Florida Water Resources Journal - July 2017

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office: P.O. Box 745, Windermere, FL 34786-0745 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

2017 Florida Water Resources Conference Review 10 Conference Highlights—Holly Hanson 13 Exhibition 14 Technical Sessions 14 Women of Water Forum

16 18 25 28

News and Features

Poster Session Awards Competitions Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers


4 Improving Water Use Efficiency With New Technology—Robert Wanvestraut 8 New Author for Test Yourself Column 38 Are Private Stormwater Ponds Really Private?— Aaron Petersen 44 The Emergence of Computerized Sprinklers: Saving Water with Advanced Technology—Gary Klinefelter 52 Water Technology Trends Survey Results Now Available 56 Asbestos Cement Pipe Bursting with Encapsulation Technology: City of Boynton Beach Pilot Project— Edward Alan Ambler and Todd Grafenauer 58 Report Shows Utility Innovation is Pathway to Sustainability 60 Net Blue Toolkit Helps Communities Pursue WaterNeutral Growth 63 Report Outlines Future Florida Water Use Scenarios 64 Pesticides Found in Drinking Water 67 News Beat

C Factor—Scott Anaheim Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak FSAWWA Speaking Out—Grace Johns FWEA Committee Corner—Linda Maudlin Reader Profile—Sondra Lee Committee Profile: FSAWWA Finance and Rates Committee—Tony Hairston 61 Process Page: Earle B. Phelps and a Life in Water 62 Let’s Talk Safety 66 FWEA Focus—Tim Harley 8 40 42 48 50 54

Departments 70 72 75 78

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Technical Articles 34 Finding Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Stormwater Runoff: The Importance of Nonfecal Origins—David Tomasko, Emily Keenan, Jessica Hudson, Cheryl Propst, Matt Logan, and Joanne Vernon

Education and Training 31 FSAWWA Fall Conference 32 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night and Golf Tournament 33 FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards 47 Barry University 51 FWPCOA Short School 55 FWPCOA Training Calendar 59 ISA Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium 65 TREEO Center Training

ON THE COVER: During the Operations Challenge at the 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference, Marc Filsaime (left), Rodney Newton (right), and Duron Millines (middle background) of the City of Boynton Beach Steam Team participate in the collections event.

Volume 68

July 2017

Number 7

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Improving Water Use Efficiency With New Technology Robert Wanvestraut

Figure 1. Saltwater intrusion zone in 1996 and 2014. (Source: usgs – United States Geological Service; sfwmd – South Florida Water Management District)


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Over the past 40 years, Broward County has seen its population increase from approximately 630,000 in 1970 to 1.9 million in 2017. The growth and prosperity that occurred during that time has also brought challenges to water security and sustainability. The flood control canals and stormwater retention ponds that cross and dot the county collect urban runoff, which is often rich in nutrients and contamination. The same holds true for the county’s natural waterbodies, which also depend on healthy flow levels and hydration periods, and are thereby affected by groundwater withdrawals. Heavy groundwater withdrawals have, along with other factors, impacted aquifer levels in many parts of Florida. This has forced several coastal communities in the county to abandon wellfields in close proximity to the coastline in favor of inland fields. In fact, the saltwater intrusion zone within the surficial aquifer in the county has steadily migrated west, occupying 71 sq mi in 1996 to 83 sq mi in 2014 (Figure 1). Accounting for approximately 57 percent of all water use in the county, and most of that coming from groundwater, irrigation is thought to play a significant role in this migration. Faced with these and other environmental challenges, the county has taken an aggressive stance on natural resource protection and conservation. It has established an array of environmental programs under its environmental planning and community resilience division within its environmental protection and growth management department. One such program is the Broward County NatureScape Irrigation Service (NIS), which is one of only two urban mobile irrigation laboratories operating in the state of Florida. The NIS was created in 2005 with the goal of reducing urban water consumption and improving the quality of surface waters through efficient irrigation and environmentally friendly landscape practices. The program is funded via interlocal agreements between nineteen cities and utilities and the Broward County Water and Wastewater Service. The county has just commenced the third year of its third five-year contract with its partners. The primary effort of the NIS takes the form of irrigation system efficiency evaluations performed at parks, nonpark governmentowned properties (such as libraries, fire stations, traffic medians, etc.), and residential (mostly

large) and commercial properties within its 20 municipal and utility partners service areas. Irrigation system design, functional integrity, and scheduling are thoroughly evaluated at each site. Recommendations for efficiency improvements are then provided to the site managers/owners. Once corrective actions have been taken, the NIS returns to a portion of the sites to conduct follow-up evaluations to document savings from repair and redesign efficiency upgrades.

Why Focus on Urban Irrigation Water Use? When applied efficiently, irrigation enhances the urban environment by improving the living aesthetics, maintaining safe play areas, supporting local and migratory wildlife (in some cases), providing erosion control, and increasing property values; however, excessive irrigation can carry fertilizers and other lawnand garden-care chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, etc.) to local waterways. These same chemicals can also be flushed downward below plant root zones and eventually make their way to the surficial aquifer, which supplies drinking water to millions of residents. Other repercussions associated with excessive irrigation include increased needs for fungicides, pesticides, and fertilizers; faster plant replacement due to premature death (related to receiving too much water); and greater expenses associated with purchasing or pumping water. Finally, excessive irrigation, along with other issues, contributes to aquifer depletion and is therefore a factor related to saltwater intrusion for the county’s coastal cities and communities, as discussed previously. As stated earlier, the NIS was established because urban irrigation in the county accounts for approximately 57 percent (or 150 mil gal per day) of the total urban water demand (263 mil gal per day). With such a high percentage of the county’s water use being expended on landscape irrigation, it is imperative that the systems used to irrigate landscapes are well maintained and operate at a high level of efficiency. County leaders have long recognized that residents will be forced to meet a greater share of future water demands through more expensive alternative water supply development if they don’t fully engage in water conservation and efficiency today. Continued on page 6

Continued from page 4

Can Significant Water Savings Be Found in Irrigation Systems? Groundwater supplies approximately 90 percent of all water use, including irrigation, in south Florida. Until recently, the region’s groundwater resources were seen as infinite and little attention was paid to how efficiently those resources were used. As a consequence, many irrigation systems were not designed or installed with efficiency in mind. The goal was (and sometimes remains) “keep it green at all costs.” Things are changing slowly, as water resources have become stretched and more in the industry are aware of water conservation, but for a county as densely populated and built out as Broward, there are likely more irrigation systems currently present in the ground than will be installed new going forward. For the foreseeable future, county residents and municipal staff working today have inherited an aging stock of older, inefficient systems. Moreover, regardless of a system’s initial design efficiency, an older system may no longer be suitable to meet the current needs of the landscape. This is because landscapes mature and change over time, both naturally and by human intervention. In addition, irrigation systems in public areas, which make up the majority of those serviced by NIS, experience heavy demands from their regular use. These areas are often heavily trafficked on weekends, and more so during festivals and other public outdoor events. Keeping up with the natural wear and tear of the irrigation components and damage (accidental and from vandalism) creates significant challenges to maintaining high degrees of operational efficiency. In addition, the staff charged with maintaining the irrigation systems for many cities in the county have heavy workloads relative to the number of personnel responsible for their upkeep. There are a few cities that have as little as two (and some, even only one) staff responsible to maintain all the municipal-owned irrigation

systems. This limits their ability to perform thorough and detailed system checks. Many NIS counterparts admit the best they can do to perform system checks is manually start every zone and look on from a distance to see if each zone engages and, hopefully, to see if there is a “geyser” flowing from a broken head. Furthermore, although most staff members demonstrate high degrees of field experience and proficiency in the areas of system installation and repair, many have never received formal technical training in irrigation water use efficiency or in the use of state-of-the-art computerized controllers. These reasons illustrate why NIS was established: to provide Broward County cities and utilities with a team of individuals, specifically trained in irrigation water use efficiency and irrigation system auditing, to work full-time on conducting highly comprehensive irrigation system evaluations. “We see ourselves as support staff to the folks working for the cities,” says JC Hernandez, a 10-year veteran of NIS. “When the best they can do is keep up with fixing the major leaks, efficiency improvement falls to the wayside. We see our role as doing some of the things that our counterparts just don’t have time to do.”

Tales From the Field Leaks, breaks, and malfunctioning hardware (sprinklers, valves, etc.) are an enormous source of water loss. In 2016 alone, NIS documented 12.6 mil gal in leak and hardware repair savings. This figure does not account for leaks and broken hardware that were documented but left unaddressed, nor does it account for repairs made at locations where a follow-up evaluation did not occur. As Figure 2 shows, some leaks and breaks are easy to see as geysers, which can shoot up to 30 ft into the air. Other common contributors to poor system efficiency include clogged sprinkler heads, blocked or leaning heads, and pavement overspray. With the possible exception of pavement overspray, many of these functional problems can only be seen if irrigation staff has the time to meticulously inspect the en-

Figure 2. Even these small geysers can be considered easy to see (left). Many other leaks and breaks can only be seen if the entire landscape and irrigation system is inspected (center and right). The leak at the right was measured at 100 gal per minute.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

tire landscape, which is not always possible given time constraints and workload imbalances, as discussed previously. Mixed zones are a highly common occurrence seen in the field, which are also a major contributor to system inefficiency. Mixed zones occur when sprinkler heads in a single zone are emitting water at different precipitation rates or trying to water landscape material with different watering needs. For example, one or more sprinklers in a zone may require 20 minutes to apply water sufficient to meet the plant needs, while other sprinklers (in the same zone) may require 40 minutes to apply the same amount of water. Conversely, one area of a zone may have plants with low watering needs, while other plants have high watering needs. In both cases, irrigation system operators will default to a longer runtime, lest they underirrigate an area and stress or kill plant material. “Mixed zones are undoubtedly the greatest and most commonly seen contributor to system inefficiency. It’s extremely rare to find a system that doesn’t have one or many occurrences of mixed-zone problems,” says Jeff Deloian, another ten-year veteran of NIS. Head-to-head coverage is when sprinkler heads throw water far enough so as to reach the nearest heads. This creates an even application of water over the zone and is the result of a welldesigned and well-maintained system. When sprinkler heads fail to reach the nearest heads, a dry spot will result between the heads. This happens when the system was not planned or installed correctly in the first place or when a broken head is replaced with one having a shorter throw. In either case, the operator’s reaction is to increase the runtime to have the dry spot eventually get enough water. In the meantime, however, the areas originally covered by the sprinklers can get twice or three times as much water as needed. Poor coverage and mixed zones are the two areas of efficiency loss NIS staff see addressed the least. “We mention mixed zones and poor coverage in nearly every evaluation report we issue, but we rarely see it corrected on follow-up evaluations,” says Hernandez. Another significant factor affecting the efficiency of an irrigation system is the presence (or absence) of a rain shut-off device. Rain sensors, the simplest and least expensive type of shut-off device, will send a bypass signal to the controller if the cork material in the sensor is swollen as a result of the rain wetting it. This signal will interrupt the irrigation event, but only immediately after or during a significant rainfall. The efficacy of these devices is limited as the cork inserts can dry thoroughly within a few hours. Moreover, the cork discs tend to degrade and become brittle quickly in Florida’s extreme climate conditions. Functioning rain sensors have been shown in Florida to reduce water use by 15 percent during an average-rainfall year.

Although required by law on all systems since 2010, many systems are found to either not have a rain sensor or to have a nonfunctioning one. Of all areas of system inefficiencies, poorly set irrigation timers are by far the most commonly seen by the NIS team. The county irrigation ordinance allows for regular irrigation only two days a week, with some exceptions for maintenance, watering in chemicals, new plantings, ball fields, and when reclaimed water is used. “We often find them set for five and six days a week and with runtimes two to three times as long as they need to be,” says Deloian. “Sometimes the excessive scheduling is the result of an honest mistake, but for some systems, when the layout is just bad and you don’t have head-to-head sprinkler coverage or if you have a mixed zone situation, the system operators have almost no choice but to increase the runtimes and frequency to compensate for the bad design, and you can’t really blame them. If time and resources cannot be allocated to improve the system design, a proper schedule won’t work during the dry season, so lots of operators just leave it set heavy all year.”

Value-Added Program Elements To support its efforts of enhancing irrigation water use efficiency, NIS hosts workshops and training events focused on efficiency principles (Figure 3). The primary target audience for these events is irrigation and landscape staff from local municipalities across the county, from partnering and nonpartnering cities alike, and industry professionals from the private sector are also invited. In addition, NIS also participates in public outreach in support of local environmental and conservation awareness events. This is considered a value-added service of the NIS program not required by contract with its partners. Smart irrigation devices are the latest and greatest in irrigation system efficiency control and are the focal point of the most recent valueadded service provided to NIS partners (Figure 4). Smart irrigation devices are computerized controllers that account for weather, soil, and other conditions and match the irrigation cycles to meet (and not exceed) plant needs. These devices have been shown to reduce water use by approximately 25 to 45 percent, if installed by a trained professional, and have considerably longer service lives than rain sensors. Although their prices have come down in recent years, their adoption by the public sector is behind that of the private sector. Therefore, the NIS has, for the second year in a row, secured a cost-share grant from the South Florida Water Management District to provide smart irrigation control devices to its partners at no cost to them. This smart device giveaway program (winner of a 2017 National Association of Counties Award for County

Resiliency, Infrastructure, Energy, and Sustainability) is also beyond the scope of the NIS agreement with its partner cities and utilities. To implement the smart device giveaway program, NIS identifies eligible sites where these devices would be practical and compatible with the existing irrigation systems and components. The NIS procures the smart devices and distributes them to its partner contacts. The field staff members at each of the municipal partners are responsible for the initial installation and management of the devices. These devices have been the focal point of three NIS-produced workshops since 2015. To date, 137 devices have been deployed across the county. Sites will continue to be identified and outfitted during 2017 and 2018.

Program Results The NIS consists of three full-time staff and one part-time support staff. Since 2005, NIS has performed almost 3,000 evaluations at over 2,000 locations within the county, for a total cumulative water savings of 1.46 bil gal. During the past year (May 2016 to May 2017), NIS conducted 258 evaluations at 195 locations and documented 79 mil gal of (annual) water savings. Of

the 258 evaluations performed over the last year, 63 sites had follow-ups, leaving full savings from 132 sites undocumented and unknown.

Conclusion The NIS provides a well-needed technical service to its partners and has accumulated a proven track record of helping achieve significant water savings across the county. For the foreseeable future, conserving water will remain less expensive than developing alternative water supplies to meet future needs, but it does require some additional effort and resource allocation today to offset future costs. City leaders and utility directors value conservation, and their staffs in the field are able and ready to support conservation goals. Greater staffing and funding directed toward retrofitting and rehabilitating older systems in the field, and providing additional irrigation efficiency-related training for the personnel responsible for maintaining them, will help meet those goals. Robert Wanvestraut is program manager with NatureScape Irrigation Service in Fort Lauderdale. S

Figure 3. The NIS hosts several workshops each year targeting landscape and irrigation professionals from its partner cities and utilities, but they are open for private sector professionals as well. The staff also supports local public outreach events hosted by program partners and Broward County.

Figure 4. A typical device replacement under NIS’s smart irrigation technology deployment program. Antiquated clock timers (left) are replaced with state-of-the-art computerized controllers and onsite weather sensors (right). These devices use real-time weather and other site-specific data to adjust irrigation schedules and runtimes to deliver only the amount of water needed to bring soil moisture to a preset threshold, which meets, without exceeding, the needs of the plants. Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017



FWPCOA’s Succession Planning Making Positive Progress Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

t our January meeting in Destin we made the decision to address succession planning, and the board voted in March to bring someone in to assist with this effort. It’s amazing how far we have come in such a brief time, but there’s still work that needs to be completed. One of the biggest items was just taking a step back to see exactly where we are and what


New Author for Test Yourself Column Donna Kaluzniak is the new author for this magazine’s monthly column Test Yourself. She is a commercial writer for the water industry, as owner of H2O Writing. She was formerly the City of Atlantic Beach utility director and has over 30 years of experience in municipal water and wastewater systems. Kaluzniak is a certified environmental professional and a Florida Class A wastewater treatment plant operator. S


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

needs to be finished. We have a small core working together to gather the information to make this organization even stronger in the future. Last year Ken Enlow reviewed and gathered all the motions that had been presented to the board to reduce having the same items coming back up to be voted on again and again. Ken is also assisting the regions with updating their bylaws, and that work is nearing completion. All this plays a part in succession planning so that we know what we can do at a regional level without having board approval. The board took the next step at our March meeting, after reviewing Past President Tom King’s evaluation of FWPCOA’S administrative vulnerability in the absence or loss of key individuals, and approved the hiring of Darin Bishop to assist with administrative duties. The following are a few of the items that Darin has worked on with Walt Smyser, Shirley Reaves, Rim Bishop, and Tim McVeigh. 1. Researched, located, and presented to Walt Smyser the ClubExpress software that we are now using for our website and membership administration. Walt loves it, and with each passing day, regional and state personnel, including me, are using it more and more efficiently. It’s cost-effective and extremely well-suited to the association’s operations. It is, after all, our future. 2. Secured blocks of sleeping rooms at Ft. Pierce hotels near the campus at a reduced rate for the August 2017 and spring 2018 short schools. Hotel rooms had been a genuine problem recently, and he now has contacts through which we can lock them down in advance for other upcoming schools. 3. Located and presented an excellent alternative for investing surplus FWPCOA funds. 4. Conceived, organized, and implemented group billing so that we now receive dues payments for over half of our membership. Then, when we converted to ClubExpress, he worked with his utility group billing contacts to revamp the program to fit that format. 5. Presently wrapping up a project where he used Shirley’s Excel Backflow Tech certification database, manually reviewed all certificate holders, and entered them into the ClubExpress training module as our first use of that system. He should be done within the next week or so, and when he is, we will be able to send automated reminders for recer-

tification. Other FWPCOA certification programs will follow once he debugs this one. 6. His effective use of the ClubExpress system is resulting in a steady increase in membership, from approximately 4,100 several months ago to about 4,500 now. There have been other items addressed that aren’t on this list, such as the CD library that instructors can use, which the board approved and was given to the region directors at our June board meeting in Plant City. We still have a way to go, but with the core group working on it, these and other changes and improvements to the organization will only help in making us stronger and more viable.

Training for Utility Maintenance Mechanics The association currently has level 2 and 3 utility maintenance certification courses available, and Dave Pachucki and Bob Case are working on the level 1 course. I was lucky enough to sit in the class for a little while at our fall short school and was pleasantly surprised at how much I got out of it. I would strongly recommend sending your employees to this course when it’s offered.

Senior System Operator and Utilities Maintenance Award We receive many applications for the awards for the short school, but the one that seems to get neglected is the Senior System Operator and Utilities Maintenance Award. This award, established in 1990, is to honor systems operators in both distribution and collection, with more than ten years of experience, whose outstanding personal performance is deserving of special recognition by the board of directors, set forth as follows: S Recognized individual service to the association S Work done for fellow operations/systems operators S Outstanding (or exceptional under trying conditions) system operations S Personal achievement The deadline is June 30, so please take the time to submit nominees for the award. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Highlights From the 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference Holly Hanson The characteristics of the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) have for many years included, among many things, steady growth and stability. This year we continued to increase our numbers, with 350 exhibitors and over 3,300 attendees. The expansion in the number of exhibits, which utilized all 100,000 square feet in the hall, allowed for a smooth flow on the floor and extra


room for comfort—and for all of the other events that took place. The conference was held April 23-26 at the Palm Beach County Convention Center in West Palm Beach, and every year we try and bring new elements to make this annual event as interesting and informative as possible. This year was no exception; in addition to expanding the exhibit floor, we promoted the Innovation Showcase and Exhibitors Spotlight and located the Operations Challenge competition in the center of the exhibit hall. Other significant components included the Student Design Competition, which brings the brightest young minds and their wastewater and environmental designs to the conference; the Women of Water Forum, where panelists and audience members celebrated the contributions of women to the water industry; the Operators Showcase, with operators addressing the issues of the day; the Contractor’s Council, presenting various delivery methods; and a diverse technical program to interest industry professionals who are in every facet of the water business.

Students and Young Professionals: The Future of the Industry Emphasis was placed on young professionals and university students as we ramped up new activities to maintain their interest and involvement. A Social Media Scavenger Hunt that involved all attendees in promoting FWRC on social media was a great success, and the winner went home with a $250 gift card. It was a win-win for

everybody! The Young Professionals Symposium, a joint endeavor by FSAWWA and FWEA, presented a roundtable discussion, with guest speakers sharing their career stories. The Student Design Competition teams representing Florida universities presented their realworld findings to an assigned problem or task in both environmental and wastewater interests. This competition is intended for both undergraduate and graduate students, typically completing a capstone project. Winning teams from each category will move on to the national competition at the Water Environment Federation Technical and Exhibition Conference (WEFTEC) in October. The Student Poster Contest was in full swing Monday afternoon in the rear stage area of the hall. Charlotte Haberstroh from the University of South Florida won first place, and Yue He from the University of Florida won second-place honors. Each student won a Visa gift card. A “Show Your Colors” theme prevailed at the Student and YP Social, a take on tailgating and sporting events. Due to the rain, though, the event was held inside, where Cornhole and many other games were provided and enjoyed by the students and other conference attendees.

Technical Sessions and Workshops: Peers Share Their Expertise The technical program, loaded with valuable content, was coordinated by Tim Madhanagopal, with Orange County Utilities, who serves as con-

Exhibit Hall

Technical Sessions


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

ference vice president, and his technical review committee, which is composed of industry experts from a variety of government and privately owned facilities and agencies. The committee members read and graded the submitted abstracts by subject, and the top five in each group were selected for presentation. Two days of solid technical content that included workshops and technical sessions covered issues like utility management, nutrient removal, disaster management, sustainability and climate change, potable water treatment, biosolids technologies, collections, disinfection and public health, distribution, supply, treatment, resource recovery, utility rates, operations and maintenance, reclamation and reuse, and modeling/geographic information systems (GIS) and computer applications. The workshop presentations included: S Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT): Tools and Resources for Moving Innovation Into Practice (sponsored by Water Environment & Reuse Foundation) S Disaster Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities S Director Potable Reuse and the Future of Water Recycling S Utility Rates 101 S Design-Build Delivery Systems S Nutrient Removal S Resiliency S Microscopic Examination of Activated Sludge S CLOGs and FROGs in Collection Systems S Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens S Employee Safety

In the Exhibit Hall: Invention and Innovation Scott Kelly, who serves as FWRC president, was proud to give a warm welcome from the city where he resides and the site of the conference— West Palm Beach. The Sunday president’s reception, always a well-attended event, was the first of many networking opportunities in the exhibit hall. As one of the most exciting and rewarding FWRCs in recent memory, the exhibitors here were proud to showcase their products and services. The South's premier water and wastewater conference was buzzing, and the focus was on promoting new industry trends and technologies. Discussions on case studies, regulatory issues, and subjects pertaining to Florida’s challenge of supplying, conserving, and reusing its precious water resources took place throughout the week. Tom King, past president of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA), served as honorary master of ceremonies in the hall. His warm personality and

Awards Luncheon ability to entertain the audience, while keeping everyone informed of the conference goings-on, was enjoyed and appreciated. The Innovation Showcase, a unique and new concept, which is presented at the national level at WEFTEC, was staged this year at FWRC, and it highlighted an invited selection of the newest and most exciting breakthroughs in the industry. Many innovations start small, and this opportunity provides a platform for those ideas that are not quite large enough for a full paper or presentation, but can still provide pertinent information that makes a difference in the way we work and think about water. Six 30-minute segments at the Exhibitor’s Showcase were available on Monday and Tuesday at the rear stage in the exhibit hall that provided a focused opportunity for vendors to promote accelerated development and implementation of innovative technologies and approaches.

Thanks to our Sponsors The conference sponsors help to enrich the experience at FWRC. We appreciate their interest in the conference’s vision and are grateful for their support. We encourage all FWRC attendees to give these sponsors the opportunity to earn their business. AECOM American Water Resources ARCADIS Archer Western Black & Veatch Brown and Caldwell Cardno Inc. Carter And VerPlanck Inc. CDM Smith CH2M Concrete Conservations Inc. Crom LLC

Custom Controls Technology Inc. Delta Products Corp. Florida Aquastore Utility and Construction U.S. Pipe (Forterra) Gannett Fleming Garney Construction GreenTechnologies LLC HDR HiperWeb HIPPO Multipower Hydra Service Inc. JJ Madigan LLC Jones Edmunds & Associates Inc. Kimley-Horn Mott MacDonald P C Construction PCL Construction Inc. Reiss Engineering Stantec Synagro Technologies Tetra Tech Thompson Pipe Group - Flowtite Trihedral Inc. Trojan U.S. Water Services Corp. Wharton Smith Woolpert Wright-Pierce

Networking and Annual Events: Information Sharing and Industry Recognition Many, many activities went on at FWRC, in additional to the educational forums, technical sessions, and committee meetings. The Operators Showcase packed the room as operators from around the state and the region discussed best practices, new trends, and reoccurring issues. Hosted by FWPCOA, Tom King once again served as emcee for this great event, with Continued on page12 Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Continued from page11 positive feedback from attendees. The beer at the showcase attracted the students from the design competition being held next door, and when they came into the room, Tom had them discuss their projects (which the operators critiqued) in exchange for a beer! The serendipitous interaction and information exchange was so successful that Tom wants to repeat it next year. Over 600 people attended the Monday Awards Luncheon where City of West Palm Beach Mayor Jeri Muoio was the keynote speaker. She gave a welcoming address and a presentation on the state of water from her perspective. Tuesday’s Florida Water Environment Association’s Annual Meeting and Awards Luncheon hosted Eileen O’Neill, who is the WEF executive director. This luncheon was also popular, with over 400 attendees and award recipients present. Tom Baber, Ph7, with Litkenhaus and Associates, once again hosted the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers (FSSSSS) inductions. Assisted by comedian Scott Orbany, they kept the audience entertained with zany oneliners about the three inductees. This exclusive award honors the recipients based on merit for their “outstanding and meritorious service above and beyond the call of duty to the water industry.” This year’s recipient were Chris Fasnacht, City of St. Cloud; Sondra Lee, City of Tallahassee; and Tom Evans of Tom Evans Environmental Inc.

Operations Challenge

The Bowery, a local, casual-chic bar and grill in CityPlace, a complex of shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues across the street from the convention center, hosted the “Monday Nighter” networking party. The open bar and live music got folks on the dance floor as they enjoyed the atmosphere and the delicious desserts.

Contests and Competitions The FSAWWA hosted the annual “Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest” on Tuesday, where municipalities representing the section’s 12 regions entered their drinking water samples for close examination and various testing. The City of North Miami was selected by the five judges as this year’s winner. With preparations starting in January, anticipation was high this year as the Operations Challenge competition had nine team entries. Coordinated by Chris Fasnacht and Ada Levy, both with the City of St. Cloud, the competing teams were: S City of Boynton Beach “Steam Team” S City of Fort Lauderdale “Hurricanes” S City of St. Cloud “Methane Madness” S City of St. Petersburg “Dirty Birds” S Destin Water Users “Positive Influents” S Gainesville Regional Utilities “True Grit” S Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA) Team 1 “Water Hogs” S JEA Team 2 “Fecal Matters” S Orange County “Treatment Outlaws” A discernible undercurrent of excitement was present as tough competition in each of the five categories took place. The winning team, Methane Madness, took the top spot for the fourth year in a row and will compete at the 90th annual WEFTEC, to be held at McCormick Place in Chicago from September 30 to October 4. The Top Ops Competition, which was held Tuesday afternoon and coordinated by Andrew Houck, with City of Altamonte Springs, hosted the following teams: S City of Palm Coast “Water Buoys”

Top Ops


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S FWPCOA Region #9 S Hillsborough County Utilities “ChloraMEAN MACHINE” S Pasco County Utilities “Justice League” S Tampa Bay Water Teams were encouraged to promote their team theme and colors throughout the conference. The winning team, Water Buoys, competed at the American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE17) in June in Philadelphia. Other yearly events included the FSSSSS annual members breakfast and the FSAWWA regional chairs and volunteer breakfast. Various association meetings and forums were also held.

Volunteers: The Backbone of the Conference The FWRC has many moving parts and I would especially like to thank all of our talented speakers who truly are experts in their fields; staff members of FSAWWA, Water For People, FWPCOA, Water Environment Federation, and FWEA; all the many people who volunteered their time at registration, as part of the technical review committee, and workshop coordinators; attendees at educational events and committee meetings; and all the other people behind the scenes who make this event so successful. You are all good stewards of Florida’s clean water environment with your commitment to FWRC.

Thanks and Save the Date Let’s get ready for fun and sun at the 2018 Florida Water Resources Conference, which is scheduled for April 15-18 at the Ocean Center in beautiful Daytona Beach. The FWRC strives to be your prevailing source for technical and educational information and we look forward to another great conference next year! Holly Hanson is executive director of the Florida Water Resources Conference. S

Water For People


The Latest Products and Innovations The exhibit hall this year included more than 320 vendors, with company representatives discussing up-to-date technologies and processes with the attendees at their booths, and at the Innovation Showcase and Exhibitor Spotlight sessions. Booths for FWEA, FSAWWA, and FWPCOA had staff and volunteers available to talk about programs and products for the three organizations. The hall was also the site for the evening receptions; prize giveaways; Top Ops, Operations Challenge, and “Best of the Best” Drinking Water Contest; poster session; and some of the awards presentations. Shown are some of the activities in the hall. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017



Learning From Others in the Industry The technical program included sessions on utility management, potable water treatment, biosolids, collection systems, disinfection, water supply and treatment, distribution, sustainability and climate change, conservation, facility operations and maintenance, resource recovery, stormwater, geographic information systems and computer applications, wastewater treatment, new technologies, and reclamation and reuse; and workshops on potable reuse, resiliency, utility rates, design-build delivery, activated sludge, nutrient removal, collection systems, pathogens, and safety. Pictured are some of the sessions and workshops.

Second Women of Water Forum Held at Conference Celebrating the importance of, and contributions by, women in the water industry, the second Women of Water (WOW) Forum was presented at the conference on April 24. Moderated by Marjorie Craig, director of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services for Polk County Utilities in Winter Haven, the two-hour session attracted more than 40 people, and the interaction among the panelists, facilitator, and audience members (new to the industry, seasoned professionals, and somewhere in between) produced a lively and informative discussion. The panelists for the program were: S Maria Loucraft, utility compliance and efficiency manager for City of Pompano Beach S Eileen O’Neill, executive director of the Water Environment Federation S Jacqueline Torbert, manager of Orange County Utilities Water Division, and a vice president on the AWWA board of directors and past FSAWWA chair S Lisa Prieto, owner of Prieto Environmental and P3 Electrical, and FWEA president S Lisa Wilson-Davis, utility services operations and environmental compliance manager for City of Boca Raton S Dr. Poonam Kalkat, director of public utilities for City of West Palm Beach Craig opened the session by stating that, in 2011, women in the United States comprised 48 percent of the total workforce, but only 26 percent of them worked in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions. She noted that women who were in these four male-dominated professions earned 33 percent more than women with other degrees. Some of the discussion topics from Craig included the following: S Did you choose the industry or did it choose you? S What advantages have you seen as a result of being a woman in the engineering field? S What small changes make the most impact? S What has been your biggest career challenge? S What tools would you recommend to help others maintain balance in their work/life? S What/who influenced you the most to enter the industry? S What have been your tradeoffs between work and potential promotions versus family responsibilities? S Are glass ceiling barriers a perception or reality? The panelists acknowledged that it still isn’t always easy being in the water and wastewater industry. Wilson-Davis noted that women very often receive mixed signals from male colleagues and bosses, with comments from some that they’re “too soft” and from others that they’re “too hard.” She noted that not all men are alike either, and women should just try to be themselves and do the best job they can. No one should have to apologize for who they are or how they might address a situation. For instance, men tend to want to “solve” an issue right away, which could be expedient, but women like to “discuss” an issue and make sure all ideas are considered and all participants have their say, which could result in a better outcome. Kalkat stated that women don’t want advantages; they just want an equal playing field where everyone is treated fairly. It was noted by Torbert that no


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

woman wants to get a job or promotion just to be a “statistic” or occupy a position so a company can check one of its “diversity” boxes, be it for gender, ethnicity, age, or some other category. Women want to feel that they’ve earned a job or promotion, but it’s sometimes hard for them to feel that they deserve it. O’Neill stated that women are usually not natural self-promoters, and it’s hard for them to speak up for themselves. She said that women need to cite facts and statistics about themselves and their accomplishments when they want to advance at work. This prompted an audience member to bring up the issue of female competition in the workplace, noting that women aren’t always allies for each other. It was stressed that men don’t always help each other, but women may feel an extra burden because there are fewer “slots” for them in an organization, so advancement may come down to “survival of the fittest.” Loucraft stated that women can view each other as competition, but that they are more inclined to help each other, and any help that one woman may get could be advantageous for others, especially when a woman gets to a position of power and can help other women in the future. Another issue discussed was work/life balance, and many attendees, across all age groups, expressed the pressure they feel at work when they have to attend to the needs of their children and/or parents. Their male counterparts usually don’t feel the same pressure at work, as they often don’t fill the same domestic roles. It was noted that the workplace is becoming more accommodating, for women and men, to enable them to be caregivers when needed, but men who want time off in these situa-

tions can also be viewed as weak and not committed to their careers. Some of the attendees and panelists said that they are doing what they can to change that perception, especially as supervisors, and they can help support both genders in their efforts to maintain that balance. Prieto said that one of the reasons she recently started her own company was to have the flexibility to attend to family issues when they arise. The panelists would like to see these issues addressed in middle school and high school, so that students can begin to understand the challenges they’ll face in the working world. Millennials (those approximately 18 to 35) generally have a different mindset than previous generations when it comes to gender, but a continuous and open dialogue is needed to ensure that all workers feel equal in the workplace and can use their distinctive talents and capabilities. Loucraft noted that a workshop addressing gender issues, “Solving for X in the Y Domain,” will be held in Orlando on August 29. The uniqueness of each worker’s abilities is what the panelists felt that people should focus on, not someone’s gender or other physical attributes. To get a broader perspective on the issue of women and water, it was suggested that next year’s forum add some men as panelists and encourage more men to attend. The Florida Water Resources Conference planning committee is committed to presenting this forum every year. The panelists and audience members acknowledged that building trust, understanding, and effective relationships between men and women, and realizing that differences can be strengths, are critical to creating a workplace where everyone can achieve career and industry success. S

Moderator, panelists, and some of the session attendees.

Participants in the panel include moderator Marjorie Craig (standing) and (left to right) panelists Maria Loucraft, Eileen O’Neill, Jacqueline Torbert, Lisa Prieto, Lisa Wilson-Davis, and Poonam Kalkat.

Panelists respond to a question from the audience.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


POSTER SESSION A poster session was held in the exhibit hall, where students from various Florida universities presented their research methods and outcomes on various water topics. The poster authors were available at several times during the conference to discuss their findings with attendees and answer questions. It proved to be a good venue for students to meet with their colleagues and industry professionals. S


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Each year the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, Florida Water Environment Association, and Florida Section of the American Water Works Association honor outstanding individuals, utilities, and other organizations for contributions to the state’s water and wastewater industry. The awards were presented at the two lunches held during the conference.

FWEA AWARDS Earle B. Phelps Awards

Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place Broward County North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Accepted by Mark Darmanin, Metason Phillip, Karen Valiquette, Ralph Aliseo, and Persad Bissessar.

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place Town of Davie Water Reclamation Facility Accepted by Mark Carlos Rodarte and John McGeary.

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Runner-Up Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Accepted by Arthur Serode, Howard Coggin, Sylvester Render, Nathan Silveira, Charles Nichols, Jeff Goolsby, Dave McGrotty, and James Robinson.

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place City of Plant City Water Reclamation Facility Accepted by David J. Buyens, Patrick Murphy, Steve Saffels, Lynn Spivey, Mike Darrow, and Lucy Gassaway.


Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Runner-Up FGUA Golden Gate Wastewater Treatment Facility Accepted by John Schroggins and Chris Jones.

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility Honorable Mention Hillsborough County Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility Accepted by Jason Jennings.

Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Honorable Mention City of Crestview Wastewater Treatment Plant Accepted by Kent Kaughman.

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Honorable Mention St. Johns County Players Club Wastewater Treatment Facility Accepted by Mark Mashburn.

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility Runner-Up Hillsborough County Valrico Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant Accepted by Richard Scheuch and Eric Gauld.

David W. York Water Reuse System of the Year Awards

Reuse Person of the Year Presented to David Ammerman.

Greater Than 15 MGD Hillsborough County North and South Reclaimed Water Service Areas Accepted by Michael Lehigh.

Golden Manhole Society

Presented to Brad Hayes.

Reuse Project of the Year Pasco County’s 4G Wetlands Accepted by Michael Carballa, Jeff Harris, and Rafael Vazquez-Burney.

Collection Systems Awards

Presented to Freddy Betancourt. Medium City of Pompano Beach Accepted by Steve Almyda, Bobby Clayton, and A. Randolph Brown.

Small Seminole Tribe of Florida Accepted by Steven Myers.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Safety Awards

Class A, First Place Hillsborough County Northwest Advanced Wastewater Reclamation Facility Accepted by Jason Jennings.

Class B, First Place Palm Coast Wastewater and Reuse Plant #1 Accepted by Patrick Henderson.

Class A, Second Place Valrico Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant Accepted by Richard Scheuch and Eric Gauld.

Class B, Second Place Lee County Three Oaks Wastewater Treatment Plant Accepted by Darryl Parker.

Class C, First Place Burnt Store Water Reclamation Facility Accepted by Stephen Bozman.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Class A, Third Place Dale Mabry Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility Accepted by London Womack.

Class B, Third Place West Port Water Reclamation Facility Accepted by Thomas Cimino.

Class C, Second Place Seminole Tribe of Florida Immokalee Wastewater Treatment Plant Accepted by Michael Espinoza.

Biosolids Awards

Technology Innovation and Development Hillsborough County Accepted by Ron Wiesman.

Small Operations Bonita Springs Utilities Accepted by Andrew Koebel, Mark Sweitzer, and Dennis White.

Public Education Awards

Research SolarOrganite LLC Accepted by Giri Gaddamanugu.

Leroy H. Scott Award Presented to Brad Hayes.

Campaign Category City of Sanford Residential FOG Public Outreach Program Accepted by Hope Duncan.

Integrated Water Resources Professional of the Year Award Presented to Steve Saffels.

Organization Category City of Orlando Accepted by David Bass.

Albert B. Herndon Award Presented to John Edward Palenchar and accepted by Kevin Riskowitz.

William D. Hatfield Award Presented to Jeff Poteet.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Odor Control Award JEA Accepted by Deryle Calhoun.

Young Professional of the Year Award

Delegate Presented to Paul Pinault.

Presented to Kristen Waksman.

FWEA Welcomes New President

Outstanding Service Awards Presented to Tim Ware, Lynn Spivey, and Jody Barksdale.

Arthur Sidney Bedell Award Presented to Raynetta Curry Marshall.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lisa Prieto (left) completed her term as the FWEA 2016-2017 president at the organization’s annual meeting and awards luncheon that was held on April 25, and Tim Harley (right) began his term as president for 2017-2018.

FSAWWA AWARDS Water Treatment Plants

Outstanding Class A Peace River Manasota Regional Water Authority Accepted by Mike Chell and Richard Anderson.

Most Improved Class A Coral Springs Improvement District Accepted by Joe Stephens.

Marvin N. Kaden Award for Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Operator Presented to Paul Haskins.

Outstanding Class B City of Tarpon Springs Reverse Osmosis Facility Accepted by Robert Claunch, Greg Turman, Kelly Frazier, and Ray Page.

Most Improved Class B Lithia Water Treatment Plant Accepted by Paul Haskins and Mel Parrish.

Outstanding Class C Seminole Tribe of Florida, Hollywood Water Treatment Plant Accepted by Johnnie Johns Jr. and Bassan Sanaallah.

Most Improved Class C Lake Park Water Treatment Plant Accepted by Paul Kavanagh, Mark Lehigh, and Kevin Kraujalis.

Operator’s Meritorious Service Award Presented to Wallace “Wally” Reed and accepted by Mark Lehigh and Mel Parrish.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


American Water Landmark Awards

Destin Water Users Tower 1 Accepted by Lockwood Wernet and Monica Autrey

City of Dunedin Well 1 Accepted by Michael Moschenik.

Water For People Gold Sponsors

Kimley-Horn Accepted by Wayne White.

Reiss Engineering Inc. Accepted by Ervin Myers.

FWPCOA AWARDS David B. Lee Award Pat Flanagan Award Presented to John Wolfe and accepted by Patrick Murphy.

Wastewater Presented to Steve Saffels.

Wastewater Presented to Jered Primiceno.

Richard P. Vogh Award FWPCOA Region 10 Accepted by Katherine Kinloch.

Water Presented to Mike Darrow.


Water Presented to Paul Haskins.

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal


The winning Water Buoys team (from left) Fred Greiner, Peter Roussell, and Tom Martens.

The first-place trophy.

The FWPCOA team readies its answer.

Water Buoys Takes Fourth Straight First-Place Win The Water Buoys, from the City of Palm Coast, qualified for the national American Water Works Association (AWWA) Top Ops competition by winning the Florida Top Ops, held during the conference. For the fourth time in as many years, the team took home the first-place award from this “College Bowl” type event that tests each group of water treatment and distribution operators on its knowledge of system operations. The other teams in the competition were: S FWPCOA - Region #9 S Hillsborough County Utilities - ChloraMEAN MACHINE S Pasco County Utilities - Justice League S Tampa Bay Water The national Top Ops contest took place at the AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE17) held in Philadelphia in June. Water utilities across the state are encouraged to enter the 26th annual Top Ops, which will be held April 2018 during the Florida Water Resources Conference in Daytona Beach. Teams may represent more than one utility. For more details, and to receive the competition rules, contact the Top Ops chair, Christopher Wetz, with City of Tampa, at Christopher.Wetz@tampagov.net.

Audience members at the contest in the exhibit hall.

Waiting for a question is the team from Pasco County.

Tampa Bay Water team.

Hillsborough County team members listen for the judge’s decision. Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017



City of St. Cloud’s Methane Madness is 2017 Winner

Displaying the champion trophy (left to right): Chris Fasnacht and Ada Levy (from City of St. Cloud) and the Methane Madness team members Chris Henderson, Wesley Maghee, Kevin Douglas, and Marcus Fullwood.

Chris Fasnacht, who coordinates the competition, also serves as emcee.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Methane Madness, from City of St. Cloud, came in first place in this year’s Operations Challenge, with a total score of 447.21. Fecal Matters, one of the teams from JEA, finished second with a score of 426.47. Last year, Methane Madness shared first-place honors with GRU’s True Grit, which also competed in this year’s contest. Nine teams came to West Palm Beach to compete. The other teams in the contest were: Ft. Lauderdale’s Hurricanes; Dirty Birds from St. Petersburg; Boynton Beach’s Steam Team; Treatment Outlaws from Orange County; Water Hogs, the other team from JEA; and Positive Influents from Destin Water Users. The competition, which was held in the exhibit hall, is a skills-based contest consisting of four timed events and one questionnaire event that showcase the knowledge and expertise of wastewater treatment plant operators. The teams display their proficiency in process control, maintenance, safety, collections, and the laboratory.

Audience members surround the teams at each event to get a better look.

The process control event uses a computer-based questionnaire where two team members are given certain scenarios to figure out through a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) program, and the other members complete a math and basic knowledge question section. Positive Influents took first in the event, with Methane Madness coming in second. The laboratory section is an ammonia and alkalinity testing situation, in a simulated format, to determine the operation of an aerobic wastewater system, as well as added questions to know what the demand and usage are. True Grit took first place, with Dirty Birds placing second. The maintenance event simulates the maintenance of a lift station where a pump has gone down and a Godwin pump is set up as a bypass in case, at some point, the other pump goes down. The teams are to do a simulated inspection of the pump before simulating taking the pump to the station and hooking it up. In this event, Fecal Matters came in first and Treatment Outlaws took second place. For the second year, the safety section used a hoist system and added some other steps to challenge the teams. The event simulates a person passing out in a confined space and the team arriving on site to retrieve the person. Also added is the maintenance of a check valve in replacing the gaskets to it. First-place winner in this event was Methane Madness and Fecal Matters was second. The collections event simulates the team having to replace a section of an 8-in. piece of pipe with a new piece of pipe that has a 4-in. hole cut out for a new sewer lateral. While this is going on, one member of the team is setting up a sampler to take samples. Here, Positive Influents came in first and Fecal Matters took second place. The winning team will now go on to represent Florida at this year’s Operation Challenge at the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC), which will be held in Chicago in September. Congratulations and best of luck! The next Operations Challenge at FWRC will be held April 2018 in Daytona Beach. The competition is open to teams of wastewater treatment operators from any utility in Florida. For information on entering a team, contact Chris Fasnacht, City of St. Cloud, at cfasnacht@stcloud.org. S

Other teams show there stuff.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


FWEA Society Welcomes New Members Three nominees for the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers (FSSSSS) became members after completing a tongue-twisting induction exercise at the conference, held on Monday during the awards luncheon. The chair of the society, Tom Baber, welcomed the attendees to the ceremony. Scott Orbany, a local comedian, “roasted” the inductees as they completed their verbal exercises. The inductees this year were: S Chris Fasnacht, City of St. Cloud S Sondra Lee, City of Tallahassee S Tom Evans of Tom Evans Environmental Inc. They each took their turn, and after quickly (and successfully!) repeating the name of the society several times, received their certificates as members of the Class of 2017. The new members also received the coveted Silver Shovel pin. The society, which was founded in 1956, annually recognizes wastewater industry professionals for meritorious service above and beyond the call of duty to FWEA. S

The three nominees await their turn at the microphone.

Fasnacht is the first “at bat.”

Tom Baber addresses the luncheon audience.


Lee is victorious!

Comedian Scott Orbany adds levity to the proceedings.

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

A determined Evans sees it through.

The new members display their certificates.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017



Tyler Tedcastle emcees the contest.


City of North Miami Has Best Tasting Water in Florida Accepting the trophy for the City of Miami are (left to right) Hassan Vahid, Nakia Preston, and Paul Vida.

Three of the judges for the contest were (from left) Grace Johns, Barbara Powell, and Harold Fravel.

The winner is announced.

Water samples from the contest.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The City of North Miami won the statewide Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest held at the conference, which was sponsored by the 12 Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) regions. The contest was emceed by Tyler Tedcastle, with Carter Ver Planck Inc., who also serves as the section’s Membership Engagement and Development Council chair. The five taste-test judges chose the utility from the FSAWWA regional winners (see sidebar). For the statewide final, each regional winner submitted a gallon of water that was collected less than 24 hours before the contest. All of the samples were tasted at room temperature to allow for any tastes or odors to be more easily detected. In addition to taste and odor, the samples were rated on color and clarity. The judges for this year’s contest were: S Harold Fravel, executive director of American Membrane Technology Association S Rick Harmon, editor of Florida Water Resources Journal S Grace Johns, senior associate economist at Hazen and Sawyer and FSAWWA chair S Barbara Powell, former water resources manager for Broward County and lead planner for South Florida Water Management District S Jim Tully, owner of Florida Water Daily The utility competed in the national drinking water taste test that was held at the 2017 AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE17) in June in Philadelphia. The City of North Miami’s water's quality control staff collects and analyzes drinking water samples on an hourly, daily, monthly, and annual basis. The quality control laboratory is statecertified for the analysis of total coliform bacteria in drinking water, and water samples from 66 locations throughout the service area are collected twice a month and are monitored for the bacteria and for chlorine. Through this ongoing effort, the staff is able to ensure that the water delivered is in compliance with all drinking water regulations, is safe, and of high quality. The utility monitors for numerous other contaminants. The results of this monitoring are listed in the city’s annual water quality report and are well within the regulatory standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of Health, Miami-Dade Department of Health, and Florida Department of Environmental Protection. S Region I ............City of Tallahassee Region II ............City of St. Augustine Region III ..........City of Sanford Region IV ..........City of Wildwood Region V ............Cape Coral Utilities Region VI ..........Seminole Tribe of Florida, Hollywood Treatment Plant

Region VII ........City of North Miami Region VIII........Seminole Tribe of Florida, Brighton Water Treatment Plant Region IX ........People’s Water Service Region X ..........Charlotte County Utilities Region XI ........City of Belleview Region XII........Bay County Utilities


Finding Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Stormwater Runoff: The Importance of Nonfecal Origins David Tomasko, Emily Keenan, Jessica Hudson, Cheryl Propst, Matt Logan, and Joanne Vernon he Sunshine Lake/Sunrise Waterway system, located in Charlotte County, previously experienced extensive and persistent algal blooms, accompanied by noxious odors and deep organic-rich soils. This condition resulted in Charlotte County implementing a lakewide dredging project to remove the algal material from the lake and waterway system. Two reports, a preliminary assessment (Atkins, 2012), and a more-detailed water quality management plan (Atkins and ESA, 2014) determined that the algal bloom in the lake was associated with a growth form that assimilated nutrients into a mass of material associated with the bottom of the lake and waterway, dominated


by cyanobacteria, which is also known as bluegreen algae. As part of the development of the water quality management plan, a six-month monitoring program was implemented to quantify the nutrient concentrations of stormwater runoff and groundwater seepage, so that external nutrient loads could be quantified. The results from that effort indicated that the nutrient loads required for the algal bloom in the lake and the waterway were due in large part to excessive concentrations of phosphorus in stormwater runoff; however, nitrogen concentrations were not similarly elevated. The algal mat that was removed by dredging was com-

Table 1. Bucket assignment and quantity of material added per treatment.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

David Tomasko is principal associate and Emily Keenan is an environmental scientist at Environmental Science Associates in Tampa. Jessica Hudson is a scientist in Tampa and Cheryl Propst is a senior scientist in Jacksonville at Atkins North America. Matt Logan is projects manager and Joanne Vernon is a county engineer with Charlotte County in Punta Gorda.

prised of various species of cyanobacteria, many of which have been shown to be able to “fix” nitrogen from the atmosphere (Tomasko et al., 2009). The lack of similarly and consistently elevated levels of nitrogen in stormwater runoff (compared to phosphorus) suggested that sewage and/or fertilizer were likely not the source(s) of phosphorus, as stormwater runoff that is influenced by sewage overflows and/or excessive fertilizer application is typically characterized by high levels of both phosphorous and nitrogen. Instead, it was concluded that the high levels of phosphorus in stormwater runoff were associated with the influence of the Peace River Formation of the Hawthorn Group, otherwise known as the Bone Valley Formation (Atkins and ESA, 2015). This geological feature, which extends into Charlotte County, is characterized by its elevated phosphorus content. High levels of fecal coliform bacteria (>1,000,000 colony-forming units [cfu] per 100 ml) were often found in the same stormwater runoff samples with low concentrations of nitrogen. When considered as a whole, these findings suggested that the high levels of fecal coliform bacteria were not associated with sewage, since a sewage source would also be expected to have high concentrations of nitrogen. To further test the hypothesis that sewage was not the source of the high levels of fecal coliform bacteria in stormwater runoff, molecular source identification efforts were initiated, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques to de-

tect the presence of human-related deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences from Baceroidetes sp. and Enterococci sp. bacteria, a technique similar to those previously applied in the Miami River (Florida Department of Environmental Protection [FDEP], 2006) and in Collier County’s Clam Bay (Atkins, 2012). After sampling three stormwater discharge locations twice, results from the PCR study did not find evidence of humans as a significant source of the high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. After conducting a thorough examination of the stormwater conveyance system, a number of other potential sources of bacteria were considered, including wildlife, pet wastes, soils, and rotting vegetation. In response to the findings of high levels of bacteria in stormwater runoff, and the finding that human fecal material did not appear to be the source of those bacteria, a follow-up manipulative experiment was conducted to determine not only what source(s) were not responsible for the high levels of bacteria found, but also what source(s) were likely responsible.

Experimental Design The experimental design tested the ability of different materials found in the storm drain conveyance system to produce fecal coliform bacteria. Prior to the initiation of the study, Charlotte County Public Works identified a secure facility to perform the experiment, which was conducted in an abandoned trailer without electricity, which resulted in temperatures more similar to those expected within the stormwater conveyance pipes. During field review of the storm drains, areas were found where exposed soils were likely to be eroded down into the stormwater conveyance system. This soil was collected for later use in the experimental phase of this project. A yard with newly mowed (that morning) grass was found, and with the homeowner’s approval, fresh grass clippings were collected as well for the experiment. Due to the uncertainty of locating fresh dog droppings, the fecal material used for this experiment was provided by one of the researcher’s dog, collected the morning of the start of the experiment. The replicated incubation experiment consisted of 12 buckets (5 gal each) with four treatments (soil, fresh pet waste, fresh grass clippings, and controls). Each bucket contained 4 gal of water collected from the lake and three buckets were randomly assigned to each of the four treatments. For all buckets, excluding the controls, the material (soil, pet waste, and grass clippings) was weighed prior to adding the substance to each bucket (Table 1). A decision was made to

Table 2. Results of incubation experiment. Values shown are means of three replicates per treatment in units of colony-forming units of fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL of water.

double the amount of grass clippings added to the buckets, compared to the amount of soil or dog fecal material used. This decision was based on a presumption that grass clippings would have a low bacterial abundance associated with them, and therefore, a larger amount might be needed to produce any measurable counts. Each bucket was then stirred gently to fully distribute any added materials and randomly placed in one room within the empty trailer. After adding the materials to be tested to each bucket (with no material added to controls) a water sample was taken from each bucket on the day that the experiment was started. Additional samples were taken two, four, eight, 16, and 30 days after the start of the experiment. Samples were collected from each bucket using standard operating procedures, as outlined by FDEP, placed on ice, and provided to a private laboratory certified by an Environmental Laboratory Advisory Committee for standard analysis of fecal coliform bacteria concentrations.

Results Results from the experiment are listed in Table 2, and graphically displayed in Figure 1. The results in Figure 1 are displayed on a log-10 scale, a common technique for results from bacterial abundance assessments. On day zero, the controls, dog feces, and soil treatments had average fecal coliform bacteria abundances lower than 200 cfu/100 ml. In contrast, the treatment with grass clippings started off on day zero with more than 100,000 cfu/100 ml. At day two, fecal coliform bacteria in the dog feces treatment increased to a value similar to that seen at day zero in the grass clippings treatment, which had itself increased to 2,000,000 cfu/100 ml. By day four, the dog feces treatment had decreased from 100,000 to 77,000 cfu/100 ml of fecal coliform bacteria, while the grass clippings treatment had increased further to nearly 20,000,000 cfu/100 ml. By day eight, fecal coliform bacteria concentrations in both the controls and the soil treatments had decreased to 10 cfu/100 ml, where they stayed until day 30.

By day 16, the fecal coliform bacteria amount in the grass clippings treatment averaged 678,333 cfu/100 ml, while the dog feces treatment values averaged 7,633 cfu/100 ml. By the end of the experiment, the dog fecal treatment averaged 20 cfu/100 ml of fecal coliform bacteria, while the grass clippings treatment averaged 55,667 cfu/100 ml. These findings suggest that the decomposition of grass clippings in warm and anoxic conditions, such as those used in this experiment, can give rise to an abundance of bacteria that test positive as fecal coliform, and that these bacteria are not likely due to potential contamination with pet waste. Instead, it appears that the test for fecal coliform bacteria is not specific enough to detect that grass clippings are likely decomposed in part by bacteria that also grow under the conditions used to test for fecal coliform bacteria. Results of the incubation experiment are somewhat compromised by the fact that the buckets with grass clippings had roughly twice as much material added to them (100 grams wet weight) as the buckets with either soils or dog feces; however, the finding that day-zero samples of grass clippings had approximately 1,000 times as much bacteria as the buckets with soil or dog feces suggest that there are large amounts of bacteria that test positive as fecal coliform associated with grass clippings. Samples incubated with dog feces showed very high levels of fecal coliform bacteria at days two, four, eight, and 16, but values decreased substantially from day 16 to day 30. At all dates, however, there were more bacteria in the samples incubated with grass clippings than those with dog feces. Samples incubated with soil did not appear to be a significant source of fecal coliform bacteria. These results help to explain how the stormwater conveyance system discharging into the lake had such high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, even though more sophisticated molecular techniques did not find evidence of human sewage as the likely source of such high values. Continued on page 36

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Continued from page 35

Potential Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria For over a century, either total coliform bacteria or fecal coliform bacteria have been used as indicators of the presence of various pathogens, whether bacterial, viral, or associated with parasites. Their use as indicators of pathogens was valuable, as they have been used to set standards and determine the likelihood of fecal contamination and associated human health risk in surface waters; however, the use of indicator organisms to warn of fecal contamination and associated risks to human health is confounded by many variables, including differences among the life cycles, environmental requirements, overall abundance, and likelihood of being detected, compared to actual pathogens (Harwood et al., 2013). Furthermore, total and fecal coliform bacteria have been shown to persist and grow in terrestrial soils, aquatic soils, and aquatic vegetation (LaLiberte and Grimes, 1982; Fujioka et al., 1999; Solo-Gabriele et al., 2000; Desmarais et al., 2000; Byappanahalli et al., 2000; Topp et

al., 2003; Whitman et al., 2003; Anderson et al., 2005; Ishii et al., 2000; Ksoll et al., 2007; Badgley et al., 2011; Harwood et al., 2013). The fecal coliform group is comprised of thermotolerant bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonae, and is used to indicate the presence of fecal contamination from warm-blooded animals (Bitton, 2005); however, K. pneumoniae may be present in the environment from a variety of nonfecal sources, such as pulp and paper mill wastes (Knittel, 1975; Caplenas et al., 1984) and fresh vegetables (Duncan and Razzell, 1972). Similarly, E. coli can persist and grow in soil, resulting in E. coli levels that are artificially elevated above those expected from fecal contamination alone (LaLiberte and Grimes, 1982). The warm, humid conditions and the availability of organic matter typical of tropical and subtropical environments may play an important role in E. coli persistence and growth in these regions (Rochelle-Newall et al., 2015; Desmarais et al., 2002; Solo-Gabriele et al., 2000; Fujioka et al., 1999). In addition to terrestrial and aquatic soils, aquatic vegetation has also been shown to harbor and support the growth of E. coli and en-

Figure 1. Results of incubation experiment. Values shown are log-10-based means of three replicates per treatment in colony-forming units of fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL of water.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

terococci bacteria, which can persist and grow on decomposing seaweeds, such as the green algae Cladophora glomeratai (Byappanahalli et al., 2003; Whitman et al., 2003). The presence and persistence of fecal coliform bacteria and E. coli was also associated with algal communities growing on hard substrates along the shoreline of Lake Superior (Ksoll et al., 2007). Although some of the fecal indicator bacteria growing on the algal films along Lake Superior could be associated with impacts from wildlife, many of the strains of E. coli found appeared to be unique to the algal film alone, rather than being due to fecal material from wildlife (let alone fecal contamination from humans). The results from this study suggest that fecal coliform bacteria may be similarly associated with the decomposition of grass clippings, at least in the warm, anoxic environments likely found in the storm drain system flowing into the lake and waterway. The findings, as well as anecdotal observations, suggest that grass clippings can decompose rather quickly in Florida, at least in the summertime. Decomposition of grass clippings likely involves some combination of either fungi or bacteria. If the rapid decomposition of grass clippings is achieved in part by bacteria, then it is possible that at least some of the bacteria involved also test positive as fecal coliform bacteria. Strynchuk and Royal (2003) showed an immediate rise in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the water column during incubation of mixed oak leaves (Quercus sp.) and St. Augustine yard grass (Stenolaphrum secundalum) and a slightly slower rise in BOD during incubation of St. Augustine grass clippings in Florida, indicating the rapid initiation of decomposition of such materials. Similarly, Kopp and Guillard (2004) found rapid decomposition of turf grass clippings and release of nitrogen during a study conducted in the more temperate environment of the state of Connecticut. Currently, it is unknown if bacteria associated with the decomposition of grass clippings would also test positive for either E. coli or enterococci, both of which have been proposed as criteria that are expected to be more precisely associated with fecal contamination from humans, or at least mammals. This data gap should be addressed, so that the various regulatory programs in Florida and elsewhere focus on the most likely sources of bacteria in impaired waters, which could require public education related to the proper disposal of grass clippings, as opposed to the typical conclusion that elevated bacteria are likely to require septic tank retrofits, and/or upgrades to sewer collection and treatment systems.

References • Anderson, K.L.; Whitlock, J.E.; and Harwood, V.J., 2005. “Persistence and Differential Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Subtropical Waters and Soils.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(6):3041-3048. • Atkins, 2012. Sunshine Lake/Sunrise Waterway Study. Final Report to Charlotte County, 33 pp. • Atkins and ESA, 2015. Sunshine Lake/Sunrise Waterway Water Quality Management Plan. Final Report to Charlotte County, 57 pp. • APHA (ed), 1995. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association Inc., Washington D.C. • Badgley, B.D.; Thomas, F.I.M; and Harwood, V.L., 2011. “Quantifying Environmental Reservoirs of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Associated With Soil and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation.” Environmental Microbiology, 13(4): 932-942. • Bitton, G.B. 2005. Microbial Indicators of Fecal Contamination: Application to Microbial Source Tracking. Report submitted to the Florida Stormwater Association, June 2005. • Byappanahalli, M.N.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.; Sadowsky, M.J.; and Whitman, R.L., 2003. Growth and Survival of Escherichia coli and Enterococci Populations in the MacroAlga Cladophora (Chlorophyta). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 46:203-211. • Caplenas, N.R.; Kanarek, M.S., 1984. “Thermotolerant Nonfecal Source Klebsiella Pneumoniae: Validity of the Fecal Coliform Test in Recreational Waters.” American Journal of Public Health, 74:1273-1275. • Desmarais, T.R.; Solo-Gabriele, H.M.; and Palmer, C.J., 2002. “Influence of Soil on Fecal Indicator Organisms in a Tidally Influenced Subtropical Environment.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(3):1165-1172. • Duncan, D.W.; Razzell, W.E., 1972. “Klebsiella Biotypes Among Coliforms Isolated From Forest Environments and Farm Produce.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 24(6)933:938. • Fujioka R.; Sian-Denton, C.; Borja, M.; Castro, J.; Morphew, K.; Stewart-Tull, D.E.S.; Dennis, P.J.; and Godfree A.F., 1999. “Soil: the Environmental Source of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Guam’s Streams.” Journal of Applied Microbiology, 85:83S-89S. • Harwood, V.J;, Staley, C.; Badgley, B.D.; Borges, K.; and Korajkic, A., 2013. “Microbial Source Tracking Markers for Detection of Fecal Contamination in Environmental Waters: Relationships Between Pathogens and Human Health Outcomes.” Federation of Eu-

ropean Microbiological Societies Microbiology Reviews, 38(1): 1-40. Harwood, V.J.; Whitlock, J.; and Withington V., 2000. “Classification of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Indicator Bacteria by Discriminant Analysis: Use in Predicting the Source of Fecal Contamination in Subtropical Waters.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66:3698-3704. Ishii, S.; Ksoll, W.B.; Hicks, R.E.; and Sadowsky, M.J., 2006. “Presence and Growth of Naturalized Escherichia coli in Temperate Soils From Lake Superior Watersheds.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(1):612-621. Knittel, M. D., 1975. Taxonomy of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated From Pulp and Paper Mill Waste. Environmental Protection Technology Series, USEPA-66/2-75-024, Corvallis, Ore. Kopp, K.L.; Guillard, K., 2004. “Decomposition Rates of Nitrogen Release of Turf Grass Clippings.” Plant Science Presentations and Proceedings, Paper 3. Ksoll, W.B.; Ishii, S.; Sadowsky, M.J.; and Hicks, R.E., 2007. “Presence and Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Epilithic Periphyton Communities of Lake Superior.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(12): 3771-3778. LaLiberte, P.; Grimes, D.J., 1982. “Survival of Escherichia coli in Lake Bottom Soil.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 43(3)623628. Rochelle-Newall, E.; Nguyen, T.M.H.; Le, T.P.Q.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; and Ribolzi, O., 2015. A Short Review of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Tropical Aquatic Ecosystems: Knowledge Gaps and Future Directions. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6:308. Solo-Gabriele, H.M.; Wolfert, M.A.; Desmarais, T.R.; and Palmer, C.J., 2000. “Sources of Escherichia coli in a Coastal Subtropical Environment.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(1): 230-237. Strynchuk, J.; Royal, J., 2003. ‘Decomposition of Grass and Leaves” in “Practical Modeling of Urban Water Systems,” Monograph 11. Edited by James, W., 373. Topp, E.; Welsh, M.; Tien, Y.-C.; Dang, A.; Lazarovits, G.; Conn, K.; and Zhu, H., 2003. Strain-Dependent Variability in Growth and Survival of Escherichia Coli in Agricultural Soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 44:303-308. Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Pawlik, H.; Nevers, M.B.; and Byappanahalli, M.N., 2003. “Occurrence of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in Nearshore Water and Beach Sand of Lake Michigan.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(8): 4714-4719. S Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Are Private Stormwater Ponds Really Private? Aaron Petersen Current environmental regulations require new residential subdivisions to treat roadway drainage. To do this, ponds are constructed, which can done by using a borrow pit or existing waterbody, or constructing and excavating a new wet or dry pond. The purpose of a pond is to control flooding, filter road runoff, and collect sediment and pollutants before reaching larger bodies of water (Mohr, 2008). Once a project is completed, the developer will then dedicate all roads, streets, easements, infrastructure, and other public items to the local government agency; however, the ponds are typically not part of this transfer. Depending on the local authority and the land development codes at the time, the ponds will either be platted as a separate parcel (Figure 1) or they will be divided among the adjacent lots, with each one of the lots sharing a piece of the ponds (Figure 2). Typically, if a pond is platted as a separate parcel, it will be owned by the developer and then deeded to the homeowners association, or sometimes the local government agency, at the end of the construction. There are incidents, however, when the developer never transfers the property and the parcel is then owned by a corporation. If this corporation goes defunct, then the parcel is owned by a nonexisting entity. There is then no owner to enforce against and no

Figure 1. Pond platted as separate parcel. (Source: Pinellas County Property Appraiser Parcel Map Viewer)


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

owner to lien if the local government agency has to step in. In Florida, resolutions may be adopted that instruct that the minimum tax bill is $30; taxes less than that will not be billed (FS 197.212, 2017). Since these types of parcels have no taxes due, the parcel will never become delinquent with the property taxes and will never go to auction; therefore, the parcels owned by the nonexistent owners will continue to be owned by them forever. An option the agency then has is to perform the maintenance and then lien the property and eventually foreclose and take it. If the developer does deed the parcel to the homeowners association, there can still be future problems. An association typically has the power to become disbanded and be voted out per its covenants, conditions, restrictions, and bylaws, and can also become defunct due to lack of interest from the community. This will eliminate the association entity, fees, and responsibilities that are in place to pay for pond maintenance. If the pond is a separate parcel, it will be owned by a nonexistent owner. Since the taxes for common-area parcels are spread out and included in each individual property within the subdivision, the taxes will never become delinquent (FS 718.120, 2017). The local government agency can step in to perform any needed maintenance and possibly divide the lien among all the properties within the subdivision if need be since there is no existing association (Daigneault, 2016). If a pond is divided among adjacent parcels, the responsibility will become the burden of the property owners that the pond falls within. These few owners can then become responsible for the pond that was once the responsibility of the entire subdivision. It then financially becomes much tougher for these few owners to pay for any major maintenance items. Some government agencies, as a result of defunct homeowners associations, have taken over maintenance of common areas, such as the ponds, and created special tax assessments. One example is in Apopka, where the city took over the maintenance responsibility of the common areas of three subdivisions after the association dissolved. As a result, it created special tax assessments for these subdivisions (City of Apopka, 2013; City of Apopka, 2014; City of Apopka, 2014), as Chapter 170 of the Florida statutes allows counties and cities to do so (Smith, 1984). Often, the associations are not aware of the required maintenance for stormwater ponds and only think about the mowing responsibility. A pond’s life is typically around 30 years (Mohr, 2008); in that time, underdrains can fail, slopes erode, and eventually, ponds need to be dredged. When it comes time for these more expensive maintenance items to be attended to, the association may not have the funding available and never thought to budget for these items (Richards, 1994). If the ponds are not maintained properly, they will become mud pits, mosquito breeding grounds, and overgrown with invasive nuisance vegetation. The ponds will also not hold the original volume of stormwater that they were intended to, which can cause road and structure flooding. Sometimes association declarations can also require adjacent property owners to maintain common area parcels, such as ponds. This can single out a few property owners when common-area maintenance

should be shared and paid for by all of the property owners within the subdivision. If a property owner refuses to maintain the area, the association can maintain it and then assess the adjacent property owners according to what the declaration reads, which would include legal fees and court costs. If the owner does not pay, it can result in a lien and eventually even foreclosure; however, if a complaint for lack of maintenance of common area reaches the city or county level, then the owner of the parcel—which is the association— would be responsible for the maintenance as far as the jurisdiction is concerned. This situation can create issues and policy on common areas and is a prevalent problem in Florida (Salinero, 2015). There have been other incidents when pond parcels have gone to tax deed sale and were sold. There was one incident in Pinellas County where a separate pond parcel was bought at a tax deed sale and the buyer tried to sell it back to adjacent property owners. After the property owners refused to buy the land, the owner then had a fence installed to block the view of the pond, and even painted it pink and decorated it with sparkles. Eventually, the pond parcel was bought, subdivided, and unified with the adjacent parcels (Farley, 2002; Greene, 2002). Another option after subdivision development would be to have a policy in place so that the ponds are dedicated to the local agency, along with the other dedications. This would, however, create a bigger burden on the local agency and increase expenditures, but it could be balanced by including these additional expenditures when determining the local stormwater fees. Having the ponds dedicated to the local agency after development would also ensure proper maintenance is taking place throughout the life of the pond. The local agency would also have complete control over the pond. So, are private ponds really private? Many issues can arise when the pond is owned by either individuals or associations. These ponds can and should be considered part of the local government’s infrastructure. They are part of the overall public drainage system, and if they fail, so can the system. The purpose of a stormwater pond is to benefit not just one community, but all of the surrounding environment. There are many stakeholders because all of these drainage systems and basins are connected. Stormwater ponds take public drainage and the sediment buildup is caused by the public roadways, but several questions need to be asked: S Should governments begin to review policy on these ponds? S Should these ponds be platted as separate parcels and dedicated to the local government, instead of the homeowners association, after development? S Should they be platted adjacent to public right of way for easy access and not surrounded by homes? These are all questions policy makers, site plan reviewers, and elected officials should begin to think about. With regulations increasing, the number of failed ponds, and the number of defunct homeowners associations increasing, this is a topic that should be discussed at all county and municipal agencies.

Figure 2. Lots sharing a piece of the pond. (Source: Pinellas County Property Appraiser Parcel Map Viewer)

References • City of Apopka. (November 6, 2013). Resolution No. 2013-12. • City of Apopka. (September 3, 2014). Ordinance No. 2377. • City of Apopka. (2014). Special Assessments: Non Ad-Valorem Special Taxing Districts. • Daigneault, J. (August 1, 2016). Maintenance Responsibility for Common Areas at The Hamlets of Whitcomb Place. • FS 197.212. (2017). Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: https://www.flsenate.gov/Laws/Statutes/2011/197.212. • FS 718.120. (2017). Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: https://www.flsenate.gov/Laws/Statutes/2011/718.120. • Farley, R. (May 14, 2002). View for sale: $30,000 New owner of a lake fences it off when homeowners wouldn’t pay. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/683232/posts. • Greene, L. (May 19, 2002). Pasco and Hillsborough are among counties that inform residents when unusual parcels of land are up for sale. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: http://www.ccfj.net/HOAviewsale.html. • Mohr, E. (September 9, 2008). Aging stormwater retention ponds trouble suburbs, homeowners and scientists. Twin Cities Pioneer Press. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: http://www.Twincities.com/2008/09/09/aging-stormwater-retentionponds-trouble-suburbs-homeowners-and-scientists/. • Richards, K. (January 12, 1994). Homeowner group concerned about costs of storm water facilities. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: http://articles.Baltimoresun.com/199401-12/news/1994012048_1_homeowners-associations-storm-waterhomeowners-association. • Salinero, M. (January 25, 2015). Homeowner group fights resident over mowing. Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tbo.com/news/politics/homeownergroup-fights-resident-over-mowing-20150125/. • Smith, J. (May 8, 1984). Advisory Legal Opinion - AGO 84-48. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myfloridalegal.com/ago.nsf/Opinions/DB46116F308307 868525658300673DA4. Aaron Petersen, MPA, MBA, is an ISA-certified arborist and construction services director for the City of Pinellas Park. S Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Test Yourself Water or Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant and Distribution System Operators: What Do You Know About Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Rule 62-602? Donna Kaluzniak

1. During an operator licensing examination, if unlicensed individuals subvert or attempt to subvert the examination process, they will have their scores withheld and declared invalid, and will be disqualified from taking future exams for how long? a. One year b. Two years c. Three years d. Forever 2. Per FDEP Rule 62-602.650 Duties of Operators, operators “shall perform responsible and effective onsite management of the operation, supervision, and maintenance” of treatment plants or distribution systems. Other duties required by FDEP include: a. Ensuring all expenditures are within the approved budget. b. Performing all required laboratory analyses in-house. c. Performing landscaping and housekeeping tasks to ensure cleanliness in case of inspection. d. Providing the permittee with all FDEPrequired reports and notifying them of abnormal events. 3. Per FDEP Rule 62-602.650, treatment plant operators shall maintain a separate operation and maintenance (O&M) log for each plant. The O&M log shall be located a. at the treatment plant, in a location accessible to 24-hour inspection and protected from weather. b. in the personal possession of the shift operators at all times while performing plant inspections. c. offsite at the central utility office in a locked cabinet. d. offsite at the lead operator’s home, accessible to on-call inspection and out of the weather.


4. The FDEP also requires O&M logs for water distribution systems. These logs a. may be combined with the log for any water plant connected to the system or be separate. b. may be combined with the log for water treatment plants that are not connected to the system. c. must be kept separate from the O&M logs for any water treatment plant. d. must be combined with the log for any water treatment plant connected to the system. 5. Does FDEP allow O&M logs to be kept electronically? a. Never. b. Yes, but only if identical handwritten logs are kept as well. c. Yes, with no special approval needed as long as the required information is logged. d. Yes, with written approval by FDEP, delegated local programs, or the county health department. 6. To renew an active operator license, operators must submit to FDEP a completed, signed renewal form, the appropriate fee, and a. a copy of their current, active license. b. documentation of completion of continuing education units (CEUs). c. proof of full-time employment at a treatment plant or distribution system. d. signed statements from their supervisor that they performed operational duties. 7. If an operator fails to submit the renewal documents by the deadline date, the license will a. be suspended. b. be revoked. c. expire. d. revert to inactive status. 8. The license of an inactive licensee that does not achieve active status within two years shall be expired (null and void), and subsequent licensure will require a. certification of completion of CEUs for the two-year period. b. meeting all the requirements for the type and level of license sought. c. submitting a reactivation fee and application. d. submitting a renewal fee and application.

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

9. Per FDEP Rule 62-602.870 Suspension and Revocation of Operator License, incompetence in the performance of duties of an operator that results in a treatment plant or water distribution system, under the direct charge of the operator, being operated in a manner inconsistent with standard operating practice shall result in a. a fine and indefinite suspension of the operator’s license. b. a fine and suspension of the operator’s license not to exceed two years. c. a maximum administrative fine of $1,000. d. a probationary letter, with requirements for additional training. 10. Per FDEP Rule 62-602.870 Suspension and Revocation of Operator License, FDEP shall permanently revoke an operator’s license for which of the following reasons? a. A check submitted for license renewal was returned for insufficient funds. b. Failure to submit reports in a timely manner. c. Negligence in the performance of duties resulting in harm to public health or the environment. d. Using or attempting to use a license that has been placed on inactive status. Answers on page 78 Reference used for this quiz: • FAC 62-602 Water or Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators and Distribution System Operators

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to donna@h2owriting.com.


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FSAWWA Upcoming Activities in the Good Old Summertime

ummer is an active time for FSAWWA. Members use their creativity to advance our mission of a better Florida through better water. This month I have highlighted a variety of upcoming opportunities for you to serve the water community and to take advantage of unique and convenient learning opportunities.

mittee as a stand-alone committee under the Technical and Education Council. The group’s first meeting will be held via teleconference on July 25 to discuss its goals and activities. It’s expected that the overall mission will be consistent with that of the AWWA Customer Service Committee: “To support the advancement of customer service as a value-added profession in the water utility industry and further the delivery of excellent customer service industrywide.” If you are interested in being a part of this committee, please email or call the TEC chair, Pamela London-Exner. Her contact information is: pamela.london-exner@veolia.com and (813) 781-0173.

best methods to manage an effective and sustainable utility. This seminar is based on recent updates that have been made to the well-established Effective Utility Management (EUM) framework, which was originally developed by water sector leaders in 2007 and featured both the “Ten Attributes of an Effectively Managed Utility” and “Five Keys to Management Success.” The seminar provides 0.7 CEUs and 14 PDHs. For more information and to register online visit fsawwa.org and use the search term, “effective utility management.”

Customer Service Committee to Support Excellence

AWWA Customer Service Seminar in Orlando this September

The FSAWWA is pleased to announce the formation of its new Customer Service Com-

Our Florida utility customer service professionals have a unique opportunity to attend the two-day AWWA Customer Service Seminar at Orange County Utilities in Orlando on September 19-20. This two-day seminar addresses the challenges facing water utilities in the 21st century by assisting customer service representatives in being responsive to increased customer expectations and expanding global demographics. The learning objectives include: S Identify the characteristics of excellent customer service S Describe the main characteristics of effective communication S Describe the four stages of understanding/learning S Identify and practice a personal level of listening skills S Apply the 10 tips for a respectful workplace

Florida’s Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN) will host two one-day regional meetings on August 1 and 2 from 9 a.m. to noon in Southport and in Jacksonville, respectively, to inform new members about this emergency management program and to update all members on its activities over the past year. This meeting was held in Lake Worth and in Port Charlotte in June. During "nonevent" times it’s critical that FlaWARN member utilities maintain readiness. The program is always exploring and implementing enhancements to its organization, mutual aid modalities, and the FlaWARN.org website. The program is the formalized system of "utilities helping utilities" address mutual aid during emergency situations, including man-made and natural disasters. The project's secure webbased data bank of available resources and its practical mutual aid agreement are designed to reduce bureaucratic red tape in times of emergency. The goal of FlaWARN is to provide immediate assistance to impacted utilities by whatever means necessary until such time that a permanent solution to the devastation may be implemented. FlaWARN is not just for hurricanes; its resources may be utilized during any disaster. For more information about these meetings and FlaWARN contact Carol Hinton at chinton@treeo.ufl.edu or (352) 294-3875.

Grace Johns Chair, FSAWWA


This seminar provides 0.7 CEUs and 14 PDHs. For more information and to register online visit fsawwa.org and use the search term, “customer service seminar.”

Get Up to Speed at AWWA Effective Utility Management Seminar Our Florida utility managers have an opportunity to attend the two-day AWWA Effective Utility Management Seminar at Orange County Utilities in Orlando on September 2122. This seminar is a convenient way for utility managers to learn about or stay up to date on the


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Stay Prepared With FlaWARN Regional Meetings

Water For People Fundraisers are Lots of Fun Two of FSAWWA’s regions invite you to attend their unique and entertaining networking events that raise funds to support the lifesaving work of Water For People. This international non-

profit organization is working across nine countries to bring safe water and sanitation to four million people. Its mission is to “see communities break free from the cycle of poverty and spend time growing, learning, and thriving, instead of walking for water and fighting off illness.” FSAWWA Region IV – West Central Florida Annual Water For People Fundraiser Tuesday, July 25, 2017 5:30 - 8:30 p.m. Hidden Springs Ale Works 1631 N. Franklin St. Tampa, Florida 33602 Please join us for an evening of craft beer, food, music, raffles, brewery tours, networking, and much more to benefit Water For People. Tickets are $25 in advance and $35 at the door. We thank Hillary Weber and her Water For People committee for this unique opportunity to have good fun for a great cause. For more information visit the Region IV webpage at fsawwa.org or contact Hillary at weberh@hillsboroughcounty.org. FSAWWA Region III – Central Florida Wine for Water – A Water For People Benefit Thursday, July 27, 2017 6:30 - 9:30 p.m. Orlando Science Center 777 E. Princeton St. Orlando, Florida 32803 Please join us for an evening of great food, wine, and entertainment in a scientifically inspiring and breathtaking venue. Advance tickets are $50. We thank Debbie Bradshaw, Yvonne Picard, Andrea Netcher, and Barika Poole for coordinating this successful event that raises significant funds each year to support Water For People. For more information visit wineforwatercfl.org or visit the Region III webpage at fsawwa.org.

FSAWWA’s Fall Conference Registration Opens August 1 Our Fall Conference will be held November 26-30 at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate in Orlando. Our “Stewardship and Responsibility” theme includes presentations on communicating the value of infrastructure to elected officials and customers, repair and replacement for our buried infrastructure, future water supply scenarios, sustainability of groundwater use, succession planning, and technologies to expand the water resource pie, among others. Attendee registration can be accessed at fsawwa.org. S Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


The Emergence of Computerized Sprinklers: Saving Water with Advanced Technology Gary Klinefelter Figure 1.

Water Use in the United States Where is the Water Going? Irrigation is the largest use of residential water in the United States—more than all others combined (Figure 1). Reducing irrigation water use is imperative to making communities more sustainable. Acres of Turf Americans love their lawns, and with good reason: they help clean the air, filter water, and provide children a place to play. In fact, the U.S. has more than 40 mil acres of grass (Figure 2). The proper amount of grass for any area may be dictated by the location and the climate, but regardless of the size, turf grass requires water—a lot of it.

Figure 2.

4-5 Billion Gallons Wasted Daily According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as much as 50 percent of the water used outdoors for lawn irrigation is wasted due to inefficient watering methods and systems. Everyone has seen irrigation systems spraying water when (during a rainstorm) and where (on the sidewalk) it’s not needed. In addition to the inaccuracy, the design of most watering systems waste water in order to cover the lawn area uniformly.

Current Technology

Figure 3.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Current turf grass irrigation technology uses mechanical sprinkler heads, which water in an arc and are placed one head distance from each other so they overlap (Figure 3). This is the only way to achieve uniform watering. A distribution uniformity of .65 is shown for a watering zone with six mechanical sprinkler heads. System uniformity of field-tested systems ranges from .39 to .76 in various studies, averaging about .55. Because conventional sprinklers need to overlap sprays, in this example, some sections of lawn get over-watered by 60 to 95 percent just so all sections receive enough water. This inefficiency is a limitation of current mechanical sprinkler technology.

Figure 4a. Aquarius: The Greenhouse Water Robot. (Dorhout R&D LLC © 2013)

What Happens When it Rains? Compare current irrigation technology with what happens when it rains, which provides uniform precipitation throughout the lawn. Irrigation water budgets are usually based on rainfall, which makes meeting a water budget with current mechanical technology very difficult. How can computer technology be used to water the lawn more evenly, like rain? What’s Enabling New Innovations? What advances in technology will improve irrigation efficiency? In other areas of the economy, digital cameras and printers have led to small powerful motors, cell phones have improved human interfaces and offered advanced computing power in small packages, and global positioning systems (GPS) and satellite imagery are being used in agriculture to improve farming efficency and water use. There are now robotic vacuums; how about robotic sprinklers? How can these recent advances in technology be applied to irrigation sprinklers and systems? Controller Innovations New technology has enabled progress in irrigation controller innovation. Internet-connected irrigation controllers intelligently turn off a sprinkler to save water, replacing irrigation clocks that are only time-based. These new controllers make seasonal adjustments using weather data and moisture sensors, and many of them communicate with a cellphone, turning off sprinklers when they’re not needed.

Figure 4b.

Sensor Innovations Moisture sensor innovation has advanced from wired to wireless sensors. It has also moved from simple rain detectors to more advanced moisture sensors and weather stations. These new sensor technologies enable more fine-tuning of each watering cycle, which optimizes grass health and watering efficiency. Like controller innovations, sensor innovations improve irrigation efficiency by determining when a sprinkler system should run; however, once the system turns on, current mechanical sprinklers still waste water with overlapping sprays. In the industry, this is called “smart control, dumb sprinkler.” Mechanical Versus Robotic In many industries, the transition from mechanical to robotic technology has brought about efficiencies and created new opportunities. Mechanical sprinklers have evolved in both underground and above ground designs, but they do not provide the same type of precision that might be expected from, say, an inkjet printer. Computer control opens new opportunities to direct water to the shape of the landscape and limit water to the microclimate. Another advantage of computer versus mechanical technology can be in labor savings, as in the case of a robotic sprinkler that waters plants in a greenhouse. The only difference compared to traditional irrigation is getting the tank filled up for each watering run. How about this idea for a robotic lawn mower? All that’s needed is a tank for water and the mower becomes a watering machine (Figures 4a and 4 b). Computer-Controlled Stream Volume Around 2009, AccuRain™ started selling a computerized sprinkler globe that was designed for watering plants and turf grass (Figure 5).

Each sprinkler head could: S Water over 1900 sq ft S Have up to 15 watering zones of almost any size or shape S Monitor itself and report errors Here’s an example of using small motors and powerful computing from printer and cell phones innovations to direct a stream of water to plantings. According to the company website, there is a hand-held device that is used to program points defining the landscape. An area that’s 1900 sq ft approximates a 30-in. by 60-in. rectangle, which would have six mechanical heads spaced 30 ft apart around the edge. Computer technology reduces the number of heads and simplifies the design. Potential limitations of this system would be the time it would take to water a large area of turf with a single stream and the physical size for a permanent installation. Continued on page 46

Figure 5.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Continued from page 45 Computer-Controlled Spray Volume Another innovator in computerized sprinklers is Innogation. Its product uses a singlespray nozzle with the ability to electronically control the spray volume as it rotates. The difference in the water distribution is shown in Figure 6. According to the company, an intelligent system can reduce water use by 40 to 50 percent in most cases. The ittigation head would be placed in the middle of the lawn and rotate around in smaller and smaller squares. Similar to the AccuRain sprinkler, it may take longer to water large turf areas. Computer-Controlled Stream X-Y Position A similar variation in computerized sprinkler heads is from another company called Droplet. Its product (Figure 7) uses a single stream that is computer-controlled in rotation and trajectory. The fixed-flow stream is programmable using a phone or computer. This de-

sign is largely aimed at watering plants, similar to AccuRain. The product is hose-connected and programmed for a particular area where the sprinkler is set on the landscape. This design would have similar limitations to the previous sprinklers in watering time and physical size for permanent landscape irrigation. Multivolume Streams The newest underground irrigation system utilizing a computerized sprinkler is the IrriGreen GeniusÂŽ System (Figure 8). The company took a new approach, covering a large area like current mechanical spray heads using multivolume streams, but the stream gets bigger the farther it is from the head. The patented nozzle design provides sufficient streams to cover the lawn uniformly from 5 to 35 ft. Each stream has a different trajectory, and unlike sprays, it can adjust the distance as it rotates to conform the watering patterns to the shape of the lawn. The stream distance and application rate is continuously adjusted using a computer. The system is

Figure 6.

Computer-Controlled Shape Another challenge for current mechanical sprinkler technology is watering an oddly shaped area. Overlapping head-to-head mechanical sprinklers are designed to water squares and rectangles; they do not have the adaptability to negotiate curves and corners or to water around obstructions. So, not only do they lose efficiency from overlap, but also from the failure to conform to the shape of the landscape. Mechanical heads are usually placed at the edge of the landscape and overspray onto hardscapes. A computer-controlled sprinkler placed in the

Figure 7.

Figure 8.


designed to apply 0.05 in. of water with each revolution, thus allowing the system to water in inches rather than in minutes by adjusting revolutions. The computer removes all the design work needed with mechanical technology to match precipitation both within a zone, and from zone to zone. A mobile phone app is used to train the sprinkler and set the watering schedule.

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 9.

center of the lawn without the need to be placed head-to-head can be adjusted to avoid hardscapes and runoff that results in water loss and pollution.

Water and Other Savings Computerized sprinklers can provide huge water savings, with an opportunity to reduce water use up to 50 percent compared to mechanical heads. There is also significant labor savings during installation due to fewer heads used, and these savings are a valuable installation benefit that provides a competitive pricing model by offsetting the cost of more expensive computerized heads. Water utilities will be especially interested in these irrigation water savings because it allows them to continue to grow their population with fewer capital expenditures in water production. In Figure 9, a 50 percent savings is depicted for a 10,000-sq-ft lawn with rising water rates. Mechanical Versus Computerized There are several differences in mechanical and computerized heads. The most significant difference may be to more accurately meet the water needs of the landscape by using computer

technology to direct the water only where and when it’s needed. Mechanical S Head-to-head coverage S Proven design S Inexpensive head S Trained irrigation industry S Difficult to match precipitation S Mechanical adjustment

needed by consumers, installation contractors, and water utilities. There is no doubt that the advantage in computerized heads, like many other computer-based products, will drive its adoption.

References • • • • •

Computerized S Fewer heads (less plastic pipe) S Waters to the landscape shape S No overlap, no overspray S Less time to install S Easy to reconfigure S Talks to a phone

• • •


Computerized sprinkler heads are making headway as an alternative to current mechanical heads used for irrigation. It will take time for computerized sprinklers to become recognized as a mainstream technology, but the potential advantages in watering efficiency, and faster and more economical installation, are strongly

www.innogation.com www.accurain.com www.smartdroplet.com www.irrigreen.com Reduce Your Outdoor Water Use; EPA-832-F06-005, May 2013. Good Irrigation Efficiency by Increasing Distribution Uniformity; Fresno State, CIT. Spacing and Pattern Effects on DULQ of Spray Nozzles; Brent Q. Mecham. Lawn Sprinkler Selection and Layout for Uniform Water Application; University of Florida, IFAS. CMG GardenNotes #267, Watering Efficiently; Colorado State University Extension. Analysis of Residential Irrigation Distribution Uniformity. Baum, M. C.; Dukes, M. D.; Miller, G. L. Water Budget Formula, Irrigation Association.

Gary Klinefelter is chief executive officer of IrriGreen Inc. in Edina, Minn. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details to Lindsay Marten at Lindsay.Marten@stantec.com.

Manasota Chapter Happenings Linda Maudlin

Chapter Luncheon and Water Taste Test The Manasota Chapter of the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) bounced into spring by joining forces with the Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) Region X to organize the final luncheon of the fiscal year. On April 7,

over 30 people attended the quarterly luncheon to be educated on “Solving the Manasota Area’s Future Water Quality and Quantity Challenges, One Scenario at a Time.” Thank you to presenter Laura Baumberger, P.E., of Carollo for sharing her knowledge with the group. The next chapter luncheon is scheduled for July 2017. In addition to the amazing "lunch and learn" opportunity, attendees were also a part of the annual “Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest in Region X” held by FSAWWA. Nine utilities from a five-county region of Charlotte, DeSoto, Hardee, Manatee, and Sarasota entered the contest, but only one could win the coveted title of “Best Tasting Drinking Water.” Congrat-

Water Taste Test

ulations to winner Charlotte County Utilities Department! All Region X water utilities were invited to submit a gallon sample of their drinking water to be tested by a panel of five impartial judges. Each utility’s sample was collected from their distribution system no more than 24 hours prior to the test. The annual competition is held throughout the United States and is intended to educate consumers about water-related issues and raise awareness about water quality and water conservation.

Got Paddle? On a picture-perfect day in May at Oscar Scherer State Park, the chapter hosted the annual kayak fundraiser to benefit the FWEA State Scholarship Fund, as well as Water For People. Guests took part in a two-hour kayak tour along scenic and peaceful South Creek. Upon finishing the tour, paddlers were treated to a catered picnic of delicious barbeque. Thank you to the 2017 kayak event sponsors AECOM, Carollo, Hazen and Sawyer, McKim and Creed, and Stantec. The planning committee looks forward to seeing everyone at next year’s event.

Steering Committee Hard at Work

Above: Judges at the taste test. At right: Judge’s ballot with testing parameters.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The hardworking steering committee members gathered at Stottlemeyer’s Smokehouse for a relaxing appreciation dinner and planning event, but they soon found themselves involved in a heated trivia game! The game came down to the top three teams to play in the final round, “Jeopardy” style. The committee played very well, but the wagering of points was not enough to keep them in the first-place spot and the team ended the evening in third place. Good job team! During the game breaks, the committee was able to discuss new and upcoming events. Read further to learn of some new events planned in fiscal year 2017-2018!

Annual Kayak Fundraiser

Seton Katz is all smiles as he cruises the creek.

Let the paddling begin!

We did it!

Mike Nixon, Manasota Chapter co-chair, acted as group tour guide. Thanks Mike!

Continuing and New Events The past fiscal year 2016-2017 was filled with a variety of events. It’s certain that the new fiscal year will please members and guests with some old favorites and new events, and it won’t take long before the new events become favorites, too! The chapter will continue to have quarterly newsletters and quarterly luncheon meetings with informative speakers and captivating topics. We’re always looking for presenters, new and different topics, a project update—any topic that is relevant to water professionals, we want to hear about it. If you have a topic or would like to be a presenter, please share that information with a steering committee member. Again this year, the chapter will be teaming with FSAWWA to provide events and luncheons for both memberships. Events are still in the planning stages; therefore, details will be announced when finalized. Some events right around the corner are a summer social (August) and a CIP Night Social (new). The third annual Sporting Clays Event is scheduled for Friday, November 17, from 10:30

Kyle Ward, Manasota Chapter co-treasurer, takes a moment to enjoy the tranquil setting.

Steering Committee Steering committee hard at work! Members pictured (from left): Mike Knowles, Terri Holcomb, Madeline Kender, Ashley Miele, Mike Jankowski, and Mike Nixon. Thanks for everything!

a.m. to 4:00 p.m. at the Sarasota Gun Club Pavilion. “Save the date” information will be sent soon. The annual Group Holiday Social involving FWEA, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), AWWA, Florida Engineering Society (FES), and American Public Works Association (APWA) is always a great way to celebrate the holiday season.

Two new events for early 2018 are the first annual putting tournament and a deep sea fishing event. Look for event details soon. Thank you to everyone for supporting the Manasota Chapter! Linda Maudlin is a GIS technician for Greeley and Hansen LLC in Sarasota, and is the Manasota Chapter secretary. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


FWRJ READER PROFILE Work title and years of service. I am a program engineer and have worked for the city since 2002. What does your job entail? I provide engineering support to the city’s water reclamation facility. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Auburn University and am a certified public manager.

Sondra Lee City of Tallahassee, Underground Utilities and Public Infrastructure Department, Water Resource Engineering Division

What do you like best about your job? I enjoy working with the wastewater treatment operations and maintenance teams to help improve how they run the facility. In addition, I like the wide variety of projects that results from working with wastewater treatment. What professional organizations do you belong to? Currently I am a member of the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the Florida Water Environment Association

(FWEA). At this time, I am serving in a few different roles with FWEA: S Website coordinator for the Big Bend Chapter. Also, since I am a former chapter chair, I am helping cover the roles of secretary, treasurer, and membership/public communication and outreach coordinator. The chapter could use some help! If you work in the Tallahassee area, please consider joining the chapter steering committee. S FWEA director at large. I serve as a liaison between the FWEA executive board and the Collections Systems Committee; Water Resources, Reuse, and Resiliency Committee; and Big Bend Chapter. S FWEA Utility Council, director at large. How have the organizations helped your career? The FWEA has most certainly helped my career. First and foremost is the technical knowledge gained by the training opportunities provided by the committees and chapters, and at the Florida Water Resources Conference. Networking and getting to know others in the industry was another benefit gained early on in my membership. Then, over time, through serving on different committees and in different roles, FWEA has helped me further develop leadership and managerial skills that are used in my career. What do you like best about the industry? Both the goals of the wastewater industry and the people within this industry make this area of practice a great place to work.

The city experienced a problem with its anaerobic digesters in 2012 and Sondra takes her turn sweeping the foam back into the digester. She was inducted into the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers at the 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

What do you do when you’re not working? Aside from hanging out with my extended family and reading, most of my hobbies and volunteer activities keep me outdoors. My hobbies include running, sailing (cruising and racing), swimming, bicycling (road and mountain bikes), sprint triathlons, kayaking, and traveling. Many of these hobbies have led to my volunteer activities. Right now, I regularly volunteer for four organizations: S Gulf Winds Track Club. I assist with putting on various running races in the Tallahassee area. S Apalachee Bay Community Sailing. I serve as a board member. S Apalachee Bay Yacht Club. Bartending, officiating sailboat races, helping out at miscellaneous events. S Apalachee Bay Volunteer Fire Department. I was recently certified as a first responder and am in the process of firefighting training. S

Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association

FWPCOA STATE SHORT SCHOOL August 14 – 18, 2017 Indian River State College - Main Campus – FORT PIERCE –

COURSES Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester ..........................$375/$405

Stormwater Management A .........................................$275/$305

Backflow Prevention Assembly Repairer ......................$275/$305

Utility Customer Relations I, II & III................................$260/$290

Backflow Tester Recertification ......................................$85/$115

Utilities Maintenance III & II ..........................................$225/$255

Basic Electrical and Instrumentation ............................$225/$255

Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A ......$225/$255

Facility Management Module I......................................$275/$305

Water Distribution System Operator Level 3, 2 & 1 ......$225/$255

Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B & A ........................$225/$255 (Abbreviated Course) ................................................$125/$155

Wastewater Process Control ........................................$225/$255 Wastewater Troubleshooting ........................................$225/$255

Stormwater Management C & B ...................................$260/$290

For further information on the school, including course registration forms and hotels, visit: http://www.fwpcoa.org/content.aspx?page_id=87&club_id=859275&item_id=656688

SCHEDULE CHECK-IN: August 13, 2017 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. CLASSES: Monday – Thursday........8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friday........8:00 a.m. to noon

FREE AWARDS LUNCHEON P Wednesday, August 16, 11:30 a.m. P

For more information call the

FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Water Technology Trends Survey Results Now Available The initial results of a survey intended to identify the current and future trends for water technology implementation are now available in the form of a new interactive data visualization tool. Developed under the Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT)—a joint initiative between the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF)—the survey and visualization tool helps utilities better understand innovative technology deployment across the water sector. Led and coordinated by WE&RF, the survey currently includes more than 100 respondents representing the entire water sector (wastewater, stormwater, drinking water, desalination, and


water reuse facilities) in North America and beyond. The visualization tool uses the accumulated data to illustrate two key elements: the percentage of facility respondents who have or are planning to deploy a technology at a given point in time, and how

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

quickly a groundbreaking—then leading-edge—technology evolves into standard practice. General access to the visualization tool allows users to look at aggregated data and analyze it based upon facility type, size, location, and technology, while

members of the LIFT Utility Working Group (comprised of WE&RF utility subscribers) will be able to drill down deeper and see detailed survey results, including utility-specific information to help facilitate peer-to-peer networking. The survey will remain open to utilities throughout 2017 and the visualization tool will be updated regularly to reflect newly collected data. The survey will be reissued by WE&RF within the next two to three years to monitor and assess the continued uptake of water innovation over time. For more information about the survey and visualization tool, contact Fidan Karimova, LIFT water technology collaboration manager, at fkarimova@werf.org. S

FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Finance and Rates Committee Affiliation: FSAWWA Current chair: Tony Hairston, Raftelis Year group was formed: 2015

dedicated half-day workshops, with topics such as Rates 101, capital financing, Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act, State Revolving Fund, and several utility case studies. The committee has a variety of members, including staff of city, county, and special districts, and consultants involved with utility rates and finance.

Scope of work: Funding has been identified as one of the most significant challenges facing the water and wastewater industry. The FSAWWA chartered the Finance and Rates Committee in 2015 to advance this important subject. The goals of the committee include providing a platform for discussing financial management, funding and rate issues, and serving as a resource to the water industry. The committee resides within the Technical and Education Council (TEC). The council chair, Pam London-Exner, has provided valuable support to the committee, along with Peggy Guingona and her entire staff at FSAWWA. There are three focus areas of the committee: 1. Utility financial management and capital financing 2. Pricing of utility services 3. Management issues related to utility finance and pricing (e.g. customer service, effective utility management, etc.)

Recent accomplishments and future plans: The committee held its first workshop at the 2015 FSAWWA Fall Conference in Orlando. This well-attended workshop provided the foundation for additional workshops. In November 2016, during the FSAWWA Fall Conference, the committee hosted a workshop that featured case studies from different utilities: S Gary Hubbard, from Charlotte County Utilities, provided an overview of creative approaches to capital funding. S Tim Armstrong and Fred Winterkamp, of Orange County Utilities, provided a comprehensive overview of their recent revenue bond issue. S James Galley and Bill Young, of St. Johns County, discussed their experience in customer outreach to support a significant capital investment. S David Richardson provided lessons learned about customer service at Gainesville Regional Utilities.

The committee meets twice a year: at the FSAWWA Fall Conference and the spring Florida Water Resource Conference. The committee also has developed and hosted three

In April 2017 the committee conducted the Rates 101 Workshop at the Florida Water Resource Conference in West Palm Beach. Topics included a rates overview, capital funding

One of the speakers at the Rates 101 Workshop at the Florida Water Resource Conference in West Palm Beach, April 2017.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

approaches, customer billing analysis, and rate structure options. The workshop included valuable dialogue between speakers and the audience on these and other related topics, such as impact fees, growth policy, public outreach, special assessments, and many other pertinent issues to utility managers. The committee is planning the next workshop during the 2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference at Championsgate in Orlando.. The focus of the workshop will be the value of water: S How do you measure it? S How do you communicate it? The committee is currently assembling speakers on this topic. If you would like to participate in the workshop, either as an attendee or speaker, please contact Tony Hairston at ahairston@raftelis.com or 407-9601811 by July 15. The committee also welcomes active FSAWWA members to the semi-annual meetings. Additional information can also be found on the FSAWWA website at www.fsawwa.org/page/TECFRC. Committee members: S Tony Hairston, Raftelis – (committee chair) S Robert Ryall, Arcadis – (vice chair) S Matt Hammond – Village of Palm Springs (committee secretary) S Grace Johns – Hazen & Sawyer (FSAWWA chair) S Bill Young – St. Johns County (FSAWWA chair-elect) S James Galley – St. Johns County S Gary Hubbard – Charlotte County Utilities S Russ Bowman – RB2 Consult S Michon Jackson – Marco Island S Ann Lee – Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority S Richard Coates – Puro Tech S LeAnn Stiles – Pinellas County Utilities S Lori Sullivan – Pinellas County Utilities S Wernet Lockwood – Destin Water Users S Tim Armstrong – Orange County Utilities S Kristen Sealey – Gainesville Regional Utilities S David Russell – Russell Consulting S Thierry Boveri – Public Resources Management Group S Joe Williams – Raftelis S John Jenkins – Bonita Springs Utilities S

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! July 10-13 ..........Backflow Tester*..............................St. Petersburg ..........$375/405 10-14 ..........Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ....................$350/380 17-21 ..........Water Level 1 ..................................Osteen ....................$225/255 17-21 ..........Wastewater Collection A ..............Osteen ....................$225/255 17-21 ..........Stormwater A ..................................Osteen ....................$275/305 28 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115

August 28-30 ..........Backflow Repair* ............................St. Petersburg ..........$275/305

September 11-14 ..........Backflow Tester ..............................St. Petersburg ..........$375/405 11-15 ..........Wastewater Collection B................Osteen ....................$225/255 18-20 ..........Backflow Repair ..............................Osteen ....................$275/305 29 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115

October 2-6 ..........Water Distribution Level 3 ............Osteen ....................$225/255 2-6 ..........Reclaimed Water Distribution C....Osteen ....................$225/255 16-20 ..........Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ....................$350/380 16-20 ..........Wastewater Collection C, B ..........Orlando ..................$225/255 27 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Asbestos Cement Pipe Bursting with Encapsulation Technology: City of Boynton Beach Pilot Project Edward Alan Ambler and Todd Grafenauer Regulations that govern working with buried asbestos cement (AC) pipelines are often not well understood, or interpretations of the rules by everyday regulators vary significantly from state to state and region to region. The team for this project for the City of Boynton Beach realized the need for a new technological solution that provided positive rehabilitation of the existing AC pipelines, and went further to help satisfy the safety concerns of even the most conservative managers of AC pipe inventory. The encapsulation media were required to meet parameters to allow future excavation and removal of the AC pipe fragments, but still remain as a bonded and coagulated mass. The encapsulation media were also required to be workable and pumpable, with specific viscosity parameters that allowed a standard storage tank and pumping mechanism to deliver the encapsulation fluid through a fluid delivery hose to the longest potential AC pipe bursting run that could be installed by any contractor. The delivery of encapsulation fluid to the expander head/existing pipe interface is shown in Figure 1.

Defined Need for Encapsulation of Pipe Fragments Although scientific data collected by the Water Research Foundation and many pipe bursting contractors over the years illustrate that no asbestos fibers are released during pipe bursting while using proven AC pipe handling practices, many regulators, municipalities, and water purveyors still remain concerned about potential future handling of the remaining AC pipe fragments. There are three primary scenarios in which the AC pipe fragments that remain after pipe bursting can

Figure 1.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

be encountered during potential future excavation. The first is the crews that are performing the actual AC pipe bursting work, which may or may not include service restoration. The majority of pipe bursting contractors are required to provide turnkey construction that includes all appurtenances and service restoration. The second potential scenario for excavation that could encounter the remaining fragments of AC pipe is a third-party utility installer excavating to install another utility adjacent to the remaining fragments of AC pipe. It’s not realistic to assume that another utility installer will not dig down to encounter the remaining AC pipe fragments; however, it is unlikely that the utility installer will install within close proximity to where the AC pipe fragments remain surrounding the new pipeline. The third and least likely scenario is for a resident or homeowner to excavate directly on top of the AC pipe fragments that remain in the surrounding few inches of soil around the new pipeline. As National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) were written in the late 1960s and early 1970s, an exception to the regulations was provided. If less than 260 lin ft of AC pipeline were encountered during a single demolition or renovation project, the AC pipe could be thrown away as normal construction debris. This exception provides for the concept of minimized potential for asbestos fiber release from the 260 lin ft of AC pipe encountered. The three scenarios presented for excavation to encounter remaining AC pipe fragments provide further analysis that the remaining AC pipe fragments are not likely to provide exposure scenarios that exceed NESHAP regulatory limits; however, innovation and development of the encapsulation method to be used in conjunction with pipe bursting will further solidify safe working practices and completely diminish the potential for future asbestos fiber release.

Figure 2.

City of Boynton Beach Field Testing

Negative Exposure Assessment

Murphy Pipeline began a pipe bursting project for the city in November 2016 and planned to utilize EncapsulAC, which prevents the asbestos from becoming friable. The encapsulation material was pumped from a separate storage tank and pump unit (Figure 2) through hydraulic hoses to a sacrificial external high-density polyethylene (HDPE) 1-in. blue service line pipe connected to the expander and distribution head. The blue service line pipe remained in place buried with the production pipeline, which allowed the project team to plan and execute any necessary field fabrication required to modify the expander/distribution head and ensure successful delivery. The expander/distribution head was field-modified to ensure that the head would not rotate and twist the fluid delivery hose. An expander/fluid distribution head is Figure 3. shown in Figure 3. Careful excavations were made in one initial service connection pit to observe what would be encountered during excavation after completion of the pipe bursting. The team was set to observe the condition of the remaining fragments of AC pipe covered in blue EncapsulAC material. The initial service connection pit was excavated on the first burst, and the remaining fragments of AC pipe were observed to be located directly below the production HDPE pipeline and not above or to the sides of it. Careful excavation and documentation was performed to directly capture what was found during excavation. The team attempted to disturb as little of the soil directly above the pipeline and tried to excavate to one side only, thus providing a little-disturbed cross section. Samples of encapsulated AC pipe fragments were collected from 16 service connection pits. The results of encapsulation were documented and all remaining AC pipe fragments uncovered were fully encapsulated with blue EncapsulAC. An example of an encapsulated pipe fragment that was exhumed from the service connection pit is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4.

A negative exposure assessment (NEA) was conducted by American Compliance Technologies for this project. Air samples were taken at the machine pit, the pipe insertion pit, on a worker performing work in the machine pit (Figure 5), and another worker performing work within the 16 service connection pits sampled. Two soil samples were also collected. The first soil sample was Figure 5. taken directly above the existing AC pipe prior to performing pipe bursting; the second soil sample taken was a sample of the fully encapsulated AC pipe fragment and EncapsulAC material. The second soil sample was anticipated to have asbestos fibers entrapped within the soil collection, and the results determined this to be the case. Table 1 indicates the air sample results of the NEA (Jonsson, 2016.)

Conclusion Pipe bursting continues to be a successful rehabilitation method for replacing existing asbestos cement pipelines. Further evidence continues to be collected on the minimized potential for asbestos fiber release. EncapsulAC adds to pipe bursting technology by delivering a fluid that fully encapsulates the remaining AC pipe fragments into a workable and diggable mass that is easy to identify. The scientific data that were collected during this case study prove that the new encapsulation method does in fact fully encapsulate the remaining AC pipe fragments. Careful excavation of the remaining AC pipe fragments clearly indicated that the remaining AC pipe fragments were easy to locate and remained encapsulated in a workable state. The air samples collected during the NEA also prove that the encapsulation process and handling procedures established on typical pipe bursting projects effectively mitigate any potential for asbestos fiber release. Pipe bursting existing asbestos cement pipe continues to be proven as a safe and effective method for rehabilitating existing pipelines.

References • Eric Jonsson, 2016. “Documentation of Negative Exposure Assessment for Work Practices Involved in Pipe Bursting Operations Project No. 17702.” Edward Alan Ambler, PE, LEED AP, is vice president with AM Trenchless in Lake Mary, and Todd Grafenauer is educational director with Murphy Pipeline Contractors in Milwaukee. S

f/cc = airborne fibers/cubic centimeter OSHA limits = 0.1 f/cc averaged over a 30-minute sample period Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Report Shows Utility Innovation is Pathway to Sustainability More than half of water utility leaders globally have yet to embrace innovation and risk, missing out on important sustainability dividends, according to a new report, “Empowering Water Utility Innovation.” The report, from Arcadis, was unveiled at the American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exhibition (ACE17) in Philadelphia in June. Arcadis surveyed 423 utility professionals across 82 urban water utilities and discovered that only 40 percent engage in innovation as a business practice, yet more than 90 percent of respondents said it’s critical to the future of their utility. The report reveals how innovation generates measurable return on investment, while resulting in social, environmental, and economic benefits. These benefits strengthen a utility’s brand, bottom line, and satisfaction ratings to improve the quality of life for its customers. It further points to innovations, such as stormwater harvesting, advanced metering, and real-time system monitoring, as pathways to generating sustainability dividends, which equate to greater revenue capture, improved demand management, waste reduction, and increased asset longevity. “By building a culture of creativity, investment, experimentation, and incubation, utilities can deploy innovation to foster new approaches to serving customers, managing facilities, and funding infrastructure improvements,” says Jason Carter, delivery and innovation lead for Arcadis North America who worked on the report. The report also provides a Utility Innovation Framework, which is comprised of eight disciplines for creating a culture of innovation, such as focusing on defining challenges that guide investment, engaging stakeholders in transformative programs, reaching out to external resources, and communicating success.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

For its report, Arcadis researched the 190-page industry guidance manual, “Fostering Innovation Within Water Utilities,” which was recently published by the Water Research Foundation and Water Environment & Reuse Foundation. It also provides several case studies, including how three utilities embraced innovation to reap sustainability dividends: Innovation: Ultrasonic Algae Control – American Water, a utility in Voorhees, N.J., tested four ultrasonic algae control units in a reservoir in the state, allowing another nearby reservoir to serve as a control. The sixmonth evaluation showed effective control of the algae growth, with no evidence of taste or odor problems or algal toxins. An economic assessment revealed the units saved approximately $87,800 in operational costs, with a projected payback time of 1.8 years for the system. Innovation: Real-Time Intelligence – Toronto Water used real-time intelligence from smart systems to control energy cost variations, planned/unplanned equipment downtime, and demand/storage variations for greater system resilience. Sustainability dividends were achieved with cost savings from power projected at $1.2 million, with more coming from optimizing variable spot market energy rates. Innovation: Intelligent Water Networks – Florida’s Jacksonville Energy Authority water division is using acoustic sensing technology to digitally assess pipe conditions. The utility uses an intelligent water network to deploy robust sensors into the network to generate actionable data, while allowing for monitoring and actively managing performance in real time. This ability to accurately identify problems and immediately respond helps utilities target resources, and eliminate outages and sewer flooding. The full report is available at www.arcadis-us.com. S

Net Blue Toolkit Helps Communities Pursue Water-Neutral Growth As population growth increases pressure on finite water supplies in the United States, the Alliance for Water Efficiency, Environmental Law Institute, and River Network have launched the Net Blue Ordinance Toolkit to help communities pursue sustainable development without increasing overall water demands. Water managers in 40 out of 50 states anticipate water shortages within the coming years, according to a 2013 Government Accountability Office survey. Communities in some water-stressed areas already face limits to their development caused by insufficient water supplies. “Communities urgently need to address the disconnect between land use decisions and water resources if they are to enjoy continued population and economic growth,” said Mary Ann Dickinson, Alliance for Water Efficiency president and chief executive officer. “Water managers, planners, and developers must come together to think about growth differently. Net Blue makes it easier to connect these dots, with community-vetted tools, a standardized methodology, and a clear process for pursuing successful water-neutral growth.” Water-neutral growth ordinances can either require or incentivize residential and commercial developments to offset their projected additional water demand through water-efficient retrofits of existing development. Offset measures, such as fixture and appliance replacements, rainwater harvesting, and stormwater capture, can allow development without increasing the overall water demand. Water efficiency stretches existing supplies, decreases the need for new infrastructure, and preserves water for fish, wildlife, and recreation.


“Net Blue is an important piece of the puzzle for local communities to help keep more water in their rivers for fishing, swimming, and other needs,” said Nicole Silk, River Network president. “Although Net Blue may not automatically translate into more water for our rivers, it’s an important tool to reduce demand for highly treated water, taking some pressure off of our waterways and groundwater resources.” The toolkit is designed to help communities facing diverse challenges to find the solution that best matches their water supply situation, governance structures, and conservation opportunities. The model ordinance worksheet guides users through the development of a water-offset ordinance tailored to their political climate, legal framework, and environmental conditions. The offset methodology workbook helps evaluate and select strategies to offset the projected new potable water use. “Municipalities, counties, and utilities across the country have been addressing water supply challenges in innovative ways,” said Adam Schempp, senior attorney for the Environmental Law Institute. “Through this collaborative project, we have tried to make one of those approaches easier to develop, and thoughtfully, in many different circumstances.”

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

More than a dozen communities have implemented a water demand offset policy to help enable new construction that likely would have been prohibited due to supply constraints, according to a 2015 report from the alliance, ”Water Offset Policies for Water-Neutral Community Growth.” “Santa Fe has had a tremendous response over the past 20 years to several water offset conservation programs,” said Kyle Harwood, Net Blue advisor and a partner from Egolf + Ferlic + Day. “These programs, with the support of Santa Fe residents, have allowed for increased economic prosperity and increased water resource resiliency. I urge anyone interested in this topic to review the Net Blue materials, as they contain the practical experience of implementation from communities around the country.” The toolkit was created with the input of a project advisory committee composed of experts in water resources, water law, and planning and zoning. Partner communities across the country, including Acton, Mass.; San Francisco, Calif.; Albuquerque, N.M.; Austin, Texas; Cobb County, Ga.; Madison, Wis.; and Bozeman, Mont., provided input to ensure adaptability in areas with diverse political climates, legal frameworks, and environmental challenges. “Metropolitan Atlanta has experienced explosive growth and is an area of the country anticipating continued growth,” said Kathy Nguyen, senior project manager at Cobb County Water System. “The area didn’t grow around rich water resources. Net Blue provides a tool for communities in the area to continue to expand, but to allow that growth to happen within the limits of our water resources.” The toolkit and additional resources can be accessed at www.net-blue.org. S

PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the Wastewater Process Committee! Each year, the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) gives the Earle B. Phelps Award to wastewater treatment facilities in recognition for outstanding operations. This monthʼs column will highlight the life and accomplishments of the man who inspired this award.

Earle B. Phelps: A Life in Water 2017 Award Winners This column, over the last several years, has highlighted some of the treatment facilities that have won the Earle B. Phelps Award. We will continue to honor the 2017 winners by featuring each facility in the coming months. Congratulations again to each of the 2017 winners: S Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place – City of Plant City Water Reclamation Facility S Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility Runner-Up – Hillsborough County Valrico Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant S Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility Honorable Mention – Hillsborough County Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility S Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place – Town of Davie Water Reclamation Facility S Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Runner-Up – Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility S Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Honorable Mention – St. John’s County Players Club Wastewater Treatment Facility S Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility First Place – Broward County North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant S Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Runner-Up – FGUA Golden Gate Wastewater Treatment Facility S Secondary Wastewater Treatment Facility Honorable Mention – City of Crestview Wastewater Treatment Plant

Earle B. Phelps Earle Bernard Phelps was a chemist, bacteriologist, and sanitary expert who served in governmental positions and as an academic in some of the leading universities in the United States. He is best known for his contributions in the fields of disinfection, water chlorination, sewage treatment, milk pasteurization, shellfish control, and for describing the “oxygen sag curve” in surface water bodies. He was born in 1876 in Galesburg, Ill., and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1899 with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry. After graduation, he worked as assistant bacteriologist at the Lawrence Experiment Station in Massachusetts and as a chemist and microbiologist with the Sanitary Research Laboratory at MIT. In addition to teaching chemistry and biology at MIT, he investigated a typhoid fever epidemic at State Hospital in Trenten, N.J., and worked as an assistant hydrographer for the U.S. Geological Survey. From 1910 to 1911, he conducted groundbreaking research with Col. William M. Black of the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers on the pollu-

Earle B. Phelps (1876-1953) (photo: Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation)

tion of New York Harbor. His worked established for the first time the concept of utilizing dissolved oxygen concentrations in water as a determination of water quality. In 1913, he left MIT to lead the chemistry division of the U.S. Hygienic Laboratory, which was part of the U.S. Public Health Service in Washington D.C. It was there that Phelps worked with H.W. Streeter, a sanitary engineer, on characterization of oxygen depletion in a stream receiving organic wastes. From this research they developed the StreeterPhelps equation, which was the first quantitative model used to determine biochemical oxygen demand impacts on discharges to surface waters. Phelps later went on to teach at Stanford University and Columbia University between 1919 and 1943. In 1944, he began teaching at the University of Florida, where he was a professor of sanitary science until his death in 1953. The university named a laboratory building in his honor, which is currently home to the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetlands, a forum for the research and promotion of utilizing natural and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. In 1964, the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), an association of the Water Environment Federation (WEF), established the Earle B. Phelps Award, which is given annually to wastewater treatment facilities for outstanding operations. S Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


LET’S TALK SAFETY This new column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Trenching: Don’t Dig Into Trouble! f you’re involved with water utility maintenance or construction, sooner or later you’re going to be involved in trenching operations. And, despite all the classic slapstick movie routines you may have seen through the years, safely excavating and working in an open trench is serious business. Not all holes in the ground are trenches. A trench is defined as a narrow excavation made


below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) does not exceed 15 ft. A wider excavation can be considered a trench if forms or other structures are installed such that the distance from the edge of the form or structure to the side of the excavation is less than 15 ft. Numerous precautions should be taken when excavating or working in trenches. If you work for a utility that is covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), specific regulations (29 Code of Federal Regulations 1926, Subpart P) govern most subsurface excavations.

Requirements for Trenches and Excavations A complete and detailed rundown of all the rules and regulations for trench and excavation safety would be far too lengthy to tackle in this column or in a tailgate safety meeting, but the following are a few points to remember: S Before beginning any subsurface work, such as trenching, contact 811 or One Call Center for the local utility alert service to establish the location of other underground service lines, such as natural gas, sewer, telephone, electric power, and cable.

S Every trench must have a safe and ready means of exit. If a trench is deeper than 4 ft, a stairway, ramp, ladder, or other means of exit must be available within 25 ft of a worker in the trench. S Don’t expose workers in trenches to overhead loads handled by lifting or digging equipment. S If it’s possible that an oxygen deficiency or hazardous atmosphere may exist in a trench or excavation, the air in the excavation must be tested before employees enter and while work is being conducted. If necessary, adequate ventilation must be provided. S If hazardous conditions exist (or may exist), emergency rescue equipment, including a breathing apparatus, safety harness and line, and basket stretcher must be readily available near the trench. S Unless the excavation is made in stable rock, any trench greater than 5 ft in depth must be inspected by a qualified person, and if conditions warrant, a protective system (such as shoring) must be installed.

Resources For more information go to the OSHA website on the topic: https:// www.osha.gov/Publications/trench/trench_safety _tips_card.pdf. S

The 2017 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2017 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Report Outlines Future Florida Water Use Scenarios One of the biggest issues facing Florida today is the availability of sufficient water to meet the needs of people, business, agriculture, and the environment. A growing population makes the historic competition among all of users even more intense. In poll after poll, protection of drinking water consistently ranks as a top environmental concern for the public. Clean and abundant water is also needed to ensure that Florida’s multibillion dollar agriculture and tourism industries—the two mainstays of this state’s economy—remain strong and viable over the long term. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS), the University of Florida’s Geoplan Center, and 1000 Friends of Florida partnered on the report, Florida 2070, using geographic information systems to show actual 2010 land use patterns and two land use scenarios for 2070, when Florida is projected to have 15 million additional residents. Based on Florida 2070 results, DACS, Geoplan, and 1000 Friends have now partnered on Water 2070 to explore the impact on water demand of projected population growth and agriculture demand encompassed in the three scenarios generated in the Florida 2070 report. Additional demand numbers remain unprojected, including water for mining and power generation. Of particular concern, and not within the scope and budget of this project, is the annual water needed for the health and function of natural systems. Basic assumptions using various scenarios were developed: Water 2010 Baseline - Based on the actual 2010 distribution of population, agriculture, and protected lands as identified in Florida 2070. Using data from a U. S. Geological Survey study, the 2010 baseline per capita gal per day (gpd) demand for each Florida county is established and used to determine total development-related demand for each county. Based on an Alachua County study prepared at the University of Florida, it is assumed that rural/suburban census tracts (those with less than 2000 people/sq mi) use three times as much water as urban census tracts (those with more than 2000 people/sq mi). Agriculture irrigation demand is based on data from a study prepared for DACS, which estimates water demand for crops, livestock, and aquaculture. Water 2070 Trend - Based on the addition of 15 million new residents, assuming 2010 development patterns continue. Using the same baseline gpd demand for each Florida county and the assumption that suburban/rural census block groups use more water than urban census block groups, each county’s water demand quantity is increased to reflect its population increase and the spatial distribution of that pop-

ulation. Agricultural lands are lost to development, but the same per-acre irrigation demand is assumed, resulting in a decrease in agricultural demand Water 2070 Alternative - The projected 15 million new residents are accommodated with more compact development patterns and increased protected lands as shown in the Florida 2070 alternative scenario. Per-capita rates of development-related water demand for each

county are conservatively reduced by 20 percent to capture the potential impact of water conservation measures. Agriculture irrigation demand is based on data from a study prepared for DACS, which estimates water demand for crops, livestock, and aquaculture in 2035. No irrigated lands identified in this study were allowed to develop under this scenario. More information is at www.1000friendsofflorida.org/Florida2070. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Pesticides Found in Drinking Water For the first time, researchers have detected traces of neonicotinoids, a common class of pesticides, in tap water. Scientists have previously identified neonicotinoid contamination in rivers and streams, but the latest report—published in Environmental Science and Technology—shows that the potent chemicals are making their way into some drinking water sources. Researchers from the University of Iowa and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured between 0.24 and 57.3 nanograms of individual neonicotinoids per liter of water in samples collected from a water system serving Iowa City. Scientists are still studying the effects of the chemicals on human health. "These are very low levels, nanograms per liter, which means parts per trillion, or a very low concentration," said Gregory LeFevre, a researcher at the University of Iowa, during an interview with BBC News. "But at the same time, there are concerns about what those low levels might do from an exposure standpoint." Several studies have shown the insecticides to be harmful to honey bees, and some research has shown the chemicals are damaging to the health of other animals. There is also concern that some filtration processes could transform neonicotinoids into more harmful compounds. Scientists suggest more research is needed to gauge the risk of neonicotinoid contamination to human health. Of the many pesticides that American farmers have embraced in their war on bugs, neonicotinoids are among the most popular. One of them, called imidacloprid, is among the world’s best-selling insecticides, boasting sales of over $1 billion each year. A 2016 study suggested a link between neonicotinoid use and


local pollinator extinctions, though other agricultural researchers contested the pesticide’s bad reputation. As the bee debate continued, scientists studying the country’s waterways started to detect neonicotinoid pollutants. In 2015, the USGS collected water samples from streams throughout the United States and discovered neonicotinoids in more than half of the samples. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not defined safe levels of neonicotinoids in drinking water, in part because the chemicals are relative newcomers to the pesticides currently in use. The pesticides, most of which were released in the 1990s, were designed to be more environmentally friendly than other chemicals on the market. The compounds work their way into plant tissue rather than just coating the leaves and stems, requiring fewer sprays. And though the pesticides wreak havoc on insect nervous systems, neonicotinoids do not easily cross from a mammal’s bloodstream into its brain. In 2015, environmental health scientists at George Washington University and the National Institutes of Health published a review of human health risks from neonic pesticide exposure. Acute exposure to high concentrations over a brief period resulted in “low rates of adverse health effects.” Reports of chronic, low-level exposure had “suggestive but methodologically weak findings,” with a Japanese study associating neonicotinoids with memory loss. Melissa Perry, a public health researcher at George Washington University who was involved in the review, has said that the new study “provides further evidence that neonicotinoid pesticides are present in our daily en-

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

vironments. From a public health standpoint, this issue clearly needs more attention.” The Iowa scientists tracked neonicotinoid concentrations in the local drinking supply during a seven-week span after the region’s farmers planted maize and soy crops. Every sample contained three types of neonicotinoids: clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam. Most water filtration systems target clay, dirt, or other particles, as well as pathogenic contaminants like bacteria, but they’re not designed to eliminate chemical pesticides, and the properties of neonicotinoids make these compounds unusually challenging to remove. Other types of pesticides stick to soil particles, which are then filtered out, but neonicotinoids can slip past sand filters because they are polar chemicals and dissolve very readily in water. This proved out as the research team looked at how effectively the university’s sand filtration system and Iowa City’s different water treatment technique blocked the three neonicotinoids studied. The university’s sand filter removed 1 percent of clothianidin, 8 percent of imidacloprid, and 44 percent of thiamethoxam. By contrast, the city’s activated carbon filter blocked 100 percent of clothianidin, 94 percent of imidacloprid, and 85 percent of thiamethoxam. That finding was “quite a pleasant surprise,” LeFevre said. “It’s definitely not all bad news and the activated carbon filters that were used are relatively economical.” In fact, after the research was completed, the university installed a similar system on its campus. Given the study’s small sample size and geographical span, “more comprehensive assessments of water supplies are needed to determine how ubiquitous neonics are in water supplies in other parts of the country,” said Perry. “The chance of that happening is unclear. There is currently no national effort to measure to what extent neonicotinoids are making it into our bodies, be it through water or food.” S


The History of the World is the History of Water Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA

veryone has heard the adage, “Rome was not built in a day.” I’m not sure who uttered these words first, but an internet search suggests that this phrase was a French proverb in the late 1100s, and was not recorded in English until 1545. And, we all know that if it’s on the internet then it must be true. Regardless of its origin, it speaks truth in that time is needed to create great things. The same can be said about our current wastewater management systems. A search of history, such as in the book, Historical Development of Wastewater Collection and Treatment, reveals that the most ancient discovered water systems were constructed at about 1500 BC near the Indus River, between northeast Pakistan and northwest India. Water, used for wastewater, washing, and bathing, and rain water, all flowed through ditches and other collection and conveyance systems with the necessary slope to flush to the river. A thousand years later, the Cloaca Maxima in Rome (500 BC) was constructed as a collector for wastewater. In London, between 1965 and 1868, a large canal was constructed as the main sewage collection along the Thames River, which received the numerous wastewater streams that previously had


discharged directly into the river. Essentially, this was the same method of collecting, diverting, and discharging water that was used in Rome over 2,000 years prior. The collection of wastewater in canal systems served a purpose, but direct discharge into rivers was not the solution. Along this same time, the foundation of modern biotechnology was laid by Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and others. Pasteur was the first who understood that some microorganisms need oxygen for growth and others do not. Until the 1830s, it was still a popular theory of abiogenesis, or generatio spontanea (spontaneous generation of living organisms). By the late 1800s the industry began to experiment with irrigation fields for treatment and removal of organics. The recognition that it was a biological process that could be manipulated was taking shape, and in approximately 1913, the idea to increase the concentration of aerobic bacteria was tested. At home, the Florida Water Environment Association began its existence in 1941 under the name Florida Sewerage and Industrial Waste Association. Subsequent name changes over the years (to the Florida Pollution Control Association in 1960 and then to the Florida Water Environment Association in 1992) are reflective of the evolution of public attitudes about water management and the environment. The FWEA’s mission is to unite water quality professionals responsible for protecting Florida’s clean water environment through education programs, professional development, and promotion

Ancient drainage in the Indus River Valley.


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

of sound public policy. These three goals are carried out by the association’s committees, local chapters, student chapters, and the FWEA Utility Council. The FWEA name changes also paralleled those of its parent organization, beginning with the Federation of Sewerage and Industrial Waste Associations, which was later renamed the Water Pollution Control Federation, and finally, the Water Environment Federation. In the United States, the first Federal Water Pollution Control Act was enacted in 1948, but took on its modern form when completely rewritten in 1972 in an act entitled the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (also known as the Clean Water Act). The 1972 act introduced the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, which provided the objectives to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters by preventing point and nonpoint pollution sources and providing assistance to publicly owned treatment works for the improvement of wastewater treatment. Florida was ahead of its time then, and it’s common practice today to have biological nutrient removal (BNR) as a goal of treatment. The state continues to play a role in the advancement of treatment technologies. Many do not realize that the City of Palmetto began operation of its advance secondary treatment system in October 1979. This system was the first Bardenpho Process treatment facility in North America and is rated at 1.4 million gallons per day.

The Cloaca Maxima.

Today it’s also common practice to utilize supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) as a control system that provides high-level, realtime supervisory management. Individual processes can be monitored and controlled through automation protocols, or even remotely. Associated instrumentation can allow operators and managers to act—rather than react—to problems, to trend values, and to better treat their waste streams. Innovative technology continues to change the way that we do things. This leads us to the goals for the current FWEA year, as stated in last month’s column: to create an emerging technology committee (from our manufacturing and equipment representative sector), an operations committee, and a contractors committee; and the publication of FWEA’s first Membership Directory and Resource Guide. These are all beginning to take shape, and by the time you read this, we will have already held our initial planning meeting of the Manufacturer and Equipment Committee. The visioning and selection of individuals to champion the causes of the emerging technology group is exciting, as is the publication of the directory in the near future.

As for the operations and contractors committees, the process may take a bit longer as we are still identifying individuals and seeking input from those who have an interest in becoming a part of these new entities. One of the objectives of the operations committee will be to assist in the elevation of operational personnel through training and licensure of individuals whose jobs involve lift station and plant mechanical maintenance, electrical, and instrumentation and controls, which may eventually require legislation similar to what was done for distribution operators. If you are interested in helping to set the course in guiding either of these, then I encourage you to reach out to any of our board members to express your interest. I hope that you have enjoyed this quick walk through history. I am excited to see what the future brings, but it’s because of devoted individuals in our profession throughout history that we do not have to face the cholera epidemics, gastrointestinal illnesses, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders that our forefathers did.

Rendering of a canal being built in London in the mid-1800s.

If you are not a member of FWEA, what are you waiting for? Get involved, stay involved, learn from others, share with others, and continue to advance our profession while enhancing our environment. After all, it’s where we live, and while it may not be Rome, it’s home—and I want it to S be the best that it can be!

News Beat The board of directors of BCR Environmental has appointed Robert (Rob) Andrews as its chair. Andrews succeeds Aaron Zahn, who has been board chair since 2015 and will continue to serve as chief executive officer and a member of the board. “Rob brings a wealth of industry experience, including a long and impressive track record in wastewater and broader engineering that will be invaluable to our company,” said Zahn. “He will be working directly with management and employees on implementing our corporate strategy in order to realize our vision for the future.” Prior to joining BCR, Andrews was president and chief executive officer of the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA), a provincial agency that operates and maintains approximately 500 water and wastewater treatment systems that serve over five million people. Before joining OCWA, he was the head of global water at AECOM. His additional operational experience includes serving as executive vice president of Earth Tech’s global water projects and products division, where he was responsible for design, technology, equipment, construction, financing, and operations of municipal water systems throughout the world.

Andrews’ project experience includes engineering and project management for some of the world’s largest water and wastewater treatment systems in Toronto, Boston, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Hong Kong, Sydney, and London. In addition to the conventional design-bid-build method of project delivery, he has extensive global experience in public-private partnerships, including concessions in Brazil, United Kingdom, China, Australia, and North America, as well as other alternative delivery models, such as program management, design-build and design-build-operate.


Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. (BSU) received a 2016 Domestic Wastewater Plant Operations Excellence Award for its East Water Reclamation Facility (EWRF) from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) in recognition of outstanding treatment plant operations, maintenance, and compliance. The FDEP presented the award to BSU during the annual “Focus on Change” seminar. “We are very proud of our operations staff, and the East Water Reclamation Facility staff in particular, for receiving this award,” said John R. Jenkins, executive director of BSU. “This award reflects strong leadership by Andy Koebel, our operations director; Jake Hepokoski, our lead operator; and a group of operators who work every day to maintain the facility.”

Each year, FDEP presents awards to domestic wastewater facilities to recognize those that demonstrate a special commitment to excellence in management through dedicated professionalism. In 2012, BSU was honored with this award for the first time. “We applaud these plant operators for their hard work and commitment to excellence,” said John Iglehart, FDEP south district director. “Florida depends on clean water, so we’re excited to work alongside these leading utilities and the communities that they serve.” Winning facilities go through a rigorous judging process and must demonstrate excellence during unannounced inspection visits throughout the year. In addition, facility upkeep, current and appropriate certifications, and staff training on the latest monitoring rules and techniques are evaluated. Wastewater facilities also have the opportunity to provide evidence of innovative solutions to water conservation challenges, improvements to maintenance processes, or specific examples of excellence. The BSU staff developed and shared a procedure that solved a valve-failure problem that was widespread throughout the industry. In addition, the proactive operations and maintenance program produces reclaimed water that consistently exceeds quality standards. The EWRF can treat 4 million Continued on page 68

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Continued from page 67 gallons (MG) per day, converting 100 percent of the wastewater into irrigation water and fertilizer pellets, with the capacity to expand to 16 MG per day. “As a member-owned cooperative, our sole purpose is to provide high-quality service to our customers, and this award reflects that commitment,” said Jenkins. “In addition, the quality of the facility demonstrates how our board of directors has recognized the need to keep pace with changing technology and increasing regulatory requirements.” A not-for-profit water and wastewater utility, BSU was founded by local citizens in 1971. The member-owned utility provides service to the City of Bonita Springs, the Village of Estero, and unincorporated South Lee County. The utility is recognized as an industry leader, and has received awards from the American Water Works Association, Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, and Florida Water Environment Association.


The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) has awarded more than $24 million in funding for 12 recent projects to continue efforts to improve water quality in the Indian River Lagoon. These projects will help communities reduce stormwater nutrient loads, continue stormwater treatment improvements, reduce or eliminate nonpoint source pollution, and eliminate muck sediments. “We are committed to partnering with local communities to expedite and implement projects that improve water quality and contribute to the ongoing restoration of the Indian River Lagoon, which is vital to Florida’s environment, economy, and quality of life,” said Ryan Matthews, FDEP interim secretary . Recent projects benefiting the lagoon include: Brevard County: Awarded a total of $556,100 in grant funding and a legislative appropriation for a nutrient-reduction project at Pines Industrial Pond, a 71-acre commercial and industrial area, that includes construction of a treatment train system to treat stormwater runoff. The enhanced pond system is estimated to remove approximately 800 pounds of nitrogen and 100 pounds of phosphorous per year. Brevard County was also awarded a $122,350 legislative appropriation, for a total of $361,850, for the Johnson Junior High School pond retrofits. These will enhance the efficiency of an existing retention pond by regulating and redirecting stormwater flow through nitrogenremoving and phosphorous-absorbing chambers to reduce pollution entering the northern lagoon.


Cape Canaveral: Awarded a $98,400 grant for shoreline restoration at Banana River Park and Manatee Sanctuary Park, along approximately 1,700 ft of the eastern shore of the Banana River Lagoon. Restoration includes a combination of coquina rock placement; native vegetation, such as mangroves and wire grass; and enhancement of an infiltration swale. This project will protect the shoreline from high winds, wave erosion, and sediment deposit. Edgewater: Awarded a $159,300 grant for stormwater treatment improvements at Lamont and Hubbell streets, which will reduce untreated stormwater runoff directly discharged into the lagoon. Project benefits include reducing nutrients entering the estuary, increasing groundwater recharge, reducing saltwater intrusion, and encouraging seagrass growth. The project is estimated to remove approximately 24 pounds of nitrogen and three pounds of phosphorous per year. Indialantic: Awarded a $65,500 grant for a stormwater retrofit at Lily Park, including clearing invasive melaleuca trees, installing approximately 900 lin ft of storm sewer, and excavation of a stormwater treatment area within a 1960s-era storm sewer system draining directly into the lagoon. The project will improve the quality of stormwater discharged into the lagoon. Melbourne: Awarded a $517,050 grant for a stormwater retrofit within approximately 200 acres in the high-density residential neighborhoods of Bell and Garfield, both with stormwater currently draining into the Eau Gallie River and the northern lagoon. Ocean Breeze: Awarded a total of $465,000 in a grant and a legislative appropriation for a stormwater retrofit of a 46-acre watershed to the lagoon, including construction of a treatment train consisting of bioswale excavation and plantings, two baffle boxes, and exfiltration pipe. The project will help remove nutrients from stormwater entering the estuary. Palm Bay: Awarded a $400,000 legislative appropriation for stormwater treatment at Palm Bay Marina near the mouth of Turkey Creek, which flows into the lagoon. Treatment includes retrofit and installation of treatment trains that will reduce untreated stormwater, which damages seawalls, while discharging into the lagoon. The project will prevent further seawall erosion and is estimated to remove approximately 40 pounds of nitrogen and 1,600 pounds of phosphorous per year. Rockledge: Awarded an additional $162,500 grant, for a total of $937,500, for phase one of a septic tank elimination project in the Rockwood and Knollwood Gardens subdivisions ad-

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

jacent to the lagoon to reduce nutrient pollution. Construction of a central sewer line will connect approximately 140 residential lots to a lift station. St. Johns River Water Management District: Awarded an increase of $10 million, for a total of $20 million, from legislative appropriation grants for a muck dredging project in the Eau Gallie River, a tributary of the lagoon. This additional funding and expansion of the project allows for completion of all dredging and the removal of approximately 625,000 cu yd of muck sediment. Muck soils will be removed from the main stem of the Eau Gallie River and from the southern branch of the Elbow Creek River. The project is estimated to remove approximately 1,200 tons of nitrogen and 260 tons of phosphorous contained within the Eau Gallie River muck deposits. Titusville: Awarded a $352,752 grant for stormwater treatment that includes installation of two treatment trains with catch basins for stormwater flowing from the Main Street and Sycamore Street sub-basins, totaling 588 acres. The project is designed to improve water quality and reduce pollutants carried by stormwater from entering the lagoon. Titusville was also awarded a $105,000 legislative appropriation for watershed improvements in the city's Knox McRae Basin, including construction of a treatment train. The project is estimated to remove approximately 280 pounds of nitrogen and 55 pounds of phosphorous. Project funding is provided by the state's Total Maximum Daily Load Water Quality Restoration Grant, legislative appropriation grants, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Section 319 Nonpoint Source Grant. The FDEP also recently awarded Brevard County an additional $21.5 million legislative appropriation grant for phase two of the Brevard County muck dredging project. This latest funding builds on the previous $20 million awarded in the past two years for muck removal in the lagoon, for a total investment of $41.5 million to date. Muck build-up is a result of nutrient pollution, sediment, grass clippings, leaves and other organic matter entering the lagoon over time and accumulating at the bottom. As muck decomposes, it consumes oxygen needed by fish and it releases nutrients that feed algal blooms. Muck sediments also negatively impact navigation and can damage seagrass beds. This newest phase of the project will remove approximately 400,000 additional cu yd of muck sediments from the south Sykes Creek and Grand Canal sites within the lagoon, the Banana River Lagoon, and associated tributaries.

"We are grateful to FDEP for this additional funding to help restore the lagoon," said Virginia Barker, Brevard County Natural Resources management department director. "The continuation of muck removal projects is important to the overall health, productivity, aesthetic appeal, and economic value of the lagoon and saving it is a top priority for the people who live, work, and play here." Previous funding includes $20 million for the ongoing phase one of the Brevard County muck dredging project, and when completed, will remove approximately 350,000 cu yd of muck from the north Cocoa Beach, Mims boat ramp, and Turkey Creek sites within the lagoon, the Banana River Lagoon, and associated tributaries. Additionally, $800,000 was awarded to identify sources of muck in the lagoon and remove aquatic vegetation from its watershed. Together, both phases of the muck dredging project are estimated to remove approximately 1,400 tons of nitrogen and 300 tons of phosphorous contained within lagoon muck sediments. The Indian River Lagoon Research Institute at Florida Institute of Technology (FIT), was awarded $1.5 million to assist in monitoring project effectiveness, as well as conduct research on the chemical, physical, and biological effects of muck removal within the lagoon system. "The Institute is proud to be a research partner in this project," said Dr. John Windsor, professor emeritus at the FIT department of ocean engineering and science. “It was very foresighted of the Legislature, FDEP, and Brevard County to assess the benefits of environmental muck dredging in coastal waters and support the research necessary to optimize lagoon restoration from muck removal. It’s also important for our students to experience how one state, one school, or one person can change the world and help save a national treasure like the Indian River Lagoon, and be prepared to continue the ongoing restoration and maintenance plan." The department is working aggressively to improve water quality in the lagoon by identifying and funding additional wastewater and stormwater projects to reduce the amount of nutrients going into it, as well as dredging projects to remove muck from its bottom. Gov. Rick Scott's "Fighting for Florida's Families" budget proposes funding for a 50/50 state matching grant program with local communities, including those along the lagoon, to provide funding to encourage residents to move from septic tanks to sewer systems in order to curb pollution that is currently entering impacted water bodies. Additionally, this proposal will support local communities to help build wastewater systems to meet the increased demand for wastewater services. S Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


New Products Flo Spec Control Software from Anue Water Technologies is a fully SCADA-compliant program that allows for bidirectional monitoring and control of each system with access to Wi-Fi or Satellite/Local CAT 5 internet connectivity. It’s manufactured in a NEMA 4 cabinet, and is standard with all three basic platforms, including Phantom I and II for point source odor control, FORSe 2 oxygen generation systems for force main corrosion control, and FORSe 5 combination ozone and oxygen systems for larger odor and corrosion control applications. The efficiency of immediate data access and system control has allowed municipalities and industrial wastewater operations to reduce their costs. The design allows stand-alone remote system monitoring, as well as SCADA interface as a standard product offering. Options include specific alarm alerts that can be sent to any computer or smartphone to identify and correct problems quickly. (www.anuewater.com)


Aqua-Aerobic Systems Inc. has introduced its AquaNereda® aerobic granular sludge system, which represents an evolution in activated sludge treatment by replicating the same effluent quality as a well-designed enhanced biological nutrient removal facility, but without the use of chemicals. By using a patented aerobic granular sludge technology, the dramatically reduced footprint and low-energy requirement of the process provides a competitive alternative for high-performance plants. A robust structure of granule withstands fluctuations in chemical spikes, load, salt, pH, and toxic shocks and there are no secondary clarifiers, selectors, separate compartments, or return sludge pumping stations. Its settling properties at SVI values of 30-50 mL/g allow MLSS concentrations of 8,000 mg/l or greater. The system provides enhanced nutrient removal and implified operation with fully automated controls. The company is currently building a full-scale AquaNereda system at the Rock River Water Reclamation District in Rockford, Ill. This facility will demonstrate the system and will be an integral part of the company’s industry-known technical seminar program. The facility will help accelerate the implementation of aerobic granular sludge technology in North America. (www.aqua-aerobic.com)


The UVT-LED-H handheld UV transmittance monitor from Sensorex delivers fast and


accurate UV transmittance readings in any applications employing UV disinfection. Its compact size and ease of use are equally well-suited to field measurements, laboratory use, and calibration verification of online UVT analyzers. An LED light source significantly reduces maintenance burden and environmental impact, with an extended service life. The ergonomic unit is simple to operate, with a single push button, and the instant measurements can be read clearly on the backlit LED display. It verifies UV dosing and efficient operation of UV disinfection systems in municipal drinking water, wastewater, and other industrial water quality applications, such as food and beverage process water, as well as in quality testing laboratories associated with those applications. The instrument’s highly efficient UV-C LED lamps are more stable, improving accuracy when compared to instruments with traditional mercury light sources. Additional benefits include zero warm-up time and low battery consumption, taking up to 350 readings on a single charge. The mercury-free UV-C LED light source extends sensor lifetime up to five times compared to monitors using mercury lamps. It also significantly lowers operating expenses related to UVT monitoring by eliminating field serviceable parts and disposal of lamps containing environmentally harmful mercury. (www.sensorex.com)


Fluid Conservation Systems has introduced a new website that is optimized for mobile devices, featuring a new design that organizes product information by application for a more streamlined experience. Visitors to the site can quickly find information about the company’s leak detection, data logging, pressure modulation products for water networks, flow and level monitoring for wastewater, water and gas monitoring for AMI, or energy management and building performance monitors for facilities. (www.fluidconservation.com)


Spectro Scientific has been awarded a U.S. patent to extend the LaserNet Fines® particle analysis technology with new capabilities to size and count ferrous particles and measure total ferrous content by weight. This technology is used in the company’s LaserNet 230 particle analyzer, which enables the instrument to accurately size and count ferrous particles as small as 25 microns in size and measure total ferrous content below 10 ppm.

July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

These advancements distinguish LaserNet 230 as the only device on the market that performs these two measurements in one test with the highest sensitivity level. The core of the technology is two sets of magnetic coils wound with high precision to achieve the desired sensitivity level. A set of proprietary ferrous particle standards is supplied with the instrument for performance verification. This new capability makes the product the most comprehensive analyzer for wear particle testing in lubricants used in rotating machines within industrial and power generation plants, such as gearboxes and turbines. The technology also employs an infrared laser, a patented flow cell, and a high-speed CCD camera to capture particle images. The software uses a neural network algorithm to automatically classify particles into cutting wear, fatigue wear, sliding wear, nonmetallic particles, water droplets, and other types. It can measure oil samples with up to 10 mil particles per mL without dilution. The product series includes three models: the LaserNet 210 is a high-precision particle counter for lubricants and fuels, the LaserNet 220 includes particle image classification, and the LaserNet 230 includes ferrous particle analysis capability. (www.spectrosci.com}


The Whisper Biofilter from Evoqua is a one- or two-stage odor control unit that allows for optimal odor removal via variably controlled beds that provide the proper biological environment for H2S and associated sulfur compound removal. Units are designed for quiet operation with high odor removal. The biofilters are packed with Bioglas media, which is manufactured in the U.S. from acid-resistant recycled glass material as the substrate for the biomass. Each media bed is intermittently irrigated with water and nutrients to provide optimal conditions for the biomass growth. The unique irrigation system uses a rotating arm to provide the most uniform water and nutrient distribution available. The incoming air is passed into the unit by a variable-speed, corrosion-resistant fan, which provides quiet operation, and then through an air distribution plate to provide even distribution throughout the media. The biofilter removes 99 percent of incoming H2S and effectively reduces other common odor compounds. It can treat airflows up to 1,100 cfm, and H2S concentrations above 100 ppm. The units are designed

and fabricated in the U.S. with skid-mounted controls for easy installation and operation and can be used in lift stations, headworks and vaults, or enclosed areas in the collection system. Evoqua has six regional service centers that can provide turnkey full-service units on a monthly rental basis or for capital purchase. The full-service program includes onsite evaluation, installation, operation, service, and performance reports. (www.evoqua.com)


The Control Freak touch-screen controller from Wanner Engineering is designed to control motor speed for hydracell pumps. The controller lets the user enter flow rate, volume in gal or liters, and system pressure in psi. The controller automatically runs the pump manually at the desired flow rate, volume total/time, or in preset batches. It can run up to six pumps with one screen and 10 separate batch setup screens per pump. Features include a variable frequency drive and password protection for pump algorithms. It also can be field-calibrated for

greater accuracy. The 7-in. color touch screen is in a NEMA-4X (or IP) enclosure and is visible in low-light areas. Operational features include real-time clock, pump-drive information screen, and analog and digital I/O for interfacing with external devices. (www.wannerpumps.com)


The HEI wet electrostatic precipitator system from Bionomic Industries features discharge electrode technology that can be sized to specific applications. It concentrates a high-intensity ionizing corona in strategic areas within the collecting tube, rather than distributing it along the length of the treatment area of the tubes. Features include an Ultimix conditioning system for gas saturation and collection tube cleaning, and RotaBed prescrubber for acid removal and particulate loading reduction. Other features include PLC-based voltage and spark controls for maximum electric field stability, nonfouling insulator locations, and corrosive-resistant construction. (bionomicind.com)


The ST100 Series thermal flow meter from Fluid Components International is designed for hydrogen gas production processes and can measure any process gas, including wet gas, mixed gases, and dirty gases. The air/gas flow meter has no moving parts, and no additional sensors or flow-calculating devices are required for measurement. A thermal-sensing element measures flow from 0.25 to 1,000 SFPS. Hydrogen can be safely measured at high-flow rates from 0 to 6,600 lb/hr at 29 to 87 psi. Readings are stored in a removable, internal micro-SD card with 2GB capacity, capable of storing 21 million readings. Recording time base is user selectable with a maximum rate of one reading per second. The logging feature is selectable via the front panel menu or via the serial port and configuration software tools. (www.fluidconponents.com) S

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017



Tank Engineering And Management

Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983






Showcase Your Company in the Engineering or Equipment & Services Directory Contact Mike Delaney at

352-241-6006 ads@fwrj.com

Motor & Utility Services, LLC CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 prademaker@cecmotoru.com • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Make Orange County Your Home for Life. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to over 500,000 citizens and 66 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions:

Section Manager, Water Reclamation $67,475 - $106,475/ year

Industrial Electrician I $36,733 – $43,035/ year Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/jobs. Positions are open until filled.

TREATMENT PLANT OPERATOR The Dunes Community Development District located in Palm Coast is seeking qualified Applicants for a Certified Treatment Plant Operator to work at the District’s new RO water treatment plant, wastewater and reclaimed water systems. Applicant must have a minimum FL Class “C” Water or Wastewater Operator Certification (dual water/wastewater preferred, but not required). Must have high school diploma/GED, valid Florida driver’s license. Salary Range: $35,000-$55,000/yr DOQ, plus full benefits package. Job description and application for employment is available at www.dunescdd.org Send completed job application along with resume to: Utilities Manager, Dunes CDD, 5000 Palm Coast Pkwy S.E., Palm Coast, FL 32137; by fax at 386-447-9858; or e-mail at tsheahan@dunescdd.org EOE/DFWP.

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Water Plant Operator – Class A, B, & C - Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee - Solid Waste Worker II & III - Public Service Worker I - Streets - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com. Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary Range: $39,893.88 - $67,004.60/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit www.melbourneflorida.org/jobs and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


Electronic Technician The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $40,890.98 - $68,680.30/yr, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit www.melbourneflorida.org/jobs and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP

Join Our Team! Water Wastewater Engineer III Wanted! Mathews Consulting, a Baxter & Woodman company, has a rewarding opportunity for a full-time Water/Wastewater Engineer III in our West Palm Beach, FL office. We are looking for a Water/Wastewater Engineer III with 5+ years experience in managing projects, developing business, serving clients and designing pump stations, water and wastewater projects. The successful applicant will be provided with a rewarding combination of design and fieldwork assignments and excellent career development opportunities. To apply visit http://www.baxterwoodman.com/careers/current-openings/

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator A, B, or C Okaloosa County BCC is currently recruiting for a Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator A, B, or C. This individual will operate treatment facilities to control flow and processing of wastewater, sludge and effluent. Salary Range $10.13-$23.74 hourly with excellent benefits. For more information or to apply, visit http://agency.governmentjobs.com/okaloosa/default.cfm DFW/VP/AA/EEO

Environmental Services Director – City of Clermont The City of Clermont has a population of 32,000 and is the largest city in Lake County. This picturesque city, which sits among rolling hills and 14 lakes, is known as the "Choice of Champions" due to its international reputation as a training ground for Olympic medalists and other elite athletes. Clermont is seeking a highly motivated progressive leader for its Environmental Services Department. The Environmental Services Department provides sanitation, water service, wastewater collection and treatment services in addition to reclaimed water production and distribution services to our utility customers. Salary: Dependent upon qualifications and experience. Closing date: Open till filled. https://www.clermontfl.gov/residents/employment-opportunities.stml

Field Service Technician Hydra-Service (S) Inc. is a leader in the Water and Wastewater Industry and is looking to add a field service technician to our team. The ideal candidate will have a minimum of 3 years’ experience in trouble shooting controls, hydraulics and mechanical issues at lift stations or water/waste water treatment facilities. The candidate must also live in or be willing to re-locate to the greater Tampa Bay area. A clean driving record is required. We offer an excellent compensation and benefits package. Compensation will vary based on experience. Hydra Service (S) Inc. is a drug-free work place and an equal opportunity employer. If you are interested please send a Resume to Tim@HydraService.net


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Career Opportunities at one of Orlando’s Top 100 Employer Toho Water Authority Kissimmee, FL If you are seeking a career opportunity consider Toho Water Authority. Who we are: Toho Water Authority is the largest provider of water, wastewater and reclaimed water services in the Osceola County and serves over 100,000 customers. Our mission is to provide reliable, cost effective and responsive water services to our customers while protecting public health and the environment. This is accomplished at TWA by promoting teamwork in the workforce and utilizing the diverse strengths of our community to achieve a common goal; acting with integrity; treating everyone as a customer; striving for excellence through innovation and continuous improvement; and respecting our most valuable asset - our employees. What we have to offer: TWA offers competitive employee benefits, including retirement match, HRA medical contributions, tuition reimbursement, health and wellness incentives, on-site Wellness Clinic, and more! Where to learn more about us: Visit the TWA webpage today to learn more about our organizations, available job openings, and to submit an employment application online! Go to www.tohowater.com Toho Water Authority is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

UTILITY SYSTEMS ENGINEER $81,834 - $110,049.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $45,379. - $85,932.

How would you like to live and work in the beautiful Florida Keys? One of the Keys premier employers is searching for the right professional with the perfect balance of Engineering and Operations knowledge and education in water & wastewater utility systems. This position would perform advanced level professional work involving a variety of engineering and management tasks related to the development, implementation, and operation of water and wastewater programs and procedures, as well as the design and development of FKAA water, wastewater, and reclaimed water improvements. We are looking for a well rounded Professional Engineer, who is detail oriented, yet sees and understands the “big picture”. Applicants who fit this description with the following qualifications should apply: Civil, Chemical or Environmental Engineering degree, Florida Professional Engineering license; supplemented by and a minimum of 10 years previous experience and/or training that include progressively more responsible positions in a water utility, governmental or related agency or firm with a minimum of five (5) years of significant supervisory responsibility. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at: https://workforcenow.adp.com/jobs/apply/posting.html?client=FKAA &ccId=19000101_000001&type=MP&lang=en_US EEO, VPE, ADA

The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority’s WASTEWATER DIVISION IS GROWING, and we need a WWTP Operator with a Florida “C” license or higher. You will perform skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant (the majority of our plants are new, state of the art plants). Must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at: https://workforcenow.adp.com/jobs/apply/posting.html?client=FKAA &ccId=19000101_000001&type=MP&lang=en_US EEO, VPE, ADA

Join our Team! Office Manager Wanted! Mathews Consulting, a Baxter & Woodman company, has a rewarding opportunity for a full-time Office Manager in our Fort Lauderdale, FL office. We are looking for a Water/Wastewater Engineer with 8+ years’ experience in design and project management. Typical responsibilities include local business development efforts, marketing efforts, project design and project management. Florida PE License Required. For more information please visit our website Career Center at www.baxterwoodman.com.

District Manager Salary: $120,000 to $145,000 The Dunes Community Development District located in Palm Coast, Florida, is seeking applicants for this management and technical position to direct the operations of its Utility and Toll Bridge Divisions. Will supervise a staff of 40 people and be responsible for the installation, operation and maintenance of all the District’s facilities and equipment. Must be a self-starter who possesses superior communication, managerial and team-building skills. A bachelor’s degree in business or engineering with a master’s degree in business administration preferred. Previous management experience in water and wastewater utilities, finance and working with local governments a plus. A minimum of 10 years in the indicated areas is required. Excellent benefits. Salary range $120,000 to $145,000. Send resume to: Jack Leckie, Chairman, Dunes CDD, 5000 Palm Coast Pkwy S.E., Palm Coast, FL 32137; by fax 386-447-9858 or online at jleckie@dunescdd.org. EOE/DFWP

UTILITY INSPECTOR Closing date: Friday, July 21, 2017 at 5pm. For more information visit: http://www.ourorangecity.com/employment/ HIRING RANGE: $14.80 - $16.50 per hour (DOQ)

PARKS/FACILITIES SUPERINTENDENT City of Groveland Class C Wastewater Operator The City of Groveland is hiring a Class "C" Wastewater Operator. Salary Range $30,400-$46,717 DOQ. Please visit groveland-fl.gov for application and job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP

Closing date: July 21, 2017. For more information visit: http://www.ourorangecity.com/employment/ HIRING RATE: $20.94 per hour negotiable (DOQ)

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2017


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Editorial Calendar January ..........Wastewater Treatment February..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ................Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ............Disinfection; Water Quality September ......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ..........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November........Water Treatment December........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Automeg ....................................................................71 Barry University ........................................................47 Blue Planet ................................................................79 Conshield ..................................................................52 CROM..........................................................................69 Data Flow ..................................................................41 Florida Aquastore ......................................................43 FSAWWA Conference Overview ................................31 FSAWWA Golf/Poker ..................................................51 FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards ..........61 FWPCOA State Short School......................................51 FWPCOA Training ......................................................55 Gerber Pumps ............................................................63 Hudson Pump ............................................................53 ISA Symposium..........................................................59 Lakeside ......................................................................5 Permaform 2 ..............................................................58 PCL ..............................................................................9 Stacon ..........................................................................2 Stantec ......................................................................35 Treeo ..........................................................................65 USA Blue Book ..........................................................17 Xylem ........................................................................80

Test Yourself Answer Key “Domestic wastewater treatment plant operators shall maintain a separate operation and maintenance (O&M) log for each domestic wastewater treatment plant, and water treatment plant operators shall maintain a separate O&M log for each water treatment plant. The plant O&M log shall be maintained on site at the plant in a location accessible to 24-hour inspection and protected from weather damage.”

From page 40 1. B) Two years Per FAC 62-602.530 (1) (b): “(1) Any individual found by the Department to have engaged in conduct which subverts or attempts to subvert the examination or review process will have his or her scores on the examination withheld and declared invalid. (b) Individuals that do not have an active or inactive license shall be disqualified from taking future exams for a period of two years.”

4. A) may be combined with the log for any water plant connected to the system or be separate. Per FAC 62-602.650 (5): “The water distribution system O&M log may be combined with the O&M log for any water treatment plant connected to the water distribution system or may be a separate log.”

2. D) Providing the permittee with all FDEP required reports and notifying them of abnormal events. Per FAC 62-602.650 (2) and (3): “(2) Domestic wastewater treatment plant operators shall submit to the permittee all required reports in the manner required by the Department in Rule 62601.300, F.A.C. Water treatment plant operators shall submit to the supplier of water all required reports in the manner required by the Department in Rules 62550.730, 62-555.325, and 62-555.350, F.A.C. (3) Domestic wastewater treatment plant operators shall notify the permittee as soon as possible following the discovery of any abnormal event or noncompliance that may endanger health or the environment as described in subsection 62-604.550(2) or 62620.610(20), F.A.C.; additionally, wastewater plant operators shall report to the State Warning Point (SWP) at 1(800)320-0519 and the Department or delegated local program in accordance with subsections 62604.550(2) and 62-620.610(20), F.A.C.”

5. D) Yes, with written approval by FDEP, delegated local programs, or the county health department. Per FAC 62-602.650 (4) and (5): “The plant O&M log shall be maintained in a hardbound book with consecutive page numbering, or alternatively, part or all of the plant O&M log may be maintained electronically upon written request by the permittee or supplier of water and written approval by the appropriate Department district office, delegated local program, or approved county health department (ACHD).”

6. B) documentation of completion of continuing education units (CEUs).

3. A) at the treatment plant, in a location accessible to 24-hour inspection and protected from weather. Per FAC 62-602.650 (4):


July 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Per FAC 62-602.710 (3) (e): “(3) To retain an active status following the end of each biennium, the following must be submitted to the Department in a timely manner . . . (e) Documentation of successful completion of CEUs as required in subsection 62-602.710(4), F.A.C.”

7. d) revert to inactive status. Per FAC 62-602.720 (1): “(1) Any license shall revert to inactive status if the requirements of subsection 62-602.710(3), F.A.C., have not been met.”

8. B) meeting all the requirements for the type and level of license sought. Per FAC 62-602.720 (4): “(4) The license of an inactive licensee that does not achieve active status within two years following the end of the most recent licensing period shall be expired (null and void), and subsequent licensure will require meeting all the requirements for the type, and class or level of license sought.”

9. B) a fine and suspension of the operator’s license not to exceed two years. Per 62-602.870 (1) (c): “(1) The Department shall, depending on aggravating and mitigating circumstances, in addition to a fine, suspend a license for a period not to exceed two years for any of the following reasons: (c) Incompetence in the performance of duties of an operator that results in a treatment plant or water distribution system, under the direct charge of the operator, being operated in a manner inconsistent with standard operating practice.”

10. C) Negligence in the performance of duties resulting in harm to public health or the environment. Per 62-602.870 (2) (c) “(2) The Department shall permanently revoke a license for the following reason: (c) A finding by the Department that negligence in the performance of duties as an operator has resulted in harm to public health or safety or to the environment.”