concentrations of iodide and perchlorate in the bloodstream, the protein would bring perchlorate into the thyroid in far greater quantities than iodide. The research was done in collaboration with Dr. L. Mario Amzel, professor and director of the department of biophysics and biophysical chemistry at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and Dr. Geoffrey Abbott, professor of pharmacology at University of California at Irvine.

LOOKING FOR A

The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2020

49


SERVING FLORIDA’S WATER AND WASTEWATER INDUSTRY SINCE 1949

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 44

Editorial Calendar

January 2016

January..........Wastewater Treatment February........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March.............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April...............Conservation and Reuse May.................Operations and Utilities Management June...............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August...........Disinfection; Water Quality September.....Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October..........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November......Water Treatment December......Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index ADS Enviro�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40 Blue Planet Environmental Systems�������������������������������������������� 51 CEU Challenge�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Data Flow Systems������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 FSAWWA Fall Conference��������������������������������������������������������� 28-33 FWPCOA Online������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 45 FWPCOA Training Calendar���������������������������������������������������������� 41 Grundfos������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11 Heyward��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 Hydro International��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Infosense����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 46 J&S Valve���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Lakeside�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 UF Treeo Center������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 47 Xylem����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52

50 July 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. D  ) Planning, design, and construction loans Per FDEP’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund website, “Funds are made available for planning loans, design loans, and construction loans.” 2. B) 10,000 or less. Per FDEP’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund website, “An eligible small community must be a municipality, county, or authority with a total population of 10,000 or less, and have a per capita income (PCI) less than the state of Florida average PCI. Projects shall compete separately for planning, design, and construction grants.” 3. A  ) Asset management plan Per FAC 62-505.300(1)(d), General Program Information, “Grants under this chapter are available at the construction phase of a project only if the project sponsor adopts and implements, prior to the final disbursement of the associated State Revolving Fund construction loan, an asset management plan that meets all requirements of subsection 62503.700(7), F.A.C.” 4. D  ) Submitting a request for inclusion form Per FDEP’s Drinking Water SRF Construction Loan Process flowchart, the process flow is “Request for Inclusion Form—Planning Document— Agency Reviews—Environmental Information Document—Readiness to Proceed—Priority List Public Meeting— Loan Agreement Application—Loan Agreement—Disbursment Requests.” 5. C  ) Florida Department of Environmental Protection Per FAC 62-552.680(1)(a), Environmental Review, “The department shall perform an environmental review for each project to be funded. The environmental review shall evaluate the environmental significance of a proposed project and whether the planning of the project meets the requirements of this chapter.” 6. B) 10,000 or less. Per the USDA Rural Development Water and Waste Disposal Loan and Grant Program in Florida website, “This program provides funding for clean and reliable drinking water systems, sanitary sewage disposal, sanitary solid waste disposal, and stormwater drainage to households and businesses in eligible rural areas . . . Areas that may be served include: • Rural areas and towns with populations of 10,000 or less -- check eligible addresses

• T  ribal lands in rural areas • Colonias.”

7. C) 200,000. Per FRWA’s website, “The Florida Small Cities Community Development Block (CDBG) Grant Program is a competitive grant program that awards funds to eligible cities, counties, towns and villages. There are approximately 249 eligible communities in Florida. To be eligible for the CDBG program, a city must have a population under 50,000 and a county’s population must be under 200,000.” 8. A  ) a presidentially declared disaster. Per FEMA’s website, “The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) can provide federal funding under the Public Assistance (PA) Grant Program after a presidentially-declared disaster for: • States • Tribal nations • Local governments • Private nonprofit organizations (PNPs)” 9. B  ) emergency work or permanent work. Per the EPA “Public Assistance for Water and Wastewater Utilities in Emergencies and Disasters” Fact Sheet, “Work that is eligible for supplemental federal disaster grant assistance is classified as either emergency work or permanent work. • Emergency Work – Includes debris removal and emergency protective measures performed to eliminate or reduce immediate threats to the public health and safety including restoration of drinking water, sanitation, and fire protection services. • P  ermanent Work – Includes work to restore an eligible damaged facility to its predisaster design. Work may range from minor repairs to total replacement.” 10. A) community budget issue request. Per the FDEP “Funding Assistance for Water Projects in Florida” document, “Florida General Appropriations Act - The Florida Legislature may solicit applications directly for community budget issue request projects, including water projects. This process is an opportunity to secure legislative sponsorship of project funding through the state budget. The legislature may coordinate applications with the department. You are advised to contact your local legislative representative to determine whether there are opportunities available to fund your project.”


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Florida Water Resources Journal - July 2020  

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