Page 1

Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office:


P.O. Box 745, Windermere, FL 34786-0745 Web: General Manager:

Michael Delaney


Rick Harmon

Graphic Design Manager:

Patrick Delaney

Mailing Coordinator:

Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Patrick Lehman, P.E. (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

4 12 52 54 54 59 64 64

Vice President: Howard Wegis, P.E. (FWEA) Lee County Utilities Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340


For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 888-328-8448 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318


Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Florida Automated Water Conservation Estimation Tool Overview—Max A. Castaneda, Andrew Mason, and Virginia Geursen


Ion Exchange and Disposal Issues Associated With the Brine Waste Stream—Julie Karleskint, Daniel Schmidt, Robert Anderson, Jayson Page, and A.J. Berndt

EDUCATION AND TRAINING 9 15 23 37 45 49 64

FSAWWA Call for Papers FWPCOA Training Calendar TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Online Institute FSAWWA Training CEU Challenge ISA Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium

COLUMNS 14 18 50 52 55 61 63

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference:

Year One of Smart Controller Implementation in Orange County—Stacia L. Davis and Michael D. Dukes

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

Recognizing Water Conservation and Reuse in Florida—Lisa Krentz Technology Spotlight Celebrate Drinking Water Week 2014! New Zealander to Speak at FWEA Awards Luncheon at Conference FSAWWA Luncheon at AWWA Annual Conference News Beat FWPCOA Historical Committee Requests Your Assistance! FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest

FWEA Focus—Greg Chomic Spotlight on Safety—Doug Prentiss Sr. Certification Boulevard—Roy Pelletier FSAWWA Speaking Out—Carl R. Larrabee Jr. FWEA Committee Corner—Kristiana Dragash FWRJ Reader Profile—Frederick Bloetscher C Factor—Jeff Poteet

DEPARTMENTS 48 65 68 72

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Volume 66

ON THE COVER: The City of Arcadia recently completed construction of a new 1.5-mgd water treatment plant using ion exchange technology to replace its 3-mgd lime softening water treatment plant. Learn more about it on page 56. (photo: A.J. Brendt)

April 2014

Number 4

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Recognizing Water Conservation and Reuse in Florida Lisa Krentz In 1998 the first proclamation was signed by Florida’s governor and cabinet designating April as Water Conservation Month, which is widely recognized by numerous local governments, water utilities, and other organizations throughout the state. Each year, the current governor continues this tradition by signing a new resolution at a designated cabinet meeting. This year marks the 16-year anniversary of this proclamation. In recognition of this important event, beginning this year, this magazine’s water conservation and reuse issue will now be published in April rather than August. The Florida Section of AWWA, its Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED), and the state’s water management districts work together in asking local governments and water utilities to also adopt a resolution declaring April as Water Conservation Month. Adopting entities are asked to report their adoption date back to the water management districts or to FSAWWA so that a statewide list of participants can be compiled and presented to the governor, as generally sponsored by a Cabinet member, in support of the state resolution. Last year, 176 entities adopted the water conservation resolution, demonstrating the importance of water efficiency and reuse


practices to Florida utilities. Having your name on this list provides an excellent opportunity to have your efforts in water conservation recognized. A high level of participation in this campaign is extremely important as it provides recognition of water conservation activity at a statewide level and promotes conservation advocacy to the state government. By adopting Water Conservation Month and adding your proclamation to the statewide list, you are letting Florida’s elected officials know just how important water efficiency and water conservation practices are to local governments, water utilities, and other organizations in Florida. To add your proclamation to the statewide list of entities proclaiming Water Conservation Month this year, please email your adoption date to Jenny at Sample proclamations are available on the WUED webpage of the FSAWWA website ( to assist in your adoption efforts. In addition to adopting a proclamation, you should consider focusing your public outreach and education activities during the month of April (and throughout the year) to promote water conservation and reuse. As the weather warms and dry-season water use increases, it is a particularly important time of year to remind consumers to use water efficiently. Here are some suggested activities that can be easily implemented:

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

 Purchase and distribute FSAWWA coloring books for outreach and education programs. To order, go to  Include water conservation messaging with utility bills.  Highlight any and all conservation messages and programs.  Consider becoming a U.S. EPA WaterSense participating utility; they supply information, logos, and materials for your use. Information is available at  Develop, or review and update, your utility water efficiency plan and provide information to your customers.  Participate in the FSAWWA Drop Savers water conservation poster program.  Develop an in-school education program, or at least reach out to local schools during Water Conservation Month.  Sponsor a water conservation public outreach event in your community. As chair of WUED, I hope this water conservation and reuse issue serves as a valuable source of information, and is useful to you as you expand and improve your water efficiency and reuse programs. Lisa Krentz is senior principal scientist at Hazen and Sawyer, P.C., in Tampa, and is chair of the FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division. 


Year One of Smart Controller Implementation in Orange County Stacia L. Davis and Michael D. Dukes espite limited economic growth in recent years, central Florida has unsuitable groundwater resources based on current and future rates of growth. As a result, the Central Florida Coordination Area (CFCA) action plan was implemented with provisions for limiting additional groundwater withdrawals to no more than the demands in 2013 (CFCA, 2010). The water division of Orange County Utilities is located in the central Florida coordination area and primarily serves unincorporated areas of Orange County, with more than 140,000 accounts serving a population of approximately 490,000.


Smart Control Technology Smart controllers are technologies that determine irrigation scheduling based on theoretical or physical soil water movement. The technologies can include evapotranspiration (ET)


controllers that use reference ET (ETO) to calculate theoretical plant water needs and soil moisture sensors (SMS) that bypass irrigation cycles due to sufficient soil moisture levels. The University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF-IFAS) has conducted multiple field plot studies showing that smart irrigation controllers have the potential to conserve water by efficiently scheduling irrigation, with water savings of 43 percent by ET controllers (Davis et al, 2009), 42 to 72 percent during wet seasons by SMS (Cardenas-Lailhacar and Dukes, 2012), and 1 to 65 percent during dry seasons by SMS (CardenasLailhacar and Dukes, 2012; McCready et al, 2009). In Pinellas County, a cooperator study using SMS resulted in 65 percent water savings when the technologies were properly installed and programmed (Haley and Dukes, 2012). However, there were only 58 participating cooperators, generally considered a small sample size for cooper-

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Stacia L. Davis is a Ph.D. candidate in the agricultural and biological engineering department of the University of Florida in Gainesville. Michael D. Dukes is a professor in the agricultural and biological engineering department and director for the Center for Landscape Conservation and Ecology, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, at the University of Florida in Gainesville.

ator studies, thus making the results less applicable for extrapolating to other areas of the state. The objective of this article is to evaluate two types of smart controllers to determine whether they can reduce irrigation application of constituents in the Orange County Utilities service area. Performance results from this Continued on page 8

Table 1. Weekly irrigation application and irrigation ratios were calculated for the study period running from November 2011 through January 2013.

Continued from page 6 study may contribute to future policies and programs concerning smart controllers that contribute to the reduction of consumptive water use in the residential sector.

Materials and Methods Potential participants were targeted as excessive irrigation users if their billing records indicated habitual irrigation application that was 1.5 to 4 times the gross irrigation requirement (GIR) on a monthly basis. The GIR was calculated using a daily soil water balance based on the general soil type and local weather data. Daily irrigation needs were summed into monthly totals for comparison to billing data. Eligible participants that volunteered for the study received an on-site irrigation evaluation to determine that high water use was due to poor irrigation scheduling and not from other issues such as system disrepair or poor system design. Landscape information was also collected while on-site, such as

plant types in each zone and total landscape area. A total of 167 residential cooperators were selected across nine location clusters, with treatments distributed within each location so that there were at least three replicates per treatment group. The treatments were installed with staggered start dates from March 2011 through January 2012. Each location cluster had the following five treatments that were replicated four times: ET controller only (ET), SMS only; ET controller with educational training (ET+Edu); SMS with educational training (SMS+Edu); and a comparison group that was monitored only (MO). In the two locations where there were less than 20 cooperators, the cooperators were concentrated into the ET+Edu, SMS+Edu, and MO treatments to provide adequate replication for statistical analysis. The educational training was performed by UF-IFAS for each cooperator selected for the education treatment. A training session lasted approximately one hour and included site-specific programming of the smart controller, a five-

Figure 1. Cumulative irrigation application for treatments implemented in the sandy areas. The lower bound of the gross irrigation requirement (GIR) range is 1*GIR and the upper bound is 1.5*GIR.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

minute-or-less individual tutorial on the new technology where cooperators could ask questions, and an educational pamphlet that was highlighted before being distributed. Site-specific programming for the ET controller included calculating application rates and selecting plant types, soil types, and slopes for each zone. Programming of the SMS included autocalibration of soil moisture thresholds and scheduling time clocks so that irrigation events were 6.3 millimetres (mm), twice per day, three times per week, if the sensor allowed the event. Both technological treatments that did not receive the educational training were programmed at the discretion of the installing contractor. Location clusters were generally classified as sandy soils (four locations) or as flatwoods soils (five locations). Flatwoods soils are also sandy but less readily drained than soils classified as sand. This distinction changed the soil properties of the GIR range, with the main difference of a lower soil water holding capacity for the sandy soils compared to the flatwoods soils. Decreased soil water holding capacity requires more frequent irrigation, which usually increases overall irrigation required. Hourly readings of irrigation consumptive use were collected for each cooperator using automatic meter recording (AMR) devices installed and maintained by Orange County Utilities. The volume of irrigation was converted to a depth using the irrigable area measured during the irrigation evaluations. Irrigation was then totaled into weeks and averaged across treatments. Statistical analyses were performed using statistical analysis systems (SAS) software (Cary, N.C.) using the glimmix procedure, which fits statistical models to data with correlations or consistent variability where response is not necessarily nor-

Figure 2. Cumulative irrigation application for treatments implemented in the flatwoods areas. The lowebound of the gross irrigation requirement (GIR) range is 1*GIR and the upper bound is 1.5*GIR.

mally distributed. Treatment differences were determined using least squares means. Data collection is ongoing, but a summary from Nov. 10, 2011, through Jan. 14, 2013, is presented here. Turfgrass quality ratings were performed seasonally throughout the treatment periods based on a scale of 1 to 9, where 1 represents completely dead turf and 9 represents the perfect turfgrass, with a 5 selected as the minimally acceptable quality for a residential landscape. Statistical analysis of the turfgrass quality results were conducted with the glimmix procedure using SAS software. The change in turfgrass quality ratings between rating periods were modeled compared to the difference in cumulative irrigation application and the gross irrigation requirement. To determine the GIR, three weather stations were installed around the county to collect climatic data such as temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and rainfall. These weather parameters were used to calculate ETO using the ASCE-EWRI standardized ETO equation (ASCE-EWRI, 2005). In locations that did not receive a weather station, rain gauges were added to account for localized rainfall. In addition to the installed weather stations and rain gauges, the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) was used for cooperators in that area. Historical weather patterns for ETO

and rainfall were determined using thirty years of Orlando International Airport weather data (National Climatic Data Center, 2010). The GIR is not an absolute number due to the variability in the assumptions used in its calculations. To account for this variability, a range of 1 to 1.5 times the GIR was considered acceptable consumptive use. The upper limit for GIR was chosen based on the assumption initially used to select customers who apply excess irrigation. Weekly irrigation totals frequently totaled zero, which caused error in the ratio calculations due to dividing by zero. To eliminate this problem, the average irrigation applications were used to determine the ratios rather than averaging the ratios calculated for each week.

Results The monthly rates of ETO for all three weather stations were within the 95 percent confidence intervals of the historical average. In general, monthly ETO was higher for the weather stations located in the more southern parts of the county, as would be expected. Little rainfall occurred over the winter months of the study periods, with rainfall totals significantly less than the historical average. High rainfall amounts occurred from April to Oc-

tober 2012, but were not outside of historical average ranges. Additionally, rainfall totals were variable between locations, indicating that rainfall events were generally localized. According to the statistical analysis, there were no differences between location clusters; thus, results were combined for maximum replication. The comparison treatment irrigated the most, applying 28.4 mm per week, and was significantly higher than all other treatments (Table 1). The ET controller treatments were significantly different from each other, with 22 mm per week for the ET group and the ET+Edu treatment applied 17.5 mm per week. The soil moisture sensors were also significantly different from each other, applying 18.6 mm by the SMS with default settings and 15.3 mm by the SMS+Edu. There were not clear differences between technologies; the treatment using ET controllers with educational settings was not significantly different from either SMS treatment. The GIR, calculated as 11.3 mm/week, was significantly lower than all the treatment averages. This is not surprising given that the GIR was considered the baseline estimation. The GIR ratios for the comparison treatment ranged from 1.68 to 2.51 (Table 1). According to the assumption of overirrigation Continued on page 10

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continued from page 9 when the ratio is greater than 1.5, the cooperators in the comparison treatment are still classified as overirrigators. The ET controllers with default settings had ratios of 1.30 to 1.95, thus hovering at the edge of overirrigation. The three remaining treatments ranged from 0.90 to 1.65, which would be considered in an acceptable range for a good quality landscape given that the GIR is not absolute, but with inherent variability. For the sandy locations, the comparison treatment irrigated the most, totaling 1,669 mm, with similar irrigation trends by the ET controllers with default settings, totaling 1,601 mm (Figure 1). These treatments have always fallen at the upper bound of the GIR or higher, indicating that they are overirrigating in these locations. The ET+Edu, SMS, and SMS+Edu maintained irrigation application within the GIR range, totaling 1,014 mm, 1,052 mm, and 1,033 mm, respectively. Only the SMS+Edu fell within the GIR range for the flatwoods locations, with irrigation application totaling 709 mm (Figure 2). Again, the comparison treatment irrigated the most, totaling 1,337 mm. The ET and SMS groups applied the next highest amounts of 1,081 mm and 1,089 mm, respectively. All three of these treatments exhibited overirrigation during the study


period. The ET+Edu, totaling 907 mm, fell just above the upper limit of the GIR range, thus applying an acceptable amount of irrigation with the potential for improved water conservation. Turfgrass quality ratings were not significantly different based on treatments or due to overirrigaation and underirrigation totals within each season, but average turfgrass quality across seasons varied throughout the study period (Figure 3). None of the seasons were considered significantly different from the ratings completed prior to treatment initiation, averaging 6.4. The season with the lowest quality ratings, averaging 6.2, occurred during the winter 2011–2012 season when weather conditions were not ideal for a dark green, healthy looking stand. The highest quality ratings occurred during the summer 2012 season, averaging 7.6, when summer rainfall was high, resulting in improved turfgrass quality. Other unmeasured factors that could affect the quality of a turfgrass include fertilizer application, mowing practices, and irrigation system maintenance.

Conclusion This study is ongoing, with a commitment of data collection through December 2014. Thus, the results presented here are prelimi-

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

nary, with only a third of the data collected. However, strong trends exist as described. The results showed that the smart controller technologies were able to reduce irrigation application for customers with excess irrigation without sacrificing turfgrass quality. When evaluated as a whole, the educational training provided by UF-IFAS significantly reduced irrigation application within each technological group. All treatments applied more than the GIR lower limit (1*GIR), with only the SMS+Edu treatment applying less than the GIR upper limit (1.5*GIR), on average. When evaluated on a cumulative basis by general soil type, more irrigation occurred at the locations with the sandy soil than the locations with the flatwoods soil. This trend was expected due to the higher soil water holding capacity of the flatwoods soil. The comparison and ET groups applied more than the GIR range in both locations, whereas the SMS group overirrigated in only the flatwoods locations. For future implementation, it was apparent that education, including site-specific programming, was the key to efficient water use with a smart controller. Developing broad programs, such as rebates for smart controllers, may not be effective due to the lack of aneducational component and failure to target customers with excess irrigation. To achieve program success, it is recommended that

agencies enact procedures similar to those used in this study for targeting the population that can benefit from smart technologies and providing educational opportunities to them.

References • ASCE-EWRI, 2005. The ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation. Technical Committee Report to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers from the Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration. ASCE-EWRI, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400. • Cardenas-Lailhacar, B. and Dukes, M.D., 2012. Soil Moisture Sensor Landscape Irrigation Controllers: Multistudy Results and Future Implications. Transactions ASABE 55(2): 581-590. • CFCA, 2010. Central Florida Coordination Area (CFCA) Work Plan Phase II. Available at: _sets/60/CFCA_Work_Plan_Phase_II.pdf Accessed on May 16, 2011. • Davis, S. L., Dukes, M.D., and Miller, G.L., 2009. Landscape Irrigation by EvapotranspirationBased Irrigation Controllers Under Dry Conditions in Southwest Florida. Agricultural Water Management 96 (2009) 1828–1836.

Figure 3. Turfgrass quality ratings were taken seasonally based on a 1 to 9 scale where a 5 was considered minimally acceptable quality.

• Haley, M. B. and Dukes, M.D., 2012. ”Validation of Landscape Irrigation Reduction with Soil Moisture Sensor Irrigation Controllers.” J. Irrig. Drain Eng., 138(2), 135–144. • McCready, M. S., Dukes, M.D., and Miller, G.L., 2009. Water Conservation Potential of Smart Irrigation Controllers on St. Augustine Grass.

Agricultural Water Management 96(11):1623– 1632. • NCDC, 2010. Surface Data from 1980 to 2009. Available at: plclimprod/poemain.cdobystn?dataset=DS350 5&StnList=72205012815. Accessed on Sept. 9, 2012. 

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014




Integration of Applications for Mobile Devices Into Daily Utility Operations to Enhance Customer Communication and Convenience A Short History Many communities have adopted varying technology upgrades to enhance customer service over the past 10 to 15 years. The most obvious change was simply upgrading their customer information systems. The next step in enhancing customer service was through the creation of a website that increased customer access to the utility, which eliminated the need for reliance on the telephone to obtain information and created virtual 24/7 access. Websites evolved from relatively simple descriptions of the utility, processes for opening an account, and other perfunctory tasks, to the more evolved websites with embedded email addresses dedicated to the utility, or with a link to the utility from a municipal or district website, offering direct access to consumption information and providing payment options. Among the many benefits to customers was direct access to their account information where available, the ability to pay their bills online (again, where available), and the avoidance of making telephone calls for information that was conveniently and easily available online. The utility customer service world quickly moved online and continues to do so at a rapid rate. Much work remains to be done, especially where existing websites have limited functionality and information.

What is a Mobile App? The next and most obvious step in the evolution of enhancing customer convenience is the move to mobility. Why is mobility, in the form of a mobile application (or mobile app), important or even necessary when there is a website available? Simply put, websites are typically not configured to be viewed in their entirety or to function properly on any device other than a desktop or laptop computer. A mobile app is specifically designed to function on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet, and is sized to be viewed on smaller screens or displays. The essence of a mobile app is to take the information and functionality the utility currently makes available to its customers on its website and to reconfigure it to a more user-friendly visual and functional experience, specifically adapted for the mobile environment.

What Can a Mobile App Do? A mobile app is a potentially powerful tool, useful both to the customer and the utility. From

the utility’s perspective, the most basic function of a mobile app is to provide a mobile alternative to desktop and laptop access to information that is currently made available to customers on those devices. If, for example, a utility only presents current usage and current billing information—for policy, security, or other reasons—then the mobile app can be configured to only reflect this information on the mobile device. However, the mobile app can be configured to display as much information as is presently contained on the customer information database, the automated meter reading/advanced metering infrastructure (AMR/AMI) database, and virtually any other database the utility, municipality, or district maintains. A mobile app can become a vital supplement to reverse 911, email, telephone, door hanger, and other forms of customer communication that are currently employed. The mobile app can be configured to provide two-way communication with the customer. For example when a new bill is available, a “push notification,” if enabled by the customer, can be sent to the routes, cycles, or individual customers (for “off-cycle” bills), whose bills were emailed or sent out via the U.S. Mail that day. Reminder notices of impending due dates or service termination dates can be automatically sent to a mobile device through an app. In addition, boil water notices, service disruption notices, and notification of permissible or impermissible irrigation days can be sent to selected customers. Conservation messages and information that can assist customers in their water saving efforts can be sent out to all or selected customers, which can be especially important in drought-prone areas. These messages, as well as any commonly asked questions, can be in the form of videos, white papers, short text messages, or other formats supported by mobile devices. Also, how-to or self-help videos, such as how to read a meter, change a showerhead, or fix a toilet flapper valve that is leaking, can be cataloged and indexed for customers to browse or be pushed out to them upon request. These videos and messages can be automatically sent out when customers makes email inquiries about a subject (high consumption, for example) from their mobile app. Templates can be offered to assist customers in monitoring their consumption and allow for the creation of alerts (principally for customers who have AMR/AMI and access to daily consumption reports) when their consumption targets are approaching. Using global positioning system (GPS)

functionality and the camera built into most mobile devices, customers can take a picture of their meters when a meter reading’s accuracy is in question, or photograph a water line break, lift station alarm, or other utility or municipal event that would require the utility’s or municipality’s immediate attention. An important side effect of a mobile app is to move customers away from the telephone and walk-in offices, especially for commonly asked questions, and encourage remote interaction. This can eventually have a positive economic effect on staffing and work allocation at the utility. While traveling, customers can be advised of high usage, potential leaks, or pending service terminations. The more efforts are made to communicate these types of events, the less likely customers will dispute the utility’s actions.

Security Security is an issue for all utilities, municipalities, and districts, as well as for their information technology (IT) departments and directors. The mobile app can be configured to emulate, in every aspect, the present payment system and options, utilizing the same information storage source, third-party payment processing firms, and all other aspects of the existing security structure. The simple answer to any suggestion that the mobile app is not secure is that it will be as secure as the present security structure employed by the utility, municipality, or district.

Conclusion A mobile app can become a powerful and limitless informational and functional tool in one-way and two-way communication between a utility, district, or municipality, and its customers. Among its many other uses, a mobile app can enhance communication between a utility and its field employees as a supplement or alternative to handheld meter reading devices, permitting real-time access to important customer information while out on the job. A mobile app can also grow and be shared with the utility’s municipal or district owner, where the utility is a department or otherwise attached, for other municipal or district purposes, to such areas as animal control, code enforcement, public works, etc. With all the benefits they can provide to utilities—and their customers—the future of mobile apps is certainly bright.

Technology Spotlight is a paid feature sponsored by the advertisement on the facing page. The Journal and its publisher do not endorse any product that appears in this column. If you would like to have your technology featured, contact Mike Delaney at 352-241-6006 or at


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Team FWEA is “Moving the Chains” Greg Chomic President, FWEA elieve it or not, I started to write this column on Super Bowl Sunday, so please indulge my use of football metaphors throughout. I can’t help but think that leading a volunteer professional association like FWEA is in some ways like leading a professional football team. In preparing for the Super Bowl, a football coach does not focus his team on throwing a “Hail Mary” pass and scoring a touchdown on every play. Rather, after studying the game and strategizing, the coaching staff develops a game plan and then coaches its team to methodically execute that plan. In the end, it all boils down to making first downs, or in football jargon, to “moving the chains.” In essence this year we, the leadership of FWEA, have been “moving the chains” methodically ahead toward achieving our vision



of a clean water environment for Florida’s future generations. Let me explain how we have been “moving the chains” ahead for FWEA this past year.

Committee and Chapter Development On our first “drive” we recognized a need to strengthen FWEA internally through committee and chapter development. However, it is not like we have done nothing in this area of association management. In fact, we have had guest speakers present on effective committee leadership in past leadership development workshops, but it was obvious when one actually looked that we lacked a concise written explanation of what is expected of two of our most important leader groups: directors-at-large (DALs) and committee chairs. To address the situation, we adopted this year a new policy guideline entitled “Directorsat-Large and Committee Chair Roles and Responsibilities.” This guideline concisely lists—on a single page—the minimum responsibilities of a committee chair and the role that a DAL plays in mentoring committee chairs so

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

that they have the best chance to succeed. I am certain that this new policy is having a positive impact on the management of our association as I have observed several of our committee and chapter chairs actually implementing these guidelines since the adoption of the policy. The commitment shown by FWEA committee and chapter chairs to engage and energize our members in a variety of activities that support the FWEA mission is a first down for Team FWEA!

Student Chapter Support I think we all would agree that it is important to FWEA’s future to have active student chapters and encourage students to join WEF and FWEA and be active in our programs. It is clear from my own experience that student leaders often become future FWEA leaders. So, on our second offensive drive of the year, we recognized that we could be more consistent in our outreach to all eight of our student chapters around the state. We noticed that the most successful student Continued on page 16

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! APRIL 14-16........Backflow Repair ........................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 21-24........Backflow Tester ..........................................Deltona ................$375/405 21-24........Backflow Tester ..........................................Pensacola ............$375/405 21-25........Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....Orlando ..............$350/380 25........Backflow Tester Recert*** ........................Deltona ................$85/115

MAY 6........Backflow Recert..........................................Lady Lake ............$85/115 5-9........Wastewater Collection C, B ......................Deltona ................$325/355 12-15........Backflow Tester ..........................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 19-21........Backflow Repair ........................................Deltona ................$275/305 23........Backflow Tester Recert*** ........................Deltona ................$85/115

JUNE 2-5........Backflow Tester ..........................................Deltona ................$375/405 9-13........Water Distribution Level 3, 2 ..................Deltona ................$275/305 23-26........Backflow Tester ..........................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 27........Backflow Tester Recert*** ........................Deltona ................$85/115

JULY 8........Backflow Recert..........................................Lady Lake ............$85/115 7-11........Stormwater A..............................................Deltona ................$275/305 7-11 ......Water Distribution Level 1 ........................Deltona ................$275/305 7-11........Wastewater Collection A ..........................Deltona ................$275/305 14-16........Backflow Repair ........................................Deltona ................$275/305 14-16........Backflow Repair ........................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 25........Backflow Tester Recert*** ........................Deltona ................$85/115 Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continued from page 14 chapters were those that were actively supported by our volunteer professionals in a FWEA local chapter. For instance, the 2012 and 2013 FWEA Student Design Competition champions were both from the University of South Florida (USF). The USF wastewater design team also took first place in the 2013 WEF National Championship, while the USF environmental team took a close second place at the national level last year. So, recognizing the need to strengthen our student chapter outreach effort, we have encouraged our DALs and local chapter leaders to reach out early and often to our student chapter faculty advisors and leaders. We also developed a new statewide policy for a “WEF/FWEA Student and Faculty Advisor Membership Subsidy.” The intent of this policy is to encourage active student chapters. An “active” student chapter has an engaged faculty advisor, a WEF/FWEA-approved student chapter constitution, elected officers, and participates in the FWEA Student Design Competition. The guidelines call for the DAL or local chapter chair to reach out to their local student chapters early in the academic term to confirm “active” status and recruit new student members. We also asked that every local chapter that has one or more student chapters in its area include a $500 line item in its budget for each student chapter to fund student membership subsidies. The purpose of this policy is to have a student chapter outreach program that is uniform throughout the state and that gets FWEA, through our local chapters, engaged with the students early in each academic term. The support that our Student and Young Professionals (YP) Committee (Rebecca Oliva of CDM Smith


is chair) and our local chapter leaders give to our student chapters, as well as the support from our student chapter faculty advisors, benefits our student members by facilitating their integration into the water quality industry. This has resulted in the amazing domination of FWEA student members in the WEF National Student Design Competition and is another long first down for Team FWEA!

Seminar Series The new policies described address the FWEA strategic goal to maintain “a growing, well-managed association.” We have also “moved the chains” in another strategic goal area, which is “providing abundant opportunities for professional development that set the standard for excellence.” It is now an unwritten FWEA policy to always maintain an eighteen-month, forward looking schedule of FWEA seminars and workshops. This past year the following FWEA committees hosted successful seminars:  Wastewater Process (Jody Barksdale of Gresham Smith & Partners, chair)  Utilities Management (Joe Cheatham of the City of Tallahassee, acting chair)  Collection Systems (Rudy Fernandez of Parsons Brinckerhoff, chair)  Integrated Water Resources (Saurabh Srivastava of Parsons Brinckerhoff, chair) I am very grateful to these chairs and their committees for all their hard work in helping FWEA keep its strategic commitment to our members in the area of professional development, as well as providing a much needed revenue stream into our treasury! The

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

commitment of our volunteers who serve on technical committees and local-chapter steering committees, and spend hundreds of hours planning and hosting seminars and workshops for the professional growth of our members, is yet another first down for team FWEA!

Awards Another way that FWEA promotes professional development is through the FWEA awards program. It is a fundamental way that our association recognizes and rewards excellence in our industry. This year, we established two new awards. The first new award is called the “YP of the Year Award,” which recognizes outstanding efforts by a young professional in support of the FWEA mission by serving on any FWEA or chapter committee, and is intended to engage more YPs in association leadership. The award is administered by the Student and Young Professionals Committee. The winner gets an award presented at our annual meeting and a grant to attend the Water Environment Federation (WEF) YP Summit! The second new award is the “FWEA President’s Award.” This award recognizes corporations, municipal utility departments, universities, and state agencies that, among other things, support the FWEA vision and mission by encouraging and supporting their employees’ involvement in FWEA. This support includes reimbursement for membership dues, allowing time to perform FWEA work during business hours, sponsoring FWEA events, and supporting the Florida Water Resources Conference (FRWC) and the Florida Water Resources Journal. FWEA could not accomplish all that we do without the support of these organizations. This award is an expression of our appreciation for their support and that of their employees who serve as FWEA volunteers. We also found out very late last year that the committee that oversees our prestigious Earle B. Phelps Award had no chair! The call for a new chair was enthusiastically answered by Tina Nixon of Parsons Corporation. Tina, with the help and support of Jody Barksdale and the Wastewater Process Committee, took immediate control of the situation and quickly recruited 10 volunteers, and in less than half the time we normally take, issued the call for applications and received a record 23 for this award! You are cordially invited to attend the FWEA annual meeting and awards luncheon on April 8 at the FWRC to learn which water reclamation facilities have been selected Phelps Award winners as the top operating facilities in the State of Florida. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Kerstin Kenty of CH2M HILL, Awards Committee chair, and Jody and Tina for their willingness to take this challenge head-on and

quickly turn it into a success. These new awards and the outstanding volunteer and industry support of the FWEA awards program is another first down for team FWEA!

Communication and Website Development At the end of 2012 you may recall that our Strategic Planning Committee conducted a member survey. One of the results of the survey revealed that our members felt that we should improve our communication within the association. This year we have taken action to address your concerns. First, as I promised almost a year ago, I have visited every one of our local chapters (except the Big Bend and Southeast chapters), and during each visit spoke to the membership directly about upcoming FWEA events and activities. I have also encouraged my fellow board members to do the same. Second, if you go to the FWEA website today you will find that all of the committee webpages are current, and thanks to encouragement and guidance from Brian Houston of Leidos, some of our technical committees have even added to their webpage abstracts of, and links to, technical papers that have been published in this magazine. This will hopefully continue to be done every year in an effort to make our website an excellent source for technical and current-events information. Lastly, I am pleased to announce that, through the outstanding efforts of Vice President Raynetta Marshall, FWEA logo merchandise is now available on our website! Show your FWEA membership pride with the purchase of a new shirt, hat, or tote featuring an embroidered FWEA logo! These items are brought to us through our partner, Embroidery Solutions. Please visit the website to see the variety of quality merchandise that is now available to you. Thank you Brian and Raye, and thanks to everyone who contributed to these efforts to enhance communication and services to our members! That’s another first down for team FWEA!

festival in Tallahassee’s new, beautiful Cascade’s Water Park ( during the state legislative session! This festival will combine public education and legislative outreach in the same event—what a great idea! The work that Greg Kolb, the Public Communication and Outreach Committee (Julianne LaRock of South Florida Water Management District, chair), and especially our local chapter volunteers are doing to educate the public on the value of a clean water environment by growing the water festival program throughout the state is another long first down for FWEA!

In my first FWEA Focus column I announced that our motto would be FWEA ARE ENGAGED! and that it would be an overriding theme to promote at all times an active and engaged membership. I am very happy and grateful for the enthusiastic response from our committee and local chapter chairs, and from all our volunteers, to this call over the last year, and I look forward to continuing our work together after I hand over the gavel at our annual meeting on April 8 at the FWRC. Thank you very much for your support this year to me, the board of directors, and the members of FWEA! 

Florida Water Festival Expansion Another one of our strategic goals is to “promote water environment quality in Florida.” Towards this end, the Florida Water Festival that is hosted by the Central Florida Chapter continues to grow and improve, thanks to the leadership of Greg Kolb and Stacey Smich, both of CH2M HILL, and their army of volunteers. This year the West Coast Chapter’s Juan Oquendo (Gresham Smith and Partners) stepped up to lead his chapter’s first water festival at St. Petersburg’s Spa Beach Park on March 22. Next year, the Big Bend Chapter is planning to host its first Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014



2014 FWEA Safety Awards Program Winners Doug Prentiss Sr.

management department takes advantage of such cost-effective training. It would have been easy just to give the plant the award again, but alas, that’s not the way we do it at FWEA. Since the City of Boca Raton gets the Burke Award this year, someone else gets a chance at first place for the state safety award, and then next year, they will receive the national award for safety and training.

he 2014 FWEA Safety Award program measured the performance of wastewater treatment facilities during calendar year 2013. Safe work hours, lost-time accidents, training, and safety programs were used to select the winner in each category.


Boca Raton Treatment Plant Expansion (photo: Jeff Brown)

Two-Award Winner The City of Boca Raton Wastewater Treatment Plant The plant, in Boca Raton, was last year’s winner in Class A treatment plants, and this year will receive the Burke Award during the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) awards luncheon on Monday, April 7. Jeff Brown and crew submitted a great safety application again this year. The plant has safety committees and a wellness program, does community outreach and safety walkthroughs, and is involved with cooperative programs with

Florida Atlantic University. The plant is supported by a city safety officer and its employees worked about 40,000 safe hours in 2013. Risk Management The risk management department for the City of Boca Raton recently helped the plant by coordinating activities between their insurance carrier and the plant to improve the quality and availability of effective distance learning materials. Insurance carriers generally provide some type of loss prevention opportunities and a progressive risk

So Who Won This Year? A complete list of current winners is provided at the end of this article, but we start with the City of Vero Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant. The City of Vero Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant This plant is a part of the City of Vero Beach Water and Sewer Department. It is a Class A plant and Stephen Utter is the chief operator. The plant has a total of 11 workers who put in 22,800 accident-free hours during 2013, and they have been lost-time-free and accident-free since 1984. The plant is supported, much like Boca Raton, by a safety professional holding plant-specific safety activities and participating in citywide safety programs. Most of the plants submitting applications for safety awards receive support from other parts of their organizations. Many counties and cities have progressive risk management areas that reward operational areas for safety-program participation by funding or providing training for the plants. What enables the Vero Beach plant to be so successful is its coordinated approach to training. This organization will be awarded first place in Class A. Hands-On Training We all love distance learning because it disrupts operations to a much smaller degree, and does a perfect job of saying the same exact thing to everyone that views or listens to it. Seeing and hearing is good, but for many maintenance and service operations, hands-on training is what the majority of workers need and want. The City of Vero Beach Water and Sewer Department seem to have found that balance by certifying internal staff trainers and supplementing that with professional outside trainers to fill the gaps left by videos and PowerPoint presentations. This city’s risk management group supports and coordinates activities for the entire city. The risk management department simply Continued on page ??


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continued from page ?? tries to coordinate, facilitate, and make available those resources, which will help to reduce risks, save costs, and ultimately, prevent accidents. River Oaks Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in Tampa, this is a Class A plant operated by 10 employees who worked 20,800 hours during 2013. Average daily flows are 8.23 mil gal per day (mgd). This plant did not have any lost-time accidents in 2013. The safety program is operated by plant personnel and supported by both the Hillsborough County safety manager and public utilities management. Emergency response and hurricane preparedness are integral to the safety and training programs for this city. This organization will be awarded the second-place Class A FWEA Safety Award. Dale Mabry Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility Also located in Tampa, this facility is one of Hillsborough’s Class A plants. The official correspondent is Eileen Johnson and the organization uses a team approach to safety. Ten workers operate the plant and worked 17,720 safe hours in 2013 with no lost-time accidents. This organization will be awarded the thirdplace Class A FWEA Safety Award. Northeast Water Reclamation Facility Located in St. Petersburg, this Class A plant logged 31,373 safe hours of work in 2013. The plant has won many awards and this year is tied for third place in Class A with the Dale Mabry plant in Tampa. This plant uses a variety of safe work practices, including worker suggestions and priority safety work orders, and the latest methods of observational safety. Northwest Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility This facility in Tampa is another good example of the safety programs in place in Hillsborough County working with the plant to achieve a full year with no lost-time injuries. Paul Macchia is the official correspondent for the plant, which has 13 workers treating 5.7 mgd. Safety meetings happen on a regular basis and are supported by management and administration. This organization will be recognized for safety excellence by receiving the FWEA Top Ten Award, which recognizes those organizations that have outstanding safety programs and worker training. Southeast Pasco Sub Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility This Zephyr Hills facility had all the right stuff this year and was headed for an award when one slip on an aeration basin step resulted


in an injured knee and a lost-time accident, dropping it out of the running for a plaque this year. Pasco has been working hard for many years to provide the training and equipment its workers need to operate first-class treatment facilities; unfortunately, this year they won’t win in Class A, but John Fogg and the rest of the Pasco safety team can be proud of the efforts of the overall safety operation in 2013. One-third of all lost-time accidents in wastewater are the result of slip-and-fall accidents, and stairs, handrails, and lighting are all things that each of us as safety team members can work on. Climbing stairs, especially around aeration basins where airborne materials promote the growth of slime on stairs and walkways, will always be a battle. Preventative maintenance, nonskid surfaces, and clean work areas are the administrative things we can all do, but each individual must be constantly vigil for the slip hazards and fall potentials that are everywhere in our industry. This organization will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award.

Bonita Springs Utilities East Water Reclamation Facility The official correspondent for this facility is Cliff Morris. The entire utility has safety officers assigned to each facility, and division and monthly meetings are held to discuss safety. It conduct weekly meetings and short safety topics that are discussed. All employees are required to complete a training course monthly on a wide range of topics. This organization will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award.

The City of Pompano Beach Water Treatment Plant This facility is a Class A plant. Jerry Criscito is the City of Pompano Beach Utilities program coordinator. The plant uses outstanding approaches in its training, holds regular safety meetings, and even participates in industry-specific safety associations. Last year, Pompano Beach finished second and was poised to move into first place when one accident, one ruptured air line, changed not just an award, but a person’s life. Air pressure poses unique hazards, whether operating equipment powered by air or using it when supplied as part of personal protective equipment. Wastewater workers must be especially aware of their surroundings at all times and any source of energy that could pose a hazard to workers must be identified and controlled. This organization will receive a Top Ten Safety Award.

Camelot Water Reclamation Facility Located in Kissimmee, this facility’s official correspondent is Rick Vester. Toho Water Authority (TWA) employs a safety coordinator who plans and initiates the training of all department personnel. This organization will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award for its safe operations during calendar year 2013.

The City of Winter Garden Wastewater Treatment Facility 16 This Class A treatment plant is managed by Steve Santiago and chief Gary Skipper, and supported by a cast of four trained wastewater professionals. This organization will receive a Top Ten Safety Award.

City of Winter Garden Wastewater Treatment Facility 16 (photo: Steve Santiago)

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Bonita Springs Utilities East Water Reclamation Facility (photo: Cliff Morris)

The Town of Havana Wastewater Treatment Facility The official contact for this Quincy facility is Terry Presnal of CH2M HILL. This plant has consistently been a leader in safety and will receive the FWEA first-place Safety Award in its category at the FWEA awards luncheon on Tuesday April 8 at FWRC. The safety approach at this plant employs the use of project safety team leaders and is supported by both CH2M HILL and OMI safety programs. The result has been continuously safe and efficient operations for years. Congratulations to the staff of this facility. Live Oak Wastewater Treatment Plant This plant had a top-three safety award in its grasp for calendar year 2013, but it slipped away. (Actually, it slipped first and then it broke an arm, with a hard stop at the bottom of the fall.) Just as in the accident at Southeast Pasco, an award was lost. Stewart Duncan is the operations supervisor, and like the Town of Havana, has the support of an effective safety foundation in the name of CH2M HILL. These organizations know the importance of clear walkways and safe work areas, but we work in a dangerous environment. This organization will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award for its outstanding program and the ef-

fort expended in trying to provide a safe work environment for plant workers and the public we serve. The City of Ocala Water Reclamation Facility The safety application was submitted by Robert Bogosta. The City of Ocala Water Reclamation Facility will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award for its outstanding commitment to worker safety.

Ocala Biosolids Building (photo: Robert Bogosta)

Palm Bay Utilities Department - Troutman Wastewater Treatment Plant Dan C. Roberts is the official correspondent for the plant safety award application (PBUD). The Troutman Wastewater Treatment Plant finished in third place in its category. The employees take an active role in their safety efforts, gathering monthly for Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) Committee meetings. The committee is comprised of employees appointed from each plant section, including one primary and one alternate representative. This committee works together to identify and implement safety-related improvements for the utilities department. Topics for the monthly meeting are established by the annual safety plan. Material for toolbox talks supporting the monthly topic are developed by PBUD’s certified occupational safety specialists (COSS) and are provided to supervisory staff through a biweekly publication. Employees are encouraged to bring any concerns they have to their safety committee representative so the issues may be discussed at the next meeting. The committee also provided guidance and further development of the city’s safety committee, which is led by Palm Bay’s risk manager and human resources department. The committee also meets monthly and provides a comprehensive approach to safety concerns for the Continued on page ??

(photos: Dan Roberts) Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continued from page ?? City’s 12 departments, offering clear communications and solutions for common issues. Palm Coast Wastewater Treatment Facility The official correspondent is Tipo Toomalatai. This organization will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award for its well-organized and executed safety program, which resulted in no lost-time accidents of any type in calendar year 2013. Congratulations to the managers and staff at Palm Coast for another good year. Land O Lakes Wastewater Treatment Plant The safety training program consists of a wide range of industry-related subjects, including first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defensive driving, and bloodborne pathogens. Each week there are tailgate meetings to discuss potential hazards at the plant and how to best address them. Additionally, there are tailgate safety meetings on any project startup or rehabilitation to discuss safety hazards. This organization will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award for an outstanding year working over 12,000 hours without a lost-time injury. Congratulations to each of these operators.

was the second-place winner last year, but got muscled out this year by so many of the bigger plants in Class A. Sandhill is still doing the same good job with no lost-time accidents thanks to a good staff of operators and maintenance workers. Sandhill relies on the support of TWA, which employs a safety coordinator who plans and initiates the training of all the department personnel. This organization will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award for its safe operations during calendar year 2013. Seminole Tribe of Florida Hollywood Wastewater Treatment Plant The official correspondent for the plant is John Holdman. The Seminole Tribe of Florida Hollywood WWTP safety program for 2013 was made up of approximately twenty training sessions conducted during its weekly/biweekly staff meetings. Each session was at least 30 minutes in length and included a plant walkthrough and material safety data sheet (MSDS) review, if applicable. This brought the in-house safety training total to approximately 600 hours for the year.

third-place FWEA Safety Award in its category. Considering the construction that went on during 2013, the plant did an outstanding job last year and will receive a 2014 Safety Award at the FWEA awards luncheon at FWRC. Northeast Wastewater Treatment Facility The official correspondent for the Davenport facility is Chuck Nichols. This plant is supported by a complete safety, health, and risk management section of Polk County Utilities. The plant is well operated and maintained and reflects the pride the operators and maintenance staff have in keeping the plant clean and well-organized. This plant will receive the FWEA second-place Safety Award for its classification. Congratulations to the plant and to Polk County Utilities for its support of plant operations.

Northeast Wastewater Treatment Facility

2014 Safety Program Award Winners

Land O Lakes Wastewater Treatment Plant Employees (photo: Gary Timchuck)

Quincy Wastewater Treatment Facility Terry Presnal from CH2M HILL is the official correspondent for this facility. Quincy had a great 2013 and will receive a FWEA Top Ten Safety Award in recognition of another year free of lost-time accidents. Congratulations to the operations staff at the plant. Sandhill Water Reclamation Facility Jacqueline Froste is the official correspondent for the Kissimmee plant. This plant

Toho Water Authority (photo from Jacqueline Froste)


Seminole Tribe of Florida Hollywood Wastewater Treatment Plant (photo: John Holdman)

Three Oaks Wastewater Treatment Plant The plant is part of Lee County Utilities and is located in Fort Myers. Jerry A. Johnson is the lead operator and official correspondent. This plant was last year’s first-place winner in Class B, and they have only gotten better. The Three Oaks WWTP is the first-place winner in its class for it efforts in calendar year 2013, and the 2014 FWEA Safety Award winner for Class B. Congratulations to all the staff and management of the plant, and to the risk management section of Lee County, for providing a solid safety foundation. Van Dyke Wastewater Treatment Plant This Hillsborough County plant has Luke Armstrong as its official correspondent. The plant safety program is supported by the Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department, which has developed a comprehensive safety program that is tailored to the needs of the individual employee. The department has reviewed the safety needs of each position and employees are scheduled for training based on this evaluation. This plant will receive the

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Class A, First Place • City of Vero Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant 17 – 17th St. Vero Beach, FL 32960 Stephen Utter, Class A, Second Place • River Oaks Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant 8425 Sheldon Rd. Tampa, FL33615 Luke Armstrong, ArmstrongL@HillsboroughCounty.ORG Class A, Third Place (Tie) • Dale Mabry Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility 925 East Twiggs St. Tampa, FL 33602 Eileen Johnson, Class A, Third Place (Tie) • Northeast Water Reclamation Facility 1165 3rd Ave. North St. Petersburg, FL Janet DeBiasio,

Class B, First Place • Three Oaks Wastewater Treatment Facility, Lee County Utilities 1500 Monroe St. Fort Myers, FL 33902 Jerry A. Johnson, Class B, Second Place • Northeast Wastewater Treatment Facility 200 Westview Rd. Davenport, FL 33837 Chuck Nichols, Class B, Third Place • Palm Bay Utilities Department – Troutman Utilities Wastewater Treatment Plant 1105 Clearmont St., N.E. Palm Bay, FL 32905 Dan Roberts, Class C, First Place • Town of Havana Wastewater Treatment Facility 300 North GF&A Dr. Quincy, FL 32333 Terry Presnal, Class C, Second Place • Seminole Tribe of Florida Hollywood Wastewater Treatment Plant 2600 N. 64th Ave. Hollywood, FL 33024 John Holdman,

• Northwest Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility 11005 Dale Stitik Rd. Tampa, FL 33626 Paul Macchia, cell: 813-924-8016

• City of Pompano Beach Water Treatment Plant 1205 N.E. 5th Ave. Pompano Beach, FL 33060 Jerry Criscito,

• City of Ocala - Water Reclamation Facility # 3 3100 S.W. 67th Ave. Ocala, FL 34470 Bob Bogosta,

• Quincy Wastewater Treatment Facility 300 North GF&A Dr. Quincy, FL 32351 Terry Presnal,

• Palm Coast Wastewater Treatment Facility 2 Utility Dr. Palm Coast, FL 32137 Main number: 386-986-2346

• Sandhill Water Reclamation Facility 8200 Sandhill Rd. Kissimmee, FL 34747 Jacqueline Froste, • 3 Camelot Water Reclamation Facility 5400 Camelot Country Way Kissimmee, FL 34746 Rick Vester,

• Land O Lakes Wastewater Treatment Plant - Pasco 6003 Parkway Blvd. Land O Lakes, FL 34639 Gary Timchuck,

• Live Oak Wastewater Treatment Plant Stewart Duncan,

• Southeast Pasco Subregional Wastewater Treatment Facility 6039 Handcart Rd. Zephyrhills, FL 33544 John E. Fogg,

Doug Prentiss is president of DPI, providing a wide range of safety services throughout Florida. He also serves as chair of the Florida Water Environment Association Safety Committee. 

Class C ,Third Place • Van Dyke Wastewater Treatment Plant 19140 Ramblewood Rd. Odessa, FL 33556 Luke Armstrong, ArmstrongL@HillsboroughCounty.ORG

2014 Top Ten Awards • City of Winter Garden Wastewater Treatment Facility 101 Crest Ave. Winter Garden, FL 34787 Steve Santiago, • Sandhill Water Reclamation Facility 8200 Sandhill Rd. Kissimmee, FL 34747 Jacqueline Froste, • Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. – East Water Reclamation Facility 11550 Operations Way Bonita Springs, FL 34135 Cliff Morris,

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014



Florida Automated Water Conservation Estimation Tool Overview Max A. Castaneda, Andrew Mason, and Virginia Geursen he St. Johns River Water Management District’s Florida Automated Water Conservation Estimation Tool (FAWCET) was developed to estimate the amount of water conservation potential in the 18county district (Castaneda, Blush; Florida Water Resources Journal, 2011 and 2012). The tool uses account-level water use data provided through collaboration with other utilities and provides a standardized county appraiser geodatabase and census data to disaggregate and analyze water use by parcel. By joining three data sets and making basic assumptions regarding use and existing fixtures (baseline), FAWCET captures the potential for reducing demand through the use of replacement fixtures and more efficient best management practices (BMPs).


The goal is to produce estimates for the District’s water supply plans from a planning region level and to develop implementable utility-level water conservation plans. The FAWCET development consists of a data development component and a model development component; together, these two components support four important initiatives for the District: the North Florida Regional Water Supply Partnership, the Central Florida Water Initiative (CFWI), the development of minimum flows and levels prevention, and recovery strategies for District springs. The FAWCET is used to identify water conservation/demand management projects that will enhance existing plans for alternative and traditional water supply projects. The FAWCET data component will be used to de-

Max A. Castaneda is a water conservation policy analyst in the division of regulatory, engineering, and environmental services at St. Johns River Water Management District in Palatka. Andrew Mason, Ph.D., is president of the Operations Research Society of New Zealand in Auckland. Virginia Geursen is a student in the department of engineering science at the University of Auckland in New Zealand.

velop water use estimates by parcel for calculating recharge in the District groundwater modeling efforts. The tool has been used internally as a conservation goal setting and program planning tool. With a few adjustments, FAWCET has the potential to be used, not only for water conservation, but also as a water supply project optimization and water quality program and project planning tool. The model component is a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel, which has been converted into PuLP/Python, which is an open-source, linear programming language, with the goal of compatibility on a variety of machines and the capability to run millions of accounts. For the purposes of this article, the tool’s logic will be described using the Microsoft Excel/SolverStudio version. The details regarding the model component will be covered after the data development component.

Data Development

Figure 1. A heat map of Mt. Dora indoor water use is developed by assuming the indoor base use is the same as the minimum-month use. This is usually a December or January winter-use volume.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The FAWCET uses three separate databases available in Florida, including a standardized county appraiser database funded by all five of the state’s water management districts. The data set contains a physical address field and dimensions of the building and property used by FAWCET to estimate existing fixtures. The Department of Revenue (DOR) code is used to standardize the land use across a wide variety of utilities in Florida. Limited census information, such as household population, is used to determine gal per capita per day (gpcd) at a census-block level. Once the databases have been joined, the utilContinurd on page 26

Continurd from page 24 ity billing information provides a range of fields useful to the utility and FAWCET. The most useful field for FAWCET is the monthly consumption field, which is further processed by the District to separate hose irrigators from inground irrigators. The minimum-month method is used to determine the base use and represents a household’s indoor

use. This is the lowest use, or minimummonth use, throughout a typical year (usually December or January). If the difference between the minimum-month and the peakmonth (that month with the highest consumption, which is usually April or May) is greater than 10 thousand gal, that household is determined to be an inground irrigator. This method was previously determined (Jones Ed-

Figure 2. The Department of Revenue codes can be used to disaggregate data and show their proportions in number or by water use. Sector water use proportion can be shown over time, allowing for hindcasting and forecasting calibrated use.

Figure 3. The FAWCET can determine the split between outdoor and indoor use. The percentage split in the District is 70/30, while it is 30/70 in the Florida Keys.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

munds, 2010) and has been continually confirmed to be a reliable method for determining inground irrigators through the comparison of separately metered data. The process of separating indoor use from outdoor use is instrumental in developing parcel-level water use geodatabase heat maps (see Figure 1). The DOR code allows FAWCET to disaggregate account-level parcels and its water use to a greater degree than the rate category used by utilities; however, the rate category provided by a utility can be preserved as part of the data-joining process. A percentage of accounts by DOR code provide a disaggregated view of the amount (the customer makeup) of DOR code types. Most utilities serve a unique mix of sectors. The DOR water use by type is represented proportionally, along with the newly developed outdoor use (see Figure 2). The build date allows water use to be represented proportionally for purposes of hindcasting or forecasting. When forecasted, FAWCET uses traditional gpcd methods of determining water use projections to calibrate the resulting water use, such as monthly operating reports (MOR) combined with Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR) population projections. The FAWCET data can be used to answer the burning question of interest to utilities and water planners: What percentage of my service system’s use is outdoor use? The FAWCET data leverages either separate metered data or estimated inground irrigators to determine the percentage of water use between indoor and outdoor use. This number is 70 percent outdoor versus 30 percent indoor within the District according to District-provided data (see Figure 3). In other areas outside of the District, that proportion may be reversed, as in the Florida Keys. The FAWCET relies on a benchmark approach to estimate water use, previous to the development of the current data sets used. This approach utilizes results from national studies that associated square footage of a building or lot with a use per sq ft to determine indoor and outdoor use, respectively. This step was taken early in the creation of FAWCET in order to demonstrate the approach for developing FAWCET to the District’s utility partners. Since then, the District has found actual volumes to be more effective for estimating water use. Actual water use can then be used to develop proxy data. This approach is borrowed from the electric utility industry. The FAWCET data represents residential water use as a percentage of customers (the y axis) at each level of consumption (the x axis) using the load profile for several utilities (see Figure 4). Load profiles and weighted average Continurd on page 28

Continurd from page 26 load profiles are determined for separate indoor and outdoor residential uses. The percentage of billed, low, average, and high customers is information water utility directors keep in their back pocket. Through a simple interview, one could build a distribution scenario on a paper napkin over breakfast from the knowledge of a utility director’s residential customers. Utility director’s vast knowledge of their systems is precisely why the District partnered with them to develop FAWCET. While it is conceivable that a decent estimate can be derived through the knowledge of a water system director, the District takes a more quantitative approach by deriving a weighted average distribution from account-level utility data provided by up to 26 utilities in the District. The load profile is a distribution of the percentage of residential customers at each level of consumption. The load profile is instrumental for developing high-level water conservation estimates, while actual account-level data is preferred for the development of implementation plans. Benchmark-derived water use estimates are not typically developed by utilities, while water volumes are routinely developed from meter readings in order to bill each customer. Therefore, results from the data and modeling components of FAWCET are represented as volumes, which can then be targeted by utilities. With the added step of separating indoor from outdoor use, using the minimum-month method, average monthly indoor and outdoor water use totals can be calculated by the utility. In the absence of actual data, FAWCET continues to rely on benchmark-derived data for estimating commercial, industrial, and institutional (CII) uses, but the CII cannot be

represented by load profiles for lack of a large number of data points. While the previous benchmark approach the District used tended to target large homes and large lots, the new approach targets the distribution of high and moderately high water users, regardless of home size or the year of construction. The load profile approach for the development of residential monthly data represents an improvement on the previous residential benchmark approach, while similar improvements are developed in CII. The improvement in CII parcel-level water use estimates will likely come from relating residential development to CII development, excluding industrial. Due to very large variations, FAWCET does not try to estimate outdoor use for CII or multifamily units and makes no attempt to capture process water uses. The CII benchmark data used by FAWCET consider only the indoor domestic uses within the building. Most of these uncalculated uses are accounted for in the calibration process and represent a minute fraction of use. The FAWCET can only be as good as the data and the assumptions on which it depends. It’s with this idea in mind that work continues in earnest to continuously refine the FAWCET data sets. The development of benchmark-derived data sets is by no means a new science. There have been many studies developed through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Water Research Foundation, particularly work involving the measurement of wastewater and meter flows and CII water use by various analytical means. Many of these approaches, particularly for CII, are described in the Handbook on Water Use and Conservation (Amy Vickers, 2001). This work continues to be developed

Figure 4. The process for developing a weighted average water use profile for utilities, in cases where no actual account-level data has been provided.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

through the use of business data and economic information, relating the number of employees, bed days (in the case of hospital use) and occupancy rates (in hotels), to water use where appropriate. Where actual data is not available for CII, FAWCET depends on benchmark studies developed previously and improved through District utility-data calibrations. The benchmarks are multiplied to the square footage of the heated areas of the building, by DOR code. As actual CII data is accumulated, the benchmarks continue to be refined and generalized across the District, and can be regionalized when needed. District staff has developed large geodatabases using the load profiles for residential and benchmark approaches for CII; this allows FAWCET to be used outside of the District boundary (see Figure 5). In cases where the state does not have a standardized county appraiser data base, such as Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, geodatabase development methods have been modified to rely more on census and national land use data sources. The result of using these approaches is a generalized heat map of separately-derived indoor and outdoor water use. The data set used is residential, monthly indoor and outdoor water use by parcel, from January 2000 to December 2012 (see Figure 6). The process is unprecedented by its geographic scope. It represents a first step in characterizing a range of water use volumes and their seasonality. Continurd on page 30

Figure 5. The FAWCET water use by parcel geodatabase has been developed using load profiles and benchmarks (where available). Census information and the national land cover database are used where needed and consist of four states in whole or in part.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continurd from page 28

Linear Programming Tool The District used linear programming techniques to create FAWCET, which estimates the potential for water savings throughout the District by demonstrating the impact of implementing BMPs. This involves upgrading indoor and outdoor fixtures to more efficient ones and conducting audits on high-water-use accounts (Castaneda, Blush; 2012). Originally designed to optimize water savings for a given budget, FAWCET can now maximize energy savings and calculate the benefit—cost ratio (BCR) from the perspective of the utility and any project contributors, among many other options. Each individual residential and CII account is classified into one of five different building usage types: single-family, multifam-

ily, industrial, institutional, and commercial. The model uses either real data or the randomly assigned weighted average load profile data, square footage, DOR code, and the age of the building to estimate the indoor and outdoor water usage for each account. The indoor water consumption is proportional to the number of fixtures that consume water, such as toilets, washing machines, and kitchen faucets. The outdoor usage indicates the type of irrigation system present in the account; for example, whether there is an inground irrigation system or if a hose is used (Castaneda, Blush; 2012). The optimization identifies the fixtures that need upgrading, potential water savings, and the cost of implementing these changes, including estimates of the potential savings to water, wastewater, and energy bills. Incentives are also calculated and viewed from the per-

spective of the utility, the District, or any other contributors to the development of a water conservation program, such as an energy company. The FAWCET relies heavily on reasonable assumptions regarding account use and base conditions before applying a separate set of reasonable assumptions for replacement BMPs and all of the accompanying costs and benefits.

Accounts The FAWCET focuses mainly on highwater-usage accounts in the District, which are classified into the five building usage types. Once the type of site is identified through the DOR code, FAWCET determines what proportion of water consumption (indoor or outdoor) is used in an average month. This allows the right type of fixture upgrades to be associated with each account, beginning with single-family, which is the largest water consuming group.

Single-Family Methodology

Figure 6. A neighborhood-level view of water use distributed randomly. This provides a conceptual idea of the use and captures the distribution of the data, which is then input into FAWCET for processing. A sample of any of the residential data should produce a similar weighted average distribution developed through the use of 16 or more utilities.

Figure 7. Classification of fixture efficiencies by build-out condition (Castaneda, Blush; 2012).


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

A single-family account represents a free standing residential building. The water consumption data collected for these accounts is used to estimate indoor and outdoor water consumption. The amount of water expended outdoors is determined by subtracting the minimum month of consumption from the peak month of consumption. The indoor water consumption is proportioned into the amount of water consumed by each water-related fixture, allowing for greater focus on specific indoor fixtures, while outside, the focus is on upgrading or properly maintaining the entire irrigation system. This separation into percentage of end-use volumes allows end-use strategies to become more focused (Castaneda, Blush; 2011). The single-family category requires extra processing to separate indoor from outdoor use, while multifamily use (due to large variations in outdoor use) are not considered by FAWCET to be substantial irrigators.

Multifamily Methodology Multifamily buildings, such as apartments, townhouses, and condominiums, are used to house typically more than four families. The water conservation potential for these buildings is separated into single units. This is difficult as not all accounts are individually metered. An average consumption for each unit is defined for multiple families that use a single master meter. This is determined by dividing the total water volume by the number Continurd on page 32

Continurd from page 30 of units in the building. The number of fixtures in each unit is then established. The number of a type of fixture (e.g., toilets) a unit contains is estimated by considering how many fixtures there would be per sq ft of building area. All multifamily dwellings and CII are classified as nonirrigators (Castaneda, Blush; 2011).

Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Methodology The water consumption for these categories varies too much by customer class, and in some cases, process; therefore, FAWCET’s main focus is on indoor use by employees and indoor fixtures such as toilets, urinals, kitchen faucets, etc. These customer classes are considered to be nonirrigators until further studies can determine a consistent amount. As with single-family and multifamily buildings, the water used by each end use is estimated as a percentage of the total water consumption (Castaneda, Blush; 2011). The FAWCET database includes the year the building was built and is used to determine each building’s current fixture efficiency

Account Fixture Efficiencies The efficiency of fixtures in an account is dependent on the year in which a structure was built. This is due to original fixtures in a property required to be built in accordance with federal water efficiency plumbing code standards. The data are broken out into four different categories, which are defined in Figure 7. This information, combined with the useful life and assumed flow rates according to the plumbing standard, allows for a reasonable estimation of base conditions. The useful life of fixtures is used to make a reasonable and conservative estimation of fixture upgrades or passive replacement due to remodeling.

Fixture Upgrades The objective of the model is to assign more efficient fixtures or management strategies to each account’s current conditions in order to maximize water savings given a fixed budget. The strategies relating to indoor water savings are very different from those for outdoor conservation. While indoor water-saving strategies depend on building age and involve replacing particular fixtures (such as toilets and shower heads) with more efficient versions, outdoor approaches are more generally focused on waterwise landscaping and more efficient irrigation systems (Castaneda, Blush; 2011).


Building Age The building category and age of a property is used to estimate the original efficiencies of its fixtures. As fixtures reach the end of their useful life and are replaced over time on the property due to remodeling, wearing out, and malfunctions, the passive replacement of fixtures is determined. This is achieved by dividing the difference between the current year and the year the property was built by each device’s life (Castaneda, Blush; 2012). This process is a very conservative approach in that it assumes all BMPs are replaced at the end of their useful life. An adjustment to this conservative approach is being developed by the District through the development of a survey of a representative sample of disaggregated sector characteristics. The results will be incorporated into FAWCET in order to establish reasonable ranges to adjustable assumptions in the tool, including the passive replacement or indoor upgrades of fixtures.

Indoor Upgrades Nine indoor fixture upgrades are identified as more efficient options: low-flowvolume shower heads, high-efficiency shower heads, low-flow faucets, ultra-low-flush toilets, high-efficiency toilets, high-efficiency clothes washers, high-efficiency dishwashers, ultralow-flow urinals, and high-efficiency urinals. The tool allows for toggling on and off of fixture replacement options. The option to add new BMPs for replacement is included and can be used if the savings rates and costs, as well as the impact to the correct use proportions, are known, or can be reasonably estimated. The upgrades are defined here. Low-Flow-Volume Shower Head Replacement This strategy involves replacing existing shower heads with low-flow-volume models. These shower heads allow less than 2.5 gal per min (gpm) to flow through the head. The shower heads cost $35 to implement, including installation, and have a device life of 15 years. The percentage of existing low-flowvolume shower heads for each building-age category varies by utility and sector makeup. Houses older than 1984, known as BO1, are likely to have a greater number of lowflow-volume shower heads compared with BO2, the designation for houses built between 1985 and 1993, as there would have been replacements due to bathroom renovations or fixture wear-out. All houses built after 1994 to the present day were estimated to have lowflow-volume shower heads installed because of the change in plumbing codes. It was esti-

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

mated that the water savings generated from converting a shower head to a low-flowvolume shower head would be 3.9 percent. The FAWCET allows for options among several types of BMPs; in this case, low-flow and high-efficiency showerheads. (Castaneda, 2012). High-Efficiency Shower Head Replacement This strategy involves replacing the current shower heads with high-efficiency fixtures, which have a flow rate of less than 1.5 gpm. This type of strategy is relatively inexpensive, with heads costing around $40, including installation. These upgrades have an expected life of around 15 years. The number of available program replacements is unique to each utility’s housing stock and the useful life of each BMP (Castaneda, 2012). Low-Flow Faucet Aerator Replacement This approach involves replacing kitchen and bathroom faucets with low-flow ones. Kitchen faucets are replaced with 2.20 gpm models, while bathroom faucets would be upgraded to 1 gpm. The savings for these replacement faucets are assumed to be split proportionally between the bathroom and kitchen. Although the total water savings is typically low, this approach is cost-effective (about $15 per fixture upgrade) and can be very competitive due to the energy savings also gained. Ultra-Low Flush Toilet Replacement This ultra-low flush BMP replaces the current high-flow toilets with ultra-low models, which use 1.6 gal per flush (gpf). These toilets cost around $300 each to replace and last around 40 years. Current plumbing standards require ultra-low flush toilets to be installed in new buildings. This is another case where FAWCET allows for the consideration of fixture options. High-Efficiency Toilet Replacement This approach involves replacing current toilets with those that are high-efficiency. These toilets have a dual-flush system that allows 0.8 gpf for urine and 1.2 gpf otherwise. This system has a total cost of $400 per implementation. It is assumed that all current toilets are either ultra-low-flush or are less efficient models. While the preceding fixtures, including toilets, are considered to be relatively low-cost, there are a few other BMPs, which at first glance, seem to be very costly. High-Efficiency Clothes Washer Replacement This strategy requires replacing inefficient washing machines with high-efficiency wash-

ers (27 gal per load). The problem with this type of upgrade is that residents may take the washing machine with them when they leave, especially as these represent a high cost to the customer ($850 per machine). If residents take their clothes washers with them, it makes it more difficult to estimate the percentages of buildings that have high-efficiency models. Nevertheless, where water volumes are present in a residential setting, it is assumed that there is a functioning clothes washer and it is using a fairly high proportion of water, compared to a dishwasher. High-Efficiency Dishwashers This strategy replaces existing dishwashers with more efficient versions (4.5 gal per load). The water savings are very low compared with the cost of implementation, which at $850, makes this strategy less favorable when energy savings is not a consideration. The percentage of existing high-efficiency dishwashers across all building ages was zero; this was because it was assumed that all dishwasher passive replacements have occurred with 7-gal-per-load models. High-Efficiency Urinal Replacement Program The urinal replacement program replaces inefficient urinals with high-efficiency fixtures (0.5 gpf). This approach would cost $450 per installation in CII categories. Passive replacements or existing upgrades for high-efficiency urinals are assumed to be zero. The exact estimation of percentage of water savings varies with each account (Castaneda, 2012). This is another case where a choice between two options is considered.

Waterless Urinal Replacement Program The waterless urinal program replaces inefficient urinals in CII categories with waterless ones. Waterless urinals require no water supply plumbing or flushing. It is assumed that there have been no existing upgrades of this type of fixture at present and the percentage of water conservation savings varies with each account. The cost of implementation, at $625, is greater than that of high-efficiency urinals (Castaneda, 2012). The water urinal is the last on the list of options for indoor use; however, as mentioned previously, additional options can be added for both indoor and outdoor BMPs. Waterless urinals have been criticized for urea buildup, which can occur with a reactive or deferred maintenance schedule. The FAWCET assumes the proper installation of the units and that proactive maintenance schedules, which include occasional flushing, are in place.

Outdoor Best Management Practices Outdoor upgrades focus on improving the entire irrigation system, rather than specific fixtures, as with the indoor upgrades. The six different options—operation-based residential irrigation audit, repair-based residential irrigation audit, design-based residential irrigation audit, soil moisture sensors, advanced evapotranspiration (ET) irrigation controllers, and Waterwise Florida Landscape—are described. Operation-Based Residential Irrigation Audit This approach identifies the most common and simplest problems linked to residential irrigation systems, which include vegetation blocking the sprinkler stream, water overflowing onto pavement, frequency of use, and length of time irrigation is used on the property. The audits would be required to be conducted frequently over the years to maintain an efficient irrigation system. This approach would cost around $150 for the first year and $75 for subsequent years, assuming the system is in relatively good condition and does not need major repairs. Repair-Based Residential Irrigation Audit The objective of this BMP is to identify maintenance problems related to residential irrigation, such as leaks and broken valves, and selecting the correct type of sprinklers for an area. In order to maintain an efficient system, the audits would need to be maintained over several years. The cost of employing this approach is $250 for the first year and $100 for subsequent years. This BMP assumes the system is designed properly. Design-Based Residential Irrigation Audit This audit focuses on the design of residential irrigation systems, including the efficient irrigation of the landscape, soil moisture sensors, and fixing poor overlap of sprinklers. To ensure that an efficient system is maintained, the audit is required to be conducted every two years; this results in an initial cost of $500 in the first year and $100 every subsequent year. Soil Moisture Sensors This approach requires soil moisture sensors to be installed in residential properties to shut off the irrigation system, depending on the soil moisture. This strategy costs $300 and is only implemented if design- and repairbased audits are in place. It is assumed that there are currently no existing soil moisture sensors in place in residential categories.

Figure 8. Identifiers used to identify each possible fixture upgrade (BMP) f=1, 2, …, 16 considered by the model. Fixture upgrades 1-10 are upgrades to indoor fixtures, while fixture upgrades 11-16 all address outdoor irrigation systems.

Advanced Evapotranspiration Irrigation Controllers The advanced ET irrigation controller requires installment of signal-based sensors that automatically control the irrigation system based on the needs of the landscape. This strategy would cost around $400 per implementation. It employs signal technology from a weather-based network or a local or onpremises weather station to provide feedback regarding current conditions to adjust the irrigation system. Waterwise Florida Landscape This program requires the replacement of existing landscaping with plants that are more suited to the Florida environment and hydrology. It aims to eliminate water consumption for irrigation by reducing the size of the irrigation system and/or the flow rate by reducing the percentage of turf with mulched beds and a variety of native and non-native plants, stressing Florida’s “right plant, right place” concept. This strategy costs around $2,000 and requires a “watering in” period; however, no further watering is required after this stage.

Other Global Best Management Practices In addition to the BMPs already mentioned, there are several other methods incorporated into the modeling process. Ordinances adopting higher-efficiency standards take the existing federal, state, and local requirements into consideration and ratchets up the standard. The modifications to land development Continurd on page 34

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continurd from page 33 regulations accomplishes a similar goal, but restricts its application to the development community, or in some cases, the real estate community. An example of a modification applied to a real estate community would be to require any property changing hands to replace all existing inefficient fixtures with ones with the latest standards of efficiency (Water Star℠ or WaterSense, for example). The costs associated with these types of policy changes are typically administrative and involve the time it takes for administrators working with legal staff, the impacted community, and stakeholders to vet proposed policy changes, finalize language, and communicate the intention to pass the new legislation. The costs per parcel are minute in comparison (about $3 per parcel) and therefore are very competitive.

FAWCET Models The original model was developed using the OpenSolver ( optimizer (Mason, 2012), an open-source add-in for Microsoft Excel that allows the user to solve linear and integer programming models with large numbers of decision variables. (The alternative solver add-in bundled with Excel restricts the user to no more than 200 decision variables.) In the original model, the fixture counts and water uses by parcel were combined into groups by DOR code, as well as fixture counts and water use volumes (Castaneda, Blush; 2011). The new model considers each parcel individually and results in many more decision variables to be processed. When using the new account-by-account model, the OpenSolver model formulation took too long to solve the optimization model. To remedy this, the model was redeveloped using the Python-based modelling language PuLP (Mitchell et al, 2011) and embedded in Excel using the SolverStudio (, which is a free Excel add-in that makes optimization modelling languages such as PuLP available in a spreadsheet (Mason, 2012). Moving to SolverStudio allowed the time required to solve the optimization models to be significantly reduced. The SolverStudio version of FAWCET contains three separate tabs: the first tab defines the assumptions made such as the budget available; the second includes the linear program; and the third summarizes the results of the optimization. An additional tab is used for determining the passive replacement rates and assumes conservatively that all fixtures that have reached the end of their useful lives according to the manufacturer have been replaced.


Formal Definition of the Optimization Model Given n parcels and m types of fixture upgrades that can be performed at each parcel, the optimization model determines for each parcel p, p=1, 2, …, n, the number xp,f of fixture upgrades of type f that should be made at parcel p to maximize the total water savings across the District while satisfying a budget requirement. This maximization is also constrained by the number of fixtures of each type available for upgrading at each parcel. The equations used to define the model use the numbering of the m=16 types of fixture upgrades are given in Figure 8.

Objective Function The objective of the linear program (equation 1) aims to maximize the sum of the savings made over the fixture upgrades made at the parcels. Each parcel represents all the information for an account. (1) The objective of the linear program (equation 1) is to maximize the sum of the savings obtained from the number of upgrades of each fixture for each parcel, sp,f where the savings are generated by upgrading one fixture of type f at parcel p, and xp,f is the integer number of such upgrades to be made. This objective function is maximized subject to the savings, cost, and fixture constraints described.

Constraints The first constraint ensures that the total amount spent on upgrades is within some budget limit cmax, where each fixture upgrade of type f at parcel p costs cp,f: (2) The savings constraint described (equation 2) ensures that the total water savings are greater than the minimum water conservation requirements for the District. Equation 2 is redundant since the objective is to maximize the water savings, and therefore, will satisfy this constraint; however, both the OpenSolver and SolverStudio versions of FAWCET have the minimum savings constraint. While the cost constraint (equation 3) ensures that the total cost of implementing the optimum strategy is within the utility’s budget, it is important to note that if the utility does not allocate enough money to its water conservation budget, the problem will become infeasible. To solve the

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

infeasibility problem, the District would have to increase the amount of money dedicated to this project. The model also includes ‘indoor’ and ‘outdoor’ constraints that ensure the total number of upgrades made at parcel p of a particular class of fixtures does not exceed the number of such fixtures available to be upgraded at that parcel (see Figure 8). Indoor Constraints xp,1 + xp,2 ≤ npshower xp,1 + xp,2 ≤ npbathroom xp,1 + xp,2 ≤ npkitchen xp,1 + xp,2 ≤ nptoilet xp,1 + xp,2 ≤ npdishwasher xp,1 + xp,2 ≤ npclotheswasher xp,9 + xp,10 ≤ npurinal

for p = 1,2,…,n (3) for p = 1,2,…,n (4) for p = 1,2,…,n (6) for p = 1,2,…,n (7) for p = 1,2,…,n (8) for p = 1,2,…,n (9) for p = 1,2,…,n (10)

Outdoor Constraints xp,11 + xp,12 + xp,13 + xp,14 + xp,15 + xp,16 ≤ npirrigation for p = 1,2,…,n (11) where the model relies on the following values having been defined as: the number of available shower npshower heads at parcel p, npbathroom the number of available bathroom faucets at parcel p, the number of available kitchen npkitchen faucets at parcel p, nptoilet the number of available toilets at parcel p, npdishwasher the number of available dishwashers at parcel p, npclotheswasher the number of available clothes washers at parcel p, npurinal the number of available urinals at parcel p, and npirrigation the number of available irrigation systems at parcel p. Non-Negative Integrality Constraint xp,f ≥ 0, integer for p = 1,2,...,n, f = 1,2,...,m (12) The indoor constraints (3) to (10) ensure that the number of upgrades made to fixtures at a parcel do not exceed the number of fixtures available at that parcel, where the fixture types are defined in Figure 8. The outdoor constraint ensures that the right types of upgrades are allocated to each parcel. The final non-negativity constraints ensure that all the decision variables are a positive integer (or zero) in the final solution. The final values (xp1,xp2,…,xp16) specify the optimized number of upgrades made at a particular site can be either one type of audit strategy or a combination. Continurd on page 36

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continurd from page 34 Alternative Formulation The model as presented maximizes the water savings achieved for a given budgeted expenditure Cmax. In some cases, however, the user may wish to determine what expenditure is required to achieve some specified water savings target Smin. In this case the objective (1) and constraint (2) are changed to become: (1’) (2’)

Potential Water Savings The model needs values for the savings sp,f that will be generated by each fixture upgrade (or outside intervention) made at parcel p. The potential water savings for an account are proportioned into water savings per fixture upgrade.

on the estimated age of those fixtures at parcel p), and is postupgrade water usage volume of a new such upgraded fixture. Multiplying by the estimated volume of water vp,f used by all such fixtures at parcel p, and dividing by the number npf of such fixtures at parcel p, gives the final savings value sp,f per fixture upgrade f at parcel p. Outdoor Water Savings per Fixture Upgrade The outdoor upgrade options available for parcels that irrigate depend on whether the parcel is classified as a ‘hose irrigator’ (if their estimated outdoor water usage is 10,000 gal or less) or an ‘inground irrigator’ (otherwise) in equation 4. The only upgrade possible for a hose irrigator parcel p is to implement WaterWise Florida Landscape, and so the savings sp,f from the other outdoor upgrade options are all zero, i.e., sp,f = 0 for all f = 11,12,…,15 for such parcels p. Inground irrigators have the full range of upgrade options available. The savings associated with these possible outdoor upgrades are given by

Indoor Water Savings per Fixture Upgrade (3) The indoor water savings per fixture upgrade sp,f for parcel p are calculated using equation 3. The fraction of water saved by upgrading one such fixture is given by Ep,f Uf/Ep,f, where Ep,f is the existing water usage of fixtures of type f at parcel p (which depends

(4) where vpoutdoors is the estimated volume of water used for irrigation at parcel p,Ip,f, is the percentage improvement expected by performing outdoor upgrade f given the current state at parcel p, and, as before, npirrigation is the number of irrigation systems available for upgrade at parcel p.

Cost of Implementation Over the Period The model can consider costs over some specified time horizon T, e.g., T=20 years. Some fixture upgrades have expected lifetimes that are longer or shorter than this planning time horizon, and so a correction needs to be made to allow for ongoing replacement of fixtures, equation 5. Thus, for fixtures the model uses costs cp,f given by: (5) where cp,finitial is the initial purchase and installation cost of a fixture upgrade f at parcel p, T is the length of the planning time horizon, and tf is the expected lifetime of an upgraded fixture f. The total costs of implementing outdoor BMPs used by the model are computed using the detailed costs given earlier.

FAWCET Assumptions Tab The assumptions tab contains all the assumption information that is needed for the linear program to be executed. A distinguishing feature of FAWCET is the ability to adjust any or all assumptions in the tool. All of the following assumption descriptions can be adjusted to allow for professional judgment from experienced water conservation professionals or planners in goal setting, scenario playing, or sensitivity analysis of the tool. It allows for consideration of each utility’s uniqueness in residential housing stock, as well as a wide variety of water-using sectors, and therefore, provides for an individual utility’s unique water conserving potential. The assumptions 2B-8B in Figure 9 allow users to insert their desired value:  Conservation Program Start Year  Maximum Capital Cost (Budget)  Minimum Savings (gpd)  Implementation Period (Planning Horizon)  Saturation Goal  Discount Rate (Amortization Rate)

Figure 9. Linear programs global assumptions allow for a range of objective functions, subject to a range of constraints (not shown).

Boxes 8B-10B in Figure 9 are drop-down boxes that allow several options. The 8B box allows the user to run the optimization from several different perspectives:  Total Cost  Utility Cost  Customer Cost  Water Management District (WMD) Cost  Other Funding Source Cost (e.g., energy company)

Figure 10. An estimate of the number of gal per minute/flush/load used by these fixtures across each building plumbing code category, depending on the date of construction for the building (see Figure 7).

The 9B box allows the user to include or exclude “yes or no” savings associated with the Continurd on page 38


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continurd from page 36 revenue impact from water and wastewater bills (see “Reported Information�). The 10B box allows the user to select 120, which is the payback period year the user would like the result limited to. Currently, the federal government requires all buildings to invest in water conserving projects that have a payback period of less than 10 years. These assumptions, and the assumptions that follow, are used by the linear program tab to further define the global constraints for the optimization, beginning with maximum savings at a given capital cost or budget. The value of these

constraints is not fixed, as they may be dependent on such factors as the funding available.

Existing Fixture Efficiency Another important table in the assumption tab specifies the estimated existing efficiencies of indoor fixtures. The existing baseline efficiencies for showerheads, bathroom faucets, kitchen faucets, and so on, are included in Figure 10. The estimated efficiencies for toilets and urinals are determined in gal per flush, while dishwasher and clothes washer efficiencies are

Figure 11. Construction standard multipliers are applied to sq ft of a heated area by parcel to determine the number of fixtures in each residential or commercial building. The goal is not to capture the exact number of fixtures, but to determine a number of inefficient fixtures that could be reasonably considered for replacement in a water conservation program.

defined in gal per load. These existing efficiencies are important as they are used in the linear program tab to calculate the potential water savings for a particular indoor fixture upgrade. The fixture count in the assumptions page is used to estimate the number of showers, bathroom sinks, toilets, and urinals per sq ft of building based on historical building standards (Jones Edmunds, 2010). The linear program uses this information to determine the number of fixtures per building. The number of fixtures is required to determine the potential water savings for each fixture in an account. Information about the replacement fixtures is also stored in the assumptions page (see Figure 12). The replacement fixtures require information about their potential water savings, total costs for implementing a fixture upgrade, life of the device, and water savings efficiencies for the fixtures. The fixture ratings describe the water savings that can be produced by implementing these fixture upgrades. Outdoor-fixture water savings are described as a percentage of outdoor water use volume that can be saved by implementing these strategies, while indoorfixture ratings describe the number of gal per unit that can be saved indoors by implementing these changes. The fixture ratings are used to calculate the potential water saving for each fixture in the linear program tab. The total costs are the costs of implementing a fixture upgrade, including the retail cost of the BMP and installation. The linear program calculates the total cost of implementing all upgrades that are identified by the optimization. Costs can be adjusted to reflect economies of scale or discounted purchases of equipment.

Reported Information

Figure 12. The replacement fixtures shown allow the user to activate and deactivate BMPs; details of each BMP are included. The total BMP cost, flow rate, device life, and percentage of hot water are important factors when determining the total costs and benefits of a BMP.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The bottom section of the assumptions tab includes additional information that can be reported as part of the result of the optimization. Any of this reported information can also be used as an objective function or a constraint. The variable rate information is used to calculate the bill before and after fixture replacement. The residential customer electric rate is used to calculate the energy savings and utilizes the fixture flow rate and percentage of hot water to report the resulting savings. Utility electric consumption includes the electricity used in production and treatment, distribution of water, and collection of wastewater for the utility. Additional utility operating expenses estimate savings from chemicals and energy costs. Most of these data points are provided by the utility being examined (see Figure 13). The percentage of hot water saved by an indoor fixture is used on the linear program

page to determine the amount of energy saved by switching to more efficient fixtures. The calculated energy savings is used to estimate the reduction in the energy bill by implementing the suggested fixture changes. Explaining the monetary savings gained by switching to more efficient fixtures is a pivotal way to plan and implement water conservation programs. District staff has taken the approach of focusing on FAWCET for every other reason except water conservation. Using an exhaustive approach of capturing every conceivable cost and benefit to customers, utilities, and management districts from the adoption of best management practices ensures that water conservation efforts are being planned and implemented on the basis of reasonable business decisions with lasting impacts to the resource. There are many examples of this being the case in large-scale water-conservation-related projects in Florida. There are many more examples of this approach in the energy industry across the United States.

Linear Program Page SolverStudio PuLP Model The SolverStudio model was developed using the modeling language PuLP. Data in comma-separated values (CSV) format housed in a user-specified location through a file path is processed in the SolverStudio optimization. This was achieved by using the SolverStudio data editor, which allows cell ranges and indexes to be identified for important information that can be used in the PuLP model (see Figure 14). The values required for the model are the costs, savings, reported benefits and costs, cost of each implementation, and the available fixtures for upgrade. The PuLP model is defined in the dialog box (see Figure 15), which was created in the linear program tab. The model requires the file path where the CSV-formatted data resides, and then requires a file path to identify where the output file will be written. This means that the actual data is housed in an area separate from the spreadsheet and allows for faster solve times and processing of millions of accounts. This is an important improvement to FAWCET and can be clearly understood by anyone who has dealt with very large Excel databases. Opening an Excel database with this many accounts, complete with complex lengthy calculations, will cause memory or performance errors in most machines. Excel tries to execute calculations automatically upon opening of the workbook. Disabling the calculations would not be of any benefit, since the spreadsheet will eventually perform the calculations; when the data is housed separately from FAWCET, this problem is eliminated.

Figure 13. Additional information regarding utility customer variable rates and energy and treatment costs at the water and wastewater treatment plants; similar information is used to capture as many possible benefits of conservation as possible. Since each of these costs or benefits can be determined by parcel, all reported information can also be used as an objective function or constrain the objective function, or both.

When the model is solved, the optimal water savings and the time it took to solve the model are displayed in the model output box (see bottom of Figure 15). The fixture upgrades for each account that were identified in the optimization are simultaneously written in the folder identified by the file path provided (see Figure 16). The file path for the output file does not have to be generated into the same folder as the data input file. A separate file path, perhaps one typically used for generating geodatabases in ArcGIS or ArcGIS Online, can be provided. The linear program page (see Figure 17) contains the objective function, which utilizes the assumptions tab and CSV data to maximize the total water savings across the District, while staying within a given budget. The linear program gets information about the budget and minimum water savings from the assumptions tab. The water conservation linear program is constrained by the maximum number of fixtures that can be upgraded for each residential

or CII account. The optimization requires the program to calculate the number of fixtures for each account, the water savings, and the cost of an upgrade for each end use. Water savings and costs are first calculated for each individual end use and then combined to determine the total savings and cost of each implementation. When the optimization is run, it identifies the number of fixtures that need to be upgraded for each account. This is then written as the output file and aggregated and displayed in the summary tab.

Summary Tab The summary tab is the “punchline� of the entire process. It displays the number of passive replacements over the desired planning horizon and the fixture upgrades that were identified during the optimization. Figure 18 shows an example of the summary page for an optimization of 100 accounts and a budget of Continurd on page 40

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continurd from page 39 $20,000. The summary page, when combined with the output file, allows for the development of a phased approach to implementing the water conservation plan. One approach is to develop the logistical plan, using a geodatabase generated from the output file. Implementation begins by order of cost. The BMPs, beginning with the least expensive strategies, are targeted first in the early years of the plan, saving the more costly BMPs for the later

years. This approach would allow for changes in costs or benefits to occur during the plan implementation schedule and allow for the continued improvement of the plan to take advantage of price differences through time. There are many changes taking place in the industry that could be leveraged through iterative approach planning. The FAWCET processing times are extremely fast and FAWCET was developed with a continuous improvement process in mind.

Passive Replacement The passive replacement (existing upgrades) of fixtures is estimated by applying useful lives of individual devices in the existing fixtures tab to the number of available fixtures beginning in the year the building was constructed and at the end of each fixture’s useful life (see Figure 19). This process continues to be impacted by the federal plumbing code Continurd on page 42

Figure 14. (Above) The data editor allows cell ranges and indexes to be identified for executing the PuLP model.

Figure 15.,(At right) The PuLP model is defined in the dialog box, which was created on the linear program page. The output process stages save time and results are displayed in the model output window, while the output is generated in the location designated by the file path provided.

Figure 16. The user-provided file path is used by FAWCET to find and process the input file. The FAWCET uses the file path provided to store the output file showing the parcels that were selected by the model.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 17. The linear program page includes the global objective function options from the assumptions tab, and constraints. The file path needed to identify the location of the input and final destination of the output file is also shown.

Continurd from page 41 standard, today’s date, the planning horizon, the plan start date, and so on. The method of calculating passive replacement is conservative in that it assumes all fixtures are being replaced at the end of their useful lives. It credits utilities and their customers for replacing, like clockwork, inefficient fixtures with more efficient fixtures. It assumes customers feel some pressure in their pocketbook to replace fixtures due to increasing block rate programs and their own ecological awareness. Even with this conservative assumption in place, the potential for water conservation calculated by the tool can reach a 20-percent-and-above decrease in water demand for most locations.

This is likely due to the fact that the current plumbing standard has not kept pace with the efficiencies reached by the latest BMPs.

Small Example Model Runs The FAWCET assumptions located in the assumptions tab are all completely adjustable. For the purpose of demonstrating easy-tounderstand outputs from FAWCET, a sample of 100 actual utility accounts was run. The adjustable assumptions (see Figure 20) begin with the total budget and end with the sub-bullet points under the BMP device life and install costs heading. A series of reported information developed from tables is included in FAWCET

Figure 18. All of the information from the FAWCET output file, beginning with passive replacement and program replacements, and the costs and benefits associated with new BMPs.

on the assumptions page. In Figure 20, those reported amounts begin with a BMP percentage of hot water use and end with the sub-bullets under utility operating costs. This information, with a reported output for the 100-account test runs, can be used as objective functions or constraints in the tool. One simple example would be optimizing for maximum energy savings, while delivering only those residential accounts with a BCR over 10 or gpcd under 70, or schools with a BCR over 30. If FAWCET were to include average annual income by parcel from the census or a cost of a basket of goods calculated from the census information, it could maximize water savings and deliver only those parcels with a savings of 5 percent of their average annual income, or a percentage savings of a customer’s household basket of goods at 10 percent. Any piece of information that can be reasonably or accurately estimated on a per-household level, and placed within the row of individual parcels in FAWCET as an element of data for that parcel, can be used as an objective and/or a constraint in the problem. As an extreme example, if one were to include the color of the home, one could return the maximum energy saved up to a maximum of $30,000 constrained to only those homes that are blue. For the small-model example runs, 100 single-family accounts were used; a total budget constraint of $2,000 was used as a utility budget. Both model runs were based on the utility cost perspective. The two objective functions were to maximize water and energy savings. The FAWCET took 15 seconds to run each optimization. Each run includes a load profile for the 100 accounts (see Figures 21 and 22). The targeted account volumes are shown in each load profile, indoor (upper) and outdoor (lower) in Figures 21 and 22, top left. The “maximize water savings” objective function targets high-using indoor accounts and high-using outdoor accounts. The FAWCET recommends a large number of kitchen faucet aerators, repair-based irrigation audits, and a few design-based irrigation audits. The gpcd is reduced from 149 to 125. A 4-gal reduction in gpcd is due to indoor replacements, while a 20-gpcd reduction is due

Figure 19. The passive replacement tab assumes customers are replacing fixtures at the end of their useful lives, beginning from when the building was first constructed to the present.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 20. A listing of FAWCETS adjustable assumptions, from total budget to BMP device and install costs, and a listing of reported information from BMP percentage of hot water use to utility operating costs. All of this information, including the reported information, can be used as objectives in FAWCET or used to constrain the tool to deliver a selected range of sectors or selected values.

to outdoor repairs. Total program savings equals 4,758 gpd and the total BCR is 13. A value of 1 represents a break-even point. The total energy savings is 1,640 kilowatt-hours (kWh). A similar run was performed with the same 100 accounts (see Figure 22). The objective function was then set to maximize energy savings, rather than water savings. This run targets many more indoor accounts, in an attempt to capture the energy used indoors by the customer, and utility energy use as well, from water and wastewater treatment delivery and transfer. The run captures high-using outdoor accounts to capture energy used to treat and distribute drinking water for irrigation. The BMP selections are similar to the maximizewater-savings run. The FAWCET chooses bathroom and kitchen faucet aerators, as well as repair-based and design-based irrigation system audits. The decrease in gpcd is from 149 to 128. The biggest difference is in the BCR. The maximize energy savings objective delivers a BCR of 35, rather than the 13 reflected in the water savings objective. The high BCR reflects the high cost of energy in the treatment and delivery of water, as well as a high percentage of hot water use per fixture within the home. The total program savings is reduced to 4,276 gpd and the kWhs saved is 1,727.

Figure 21. The accounts targeted within the 100-account load profile, with an objective function of maximizing water savings. Also shown are the types of BMPs selected; a variety of reported data, before and after gpcd; total program savings; BCR; and total energy savings.

Water Conservation Potential in the District 2013 Water Supply Plan The FAWCET is currently being used mainly to estimate the water conservation potential in the District’s 18 counties. The FAWContinurd on page 44 Figure 22. The accounts targeted within the 100-account load profile, with an objective function of maximizing energy savings. Also shown are the types of BMPs selected, a variety of reported data, gpcd, total program savings, BCR, and total energy savings. Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continurd from page 43 CET is expected to process variations of estimates by utility service area, county, or groundwater basin to generate the water conservation portion of minimum flow level (MFL) prevention and recovery strategies. Individual estimates by utility have been limited thus far to

the consumptive use permitting process to share preliminary results with the District’s utility partners, demonstrate water conservation potential to regulated utilities, or compare results with estimates developed by utility contractors. An earlier version of FAWCET was run for the District’s 2013 water supply plan.

Figure 23. The results of a previous version of FAWCET, which aggregates customers by sector and volume. The underlying result for this generalized table is the summary tab in FAWCET , which compiles the number of accounts targeted for BMPs by sector and provides the use level to target for implementation.

Figure 24. The continuous improvement process for developing a FAWCET-generated goalbased water conservation plan. The process begins with surveys and adjustment of default values, continuing counter-clockwise to actual savings.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The District is divided into four planning regions. A low water conservation estimate was produced using a limited number of BMPs. Toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators impact residential and CII sectors, while soil moisture sensors and irrigation audits target residential outdoor use. Urinals, pre-rinse spray valves, and site-specific audits target a broad range of CII sectors, or in the case of prerinse spray vales, restaurants and cafeterias. The high estimate produced by FAWCET allows for ordinances adopting higher-efficiency standards and modifications to land development regulations. These strategies are very cost-effective and require changes in local rules and ordinances. The costs reflected in these BMPs are largely administrative costs associated with producing the rule changes, along with strategy and public relations meetings, as well as communicating the proposed changes to stakeholders and the public. Other BMPs developed and used in the high estimate (and presented previously) include Waterwise Florida Landscape, advanced ET irrigation controllers, design-based residential irrigation audits, repair-based residential irrigation audits, high-efficiency dishwashers, and high-efficiency clothes washers. These are likely unique to the District’s FAWCET tool. All BMPs in FAWCET can be toggled on and off to create high- and lowwater conservation potential estimates. One of the constraints applied to these runs was a $3per-thousand-gal limit. All options came in at under the $3 cap, due to this constraint. It was determined that water conservation efforts can reduce 2035 demand by 84 mil gal per day (mgd) to 214 mgd. The estimate for Region 3, which is part of CFWI, was calculated using the Conserve Florida EZ Guide. The guide provides a limited number of BMPs (bottom left-hand side of Figure 23). The final results for Region 3 using the guide are still being determined. More information regarding Region 3 results can be obtained at in the CFWI draft plan. The overall vision for FAWCET is a continuous improvement approach (see Figure 24) and includes a previously developed webbased implementation and tracking tool (WBITT), which is shown in Figure 25. The vision begins with a set of default values or assumptions. Ideally, survey information is collected from a representative sample size of each disaggregated sector and other characteristics. Data collected in the survey step would provide better assumptions as to existing flow rates and passive replacement estimates. The results would also include the Continurd on page 46

Figure 25. The web-based implementation and tracking tool (WBITT) tool was created to implement water conservation goal-based plans using ArcGIS Online. The tool can be used to run any number of utility-related programs.

Figure 26. A distinguishing characteristic of FAWCET is the ability to scale up or down to accommodate an individual facility. In this case, the model was run for the Orlando Executive Airport and Orlando international Airport.


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continurd from page 44 desired statistical confidence levels and intervals and margins of error. The survey information is used to adjust the FAWCET assumptions in the assumptions tab. The analysis is carried out and a plan for implementation is developed, with the totals first being calibrated to existing water use projection methods, which combine MOR values and BEBR population projections. This calibration allows for better goal setting from a historical utility water use perspective. One goal could be to keep water use constant (and therefore, utility revenue) over the planning horizon while accommodating new growth, albeit at a higher efficiency per parcel. The WBITT tool is then used to implement and track the program, collecting more field-verified results to add to the surveyed information through observations. A baseline of use is compared to the implemented BMPs to calculate the actual savings, helping to identify and further narrow the focus of the plan to only those BMPs and contractors that provide measurable savings and can be proven to produce a firm yield. The WBITT tool is an ArcGIS Online application, which uses FAWCET outputs to track and manage the implementation of the plan. The FAWCET output parcels are represented by a heat map or recommended replacement fixtures map. Each parcel can be clicked on through a web-based Android or iPhone device. The record for the targeted parcel pops up; if that customer has responded to an offer for a rebate and arrangements have been made between the customer and utility, the audit is performed. While the fixtures are being replaced and the new data collected, adjustments made to the existing information are reflected in the database located in the Cloud or on District servers. ArcGIS Online has introduced several tools to manage many different utility-based programs using its service. ArcGIS Online allows developers to modify the structure of its application to suit the needs of the user; this is what the District has done to develop the WBITT tool. The District also modified WBITT to include the capability to administer an irrigation enforcement program, at the request of a customer utility. ArcGIS Online is highly customizable and can be used to administer a range of programs, such as cross-connection control or any other utility-based or local code enforcement programs. One of the distinguishing features of FAWCET is its ability to scale up and down (see Figure 26). For example, if all the underlying data from an entire utility were deleted, except for a particular home, FAWCET would deliver a result maximizing the water savings within that

home among its range of BMP options. The total budget would have to be modified to reflect a reasonable budget amount, in line with a typical home improvement budget of around $800 for the year. Using this feature, District staff, together with staff from the South Florida Water Management District, created a scaled down version of FAWCET to calculate the water conservation potential for two Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facilities in Orlando. A federal contractor contacted District staff and requested that a water conservation audit be performed at the Orlando Executive Airport and the Orlando International Airport. District staff used south Florida’s water efficiency improvement self-assessment guide to estimate occupancy rates of various floors, requested visitor log statistics, and performed indoor and outdoor flow-rate tests and audits to refine the water use information provided by the meter or billing information. This occurred prior to the development of the WBITT tool. The data was processed through FAWCET and the resulting report was delivered to the contractor.

The Future Future improvements to FAWCET include the development of another web-based tool

that can access and query the District’s FAWCET parcel-level water use data as an input. Currently, the tool is pointed through a file path to where the account-level data in the proper format is housed. The ability to cut and paste data into a web-based data window would be an improvement, and is being considered. The next tool will make all of the reported options explicit for objective functions or constraints. Some of the reported information will have the ability to be viewed from a range of perspectives—utility, customer, district, and energy partner. The ArcGIS Online WBITT tool will be seamlessly connected to FAWCET. Work continues on an agricultural version of FAWCET, called the Florida Automated Agricultural Resource Model (FAARM). In the short run, FAARM will be used to produce high-level estimates of water conservation in agriculture from improved maintenance schedules or BMP options. These results will be used to demonstrate the potential for partnerships among utilities, the District, and agricultural producers. Early results have shown agricultural water conservation to be more competitive in cost per thousand gal, in comparison to the utility results from FAWCET. The FAWCET continues to provide support for the District’s four main initiatives.

The tool will continue to be used to identify water conservation/demand management projects that will enhance existing plans for alternative and traditional water supply projects. Better data , including proxy and actual, will allow District staff to zero in on distinct utilities and sectors to compare and identify the most efficient uses and gather details, and then promote their practices among their peers (Castaneda, 2001).

References • Mason, A.J., (2012) “OpenSolver : An OpenSource Add-In to Solve Linear and Integer Programs in Excel” in D. Klatte et al. (eds), Operations Research Proceedings 2011, Operations Research Proceedings, SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg, p 401-406, 2012. • Mason, A.J., (2013) SolverStudio: A New Tool for Better Optimization and Simulation Modelling in Excel. INFORMS Trans. Ed. 14(1):45–52. Available online at • Mitchell S., O’Sullivan M., Dunning I., (2011), PuLP: A Linear Programming Toolkit for Python, available online at DB_FILE/2011/09/3178.pdf. 

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


New Products Welded steel aboveground storage tanks and standpipes from Fisher Tank Co. provide economical water storage solutions for cities and municipalities. Each tank is custom designed and fabricated to AWWA D100 standards and is constructed on-site. Tanks can be designed to include aeration and mixing systems, ladders and handrails, exterior piping, and other appurtenances as required. Welded steel tanks offer flexibility in design, exterior painting options, and allow for future modifications. This turnkey tank solution provides decades of safe, reli-

able performance with minimal maintenance costs. Go to for more information.

The AQUACOUNTER® Karl Fischer Volumetric Titrator (AQV-2200S) by JM Science is rugged, reliable, long lasting, and environmentally friendly, with small-volume titration cells requiring only 20 mL of titration solvent for accurate measurements. The titrator is suited for a wide range of

concentrations, from 100 ppm to 100 percent water content, with maximum capacity for automation and upgrades. Combining one additional station with either a volumetric of coulometric module allows two different measurements to be performed simultaneously. Users can add various peripherals, such as a second channel, and the system recognizes the new channels and begins working with them immediately. Details can be found at

The Solinst Canada Ltd. Model 102 Water Level Meters use narrow cable and segmented probes to measure water levels in tight spaces. The meters offer greater flexibility in angled piezometers and assist in bypassing down-hole restrictions or pumps when measuring drawdown. Each meter’s 0.375-in. P2 brass probe includes 10 segmented weights for use in greater depths. For narrow applications, the 0.25-in. P1 stainless steel probe with 12 segmented weights is available. The meters are available in lengths to 1000 ft. The Model 102M Mini Water Level Meter comes with 80 ft. of cable on a small portable reel. Visit to learn more.

LFM ad


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The SFT Phase Monitor II from Supercritical Fluid Technologies Inc. determines the solubility of various compounds and mixtures in supercritical and high-pressure fluids. The monitor provides direct visual observations of materials under conditions controlled by the researcher. Experiments may be performed in liquids, supercritical carbon dioxide, or other liquefied gases. The monitor also gives the user direct observation of the dissolution, precipitation, and crystallization of compounds over various pressures and temperatures. Advanced studies may be done to determine melting point depressions and the degree of polymer swelling in supercritical fluids, carbon dioxide, or traditional solvents. Experiments can be performed at pressures up to 10,000 lb/in.2 and from tempertaures up to 150°C. Log onto for further details. 

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available.

This month’s editorial theme is Conservation and Reuse. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

___________________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ________________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Ion Exchange and Disposal Issues Associated with the Brine Waste Stream Julie Karleskindt, Daniels Schmidt, Robert Anderson, Jayson Page, and A.J. Berndt (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS/WW) 1. Cation exchanges is commonly used for the removal of a. organic carbon. b. sulfide. c. alkalinity. d. radionuclides. 2. ___________ was applied to the blended water to support biological oxidation of sulfide. a. Nitrate b. Oxygen c. Bromide d. Chlorine 3. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) rule 62610.875 a. prohibits blending of demineralization concentrate with reclaimed water. b. requires that blending operations be supervised by a licensed operator for a minimum of 16 hours per day. c. requires that the reuse system meet groundwater quality standards at the edge of the discharge zone. d. requires weekly monitoring of sodium absorption ratio. 4. Water quality monitoring for the full-scale operation has revealed a. application site groundwater total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations of 500 mg/l. b. no significant increases in groundwater sodium or chloride. c. surprisingly high TDS concentration detected at the wastewater plant. d. a change in the character of wastewater plant biomass. 5. Pilot testing revealed that chlorine demand could be reduced by a. installing an activated carbon pretreatment system. b. air stripping chlorinated organic compounds. c. bypassing 40 percent of the feed water around the cation exchange system. d. pretreating feed water for ammonia removal.

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Certification Boulevard Test Your Knowledge of Disinfection 5. What will happen to combined chlorine residual when ammonia in the effluent goes up? A.) Chlorine residual will increase if the chlorine feed rate is increased. B.) Chlorine residual will increase if the chlorine feed rate is decreased. C.) Chlorine residual will increase if the chlorine feed rate is shut off. D.) Ammonia does not affect chlorine residual.

Roy Pelletier 1. Given the following data, calculate the chlorine demand: • Total daily weight used is 1,350 lbs/day • The plant flow is 13.5 mgd • The effluent chlorine residual is 2.0 mg/l A.) 6,305 lbs/day B.) 1,125 lbs/day C.) 1,681 lbs/day D.) 281 lbs/day

6. What are the two types of gaseous poisoning with chlorine called? A.) Vapor and pellets. B.) Dry and wet. C.) Mild and extreme. D.) Coughing and choking.

2. What is the ratio of liquid chlorine when it expands to chlorine gas? A.) About 8.34 volumes B.) About 460 volumes C.) About 7.48 volumes D.) About 49.3 volumes

7. What is the chemical formula for sulfur dioxide? A.) SO4 C.) CO2

3. How does the ultraviolet (UV) system function in regard to disinfection of the final effluent? A.) The ultraviolet reduces the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) level B.) The ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by microorganisms and damages the genetic makeup of the organisms, preventing their further reproduction. C.) The UV system promotes high growth rate of microorganisms and causes them to reach the death cycle more quickly. D.) The UV system increases the carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5) value. 4. Where is gas chlorine withdrawn from in a 1-ton container? A.) From the bottom valve. B.) From the top valve. C.) From the top or bottom valves. D.) Gas cannot be withdrawn from a 1ton container.


A.) 15 parts per million (ppm) B.) 50 ppm C.) 100 ppm D.) 1000 ppm 9. What is the chemical formula for ozone? A.) O4 C.) CO2

B.) O2 D.) O3

10. Into which position should you rotate a 1-ton container of chlorine if a leak develops? A.) With the leak at the bottom. B.) With the leak at the top. C.) With the leak on the side. D.) It does not matter.

Answers on page 72

B.) O2 D.) SO2


Check the Archives Are you new to the water and wastewater field? Want to boost your knowledge about topics youʼll face each day as a water/waste-water professional? All past editions of Certification Boulevard through the year 2000 are available on the Florida Water Environment Associationʼs website at Click the “Site Map” button on the home page, then scroll down to the Certification Boulevard Archives, located below the Operations Research Committee.

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

8. What concentration of chlorine can kill in a few short breaths?

SEND US YOUR QUESTIONS Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Certification Boulevard. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to, or by mail to: Roy Pelletier Wastewater Project Consultant City of Orlando Public Works Department Environmental Services Wastewater Division 5100 L.B. McLeod Road Orlando, FL 32811 407-716-2971


Take This Job and Love It! Carl R. Larrabee Jr. Chair, FSAWWA

e all have our favorite songs. One of my recent favorites is “Blessings” by Laura Story; I also like “Beautiful Day” and “You Lead” by Jamie Grace. But there’s one song that’s never been my favorite. Actually, it’s been one of my least favorite songs: “Take This Job and Shove It.” Written by David Allan Coe, it was made famous by Johnny Paycheck in 1977, becoming a number 1 hit atop the country music charts for two weeks. It isn’t played often these days, but when I hear it, I’m disheartened that there are people who don’t appreciate their jobs.


When someone is without a job and trying to get one, he generally displays a great attitude. He wants his prospective employer to be convinced that hiring him would be a very good decision. The interviewer (normally the boss) makes a judgment on how honest and sincere the candidate is and how well he would do the job—now and in the future. And when successful, the new hire appreciates getting the job and that appreciation shows in his attitude . . . at least at first. If it’s genuine, it will stay true throughout his tenure with the employer. If not—well, it can shift and he can become like the main character in Coe’s song. In the current economy, there may not be too many people in the workforce who feel this way—or would dare to say anything like that if they did. I think it’s a shame that people could feel that way about their jobs. There can be many reasons to feel bad about

Celebrate Drinking Water Week 2014! For more than 30 years, communities across the United States have joined the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in recognizing the essential role that water plays in all aspects of life by celebrating Drinking Water Week. This year, the celebration, with “What Do You Know About H20?” as the theme, will take place May 4-10. Throughout that week, AWWA and its partners will host activities to highlight how important clean, safe, and abundant water is to everyone. To get your utility or company involved, you can access free materials and celebration ideas now at


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

work, but there are also many reasons to feel good. The main character in the song expresses his displeasure with some of the other workers. Who hasn’t had the occasion of working with someone they don’t get along with? Have you ever given thought to what has occurred in her life to make her that way? Maybe she needs someone to talk with her, ask her how she’s doing, and be a friend. Maybe you can seize the opportunity to change your attitude toward someone who needs your friendship. One way to look at a job: “It’s terrible. I’m underpaid, overworked, and not appreciated. Staying here is a waste of my time and talent. I’m leaving. Let someone else have this job who will be as miserable as me. I’ll find a job where I’ll be more appreciated and paid a decent wage.” The trouble is, sometimes that attitude can follow someone from job to job. That’s a tragic waste. One nice thing about jobs in America is that if you don’t like yours, you can quit and try to get another job. In some countries, that isn’t an option. A job can be a wonderful blessing. It’s an opportunity to put your God-given talents to work. In our industry, we supply one of the most important basic needs—water. The quality of life in this country is made possible by a reliable supply of clean drinking water for our citizens. Many of my coworkers throughout my career have had a very positive attitude about their jobs. Sure, the pay could have been a little higher and a few more words of thanks could have been expressed after an all-night effort to restore water supply to a neighborhood, but inside they know their work is important. And so is yours. Without clean, safe water, our customers’ lives wouldn’t be as good as they are. For many in our industry, knowing that simple truth supplies a wealth of satisfaction. If you have that satisfaction, know that I share it with you. Moreover, know that it is a beautiful blessing to be grateful for each day.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


New Zealander to Speak at FWEA Awards Luncheon at Conference Garry J. Macdonald, a member of the 2013-2014 board of trustees for the Water Environment Federation (WEF), will attend the Florida Water Resources Conference and speak


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

at the FWEA awards luncheon on April 8. Macdonald is currently a principal and technical director for the Beca Group Ltd. and business development manager for Beca Infrastructure Ltd. in Auckland, New Zealand. In these roles, he develops technical engineering solutions for the multidiscipline consulting firm’s municipal and industrial clients and advances their professional role in New Zealand, Australia, and Southeast Asia. In addition to his technical and management roles, Garry has worked for more than 15 years in the undergraduate and graduate recruitment programs in New Zealand’s engineering schools to entice young engineers into the field of water and environmental engineering. A WEF member since 1989, Garry has held multiple leadership and committee roles within the organization. He currently serves as vice chair of the Hot Topics/Emerging Issues Symposium Committee, and was past chair of the WEF Globalization Task Force and International Coordination Committee. He is also a past member of WEF’s Executive Committee and International Program Committee. He has been a regular technical program presenter at the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC). A life member of Water New Zealand, which was formerly known as the New Zealand Water and Wastes Association (NZWWA), Garry currently serves as a WEF delegate for this WEF member association. He has also served as the NZWWA president, vice president, board member, and WEF director. His other professional affiliations are with the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ), for which he is the immediate past president, and Institution of Engineers Australia. Garry has received the WEF Richard S. Engelbrecht Award for International Services. He received a bachelor of engineering (with honors) and a master of engineering (with distinction) from the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand.

FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Public Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association committee activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your committee, send details to Suzanne Melcher at

Suzanne Mechler

Successful First Year for the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee Kristiana Dragash Last November was the inaugural seminar presented by the new FWEA Wastewater Process Committee (WWPC). Over 80 intrigued water quality professionals packed the Polk County Utilities facility, where the seminar was held, learning from nine distinguished speakers. The presentations covered each phase of the treatment process. The seminar was so successful that we are doing it again, and the WWPC is hard at work planning the next seminar in the regional seminar series, “From Stem to Stern: Righting the Process Ship.” This time we are headed to the northeast Florida area, coordinating with the First Coast chapter of FWEA. The seminar will be held on June 19 at the GTM Research Reserve in Ponte Vedra Beach, and will again feature an all-star line-up of speakers from the state and national wastewater process niche. The northeast seminar will feature presentations by Paul Steinbrecher, Jose Jimenez, Marie Pellegrin, Rod Reardon, Jeff Martin, and more. Professional development hours (PDHs) and continuing education units (CEUs) will be provided. Special thanks to the speakers who have graciously shared their expertise, Jody Barksdale for leading the committee in a very successful first year, and to all of the WWPC steering committee members for their efforts in planning an outstanding water quality event! Thanks to Jeff Lowe who has already done a fantastic job as vice chair of the committee, organizing and moderating one of the workshops at the Florida Water Resources Conference, “Tricks of the Trade for Effective Biological Nutrient Removal Design and Operation.” Do not miss what these experts have to share at the conference and the regional seminar! For detailed information and registration instructions for the seminar, go to the “Conferences and Events” tab of the FWEA website at

Dr. Joshua Boltz, P.E., of CH2M HILL presenting “It’s Not Just Screening and Grit Removal” at the inaugural seminar.

Kristiana Dragash, P.E., is a civil and environmental engineer with Carollo Engineers in Sarasota. Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014



Ion Exchange and Disposal Issues Associated With the Brine Waste Stream Julie Karleskint, Daniel Schmidt, Robert Anderson, Jayson Page, and A.J. Berndt Julie Karleskint, P.E., is a senior associate with Hazen and Sawyer in Sarasota. Daniel Schmidt, P.E., is a senior associate with Hazen and Sawyer in Tampa. Robert Anderson, P.E., is a senior associate with Hazen and Sawyer in Orlando. Jayson Page, P.E., is a senior associate with Hazen and Sawyer in Coral Gables. A.J. Berndt is the utility director for the City of Arcadia.

he City of Arcadia recently completed construction of a new 1.5-mil-gal-perday (mgd) water treatment plant (WTP) using ion exchange technology to replace its 3-mgd lime softening WTP. The lime plant had reached the end of its serviceable life and the treatment of groundwater for the removal of radionuclides, hardness, sulfides, organic carbon, and fluoride was desired in order to provide safe drinking water to the community. After evaluating several treatment technologies, including lime treatment, nanofiltration, ion exchange, and purchases


Table 1. Arcadia Groundwater Quality

Table 2. Maximum Contaminant Level and Target Reduction


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

from the local water supply authority, it was determined that ion exchange would be the most cost-effective option for construction. A reduction in capacity was also provided since the City’s water supply source, groundwater from the intermediate aquifer, was limited based on current pumping limitations and permitted capacity. The groundwater is supplied from six wells, approximately 350 ft deep and located within a 1-mi radius of the plant. A summary of the water quality from the wellfield is shown in Table 1. In reviewing the groundwater quality, reduction in radium 226 and gross alpha is necessary to meet primary drinking water standards. Reduction in fluoride, sulfide, total organic carbon (TOC) and hardness is also desired to meet secondary standards and reduce the chlorine demands caused by the presence of sulfides and TOC, as well as minimize the formation of disinfection byproducts. The use of ion exchange was determined to be the most cost-effective treatment for radionuclides. Cation exchange is commonly used for the removal of radionuclides and hardness. Anion exchange could also be provided for the removal of sulfides, organic carbon, and possibly, some fluoride. However, since ion exchange can utilize a significant amount of salt in its process and during regeneration, there were concerns as to how much salt would be added to the wastewater system based upon the amount of water treated. In order to develop a better understanding of the process, pilot testing was performed. The test results could then be used to determine the effectiveness of the anion and cation exchange resins, blending requirements, runtime lengths, headloss, and brine regeneration requirements. In setting up the pilot test, maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and target concentrations for the WTP were developed, as shown in Table 2. The objectives of the pilot study were to examine the ability of the cation exchange system to consistently achieve softening and radium removal. It was also to examine the ability of the anion exchange system to adequately remove sulfide and total organic carbon, with the addition of aeration to bio-

logically promote the conversion of sulfide to sulfate. The pilot equipment consisted of a reduced-scale ion exchange testing apparatus provided and assembled by Tonka Equipment Company, as shown in Figure 2. The study was conducted over a 30-day period, with approximately six hours of runtime each day. The desired flow rate and runtime for the cation exchange column was 6.5 gal per hour (gph) for 24 hours, resulting in 160 gal of treated water. The anion exchange column desired flow rate and runtime was 8.1 gph for 65 hours, yielding 525 gal of treated water. Two complete brine regenerations were performed prior to the first run in order to ensure that the resin was in a chloride form. To simulate the designed full-scale softening cation exchange vessel, an 8-ft-tall, 2-in.diameter column was filled to a depth of 60 in. with Thermax T-42 Na high-capacity strong acid resin. A gage and pressure reducing valve were provided on the inlet line to monitor and control column pressure. Headloss was measured by an additional gage connected between the columns influent and effluent lines. Rate of flow control and a flow meter were plumbed into the column’s discharge so as to maintain a constant treatment flow rate. Similarly, a full-scale anion exchange vessel, with a 5-ft-tall, 2-in.-diameter column was filled to a depth of 36 in. with Thermax A-72 MP high-capacity strong base resin. A gage and pressure reducing valve was provided on the inlet line to monitor and control column pressure. Headloss was measured by an additional gage connected between the column’s inlet and discharge lines. Rate of flow control and flow meter are plumbed to the column’s discharge so as to maintain a constant treatment flow rate. The testing apparatus was set up according to the pilot test protocol. The blended water was then aerated with .05 cu ft per hour (cfh) of air. The oxygen is used to help maintain conditions that are favorable to bacteria that can biologically oxidize the sulfide. The flow then passes through the anion exchange column where sulfide and organics are reduced. The anion exchange column received and processed all of the 6.5 gph of blended water, simulating the conditions of the fullscale process. Based on the pilot testing results, it was confirmed that significantly longer runtimes could be achieved by providing an environment conducive to the biological oxidation of sulfides. Based on these results, the estimated salt usage was determined to be significantly less than originally assumed for the anion units, while still achieving the water quality goals.

Figure 1. Pilot Test Equipment

Table 3. Anticipated Water Quality From Water Treatment Plant

Using the data obtained by the pilot testing, it was determined that if 40 percent of the groundwater could be bypassed around the cation exchange system and recombined prior to the anion exchange system, all the water or percentage thereof could then receive treatment through the anion exchange columns. This would result in significantly reduced sulfide and TOC concentration, which would result in a lower chlorine demand. Using a blend of 60 percent cation and 100 percent anion, it was estimated that approximately 1,800 lbs of salt would be required to treat 1 mil gal (MG) of water. The resulting anticipated water quality would meet regulatory standards and the city’s water quality objectives, shown in Table 3. However, the impact on the wastewater

plant still needed to be evaluated. The City’s wastewater plant is a 2-mgd trickling filter plant with high-level disinfection to provide public access reuse. The plant provides reclaimed water to orange groves, a golf course, cemetery, parks, and residential customers, with a backup surface water discharge for wet weather. High concentrations of salt in irrigation waters can be problematic, since salt can reduce crop productivity. This is primarily caused by less water being available to the plant due to competing ions. High salt concentrations can also cause soils to become sodic, resulting in a degraded soil structure, which can prevent the plant from absorbing the water. Therefore, the amount of salt that Continurd on page 58

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Figure 2. New Arcadia Ion Exchange Water Treatment Plant

Continurd from page 57 would be added to the wastewater plant as a result of the ion exchange process was a significant concern. Although, the discharge of the ion exchange waste stream is not specifically regulated by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), since it is not considered as an industrial waste, the requirements for the blending of demineralization concentrate with reclaimed water were evaluated. The FDEP Rule 62-610.875 (13) FAC, Blending of Demineralization Concentrate with Reclaimed Water, indicates that the addition of concentrate shall not impair the ability of the treatment facility to meet reclaimed water limitations, or harm vegetation grown in the reuse system. It also indicates that the reuse system must comply with groundwater standards at the edge of the zone of discharge. Therefore, these factors were evaluated to verify that the discharge of the brine waste would be acceptable to the reclaimed water system. In evaluating the impact of the salt on the wastewater plant, the amount of salt being added to the system and the historical sodium and chloride concentrations of the wastewater effluent were evaluated. This analysis showed that the sodium and chloride values in the effluent varied based on season, with sodium and chloride concentrations being higher during the dry seasons. This data was then used to predict sodium and chloride concentrations for the treated wastewater effluent. The pre-


dicted sodium concentrations ranged from 100 mg to 170 mg/L and the predicted chloride levels ranged from 130 mg/L to 260 mg/L. In reviewing the anticipated water quality, it was noted that the average sodium and chloride concentrations would meet the water quality standards of 160 mg/l sodium and 250 mg/l chloride. In addition to the sodium and chloride concentrations, the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was also evaluated. The SAR is a measure of the suitability of water for use in agriculture based on concentrations of solids dissolved in the water, which is calculated as follows: SAR = [Na+] / {([Ca2+] + [Mg2+]) / 2}1/2 Waters with SAR >6 can cause negative impact to vegetation by limiting adsorption of water through soil. The SAR based on the proposed water quality was determined to be 4.5, which was less than 6 and therefore should not negatively impact the agricultural reclaimed water users. Based on the pilot test results and preliminary engineering study, it was determined that the disposal of the brine would not cause any significant issues to the wastewater plant. Therefore, the City commenced construction on the new 1.5-mgd ion exchange WTP in January 2012. The new plant (Figure 2) was recently completed, with water production initiating in January 2013. The plant is currently producing approximately 0.7 mgd, since the facility is also accepting treated water from

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

DeSoto County to assist in reducing flushing and maintaining flow in its system. The water produced from the plant is currently meeting all water quality standards, treating 60 percent of the water through the cation system and 100 percent through the anion system followed by disinfection, storage, and high-service pumping. Additional treatment with caustic soda for pH adjustment, and for stabilization and corrosion control, is provided; however, minimal usage is required. The ion exchange regenerate waste from the regeneration cycles is stored in tanks and slowly pumped to the wastewater collection system at a rate of approximately 50 gal per min (gpm). Recent testing shows that the impact on the wastewater system has not been significant and agriculture reuse customers have not been negatively impacted. Conductivity monitoring at the WWTP has indicated that the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) after a regeneration cycle ranges between 200 mg/l to 500 mg/L, which is similar to what was anticipated. A review of the groundwater monitoring results for the reuse areas for the past year also shows no significant increases in sodium or chloride in the groundwater. The City will continue to monitor the wastewater and groundwater quality as production from the WTP increases.

News Beat Seven Seas Water has been nominated for the Desalination Company of the Year Global Water Award. In 2013, the company successfully executed three desalination projects in the Caribbean region, collectively providing more than 11 mgd of potable water capacity and helping to improves social and economic conditions:  A 5.5-mgd seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility in Trinidad. The plant, developed and constructed under a build-own agreement with the Water and Sewerage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago, provides fresh water to the resident of Point Fortin.  A 2.2-mgd SWRO facility in St. Croix.  A 3.3-mgd SWRO plant in St. Thomas.

source provides utilities direction as to the important practice areas that can support effective management and gives a structured process to track performance.” The resource includes an Excel-based tracking tool, user guide, and guidance document that can help utilities meet their management goals. The Foundation worked with nearly 30 water, wastewater, and stormwater utilities of various sizes and in several locations in North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia. It identified two major gaps that hampered efforts when utilities try to implement the ten

attributes: an explicit identification of practice areas that utilities can use to support these efforts, and a structured process benchmarking exercise to guide the development and implementation of these attributes. __________________________ Another WRF project is helping water utilities improve their understanding of monitoring and controlling biological filtration (BF). The project, “A Monitoring and Control Toolbox for Biological Filtration,” culminated in a Continued on page 60

These facilities replace costly thermal desalination units and now generate significant savings for the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and its customers.

The Water Research Foundation (WRF) has released a tool to help water and wastewater utilities develop and implement ten key attributes for effective utility management. “Performance Benchmarking for Effectively Managed Water Utilities” provides information to help utilities conduct assessments and strategically develop organizational attributes to meet specific management goals. The report builds on recommendations presented in “Effective Utility Management: A Primer for Water and Wastewater Utilities,” which was developed by American Water Works Association, Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, American Public Works Association, National Association of Water Companies, National Association of Clean Water Agencies, Water Environment Federation, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The ten key attributes are:  Product Quality  Customer Satisfaction  Employee and Leadership Development  Operational Optimization  Financial Viability  Infrastructure Stability  Operational Resilience  Community Sustainability  Water Resource Adequacy  Stakeholder Understanding and Support “The Water Research Foundation recognized that water utilities were compelled to work toward more effective utility management, but could benefit from detailed guidance on the implementation of more sustainable methods of operation,” said Robert Renner, executive director of WRF. “This reFlorida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continurd from page 59 guidance manual that describes and evaluates current BF monitoring and control techniques. An affordable and effective, but not commonly used, water treatment process, BF reduces multiple contaminants and increases the biological stability in distribution systems, while minimizing the production of waste streams and the formation of disinfection byproducts. Other water treatment techniques must first isolate and then remove contaminants, which results in waste and can be more costly and energy intensive. Drinking water utilities in North America have historically underutilized BF because of the prevailing perception that it is more suitable for wastewater treatment. Water utilities that did utilize BF did so without the support of industry-accepted design, operations, and treatment guidelines, and with limited monitoring and control tools. The manual contains practical, innovative, and standard monitoring tools for utilities looking to boost the technological understanding and application of BF, and includes typical measurement ranges, recommended monitoring frequencies, and related costs. More information about both items can be found at 


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Frederick Bloetscher Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton Campus Work title and years of service. I have been associate professor for 10 years at Florida Atlantic University (FAU). I have also done consulting work for 13 years, and worked as a utility director or deputy director for 11 years before that. I was a town manager in two communities in North Carolina over a four-year period, but that was way too many hours and way too stressful, so I went back to utility work because water, sewer, and stormwater work is what the towns wanted me to do anyway. What does your job entail? At FAU, I teach mostly seniors and graduate students; these are students ready to join the workforce. My job is to move them from doing repetitive problems to understanding how to apply their knowledge to new problems, how to research solutions, and how to communicate those solutions to professionals. I created FAU’s senior design sequence to do exactly that. This is a very different class for students, and a lot of them work for the faculty. The university is also a research school. My research area is focused on utility issues such as concentrate reduction, indirect potable reuse, outfall, and deep-well disposal. We have done water use profiling, odor control

evaluation, separating inflow and infiltration (along with product development), and water quality work in local inlets. I was asked to help evaluate infrastructure in coastal areas with respect to sea-level rise, and ended up with a number of publications on assessment methods for water, sewer stormwater, roads, and the like. We developed a light detection and ranging (LiDAR)/geographic information systems (GIS)/groundwater modeling tool for low lying areas. Last year we finished the most complete national database of aquifer storage recovery (ASR) systems. Areas that need work are the water—power nexus, and more assessment of infrastructure needs. In Florida, the long-term evaluation of infrastructure is a critical and underfunded issue, especially where sea levels will rise with time. Sustainability is an area where I have done some investigation, and a lot more needs to be done, because in most cases, the concept is interpreted very narrowly; this has to change. We are actively gathering data on water use and economic activity, and developing modeling to help to determine the funding needed to sustain water and sewer systems. Meanwhile, I help utilities secure state revolving fund loans, develop management strategies, put together design-build packages and other small projects, and help with infiltration and inflow correction. I have put my students to work on small projects for my consulting clients, such as streetscapes, water line installations, small water plant design projects, water quality testing, and the like. This is good for them, good for the clients, and costeffective. I’m always looking for more, of course. Education and training completed.  Ph.D. in civil engineering from the University of Miami; emphasis on risk analysis, groundwater resources, and utility management and planning (Dissertation Title: Development of a Predictive Bayesian Microbial Dose-Response Function; Advisor James D. Englehardt).  Master of public administration from the

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; emphasis on local government management and finance, and a minor in planning (Final Project: Energy Contingency Planning).  Bachelor of science in civil engineering from the University of Cincinnati; concentration in construction project management and concrete design, with strong emphasis in water and sewer system design and treatment, traffic engineering, and planning.  I also have a professional engineer license in nine states, and an operator license in North Carolina for water plants, wastewater plants, sewer collection, and water distribution systems. I have taken hundreds of hours of training, including certification classes in asphalt. Who knew that would come in handy 20 years after I took it! What do you like best about your job? I like the constant challenges. I don’t do very much repetitive work and that is good. My projects end up being challenges; someone wants a solution to a difficult problem, and we handle do it: phytoremediation, total phosphorous under 10 ppb, 95 percent recovery of concentrate, tracing outfall constituents, tracing septic tank discharges— we can do it and have done it. I’m always looking for a new problem to solve. My students constantly present new and interesting concepts and they grow tremendously. They are constantly changing; I teach four classes regularly and virtually everyone takes all of them. Most of our students work at least part-time while going to school, with families, etc.; they are not traditional college kids. Yet, I will put FAU civil engineering students up against any others in the state. What organizations do you belong to? AWWA, FSAWWA, WEF, FWPCOA, NGWA, ASCE, ASTM. Activities are as follows:  Advisory Committee on Water Information; advise the United States Geological Survey (2006 to date) Continurd on page 62

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Continurd from page 61  American Water Works Association (1986 to date)  Water Resource Division trustee (2003 to date; vice chair, 2004 to 2007; chair 2007– 2010. Chair, Sustainable Water Sources Conference, Reno, 2008)  Education Committee (2007-2010; 2012 to date; chair, 2010)  Section Subcommittee for Technical and Educational Council (2010 to date)

 University Student Activities Committee (2006-2012)  Climate Change Committee (2010 to date)  Groundwater Committee (1994 to date; chair, 1999 to 2002; 2011 to date) Completed revision to M21, version 3  ASR Committee (1995 to date)  Annual Conference Program Committee (1996 to date)  Florida Section American Water Works Association (1989 to date)

 Technical Program chair (2004 to date)  Water Management District Review Committee (1995 to 1997)  Reuse Committee (1995 to 1997) I have done a lot of volunteer work for AWWA. In addition to serving on committees, I have developed training for water plant operators, elected officials, managers, and underground utilities. How have these organizations helped your career? I’ve been encouraged by AWWA to talk to people and communicate with them, so I have met hundreds of people through AWWA and FSAWWA. They are all good people who have given me lots of good contacts and lots of great resources. Everyone needs to network with an organization or two (or three). I have been involved in the development of over 200 publications and a lot of them are for FSAWWA or AWWA, which is why I did the training for them as well. I am the student advisor to ASCE, which got me involved with ASTM. Every organization brings you into contact with new people and new ideas, which encourages you to expand your knowledge. I have been less active in WEF and NGWA simply due to time constraints. What do you like best about the industry? The constant challenges, just like my job. The water industry is not and cannot be considered “static,” but is very dynamic, which is difficult for many people to grasp. Sure, a lot stays the same day after day, but infrastructure and water supplies are constantly changing, and sustainability is a big issue in terms of finances, infrastructure, and supply. Everything is related and part of what makes us economically advanced. I like the people. The water industry is much smaller than people think—everyone can get to know virtually everyone else. We can and do learn a lot from each other, but still need to talk and share more. Everyone I have met and spent time with in the industry wants to do a good job and has the public they serve as their first priority. What do you do when you’re not working? Not working? When is that? Ok, I do hike, averaging 100 miles the last five years over 8000 feet, mostly in Colorado. I do a lot of photography—30 or 40,000 pictures and counting; a disproportionate share of them are water plants and moose photos. I play around with music a little, but have not had time. I have professional problems to solve—working on one with mining right now. 


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Sustainability: Good for the Environment, Communities, Organizations, and You! Jeff Poteet President, FWPCOA t is that time of year again—the Florida Water Resource Conference has arrived! This year’s theme is “Sustainability: Balancing Supply and Demand,” and as drinking water professionals, we are committed to promoting sustainable practices, including infrastructure sustainability. Collection and distribution systems, treatment plants, and other infrastructure that collects, treats, and delivers water-related services are the backbone of our communities. Throughout the country, sustainable infrastructure and systems are in place, ensuring the environmental and economic sustainability of our communities. In other


words, it is because of people like you, our community’s water and wastewater professionals, who keep our communities healthy, wealthy, and sustainable! And it’s organizations like FWPCOA that help educate our industry. We, as an organization, promote the water service industry, and this helps advance the broader goals of our communities. Although your efforts may go unnoticed by many, I for one want to thank you for all of the services that you provide. You make our communities sustainable!

Executive Director Steps Down I would like to recognize one of our organization’s longtime active members, Timothy McVeigh. Tim has been an active member of Region VII for many years, is a past president of FWPCOA, and has served as our executive director for the past couple of years. At the

January board of directors meeting, Tim announced that he would be stepping down from his director role. Although Tim will not be totally out of the FWPCOA picture, he is lightening up his load to do silly things like traveling and spending more time with is beautiful bride, Terry. Over the past few years I have gotten to know Tim and to rely on him for many reasons that are too numerous to count. The association has genuinely benefited from Tim’s efforts and this loss will take some time to recover from. Of course, Tim will still administer our Online Institute; help develop, launch, and produce webinars; and continue as an active Region VII member—he’ll just be doing it for free! Tim, on behalf of the association, thank you for all you’ve done and the things you continue to do to keep FWPCOA sustainable! Continurd on page 63

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


FWPCOA Historical Committee Requests Your Assistance! The Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) is compiling a concise history of the organization and its historical ties with Florida’s water and sewer industry for the 65th anniversary of the Florida Water Resources Journal. Do you remember Dr. A.P. Black? How about David B. Lee, George Lohmeyer, Charles Fiveash, or one of the

other historical names from the past? Do you, or your utility or company, have any old historic records or photos of any of the people or events that shaped FWPCOA? We need your help! Please send any information you would like to share to the FWPCOA historian, Al Monteleone at by May 31. Your assistance is greatly appreciated!

Continued from page 63

Training Opportunities For those of us who have not met the continuing education unit (CEU) license renewal requirement, we have one year to do it. The FWPCOA has many ways to meet your educational needs and sustain your career. The association can bring training to you through our on-the-road program or through the Online Institute. Of course, we have our traditional classroom training that is offered regionally or at our state short schools. Please let us know if there is a particular type of training that you would like to get and we’ll make every effort to accommodate your requests. For contact information visit or call Shirley Reaves at (321) 383-9690. Please keep in mind that this is your association! Come out and get involved in the things that we do—you are going to love it! 


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Tank Engineering And Management Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983


Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014



Fort Lauderdale 954.351.9256

Jacksonville 904.733.9119

Miami 305.443.6401

Orlando 407.423.0030

Gainseville 352.335.7991

Key West 305.294.1645

Navarro 850.939.8300

Tampa 813.874.0777 813.386.1990

West Palm Beach 561.904.7400

Naples 239.596.1715

Showcase Your Company in the Engineering or Equipment & Services Directory Contact Mike Delaney at 352-241-6006



April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Motor & Utility Services, LLC

Instrumentation,Controls Specialists Instrumentation Calibration Troubleshooting and Repair Services On-Site Water Meter Calibrations Preventive Maintenance Contracts Emergency and On Call Services Installation and System Start-up Lift Station Controls Service and Repair

Central Florida Controls,Inc. Florida Certified in water meter testing and repair P.O. Box 6121 • Ocala, FL 34432 Phone: 352-347-6075 • Fax: 352-347-0933

CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors

w w w. c e nt r a l f l or i d a c ont rol s . c om

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014



Positions Av ailable The Town of Hillsboro Beach is accepting applications for a Class C or higher Water Treatment Plant Operator or a trainee who has completed the DEP approved coursework. For application, please visit

Lead Power Plant Operator, Third Shift (US-FL-Orlando) Compensation: $25.00 - $30.00 / Hour, Full time Our client company exists to create a more sustainable future by helping communities better manage and beneficially re-use their organic waste. Their vision is to find the highest and best use for the 500 million tons of organic materials produced in North America each year. The company operates facilities in the Mid-Atlantic and West Coast of the US, and in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. They have a management team with deep experience in composting, renewable energy, supply chain management, engineering, law and finance. The company has an immediate need for a Lead Plant Operator (and other positions) on the third shift responsible for daily operation of the Biogas Plant, including receiving feedstock, monitoring the anaerobic digestion process, operating dewatering equipment, and monitoring the wastewater treatment system. Position Qualifications: • Previous experience in power plant operation and/or utilization. • Strong understanding of pumps, scales, centrifuges, power, and dryer processes • Must be familiar with SCADA and understand the entire production process • A Class A Wastewater Certification is highly desired • Experience in an industrial manufacturing environment. • HS Diploma required. Post-secondary education in a science background helpful • Advanced experience with mechanical and electrical systems. • Strong attention to detail. Chris Stubbs, Link Staffing Services, Orlando, FL, Fax: 407-438-1333 Phone: 407-438-5465


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Collection Field Tech – I & II - Utilities Operator II - Customer Service Technician I - Distribution Field Tech – I Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and employment application. Applications may be submitted online, emailed to or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Utilities Storm Water Supervisor $53,039-$74,630/yr. Plans/directs the maintenance, construction, repair/tracking of stormwater infrastructure. AS in Management, Environmental studies, or related req. Min. five years’ exp. in stormwater operations or systems. FWPCOA “A” Cert. req.

Utilities Treatment Plant Operator I $41,138-$57,885/yr plus $50/biweekly for “B” lic.; 100/biweekly for “A” lic. Class “C” FL DW Operator Lic. & membrane experience required.

Lift Station Operator I $37,313 - $52,503/yr. Inspects/repairs wastewater pumps, electrical equipment and radio telemetry system. FL Class “C” WW Collection cert. & Class “B” CDL required. Apply: 100 W. Atlantic Blvd., Pompano Beach, FL 33060. Open until filled. E/O/E. for details.

Purchase Private Utilities and Operating Routes Florida Corporation is interested in expanding it’s market in Florida. We would like you and your company to join us. We will buy or partner for your utility or operations business. Call Carl Smith at 727-8359522. E-mail:

We are currently accepting employment applications for the following positions: Water & Wastewater Licensed Operator’s – positions are available in the following counties: Pasco, Polk, Highlands, Lee, Marathon Maintenance Technicians – positions are available in the following locations: Jacksonville, New Port Richey, Fort Myers, Lake, Marion, Ocala, Pembroke Pines Construction Manager – Hillsborough Customer Service Manager - Pasco Employment is available for F/T, P/T and Subcontract opportunities Please visit our website at (Employment application is available in our website) 4939 Cross Bayou Blvd. New Port Richey, FL 34652 Toll Free: 1-866-753-8292 Fax: (727) 848-7701 E-Mail:

Water and Wastewater Utility Operations, Maintenance, Engineering, Management

WASTEWATER MECHANICAL SUPERVISOR The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is looking for a Wastewater Mechanical Supervisor to direct the daily maintenance, repair, replacement, modification, and new installation of all Wastewater Treatment Plants, Reclaimed Pump Stations, and Collection Systems (including gravity, force mains, low pressure and vacuum) components throughout our service area. Qualifications: High school diploma or GED; supplemented by college level course work or vocational training in water/wastewater utilities and equipment operation; supplemented by five (5) years previous experience and/or training that includes progressively more responsible experience in wastewater utility, WWTP, reclaimed pumping stations, and collection system construction, maintenance, or repair; or any equivalent combination of education, training, and experience which provides the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities for this job. Must have CSUS certificates for Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems Volumes 1 & 2. Must have or obtain (minimum) FDEP “C” WWTP Operators license within 18 months of holding this position. Must possess and maintain a valid Florida Class “A” Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) including appropriate endorsement(s). This position is subject to random drug/alcohol testing as required under the Federal Department of Transportation’s Random Testing for C.D.L. drivers. Must be able to comprehend and communicate the English Language. Salary Range: $66,939. - $102,015. Location: Marathon, FL Must apply on-line at: Open until filled EEO, VPE, ADA

St. Lucie County - Utility Engineer St. Lucie County is seeking a Utility Engineer for its Water & Wastewater Utility. For more information on how to apply and the deadline please visit

PLANT OPERATOR Plant operator, Fl. Class “C” preferred, responsible for operating process equipment & controls for biosolids heat drying facility located in PB County. Duties include: meeting production goals, safety & environmental compliance, light maintenance plus plant housekeeping. Must demonstrate a positive team attitude and be mechanically inclined. Current Fl. Driver’s license and HS equivalent a must. Prefer Fl. Class “C” WW license. Requires shift work, mandatory OT, good communication, safety first attitude and good writing & math skills. Competitive pay & good benefits offered. E-mail resume to: M/F/D/V EOE.

Maintenance Manager - Ave Maria, FL CH2M HILL seeks a Maintenance Manager for its award-winning project in Ave Maria, FL. CH2M HILL provides O&M services for the Ave Maria Utility Company, which include utility development services, customer service, billing/collection, water, wastewater and irrigation. Salary is regionally competitive and will be commensurate with experience. For more information or to apply for this position, visit: and search for Requisition #: 56233BR. or apply online at

Electrical Engineer Town of Lake Placid, Florida Director of Utilities Civil Engineering Degree or Finance Degree preferred. Experience in managing and operating water and wastewater systems required. Experience in financial issues involving the management, operation and acquisition of utilities is required. Prefer that applicant have at least a Florida dual “C” Certification in water and wastewater treatment or ability to obtain within three months of hire. Interested parties may mail resumes to Town Administrator by email at, 311 W. Interlake Blvd, Lake Placid, FL 33852. Download job description and emp. application from website at: EOE/DFWP.

Wade Trim is currently seeking a highly motivated Electrical Engineer to join our team in the Tampa, FL office. Candidates must have a minimum of 5 years of related experience and a Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical Engineering. Individuals must have a strong AutoCAD background relating to electrical diagrams, schematics, details and P&IDs. Experience using Word, Excel, Outlook and other Microsoft products are also required. Individuals must be self-motivated and able to work well with others. If you are looking for a challenging and rewarding career in a friendly environment, please submit your resume to and apply under the Careers section and reference job number 263. Wade Trim is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


City of Tarpon Springs, Florida Water Distribution Senior Technician Hourly Range: $14.17 - $22.83 D.O.Q. Under limited supervision, coordinates, plans and participates in the repair, construction and maintenance of water distribution systems and reclaimed water infrastructure, including fire hydrants, distribution lines, valves and meters. Position performs a limited supervisory role over assigned technicians to ensure work is completed in an organized, prioritized and efficient manner consistent with applicable standards. Makes field inspections to ensure proper operation of equipment and activities. Assists Utilities Sr. Technician with administration and operation of utilities functions, including personnel matters. Successful candidate must possess a High School diploma/GED, with vocational training in heavy equipment operation, utilities operation, maintenance, repair or construction preferred. Three to five years experience in construction, installation and repairs of utilities systems is required. An equivalent combination of education and experience may be substituted at the City’s discretion. A Class III Distribution Systems Operator’s license is required and must be maintained, as well as a valid Florida Commercial Driver’s Class “B” license with Air Brake Endorsement and Tanker Endorsement. Applications and job descriptions can be obtained from the Human Resources Dept. at 324 E. Pine St. Tarpon Springs, Fl. 34689 or Resumes must be accompanied by an application. Open Until Filled

City of Marco Island Water Treatment Plant Operator I, Class C The City of Marco Island is seeking qualified applicants for a Water Treatment Plant Operator I. A Class "C" DW license and valid FL driver's license are required. Visit for more information and to download an application. EOE/DFWP/VP

Bonita Springs Utilities Chief Waste Water Operator Salary: $51,065 to $76,595 Directs and supervises the daily operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plant(s); Directs and coordinates work assignments of subordinate staff; evaluates employees’ performance; Maintains compliance with all regulatory bodies; Develops budget proposals and capital project plans; Reviews plans for plant upgrades; meets with consultants and contractors when necessary; Thorough knowledge of the operating principles and practices of a wastewater treatment plant; operation and maintenance standards, methods, materials, and equipment; Skill in utilizing computer for monitoring telemetry system, alarms, and maintenance management program; Ability to plan, assign, supervise, and evaluate the work of subordinates; Knowledge of Class AA biosolids handling; State of Florida Class “A” Wastewater Plant Operator’s license; 5 years’ experience of direct supervision in a Waste Water Facility; Membrane experience a plus Submit applications to Nathalie Galvan, HR Manager @ ngal


April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC UTILITIES CITY OF WEST PALM BEACH, FL Summary: Reporting to the Assistant City Administrator, the Director of Public Utilities plans, manages, and directs the operations and services of the Department of Public Utilities, including all city utilities, water and wastewater treatment systems, water distribution, sanitary collection, water catchment area, meters, customer service and utility billing and other related operations of the City. The incumbent of this position is responsible for compliance with regulatory requirements for water and wastewater permits including the water use permit for health and safety of the customers; responds to and resolves sensitive and complex community and organization inquires and complaints; manages and coordinates the development of the department budget; oversees CIP planning and implementation; represents the department and/or city on boards, committees, at commission meetings, with regulatory agencies and within the community. Qualifications: The position requires a Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university preferably with a major in Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering or closely related field and seven (7) years of experience in a water, wastewater or public works setting to include five (5) years in a management capacity with responsibility for a large division within a public utility. A State of Florida Professional Engineer License, highly desirable. A State of Florida valid driver’s license, required. A valid driver’s license from any state (equivalent to a State of Florida Class E) may be utilized upon application; with the ability to obtain the State of Florida driver’s license within 30 days from day of appointment. Compensation and Benefits: Depending on qualifications, the salary range for this position can be within the range of $114,194 to $142,871. HOW TO APPLY: If you are interested in applying for this position visit website at and apply online. OPEN UNTIL FILLED EOE/DRUG FREE WORKPLACE

Water Treatment Plant Operator The City of Edgewater is seeking qualified applicants for a Water Treatment Plant Operator. Class “C” Water Plant Operator Certification and Valid FL driver’s license are required. Current Salary Range is $30,638 - $49,709. Applications may be obtained from the Personnel Dept or, and submitted to City Hall, 104 N Riverside Dr, Edgewater, FL 32l32 or Faxed to 386-424-2474. EOE/DFWP/VP

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATOR Destin Water Users is taking applications for a Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator. Position is responsible for overall operation/preventative maintenance of our 6MGD wastewater treatment plant and its associated equipment. Operators are subject to shift work and holidays as assigned. A minimum of “C” license, two (2) years of experience; a valid Florida Driver’s License required. Preference will be given to those with advanced licenses and extensive process control experience. DWU offers a generous benefits package and compensation will be commensurate with education and experience. The position is open until filled. EOE. To apply please visit

Sarasota County A great place to live, work, and play! Check out our Great Opportunities (941) 861-5742 Tobacco Free/Drug Free Work Environment

Assistant Director Field Services Department Toho Water Authority Toho Water Authority is the largest provider of water, wastewater and reclaimed water services in Osceola County, Florida. Toho Water Authority currently serves approximately 88,000 water, 82,400 wastewater and 12,000 reclaimed water customers in Kissimmee, Poinciana and unincorporated areas of Osceola County. The Field Services Department is responsible for operation and repairs of the water distribution system, reclaimed water distribution system and the wastewater collection system. Field Services is an integral part of the Toho Water Authority team and works very closely with Customer Service and Treatment Operations. The Assistant Director is a management level position and reports directly to the Department Director. The Assistant Director is responsible to provide effective supervision to 59 utility workers, 7 foreman and 4 clerical personnel. The ideal candidate should be experienced in working with computerized maintenance management systems and all facets of distribution and collection piping systems. The ability to organize and plan work is a must. Starting salary is $56,506 and is negotiable based on experience. To view the full job description and apply online, please visit

Client Services Manager Reiss Engineering, Inc., a growing consulting engineering firm specializing in potable water and water reclamation consulting engineering, is currently hiring for an experienced Client Services Manager in the Tampa Bay area. For more information about career opportunities or to apply for this position, please visit

Positions Wantetd STANFORD KNIGHT – Holds a Florida C Wastewater and C Water license with 10 years experience and prefers the central Florida area but is willing to relocate. Contact at 1030 NW 118th St, Miami, Fl. 33168. 786-439-7317 JONATHAN ZAHLER – Seeking a Trainee position and has passed the C Water exam and needs hours in plant to obtain his license. Computer literate. Prefers Tampa/Brandon area. Contact at 710 Erik Lake Road, Brandon, Fl. 33510. 813-309-1417 TRICIA ANDERSON – Seeking a C Water Trainee position and needs time in plant to sit for license. Prefers Broward County(Ft Lauderdale/Miami areas). Contact at 3760 SW 48th Ave., Apt. 202, Pembroke Park, Fl. 954-381-6167 Looking For a Job? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


Certification Boulevard Answer Key February 2014

From page 50 1.


There are two types of chlorine gassing: wet and dry. Dry gassing is very irritable and causes choking. If exposed, avoid coughing, leave the area immediately, take short breaths, and do not run from the area since this causes deeper and more rapid breathing. Wet gassing comes from fumes of aqueous solutions. This does not seem as irritable and you may inhale large amounts of molecular chlorine. This can cause pulmonary edema (inner-tissue fluid collecting in and filling the lungs) and you can drown while sleeping.

B) 1,125 lbs/day Demand = Supply - Residual OR Supply - Demand = Residual • Supply is given at 1,350 lbs/day • Residual = 13.5 mgd x 2.0 mg/l x 8.34 lbs/gal = 225.18 lbs/day • 1,350 lbs/day - 225.2 lbs/day = 1,124.8 lbs/day


B) About 460 volumes Upon contact with the air, when liquid converts to gas, it expands about 460 times. This means that one volume of liquid expands to 460 volume of gas. So, a leaking container of chlorine should always be rotated where the leak is gas-side up.



B) Chlorine residual will increase if the chlorine feed rate is decreased. When chlorine reacts with ammonia, it creates chloramines. If the chlorine feed rate is decreased during this reaction, the actual residual will increase, provided there is enough ammonia to maintain the chloramine residual. If the chlorine feed rate is increased during this reaction with ammonia, the actual chlorine residual will decrease. With each increase in feed rate, the residual will decrease until the breakpoint is achieved. Then, 1 ppm of chlorine feed will equal 1 ppm of free chlorine residual.

D) SO2 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless, nonflammable gas, with strong, pungent, suffocating odor. Its vapor density is 2.26 times that of air at atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide, typically used for dechlorination of chlorinated effluent, is normally supplied under pressure in containers. Both liquid and gaseous phases are present in the pressurized container. Caution: Sulfur dioxide gas is intensely irritating to the eyes, throat, and upper respiratory system. Liquid sulfur dioxide may cause skin bums, which results from the freezing effect of the liquid on tissue.


D) 1000 ppm 1000 ppm is a deadly concentration in just a few short breaths.

B) From the top valve. Chlorine ton containers are manufactured with liquid chlorine under pressure. Due to evaporative temperature of chlorine, some of the liquid is always being converted to gas inside of the container. Gas is withdrawn from the top valve and liquid is withdrawn from the bottom valve.



B) The ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by microorganisms and damages the genetic makeup of the organisms, preventing their further reproduction. Ultraviolet (UV) lamps are used for germicidal disinfection by producing light at required wavelengths to destroy up to 99.99 percent of all bacteria, protozoa, viruses, molds, algae, and other microbes. This includes such waterborne diseases as: Escherichia coli, hepatitis, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever, as well as many others.

Editorial Calendar

B) Dry and wet.


D) O3 Ozone (O3) is formed primarily through a reaction between the common oxygen molecule (O2) and radiation from the sun. When highenergy ultraviolet radiation strikes an oxygen molecule, it splits the molecule into separate atoms. Each atom quickly joins an O2 molecule, producing O3 - ozone. This occurs primarily in the stratosphere.

10. B) With the leak at the top. Because liquid chlorine will convert to gas at a rate of about 460 times, it is important to locate the leak "gas side up." With the leak located at the top of the container, the least amount of chlorine will escape.

January . . . . . .Wastewater Treatment February . . . . .Water Supply; . . . . . . . . . . . .Alternative Sources March . . . . . . .Energy Efficiency; . . . . . . . . . . . . .Environmental Stewardship April . . . . . . . .Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May . . . . . . . . .Operations and Utilities Management June . . . . . . . .Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production; . . . . . . . . . . . .FWRC Review July . . . . . . . . .Stormwater Management; . . . . . . . . . . . . .Emerging Technologies August . . . . . .Disinfection; Water Quality; 65th Anniversary September . . .Emerging Issues; . . . . . . . . . . . .Water Resources Management October . . . . . .New Facilities, Expansions and Upgrades November . . . .Water Treatment December . . . .Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index Aqua - Aerobic ..................................31 Auto Meg ..........................................62 Blue Planet ........................................29 Brown & Caldwell ..............................25 CEU Challange ..................................49 Conshield ............................................6 Crom ................................................21 Data Flow ..........................................51 Data Management ............................13 Evoqua ..............................................59 FSAWWA Ace ....................................54 FSAWWA Call For Papers......................9


FSAWWA Drop Savers........................64 FSAWWA Training ..............................45 FWPCOA On-Line Training ..................37 FWPCOA Training ..............................15 Garney ................................................5 GML Coatings ..............................10,47 Heyward ............................................71 Hudson Pumps ..................................35 Hydro International ............................63 ISA ....................................................64 Leggette, Brashers ............................16 LFM ..................................................48

April 2014 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Mathews............................................53 McKim & Creed..................................17 Old Castle ..........................................14 PC Construction ................................62 PCL....................................................18 Permaform ........................................11 Philadelphia Mixing............................27 Power & Pump ..................................19 Rangeline ..........................................73 Reiss Engineering ................................7 Smith & Loveless ..............................41 Stacon ................................................2

Stantec ................................................4 Treeo ................................................23 US Water ..........................................60 Wade Trim ........................................55 Xylem ................................................74 FWRC PROGRAM ADVERTISER INDEX Atkins ..................................................4 AWT ..................................................15 NOASH ................................................9 Polston Process ................................25 Therman Flite ....................................26 Veolia Water ......................................16

70- Wade trim 71- Stantec FWEA 1/4 page 72 - Move directories C- factor start on 70 & jump ad log arcadis and ISA

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2014


April - Florida Water Resources Journal  

Conservation and Reuse - Florida Water Resources Conference Issue

April - Florida Water Resources Journal  

Conservation and Reuse - Florida Water Resources Conference Issue