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Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

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News and Features 20 22 40 42 44

Technical Articles 4

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Call for Innovative Technologies for 2017 IR2 Forum 2016-2017 FSAWWA Board of Governors Register Now for 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests! WEF HQ Newsletter: A Hot Solution— Caroline Dale Anaheim Reappointed as FWPCOA President

Northwest Water Reclamation Facility Phase-Three Improvements Project—Kenny Blanton, Mark Ikeler, Mark Robinson, Nicole Quinby, Steven Scott, Neil Massart, and Bikram Sabherwal An Overview of Innovative Technologies: Can They Provide Benefits to Florida Water Resource Recovery Facilities?—Rod Reardon, Raj Chavan, Dwayne Kreidler, and Jon DeArmond Lessons Learned From Design to Start-Up of a Greenfield Wastewater Plant in St. Johns County—Cecile Toupiol, Teri Pinson, Scott Trigg, David Rasmussen, and Rick Newberg

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FSAWWA Speaking Out—Grace Johns Process Page: Award-Winning Bonita Springs Utilities East Water Reclamation Facility Uses Innovative Technology to Treat Wastewater and Produce Wholesale Fertilizer—Jamie Zivich FWEA Committee Corner—Ryan Olinger and Lindsey Short C Factor—Scott Anaheim Test Yourself—Ron Trygar FWEA Focus—Lisa Prieto Process Page: Florida Governmental Utility Authority’s Golden Gate Wastewater Treatment Facility Proves Successes Through Innovation, Continued Improvement, and Staff Dedication—Robert Gaylord, Jacob Porter, and Nathaniel Mastroeni Reader Profile—Paul Pinault

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Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

ON THE COVER: Orange County Utilities Northwest Water Reclamation Facility, an 11.25-mgd advanced waste treatment plant in northwestern Orange County, near Apopka. A new blower building with new basins (upper middle) and expanded ditches (middle) comprise the five-stage Bardenpho process upgrades that have led to significantly reduced nutrient discharges, protecting the Wekiva River basin and spring systems. More information about the project begins on page 4. (photo: Orange County Utilities)

Volume 68

January 2017

Number 1

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017



Northwest Water Reclamation Facility Phase-Three Improvements Project Kenny Blanton, Mark Ikeler, Mark Robinson, Nicole Quinby, Steven Scott, Neil Massart, and Bikram Sabherwal range County Utilities owns and operates the Northwest Water Reclamation Facility (NWRF), which provides wastewater service to customers in northwestern Orange County. In 2008, faced with projections of increasing flow based on anticipated growth in the region and environmental concerns related to the Wekiva Rule, the county embarked on a plan to expand the flow capacity of the NWRF by 50 percent and also enhance its treatment processes. These improvements were the third phase of a long-term plan previously developed for the NWRF.


Regulatory Requirements In 2004, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) published the Wekiva Rule that recommended wastewater and reclaimed water treatment strategies to achieve nitrogen reductions protective of surface water and groundwater in the Wekiva study area. The Wekiva River was showing signs of degradation due to increased nitrate levels and the study was performed to determine the optimal ways to protect the river and spring systems. The study outlined protection zone requirements for total nitrogen (TN) in three zones: primary (3-mg/L TN limit), secondary (6-

mg/L TN limit), and tertiary (10-mg/L limit). While the plant is located in the secondary zone, the county utilized rapid infiltration basins (RIBs) within the primary zone. Rather than forgo the use of the RIBs, and to prevent future environmental concerns with effluent discharges, the county opted to design the NWRF upgrades to advanced waste treatment standards limiting the effluent TN to 3 mg/L on an annual average basis. The regulatory requirements, together with reclaimed water management plans, dictate the treatment requirements. Regulatory requirements and revisions to the Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.) impact the NWRF in regards to the Wekiva Protection Act, effluent disposal, and biosolids. In April 2006, revisions to Chapter 62600, F.A.C. became effective. The revisions required existing facilities with reuse or land application systems within the Wekiva primary and secondary protection zones to meet more stringent reclaimed water limits for nitrogen by April 2011. Approximately 120,000 acres of the 300,000-acre Wekiva study area lie within Orange County and the NWRF falls within this boundary in both primary and secondary protection zones. Although, the majority of the RIBs at the NWRF are located within the secondary protection

Mark Ikeler, P.E., is chief engineer and Mark Robinson is assistant manager with Orange County Utilities in Orlando. Kenneth Blanton, P.E., is project manager, Steven Scott is mechanical engineer in training, Neil Massart, P.E., is director of operations– technology group, and Bikram Sabherwal, P.E., is process engineer with Black & Veatch in Orlando. Nicole Quinby, P.E., is project engineer with Kimley Horn & Associates in Orlando, and at the time the article was written, was with Black & Veatch.

zone, two of the RIBs are located in the primary protection zone. The rule states that when reuse or land application systems are located in two or more protection zones, the protection zone featuring the more stringent control measures shall apply to the entire reuse or land application system. The NWRF is therefore required to meet the most stringent requirement of the 3-mg/L TN limit to meet the enhanced treatment requirements recommended by the FDEP, unless some of the existing RIBs are abandoned. Rather than abandon existing RIBs, the county chose to follow the more stringent design requirements for the primary protection zone.

Facility Background

Figure 1. Northwest Water Reclamation Facility Site Layout


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Prior to the phase-three upgrades, the NWRF was an advanced secondary wastewater treatment plant with effluent reuse and a permitted capacity of 7.5 mil gal per day (mgd) annual average flow and effluent nitrogen-nitrate limits of 12 mg/L. Influent was screened, degritted, and combined with return activated sludge (RAS). This mixed liquor was then split between two parallel trains, each utilizing a Modified Ludzack Ettinger (MLE) process with two anoxic basins in series: a Carrousel oxidation ditch, and a pair of secondary clarifiers. Effluent from secondary clarifiers is filtered and chlorinated prior to discharge. Effluent disposal options include public access reuse, onsite reuse, wetlands augmentation, and RIBs. The overall layout of the NWRF is shown in Figure 1. Continued on page 6

Continued from page 4 Generally, the new facilities constructed with the NWRF phase-three upgrades included the following: S Blower building S Train 3 aeration basin S Post-anoxic and reaeration basins (for total flow) S Raw sewage meter vaults Upgraded or expanded facilities with the NWRF phase-three upgrades included the following unit processes: S Preliminary treatment structure S Trains 1 and 2 basins and associated anaerobic/anoxic basins S Clarifiers 1 through 4 (minor modifications) S Electrical and instrumentation system upgrades

Process Design of FiveStage Bardenpho System To meet the regulatory driven requirement of an annual average TN effluent limit of <3 mg/L,

the existing treatment process was upgraded from an MLE process to a five-stage Bardenpho process. To expand the average design plant capacity from 7.5 mgd to 11.25 mgd, one new biological nutrient removal (BNR) train was constructed, resulting in three parallel BNR trains (two existing and one new) for stages 1, 2, and 3 of the five-stage Bardenpho process. The three parallel BNR trains are followed in series by a single train for Stages 4 and 5 (post-anoxic and reaeration). This BNR process, followed by filtration, is also capable of consistently achieving an effluent total phosphorus (TP) concentration of 1 mg/L. Currently, the NWRF does not have a regulated phosphorus limit. Table 1 shows the role of each stage in the five-stage Bardenpho process.

Modifications to Existing Biological Nutrient Removal Trains Existing BNR Trains 1 and 2 consist of two parallel oxidation ditches with surface aerators. Flow to each ditch first travels through two

Table 1. Five-Stage Bardenpho Process Environments and Metabolism

anoxic tanks (four tanks total, two per train). Each tank is equipped with slow-speed topentry mixers. Mixed liquor is pumped from each ditch to its first anoxic tank, where the mixed liquor combines with screened and degritted wastewater. The mixed liquor then flows through the second anoxic tank, and then to the oxidation ditch. Each oxidation ditch is equipped with two two-speed surface aerators. The following modifications were made to increase the capacity of each existing BNR train: S To increase nitrification capacity, the existing surface aerators were supplemented with a diffused aeration system, consisting of fine bubble membrane disc diffusers. S To increase denitrification capacity, additional anoxic tank volume was added and the existing internal recycle pumping capacity was increased to deliver more nitrates to the anoxic tankage. S To maintain mixed liquor settleability, a portion of the existing anoxic tankage was converted to anaerobic selector tankage. This tank receives RAS and influent wastewater, and the resulting mixed liquor flows to the anoxic tank(s) which also receives internal mixed liquor recycle flows. The overall process flow diagram for the modified BNR Trains 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 2. Supplemental aeration was required to increase the nitrification capacity of BNR Trains 1 and 2. The existing surface aerators continue to be used to keep the contents of the basins well mixed. The design of the diffuser grid included extra structural supports to resist the lateral forces imposed by the high velocities in the ditch. The design intent was for at least one of the existing surface aerators to operate at all times to keep the contents of the basins well mixed and to satisfy part of the process air demands. The balance of the process air demands can then be met by bringing into service blowers and diffusers, and the second surface aerator, or a combination thereof. Two anoxic zones were provided in each train with gates and piping to allow one of the zones to be taken out of service (without taking the entire train out of service). This provides operational flexibility to allow the denitrification volume to be optimized based upon the anticipated range of influent flows and loads, denitrification kinetics, and internal recycle pumping rate. The two pumps per train provide an internal recycle ratio up to approximately 5.7 at the design annual average daily flow (AADF) of 21.25 mgd/3.75 mgd; under normal operations, it is anticipated that only one of the internal recycle pumps will be required. Internal recycle flow rate is automatically paced in proportion to influent flow rate. The operator can manually adjust the Continued on page 8


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

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Continued from page 6 proportional control factor (percent of influent flow).

New Biological Nutrient Removal Train with Post-Anoxic and Reaeration A new train of BNR tankage was constructed for the expansion to 11.25-mgd capacity (phase three). The new tankage for Train 3 with stages 1, 2, and 3 of the five-stage Bardenpho process operates in parallel with the two existing trains. Mixed liquor from the first three stages (two existing trains and the new train) flows to a single train of new tankage for the fourth and fifth stages of the five-stage process. Combining stages 4 and

5 (post-anoxic and reaeration) provided an economy of scale rather than having individual basins for stage 4 and stage 5 within each train. The new plug flow BNR Train 3 is designed to operate slightly differently than the existing trains. Raw sewage and RAS combine and flow through two anaerobic zones, which are mixed but unaerated. The mixed liquor then combines with nitrified mixed liquor (internal recycle) and flows through three anoxic zones, also mixed but unaerated. The mixed liquor then flows through an oxic zone (mixed and aerated). The last portion of the oxic zone in the vicinity of the suction to internal recycle pumps is mixed but unaerated (de-oxygenation zone) in order to minimize dissolved oxygen (DO) carryover to the anoxic zones. Isolation gates and piping are provided to allow the nitrified mixed liquor to be recycled to either

Figure 2. Process Flow Diagram of Modified Biological Nutrient Removal Trains 1 and 2

the second, third, or fourth unaerated zone to accommodate varying wastewater characteristics or denitrification rates. Isolation gates and piping are also provided to allow the raw sewage to flow to either the first or second unaerated zone to allow the anaerobic volume to be adjusted in response to varying wastewater characteristics. Mixed liquor from the new BNR Train 3 combines with mixed liquor from the existing Trains 1 and 2 and flows through post-anoxic zones for additional denitrification. The combined mixed liquor then flows through reaeration zones. The fourth-stage tankage is divided into multiple cells. Gates and diversion channels are provided to route flow around the cells taken out of service for maintenance or to adjust the postanoxic volume to accommodate varying wastewater characteristics or denitrification rates. These diversion provisions provide the necessary redundancy for the fourth stage without the flow split associated with a multiple-train configuration. The fifth-stage tankage is divided into two cells; gates and diversion channels allow the cells to be operated in parallel or in a series, depending upon the particular configuration selected for the fourth-stage cells. Effluent from the post-anoxic and reaeration basin flows into a splitter box to control the flow split to the final clarifiers. Within Train 3, recycle pumps draw suction from the de-oxygenation zone at the end of the oxic zone, and discharge to either the second, third, or fourth unaerated anoxic zone (depending upon wastewater characteristics and denitrification rates) through a gated port located in the mixing chimney inlet to the unaerated anoxic zone. Mixing chimneys have been implemented as a low-energy method to preblend RAS and mixed liquor recycle flows, which results in better use of tank volume. The two recycle pumps per train provide an internal recycle ratio up to approximately 6.7 at the design AADF (25 mgd/3.75 mgd). Under normal operations, it is anticipated that only one of the internal recycle pumps will be required. The overall process flow diagram for the new BNR Train 3 is shown in Figure 3. The new BNR basins were provided with diffused aeration for the oxic and reaeration zones. The diffuser system for the oxic zone provides a tapered aeration arrangement with a higher diffuser density at the beginning of the plug flow reactor. Diffusers in the reaeration zones are spaced evenly throughout each zone to enable uniform mixing. Each unaerated tank is equipped with slow-speed top-entry mixers to keep solids in suspension, but to avoid air entrainment.

Gearless Turbo Blowers Figure 3. Process Flow Diagram of New Biological Nutrient Removal Train 3


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

In addition to updating the biological treatment trains, another key element of the plant im-

provements was the design and installation of highefficiency and high-speed gearless turbo blowers. These blowers were installed in a new blower building complete with a new electrical room for the major plant-side electrical system and two new 1,750-kilowatt (kW) engine generators. At the time of the NWRF design effort, gearless turbo blowers were a relatively new technology to the local market. The blowers were an attractive aeration alternative compared to older blower technologies due to the energy savings, their small footprint, and the relatively low mechanical maintenance that the new technology provides. The blowers generally provide a more energy-efficient blower for small- and mediumsized plants, while providing the added benefit of lubricant-free operation and a beltless machine with noncontact bearings. However, the complex electronics, high-speed floating impellers, and the equipment manufacturers being relatively new to the United States market have left the new turbo blower technology susceptible to problems or failures. The blowers are more sensitive to plant hiccups than older blower technologies or other standard equipment at water or wastewater treatment plants; therefore, special consideration should be taken when specifying the new blower technology. Ensuring a robust installation that will keep the turbo blowers continuously operating requires the proper selection of blower technology for the application, prequalifying the vendor(s), ensuring that performance curves are adequately steep for stable operation, properly storing the units onsite prior to installation, and including the right enhancements so the machines are suited for the application and environment. Enhancements that should be considered are as follows: S Filter all blower enclosure openings. S Isolate and air-condition the electronics cubicle in high-corrosive environments. S Provide bearing coatings for units in systems that require frequent start and stops. S Provide proper harmonic filters sized for the high-speed gearless turbo blower. S Provide phase monitors for systems prone to significant power surges. S Ensure that blowoff valves are fast-acting and quick-opening. S Recognize turn-down limitations of blower motor speed and design accordingly. S Consider the pressurization of the discharge header. Special consideration and sequencing of blower operation is required when a system is taken offline and the main air header depressurizes. S Special consideration is required for shutdown and restart during engine generator operation and transitions from utility power

Figure 4. Effluent Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Ammonia Performance

Figure 5. Effluent Total Nitrogen Performance

to standby generator power and then back to utility power.

Operations The NWRF has a considerable amount of operational flexibility. As previously discussed, there are three trains within the NWRF, with Train 3 being the newest. Gates between process zones, swing zones, mixing chimneys, and a fermenter were designed into the BNR to allow optimization of the denitrification process. The operator is using

the long residence times and swing zones to effectively reduce the nitrates to low levels. The TN is less than 2 mg/L annual average. Additionally, the plant has begun routing process water through the fermenter, which has effectively reduced the effluent TP to less than 1 mg/L, on average. Operators optimized the operation of Train 3 for denitrification by monitoring the nitrates in the last cell of the first anoxic zone and adjusting the mixed liquor recycle pump to take advantage of higher flows and loads during the day. TypiContinued on page 10

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ January 2017


Continued from page 9 cally, the mixed liquor recycle pump is operated at 2.8 times the influent at night during low flow, but during the day, the operators turn the pumps into manual mode and operate them at 100 percent speed to take advantage of the higher flow and loads. Operators tend to operate the plant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations and occasionally bump up the air to ensure that there is no long-term settling of solids in the aeration basin. While the Train 1 and 2 oxidation ditches were upgraded with fine-bubble-diffused aeration systems, the surface aerators remained to help maintain flow velocity during low-flow conditions. At current conditions, the operators are able to operate Trains 1 and 2 during nighttime lowflow conditions with just the use of the existing surface aerators, and they also have the ability to

remove either Train 1 or 2 from service without impacting plant operations. As flows and loads increase, they can switch to the diffused air system. By using the surface aerators, operators are better able to control denitrification in the plant by achieving some nitrification/denitrification in the oxidation ditch. After aeration, all of the flow from the three trains combines and flows through the second anoxic zone for additional denitrification, and subsequently, the reaeration zones.

Current Plant Performance The denitrification facilities of the new BNR process have been sized to achieve the 3-mg/L TN target without feeding any supplemental carbon. The ability to achieve an effluent TN of 3 mg/L is largely impacted by the amount of influent re-

fractory dissolved organic nitrogen (rDON). Process modeling indicated that the need for carbon supplementation would be an unlikely scenario under annual average conditions with typical influent nitrogen fractions. Under current operations, no chemical is added to this system, and yet the plant still achieves a high level of denitrification; however, a chemical feed system is currently being considered for those instances where chemicals may be warranted to achieve a high level of denitrification, such as colder winters or high flows and loads. This will ensure the plant can maintain a high level of denitrification consistently throughout the year. The NWRF currently receives an influent flow of about 5.5 mgd on an average basis. Figures 4 and 5 present the monthly average values for nitrogen species. Influent Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in 2015 averaged around 50 mg/L. Figure 4 shows that the NWRF is completely nitrifying, with the exception of a few months over 1 mg/L. The rDON typically varies between 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 mg/L. Figure 5 shows the monthly average values for effluent TN. As shown in the graph, the effluent TN shows a steep decline after facility upgrades and optimization of denitrification. The annual average effluent TN for 2015 was 2 mg/L. The excellent denitrification is also partly due to simultaneous nitrification denitrification in the oxidation ditches. The NWRF receives about 5 to 6 mg/L of TP. Currently there is no effluent phosphorus permit requirement, but the design of anaerobic zones and filtration should allow the plant to achieve less than 1 mg/L effluent TP. Plant staff is currently working on optimizing the effluent TP to less than 1 mg/L biologically.

Summary The NWRF phase-three improvements project was driven by regulatory requirements stemming from the 2004 Wekiva Rule that was implemented to protect the Wekiva River and its spring systems. The overall treatment plant design modifications, through proven treatment technology and operational flexibility, have led to the completion of a successful project. Nutrient discharges have been significantly reduced and permit limits have been consistently met, thus minimizing potential for environmental impacts.


Orange County Northwest Water Reclamation Facility


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Special thanks to Kenneth Rivera, senior operations specialist at Orange County Utilities, for his project participation and providing plant data. S


January 2017 â&#x20AC;¢ Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;¢ January 2017



January 2017 â&#x20AC;¢ Florida Water Resources Journal

TTeeeam Spir p riitt 2017

7KHGHÀQLWLRQRI7HDP6SLULWLV´DQHQWKXVLDVWLFDWWLWXGHWRZDUGVZRUNLQJ together with other peo ople as a team towards a common goal.“ The y of whom accomplish foundation of our industtry is the operators, many their tasks as a team end deavor. At the national comp petitions we witnessed many entertaining, expressive and clearly-iimplied team names. Heere’s a few examples: M Motley tl P Poo, Mi Mixed d Liqu Li uors, True Grit, Ra t Methane M th Madness, M d G it Sewer S Rats, a Buoys, Smooth h Operators, and so on. Jamaica Sludge Hustlers and Water We urge utilities to start assembling your teams, think t up a clever team name and creative team m photo, and be ready for the April competition to win prizes, trophies, and maybe a trip to the national n competitions. Show us your spirit!

“ T here isn’t a beetter way to promote haands-on training, deveelop a positive work atttitude, develop teamwork, impr i ove skills, build coonfidence, plus enjoy great networking opporrtunities.” Operations Challenge C Competition4 4 4 4 4 

7KH 2SHUDWLRQV &KDOOHQJH LV D VNLOOVEDVHG FRPSHWLWLRQ FRQVLVWLQJ RI ÀYH timed events that show wcase the knowledge an nd expertise of wastewateer WUHDWPHQW SODQW RSHUDWRUV 7KH WHDPV GLVSOD\ WKHLU SURÀFLHQF\ LQ SURFHVV control, maintenance, safety s y, collections, and the laboratory y. The Winning Teeam travels t to participate att the Water a Environmen nt Federation annual WEF FTEC Operations p Challen nge g repr p esenting g Florida. For more information ccontact Chris Fasnacht, Ciity of St. Cloud, 407-957-7198 or


The an nnual To op Ops competitio on will be held at the 2017 FWRC. To the “college bowl” of the water industrry.. Teeams of one, two or th hr or lab person nnel compete against each h other in a fast-paced q tournament. A team must consist of the same individuals th hroughout the entir Top O To Ops C Com mpetition, ii b the but h team members m b need d not be b em organization or o utility.. A moderator po oses a broad range of tech math problem ms, and the team scoring the t most points in the chaampionship round awarded the To Top Ops Championship. The T champion will repressent the FSAW WWA A

Best Taasting DDrinking Water a Contesst 4 4 4 4 4

At the 2017 FWRC, the Best Taasting Drinking Waater contest brings togetheer the twelve FSA AWW WWA regional drinking water champions c from across th he d d on taste, t t color St t off Florida. State Fl id Sampl S les l are jjudged l r, odor d r, and d clarity l ity. Th h he MXGJLQJ LV DOO VXEMHFWLYH DQG LV QRW VFLHQWLÀF LQ DQ\ ZD\ 2QFH WKH MXGJLQJ is complete, the winneer will be announced and d the Best Tasting a Drinkin ng Water a Champion of thee State will be crowned. We invite you to join us u for this prestigious eveent and watch as the Statte comes together for som me healthy competition in n providing the best tastin ng drinking water in Floriida! For more inform mation, contact: Peggy Gu uingona at peggy@fsawwa.

@ http://fwrc.o c oorg/2017-fwr g/2017 fwrc/contest-entry c/contest entryy-form/ y form/ See Attendee Registrattion Form for discounted commpetitor reegistration in ordder to be eligible to earn CEUs/PPDHs for participation Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017



hen I try to imagine what it would be like without the hard work of Florida’s water professionals in bringing safe, reliable water to every household and business in this state, I think of Bolivia, where 25 percent of the population does not have access to improved water sources. Many people there struggle each day to find enough water of any quality, and as a result, they suffer from illness and poverty. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 663 million people rely on unimproved water sources susceptible to contamination for their drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene. When you compare these areas to Florida, it’s evident to me that the economic value of safe, convenient, and reliable water is enormous. It’s been estimated by WHO that every dollar invested in water and sanitation in areas that lack these basic services provides a four-dollar economic return from improved health and increased productivity. Water is indispensable to households, and to commercial and industrial production. Without water, we would lose our health, our income, and our high quality of life. Florida’s value of goods and services totaled $883 billion in 2015. Without Florida’s water utilities, this value would dry up. This is why it’s difficult to put a total dollar value on this water because the value is so huge. Fortunately, in Florida we don’t have to put a dollar value on this water because we are able to provide this basic and critical service at an affordable price. But once we get beyond what is needed for public health and economic prosperity, the value of this additional water is lower and can be reasonably estimated. Water for taking long showers, running baths, filling swimming pools, washing cars, and irrigating lawns can be used more efficiently and be better managed—especially in response to increased water prices and supply shortages. Water can be reused, leaks can be repaired, water-efficient technologies can be installed, and water waste eliminated. The value of this water can be estimated using the large number of water demand studies produced in Florida and throughout the United States. This value follows two tenets of economic theory: first, each additional unit of water you use has less and less value to you; and second, you will stop using water when your value of that last unit is lower than the water and sewer rate. As a result, your value of water is more than what you paid for it. While average water use and the value of this water differ from one local area to the next,



We Are the Value of Water an overall estimate for Florida is provided here as an example. Florida’s average household water use is roughly 340 gallons per household per day, and about 220 of these are beyond what is needed for drinking, cooking, and sanitation. The 220 gallons equates to 80,300 gallons per year. We know from water demand studies that the value of this water to the household is on average about $1,600. This means that households would be willing to pay that amount per year in order to continue using the 220 gallons of water every day. When you consider that about five million households in Florida obtain their water from utilities, the total value of this water is $8.2 billion per year, and only about one-half of this amount is actually paid to a utility for water and sewer service. In fact, most of us spend well below 4 percent of our income on utility-provided water and sewer service in Florida, and yet it is responsible for the lion’s share of our health, our livelihood, and our wellbeing. So, while our elected leaders balk at raising water and sewer rates to pay for replacing our aging water and sewer infrastructure, develop new water sources, and invest in technologies to clean our water, remember that at the end of the day, everyone still wants safe, sufficient, and reliable water, and they are willing to pay for it. For our part, we must strive to provide this service in the most cost-efficient way possible. Now, how do we as members of the Florida Section AWWA support this value? We proudly serve more than 2,400 members, and each year we provide more than 110 training, outreach, and networking events that help our water professionals do their job. That’s more than two events held somewhere every week of the year, at least one of which is a training event. In addition, each year we produce not one but two conferences: the FSAWWA Fall Conference, produced by our Manufacturers/Associates Council; and the Florida Water Resources Conference, which is a joint conference with FWEA and FWPCOA. We are also a technical cosponsor of the annual ISA Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium, and in 2015, we cohosted the Caribbean Water and Wastewater Association Annual Conference and Exhibition in Miami. Our workhorse is our 12 regions that are the heart and soul of our organization, providing most of this training, fundraising, public outreach, and networking, and we should continue to support them in all that they do. These activities include: our highly successful and award-winning annual model water tower competition for grade-school children;

January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

our popular annual best tasting drinking water contest, which gives us good local news coverage and reminds our communities that we are here to serve them; and our fundraising, which has raised more than $60,000 each year for Water For People and provided more than $25,000 per year in scholarships. Our Utility Council has a long history of successfully communicating the needs of our utilities to our representatives at the state and federal levels as they make important legislative decisions that impact water supply and funding. Each year, our section participates in the Tallahassee Fly-In and the Washington D.C. Fly-In. Since 2008, our members have been active in moving forward our Florida 2040 goals to make sure that we have sufficient and sustainable water supply infrastructure for all water uses and needs, including natural systems. We coordinate our efforts through our annual water summit, and last year’s FL2040 Water Summit was a huge success. Our Public Affairs Council leads the section’s model water tower competition and our annual statewide drop savers water conservation poster competition, also for grade-school children. Our Administrative Council is responsible for bestowing our numerous professional awards and administering our Likins Scholarship and Water For People funds. Our Technical and Education Council leads the creation and quality control of our training events. Our Contractors Council works to better manage Florida’s infrastructure needs, while balancing these needs with our natural resources. The Operators and Maintenance Council works to increase member services to water plant and distribution system operators, and water supply maintenance staff. These are just some of the many groups of the Florida Section AWWA, and I plan to highlight them and their members—and many more—in upcoming columns. These activities are impressive and are a testament to the hard work of hundreds of Florida Section members and our section staff who are making “A Better World Through Better Water” happen, day in and day out. I want to recognize the hard work of our past and current members and leaders and the generosity of our past and current sponsors who have allowed us to be a financially and professionally strong organization. I also invite FSAWWA members and water professionals to reach out to our regions and councils for assistance and to volunteer. Together we are much stronger and smarter than we are individually. I am very excited to serve this large, diverse, and talented group of water professionals as chair of the Florida Section AWWA, and I will work very hard to make 2017 our best year yet. S

Utilities s Invited to Host Locall “Drop Savers” Contest The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association will again sponsor th he statewide “Drop Savers” Water Conservation Poster Contest during National Drinking Water week, scheduled for May 7-13, 2017. Submission deadline is March 14, 2017, for local winners w to be submitted for judging at the state level, Florida utilities are encouraged to begin pre eparations for showcasing the creativity of their local children. The contest gives children from kindergarten through high school the opportunity to o design a poster about water conservation. Early in the year, local winners are chosen in five e diffferent f age groups, with winning entries advancing for statewide judging. Utilities publicize the local contests, distribute the contest material to local schools, coordinate the judging, recruit prize e sponsors, and arrange local award ceremonies. Although the state winners will be announced in mid-April prior to Drinking Water Week, utilities should start planning their local celebration now. Interested utilities may download the complete S web package of “Drop Savers 2017” start-up materials from the “Drop Savers” Florida Section site at www . . If you have questions or problems download ding the materials, please contact state coordinator Melissa Ve elez at (561) 571-3750 or by email Looking forward to seeing your utility represented this year! r!

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017



The Va alue of Water


Thank you to our conference sponsors! 90th Anniversary Hazen and Sawyer • Kimley-Horn and Associates • Wright-Pierce

Diamond American Wa ater Resources • FATHOM T • Ferguson Waterworks a • Oracle • Trrihedral

Premier Blue Planet Environmental Systems • CH2M • Sigma Corporation • Wa ager Company of Florida

Platinum AECOM • American Cast Iron Pipe Company • CDM Smith • CS3 Wa aterworks • Data Flow Systems, Inc • Gannett Fleming • Garney • Haskell • HD Supply Wa aterworks • Municipal Water Works • PC Construction • Reiss Engineering • Te etra Te ech • Thames & Associates • US Pipe • WSP|Parsons Brinckerhofff

Gold Black & Veatch • Carter & Verplanck, Inc • Crom, LLC • Florida Aquastore • Godwin Pumps A Xylem Brand • Isco Industries • JJ Madigan LLC • Mars Company • McW Wa ane Ductile • Mueller Company • Thompson Pipe Group - Flowtite • US Water Services Corporation

Silver Bingham & Taylor a • Clow Va alve Co • Public Utility Management and Planning Services, Inc • Smith-Blair, Inc •TKW Consulting Engineers, Inc.



YOUR MEMBERSHIP All the hard work you do to deliver safe, clean water to your community is appreciated! Together we are creating a better world through better water. We want to make sure we are delivering all the benefits of AWWA membership to you. Log in to your AWWA account to ensure your contact information and preferences are up to date.

Call for Innovative Technologies for 2017 IR2 Forum The Leaders in Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT) seeks cutting-edge water technologies that improve resource (water, energy, or nutrient) recovery at municipal or industrial wastewater, stormwater, and water reuse facilities. Accepted technologies will be highlighted at a 2017 Intensification and Resource Recovery (IR2) Forum sponsored by the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF). All interested technologies must be accepted into the LIFT Technology Scan program to be eligible. Developers of new technologies that have not previously applied to the LIFT program are asked to complete an application in LIFT Link highlighting key aspects of their technology or process for review by a panel of experts. Previously accepted applicants will be contacted by LIFT and asked to complete a short form highlighting recent developments and stating an interest in presenting, as well as to ensure that their technology profile on LIFT Link is current. Accepted LIFT applicants receive a variety of benefits, such as inclusion in LIFT Link, ex-

posure to appropriate stakeholders, assistance with commercialization, and comments from technical experts and potential customers. Selected technology providers will be invited to present at the IR2 Forum taking place Aug. 1012, 2017, at Manhattan College in New York City. The IR2 Forum is an intensive three-day session focused on innovations in wastewater and water reuse. The forum will be attended by more than150 leading experts and practitioners from utilities, consulting firms, universities, and other key representatives in the industry. Technologies or processes of interest to this group must demonstrate a significant advancement over existing operations. This can be reductions

in capital costs; operation and maintenance costs; volume/footprint; or enhanced recovery of water, energy, or nutrients. Preference will be given to technologies that can show a more than 30 percent gain in any or some combination thereof of the aforementioned criteria. Example topic areas of interest include, but are not limited to: • Novel/Emerging Biological Processes • Innovations in Process Control • Advanced Wastewater Treatment Submissions for the scans are due no later than 5:00 p.m., ET, on Tuesday, Jan. 17, 2017, if you wish to be considered for the forum. There is no cost to apply. For more information, go to, log in using WE&RF credentials, and then press the ‘Apply’ button at the top. If you need to create a login, go to and create a user profile (user name/password) direct link. For more information, contact Dr. Aaron Fisher, WE&RF technology and innovation manager, at S


To be presented at the FWRC Awards Luncheon Monday, April 24, 2017 | Palm Beach County Convention Center Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Award Class A, Class B, Class C, and Most Improved Deadline: March 17, 2017

Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Operator Award Deadline: March 17, 2017

AWWA Operator’s Meritorious Service Award Deadline: March 17, 2017 For more information please go to our website or contact Paul Kavanagh at (813) 264-3835 or


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Magnetite-ballasted clarification enables this 18-f t diam. clarifier to handle 2. 3 mgd. Dense floc settles immediately beneath the center well, rather than dissipating throughout the clarifier.

SETTL L THE LE T E FLOC DOWN N Evoqua’s BioMag® and CoMag® systems use magnetite to ballast floc and deliver rapid and reliable settling. Both systems dramatically improve plant capacity and treatment performance with existing tanks and a limited footprint.

Watch video of magnetiteb a l l a s t e d s e t t l i n g co m p a r e d to conventional options at

www.evoqua o /settledown

Choose the BioMag System for ballasting biological floc to enhance activated sludge processes. Choose the CoMag System for ballasting chemical floc to remove particulate contaminants in wasstewater, drinking water and industtrial applications. Represented by: Greg Chomic gchomic@hey 407.628 .1880

© 2016 Evoqua Water Technologies e LLC

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017


2016-2017 FSAWWA BOARD OF GOVERNORS Executive Committee Grace M. Johns, Ph.D. Chair Hazen and Sawyer 4000 Hollywood Blvd., Suite 750N Hollywood, Florida 33021 P: (954) 987-0066 F: (954) 987-2949 E: William G. Young Chair-Elect St. Johns County Utilities 1205 State Road 16 St. Augustine, Florida 32084 P: (904) 209-2703 E: Michael Bailey, P.E. Vice Chair Cooper City Utilities 11791 SW 49th Street Cooper City, Florida 33330 P: (954) 434-5519 E: Kimberly A. Kunihiro Past Chair Orange County Utilities 9124 Curry Ford Road Orlando, Florida 32825 P: (407) 254-9555 E: Fred Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E. Secretary Florida Atlantic University P.O. Box 221890 Hollywood, Florida 33022 P: (239) 250-2423 E: Kim Kowalski Treasurer Wager Company of Florida Inc. 720 Industry Road Longwood, Florida 32750 P: (407) 834-4667 E:

F: (904) 209-2702

F: (954) 680-3159

F: (407) 254-9558

F: (954) 581-5076

F: (407) 831-0091

Ana Maria Gonzalez, P.E. General Policy Director Hazen and Sawyer 999 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 1150 Coral Gables, Florida 33134 P: (786) 655-5484 E:


Jacqueline W. Torbert Association Director (term ends ACE17) Orange County Utilities Water Division 9150 Curry Ford Road, 3rd Floor Orlando, Florida 32825 P: (407) 254-9850 F: (407) 254-9848 E: Ana Maria Gonzalez, P.E. Association Director (term begins ACE17) Hazen and Sawyer 999 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 1150 Coral Gables, Florida 33134 P: (786) 655-5484 E: Emilie Moore Treasurer-Elect Tetra Tech 5201 Kennedy Blvd., Suite 620 Tampa, FL 33609 P: (813) 579-5107 E: Matt Alvarez, P.E. Alternate Association Director CH2M 201 Alhambra Circle, Suite 600 Coral Gables, Florida 33134 P: (305) 443-6401 E:

F: (813) 682-2298

F: (305) 443-8856

Council Chairs Tyler Tedcastle, P.E. Administrative Council Chair Carter & VerPlanck Inc. 4910 W. Cypress Street Tampa, Florida 33607 P: (850) 264-9391 F: (813) 282-8216 E: Mark Kelly Contractors Council Chair Garney Construction 370 E Crown Point Road Winter Garden, Florida 34787 P: (321) 221-2833 E:

Andrew Greenbaum Operators and Maintenance Council Chair Tampa Bay Water 2575 Enterprise Road Clearwater, Florida 33763-1102 P: (813) 929-4551 F: (813) 929-4566 E: Scott Richards, P.E. Public Affairs Council Chair GAI Consultants Inc. 618 E. South Street, Suite 700 Orlando, Florida 32810 P: (407) 423-8398 E: Pamela London-Exner Technical and Education Council Chair Veolia Water 2301 Regional Water Lane Tampa, Florida 33619 P: (813) 781-0173 F: (813) 627-9072 E: Lisa Wilson-Davis Utility Council Chair City of Boca Raton, Utility Services Dept. 1401 Glades Road Boca Raton, Florida 33431 P: (561) 338-7310 E:

F: (407) 287-8777

Kevin Stine Manufacturers and Associates Council Chair Sigma Corporation 2370 Timbercrest Circle S Clearwater, Florida 33763-1622 P: (727) 744-2797 F: (822) 291-8089 E:

January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Section AWWA by Region

Trustees Juan Aceituno Trustee CH2M 3150 SW 38 Avenue, Suite 700 Miami, Florida 33146-1530 P: (305) 441-1864 E:

F: (305) 443-8856

Andrew May, P.E. Trustee JEA 21 W Church Street Jacksonville, Florida 32202 P: (904) 665-4510 E: Steve Soltau Trustee Pinellas County Utilities 3655 Keller Circle Tarpon Springs, Florida 34688 P: (727) 453-6990 E: Dave Slonena Trustee Pinellas County Utilities 14 S Ft. Harrison Avenue Clearwater, Florida 33756 P: (727) 464-4441 E:

F: (904) 665-8099

F: (727) 453-6962

F: (727) 464-3595

Steven King Region IV Chair (West Central Florida) Black & Veatch Corp. 4890 W Kennedy Blvd., Suite 950 Tampa, Florida 33609 P: (813) 281-0032 F: (813) 281-0881 E:

Kristen Sealey Region XI Chair (North Florida) Gainesville Regional Utilities P.O. Box 147051 Gainesville, Florida 32614 P: (352) 393-1621 F: (352) 334-3151 E:

Ronald Cavalieri, P.E. Region V Chair (Southwest Florida) AECOM 4415 Metro Parkway, Suite 404 Fort Myers, Florida 33916 P: (239) 278-7996 F: (239) 278-0913 E:

Bobby Gibbs Region XII Chair (Central Florida Panhandle) Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 P: (850) 248-5010 F: (850) 248-5006 E:

Gerrit R. Bulman Region VI Chair (Southeast Florida) CH2M 550 W Cypress Creek Road, Suite 400 Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309 P: (954) 351-9256 F: (954) 698-6010 E:

Section Staff

Greg Taylor Trustee Reiss Engineering 1016 Spring Villas Pt., Suite 2000 Winter Springs, Florida 32708-5258 P: (407) 679-5358 F: (407) 679-5003 E:

Maricela Fuentes Region VII Chair (South Florida) AECOM 800 S Douglas Road, Suite 200 Coral Gables, Florida 33134 P: (305) 718-4819 F: (305) 716-5155 E:

Region Chairs

Valerie Schulte Region VIII Chair (East Central Florida) Ft. Pierce Utilities Authority P.O. Box 3191 Fort Pierce, Florida 34948-3191 P: (772) 216-0499 F: (772) 487-0396 E:

Edward A. Bettinger, RS, MS Region I Chair (North Central Florida) DOH â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Bureau of Water Programs 4052 Bald Cypress Way, Bin #A-08 Tallahassee, Florida 32399 P: (850) 245-4444 ext. 2696 F: (850) 487-0864 E: Larry Miller Region II Chair (Northeast Florida) St. Johns County Utility Dept. 1205 State Road 16 St. Augustine, Florida 32202 P: (904) 209-2624 F: (904) 209-2625 E: Lance R. Littrell Region III Chair (Central Florida) Reiss Engineering Inc. 1016 Spring Villas Point, Suite 2000 Winter Springs, Florida 32708 P: (407) 679-5358 F: (407) 679-5003 E:

Monica Autrey Region IX Chair (West Florida Panhandle) Destin Water Users Inc. P.O. Box 308 Destin, Florida 32540 P: (850) 837-6146 F: (850) 837-0465 E: Terri Holcomb Region X Chair (West Central Florida) HDR Engineering Inc. 2601 Cattlemen Road, Suite 400 Sarasota, Florida 34232-6282 P: (941) 342-2703 F: (941) 342-6879 E:

Peggy Guingona Executive Director Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8449 E:

F: (407) 957-8415

Casey Cumiskey Membership Specialist/Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8447 F: (407) 957-8415 E: Donna Metherall Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8443 E: Jenny Arguello Staff Assistant Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8448 E:

F: (407) 957-8415

F: (407) 957-8415

FloridaSection Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ January 2017



An Overview of Innovative Technologies: Can They Provide Benefits to Florida Water Resource Recovery Facilities? Rod Reardon, Raj Chavan, Dwayne Kreidler, and Jon DeArmond or new water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs), at the time of major plant expansions or significant changes to discharge permit limits for existing facilities, the opportunity arises for utilities to re-evaluate the core technologies used to meet their treatment objectives. Circumstances sometimes dictate that alternative technologies be adopted. This may occur when the technology in use lacks the ability to meet the new water quality limits or when there is insufficient space on an existing site. More progressive organizations may use these opportunities to advance higherlevel goals, such as resource recovery or enhanced sustainability. At the highest level, utilities must meet minimum legal, service, and economic objectives, which in simple terms means meeting permit limits at the minimum cost. Utility customers often lack an understanding of the systems that provide their wastewater service. As a result, customer expectations tend to focus on the basic services provided to them. Often, these expectations are that wastewater will be reliably removed from their property with no adverse aesthetic effects and at a low monthly charge. The current regulatory system dictates technology, water quality, and antidegradation objectives. At a minimum, WRRFs must provide secondary treatment as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Title 40, Part 33 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In addition, WRRFs typically must meet more stringent requirements established by the water quality requirements for the intended use of the reclaimed water, or by instream water quality criteria. For many years, the challenges facing individual Florida utilities have included growing service area populations with concurrent higher demands on water resources and increasingly limited site space due to encroaching neighborhoods, which are compounded by the need for treatment to lower limits and greater demands for more aesthetically pleasing designs.



Conventional biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes, primarily the Modified Ludzak-Ettinger (MLE) and the Bardenpho processes, have served Florida utilities well in meeting these challenges since about 1980, with a majority of the nutrient removal facilities in the state employing these two processes in some fashion. While conventional BNR processes are a comfortable choice for plant expansions and upgrades, some of the innovative technologies that have been proven in full-scale use over the past decades may offer significant benefits over the tried and true. Some of the benefits offered by innovative and alternative technologies include: S Improved economics in meeting specific water quality goals S Smaller land requirements due to more compact facilities S Greater recycling and reuse of water, nutrients, and energy The challenge to utility owners and managers is to know when and where to implement innovative or alternative technologies to capture the benefits provided by them without incurring undue risk.

Innovations in Wastewater Treatment The interest in innovative wastewater treatment technologies has ebbed and flowed over the past decades; however, an underlying interest in finding better methods of treating sewage has persisted. Over a period of one hundred years, wastewater treatment has evolved from intermittent filtration beds and Imhoff tanks, to BNR and membrane bioreactors (MBR). The evolution of technologies continues today, with new processes emerging into full-scale use. While treatment technologies and their expected performance continue to evolve, the overall goals have remained remarkably similar over the years: simplicity, ease of operation, a small footprint, and low cost of

January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Rod Reardon is vice president, Dwayne Kreidler is project manager, and Jon DeArmond is project engineer with Carollo Engineers in Orlando. Raj Chavan is senior engineer with Carollo Engineers in Las Vegas.

ownership. Vendors of various technologies claim these and other benefits; however, the value of new processes relative to the activated sludge processes that now dominate the wastewater industry can be difficult to verify and challenging to realize through implementation.

Overview of Selected Innovative and Alternative Technologies The current crop of innovative technologies includes new processes, like granular activated sludge (GAS) and ballasted activated sludge (BAS), and improvements to older technologies, including integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) and biologically active filters (BAFs). Conventional BNR processes are enhancements and extensions of the original post-anoxic process proposed by Karl Wuhrmann (Wuhrmann, 1968). The key concept of the MLE process is an anoxic-aerobic sequence with a recycle of nitrate from the aeration zone back to an initial anoxic zone. The MLE process improved upon Wuhrmann's post-anoxic process by taking advantage of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) for denitrification and recovering nearly half of the oxygen and alkalinity consumed during nitrification. Compared with newer processes, however, the MLE is not space-efficient nor capable of meeting very low nitrogen limits, and requires large mixed liquor recycle flows that are typically about three to four times higher than the influent flow. Over the last 40 years, the MLE process has become the standard workhorse of municipal wastewater treatment.

Like the MLE, the four- and five-stage Bardenpho processes came into use in the 1970s (Barnard, 1998). These processes are capable of meeting Florida advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) limits, but they require more space than MLE due to the need for two or three additional tanks. An anaerobic tank is required to obtain enhanced biological phosphorus removal, while second anoxic and reaeration zones are required to meet low total nitrogen (TN) limits. Bardenpho processes have similar advantages and disadvantages as the MLE process. For the purpose of this article, the MLE and Bardenpho configurations using conventional activated sludge are referred to as CAS. An MLE configuration was used for one case study discussed where the plant has a 10mg/L TN limit, while a Bardenpho configuration was used for the other two case studies where the plants have 3-mg/L TN limits. Step-Feed Biological Nutrient Removal Step-feed activated sludge (SFAS) processes were first exhibited at full scale at the 1939 World's Fair at the Tallman Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) in New York City (Buhr et al., 1984). Merging a BNR process, such as a MLE process, into a step-feed reactor was a later modification first evaluated in the 1970s (Miyaji et al., 1980) and put into practice in the 1990s (Schlegel, 1992; Fillos et al., 1996). In SFAS, influent is added at multiple points (typically three or four) along the length of the reactor. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration is highest, equal to the return activated sludge (RAS) concentration, at the beginning of the reactor and drops at each feed point in proportion to the fraction of the feed added at that point. As a result, average MLSS concentrations for a step-feed tank are 20 to 35 percent higher than for a flow-through reactor; however, the effluent from a step-feed reactor has the same concentration as the conventional configuration. Consequently, the required clarifier size is the same for both flow configurations. Because of the reduced reactor volume, SFAS can have a significant footprint advantage compared to conventional plug-flow reactors. Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge Like the step-feed BNR process, the IFAS process seeks to elevate the MLSS concentration in the biological treatment basin, which is achieved by the addition of an attached growth media. The suspended MLSS concentrations are kept about the same as is found within conventional processes; however, the

Table 1. Full-Scale Experience With Innovative Technologies at Municipal Scale

biomass growing on the fixed media significantly increases the total biomass inventory compared to a conventional suspended growth process. Thus, a higher volumetric loading rate is possible for an IFAS tank than can be handled by a conventional one of the same size, while the solids loading rate to the clarifiers downstream stays the same. At least 210 IFAS plants worldwide have been documented; 99 of these are United States installations, with the largest rated at 77 mil gal per day (mgd), and Florida has three small IFAS plants with capacities ranging from 0.75 to 7.3 mgd. Important considerations for the IFAS process are the higher energy that’s required for aeration, extra maintenance costs associated with accessing diffusers below the media, and additional capital costs for media and associated retention screens. Ballasted Activated Sludge Step-feed increases the MLSS concentration in upstream basins by stepwise dilution of the RAS with influent, IFAS achieves a higher biomass than conventional systems by the addition of fixed-film media, and BAS systems achieve higher biomass concentrations by increasing settling velocities by adding a ballast material. The ballast material is magnetite, which is a naturally magnetic, plentiful, dense, and inert iron oxide. A relatively new process, BAS has quickly gained a foothold in the 1- to 10-mgd market since the first installation in 2011. There are now a total of eight full-scale plants in operation, four in start-up and four in construction. Like IFAS, BAS is especially well suited to retrofitting existing plants, but unlike IFAS, no structural alterations are required; however, covered space to house the magnetite feeding and recovery equipment is required with BAS. Magnetite is recovered from waste activated sludge (WAS) using a shear mill and a magnetic recovery drum. An approximately 1:1 mass ratio of magnetite to biomass is added to the mixed liquor, allowing for a total

suspended solids (TSS) concentration of 10,000-12,000 mg/L. Membrane Bioreactors The MBRs can support high MLSS concentrations because they do not rely on gravity to perform a phase separation of the MLSS and water; rather, they use a semiporous membrane, typically in the microfiltration (MF) or the ultrafiltration (UF) range. Because MBRs do not require clarifiers or tertiary filters and can operate at high MLSS concentrations, they occupy a small footprint, at the cost of the energy to maintain the proper transmembrane pressure (TMP) to drive water through the membrane (5.0 to 20.0 ft) at the desired rate, plus the scouring energy to control fouling of the membranes. This energy requirement may be as much as double that of a comparably rated conventional process (WEF, 2009), although unit energy consumption is reported to have dropped as low as 0.20 kilowatt hour per cu meter (kWh/m3) in current designs. MBR installations up to 38 mgd have been built, but MBRs are typically found in small- to medium-sized facilities. The MBR processes are typically not economical when peak flows are greater than twice the average flow, unless a parallel system, where enhanced high-rate clarification is provided for physical-chemical treatment of flows, exceeds twice the average. In a 2013 survey (Carollo, 2013), there were nearly 250 MBR installations in the U.S. greater than 0.25 mgd, 16 of which were in Florida, ranking it fifth out of 39 states for the number of total MBR installations. Biological Active Filters The BAFs predate activated sludge. When Ardern and Lockett announced their discovery of the activated sludge process in 1914, the title of their paper literally included the phrase "oxidation … without the aid of filContinued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017


Continued from page 25 ters." The current versions of BAFs, however, are derived from research done from the mid1960s through 1980 (Hodkinson et al., 1999) with the first modern installations occurring in the 1980s (Mendoza-Espinosa & Stephenson, 1999). The BAFs can be applied for the oxidation of carbon and ammonia, and nitrogen removal, and BAFs for nitrification and nitrogen removal can be replacements for suspended growth BNR processes or tertiary installations following an activated sludge process. The BAFs are an attractive option for any utility looking to construct a compact process. Step-feed BNR and BAFs are two of the few innovative technologies that have been proven in large-capacity installations. The survey done for this study identified 438 BAF installations around the world, ranging from small-capacity plants up to 450 mgd. The U.S. is home to 81 BAF installations, more than a quarter of which reside in Florida. Twenty-four facilities in Florida use BAF technology, with the largest having a design capacity of 96 mgd. Granular Activated Sludge Aerobic granular sludge has been defined as aggregates of microbial origin, which do not coagulate under reduced hydrodynamic shear and which subsequently settle significantly faster than activated sludge flocs (de Kreuk et al., 2005). The GAS is different from conventional activated sludge in that the

granules will not flocculate and the fiveminute and 30-minute sludge volume index (SVI) values are very similar. The granules (minimum of 0.20 millimeter) settle rapidly, allowing bioreactor operation at high MLSS concentrations (8,000-10,000 mg/L). The GAS operates on a simple feed, aerate, settle, and decant cycle that is similar to a conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process and can perform carbon removal, nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal in one bioreactor (Giesen et al., 2015). The first full-scale plant using a GAS process was constructed in 2005. As of January 2015, 13 full-scale municipal installations were reported to be in operation (Naicker et al., 2015) with a number of others reported to be in various stages of design or construction. As of April 2016, there were no U.S. installations. The largest plant is the Garmerwolde Sewage Treatment Plant in the Netherlands, with a design capacity of 7.9 mgd. Advantages claimed for GAS include significantly reduced footprint and power consumption. At the plant, the process was 75 percent smaller than a comparable A/B plant treating the same wastewater. The GAS appears to be wellsuited to existing SBR plants looking to increase capacity without further tankage construction. Full-Scale Experience Table 1 contains a summary of the fullscale experience with the technologies evalu-

Table 2. Specific Influent and Effluent Design Characteristics for Each Case Study(a)


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

ated in this study. With the exception of the two youngest technologies, BAS and GAS, a substantial amount of operating experience exists worldwide and within the U.S. With respect to facility size, large facilities are in operation for all but BAS and GAS. The significance is that there is ample opportunity available with which a given utility can evaluate these innovative technologies prior to making a decision on implementation.

Example Comparisons In the following sections, three case studies are presented for real-world technology evaluations for completed Florida WRRFs to select the primary liquid stream treatment technology. In all cases, maximum-month pollutant mass loadings were used to size the biological process reactors. Peak-hour flows were used to size the secondary clarifiers, tertiary filters, and other flow-dependent process elements. Aeration systems were sized to handle maximum-day demands. The WRRF A is a completely new facility on a greenfield site designed to treat a flow of 5 mgd annual average daily flow (AADF). The influent wastewater was anticipated to be moderately strong. The effluent quality proposed was to meet Florida advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) with effluent disposal through public access reuse (PAR). Sludge management was anticipated to be aerobically held and then dewatered for further processing offsite. The WRRF B is a retrofit of an existing facility to increase the design capacity in the face of increased influent loadings. The WRRF B currently operates as an MLE process with an existing capacity of 6 mgd AADF. The intent of the design is to increase capacity to 9 mgd AADF with influent wastewater strength being moderately strong. The effluent quality proposed for the upgrade is intended to meet Florida AWT with disposal through PAR. Sludge management was anticipated to be aerobically held and then dewatered for further processing offsite. The WRRF C is a retrofit of an existing 8-mgd AADF secondary treatment plant using rotating biological contactors (RIBs). The intent of the design is to replace the rotating biological contactors (RBCs) and provide facilities that will produce effluent quality consistent with reuse through PAR. The influent wastewater quality is considered weak. Sludge management is anticipated to be aerobic sludge digestion, with dewatering for final disposal offsite. Continued on page 28

The FWEA Collection Systems Committee Presents the Regional Seminar Series

Extreme Makeover: Optimizing Operations, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Lift Stations and Force Mains



8:00 AM - 9:00 AM



9:00 AM - 9:15 AM

Open Remarks

9:15 AM - 10:00 AM

Keynote Address - To Be Determined

10:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Pump Station Rehabilitation Program in Hillsborough County

Kimberly S. Rogers, P.E., Senior Professional Engineer, Hillsborough County

10:30 AM - 11:00 AM

Networking Break / Exhibitors

11:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Optimizing Operations, Maintenance and Rehabilitation Juan C. Bedoya, Chief of Wastewater Collection of Force Mains in Miami-Dade and Transmission Line, MDWASD

11:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Orange county Utilities Pump Station R/R Program

David Arms, P.E. OCU and Randy Krizmanich, P.E. BC

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM

Lunch / Networking Break / Exhibitors

1:00 PM - 1:30 PM

Shake Your Body, Not Your Pumps - An Innovative Vibration Solution

Jody Barksdale, P.E., Project Manager, Gresham Smith and Partners

1:30 PM - 2:00 PM

What You Should Know About an Arc Flash Study

Keff Kurella, P.E., CDT, Principal Electrical Engineer, Arcadis

2:00 PM - 2:30 PM

Force Main Rehabilitation Solutions - City of West Palm Beach Case Study

Andrew Costa, Business Development Manager, Insituform Technologies

2:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Networking Break / Exhibitors

3:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Wet Well Mounted ConďŹ guration - Lift Station Rehab

Brian Hayes, Business Development, AWC Inc.

3:30 PM - 4:00 PM

Pipe Bursting and Swagelining as Techniques for Force Main Replacement or Rehabilitation

Alan Ambler, P.E., Vice-President, AM Trenchless

4:00 PM

Closing Remarks

Where: Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida 411 Mercy Drive Orlando, Florida 32805

Registration Information and Pricing

PDH & CEU credits are to be applied for st

*Early Bird registration cutoff date is January 31 Early Bird Member* Early Bird Non-Member* Regular Member Regular Non-Member Government Employees Exhibitors Sponsors

$ $ $ $ $ $ $

75.00 100.00 90.00 120.00 45.00 250.00 175.00

Online Registration

Exhibitors and Sponsorships Available

For additional information contact: Joan Fernandez at or 305.704.4421

Figure 1. Estimated Treatment Volumes for Each Alternative for WRRF A

Figure 2. Estimated Capital Cost, Operation and Maintenance Costs, and 20-Year Life Cycle Cost for WRRF A

Figure 3. Estimated Treatment Volumes for Each Alternative for WRRF B


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 26 Seven treatment processes were evaluated for each case study: 1) CAS, 2) SFAS, 3) IFAS, 4) MBR, 5) BAS, 6) BAF, and 7) GAS. Planning-level process sizing and estimates for capital, operations and maintenance, and present-worth costs were developed for each alternative. Due to the lower TN limits for WRRF A and WRRF B, a Bardenpho configuration was used as the CAS treatment system. An MLE configuration was evaluated for the higher TN criterion for WRRF C as the CAS treatment system. Table 2 shows the specific influent and effluent design criteria for each of the case studies. The cost estimates were developed using cost information for the major components for each alternative; costs for both materials and installation were included. For major equipment items, budget-level quotes were obtained from vendors. To account for the lack of detailed design information, allowances were applied uniformly for miscellaneous piping and utilities, site work, electrical, and instrumentation for each of the three WRRFs. Presentworth costs assumed a uniform series compound factor of 13.7, an interest rate of 3.9 percent, and a design life of 20 years. Not all assumptions are presented here. For the first case study, WRRF A required a high level of nutrient removal from the incoming wastewater, which was a major consideration for each of the alternative designs. Figure 1 shows the relative bioreactor volume and clarifier sizing for each of the alternatives for this case study. The CAS process (fivestage Bardenpho) design had the largest process volume requirement when compared to the other process alternatives, while the MBR process had the smallest overall volume. The estimated costs for each of the alternatives for the WRRF A case study are displayed in Figure 2. Shown are: S Individual capital costs of the liquid treatment system S Present worth of the operation and maintenance costs S Present worth of the total costs As shown in Figure 2, the reduction in the process volume enabled by the use of the innovative technologies typically resulted in an increase in operational cost. The SFAS and BAS process designs assumed the addition of a chemical (aluminum sulfate) to reduce phosphorous. The IFAS and MBR required higher airflows compared to CAS, which increased power consumption, while the BAF required chemicals (methanol and alum) to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous to the required lev-

els; therefore, CAS had the lower operation and maintenance (O&M) costs when compared with these other alternatives. The exception to the inverse relationship between tank volume and operating costs, based on this case study, was GAS, which resulted in a reduced footprint and lower O&M costs. The GAS process design had a distinct advantage over the other facility designs for this situation. The case study for WRRF B had the same effluent nutrients limits as WRRF A, but higher flow treatment capacity. This case study was different from the first one in that it evaluates the retrofitting of the different processes into an existing treatment system. The existing facilities at WRRF B were unique in that six MLE process tanks were constructed for a design flow of 9 mgd ADF, but only four tanks were equipped with aeration equipment. The process designs for the treatment process alternatives were similar to the WRRF A evaluation; Figure 3 shows the incremental increase in tank sizes required for each alternative beyond that in the existing facilities. Both CAS and SFAS required additional volume beyond that in the existing facilities. The BAF process required significant modifications to the existing basins to incorporate this process. The IFAS, MBR, BAS, and GAS alternatives could be installed in the existing tank volume. The estimated costs for each of the alternatives for the WRRF B case study are shown in Figure 4. Similar to WRRF A, the CAS alternative required the largest overall tank volume, but had the least O&M costs of most of the alternatives. The existing facility had sufficient space available on the existing plant site for expansion; therefore, limitations on facility land space were not considered an issue. As mentioned, the BAF process design required additional retrofitting of the existing process, which increased the capital cost; the BAF also required significant chemical addition to reduce the phosphorous and nitrogen to the desired effluent quality. The SFAS process alone could not provide the required nitrogen removal due to the increased loadings; therefore, the existing deep-bed filters were retrofitted to be denitrification filters. This increased both capital and O&M costs. Although, the IFAS, MBR, and BAS alternatives could be retrofitted within the basins, the overall life cycle costs were greater than the CAS and SFAS alternatives. The capital costs for these three alternatives were similar in magnitude to the CAS and SFAS alternatives, but the annual costs were significantly Continued on page 30

Figure 4. Estimated Capital Cost, Operation and Maintenance Costs, and 20-Year Life Cycle Cost for WRRF B

Figure 5. Estimated Treatment Volumes for Each Alternative for WRRF C

Figure 6. Estimated Capital Cost, Operation and Maintenance Costs, and 20-Year Life Cycle Cost for WRRF C

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ January 2017


Continued from page 29 higher. Both of these factors increased the 20year life cycle costs for these alternatives and eliminated them from further consideration. The GAS design provided a small footprint, as well as lower O&M costs. The GAS alternative seemed to again provide a clear advantage over the other treatment designs for the WRRF B situation. The WRRF C has a reduced nutrient removal requirement compared to both WRRF A and WRRF B. Similar to the prior studies, the CAS (MLE) process design volume for treatment was the largest. Figure 5 shows the design tank sizes for each of the alternatives for WRRF C; the estimated costs for each of the alternatives to upgrade WRRF C are shown in Figure 6. Since phosphorus removal is not required for WRRF C and the TN limit is significantly higher (10 mg/L versus 3 mg/L), the estimated costs for chemical use for each alternative are significantly less than for the first two case studies; the BAF still required chemicals to provide the carbon for nitrogen removal. For WRRF C, the CAS had a lower annual cost over the IFAS, MBR, BAS, and BAF. The SFAS and GAC were the only options that had a lower O&M present-worth cost over CAS. As with the WRRF B case study, WRRF C site constraints did not affect the treatment options evaluation. Overall, the GAS alternative again presented a reduced footprint and reduced O&M cost, producing a clear cost advantage over the other treatment alternatives. Figure 7 displays the life cycle costs for each alternative when compared to the CAS alternative for each case study, and illustrates

the differences between each alternative for all three case studies. The GAS process seems to provide the more efficient and economical option for each of these situations.

Conclusions The technologies considered have all successfully been implemented in full-scale treatment operations. The different alternatives that were compared are in operation throughout the world and many of them have been used in different-sized plants within the U.S. Most of the innovative alternatives considered are represented in wastewater treatment facilities over a wide range of treatment capacities and many of the process alternatives are in use in large facilities. The relative costs of an alternative treatment process are dependent on several factors, such as influent wastewater quality, ability to reuse or repurpose existing facilities, effluent water quality requirements, cost of power and chemicals, availability of land, and aesthetic standards. Based on the results of the different case studies within Florida, conventional technologies are often the best choice to meet the usual Florida requirements. Typically, the innovative technologies are a better fit for facilities that have limitations on land area, high effluent water quality requirements, or other special project constraints (i.e., constructability). The GAS alternative for each case study seemed to provide a distinct cost advantage over the other alternatives and it has the potential to become the new standard for wastewater treatment in Florida.

Figure 7. Twenty-Year Life Cycle Cost Comparison to the Conventional Activated Sludge Alternative for Each Case Study


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

References • Barnard, J. L. (1998) “The Development of Nutrient-Removal Processes,” (Abridged). Water and Environment Journal - CIWEM 12, 330-337. • Buhr, H., Goddard, M., Wilson, T., and Ambrose, W. (1984). “Making Full Use of StepFeed Capability.” Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 56(4), 325-330. • de Kreuk, M.K., McSwain, B.S., Bathe, S., Tay, J., Schwarzenbeck, S.T.L. and Wilderer, P.A. (2005). Discussion Outcomes, Aerobic Granular Sludge. IWA Publishing, Munich, 165-169. • Fillos, J., Diyamandoglu, V., Carrio, L. A. & Robinson, L. (1996). “Full-Scale Evaluation of Biological Nitrogen Removal in the StepFeed Activated Sludge Process.” Water Environ. Res., 68 (2), pp. 132-142. • Giesen, A., van Loosdrecht, M., Robertson, S., and de Bruin, B. (2015). “Aerobic Granular Biomass Technology: Further Innovation, System Development, and Design Optimization.” Royal Haskoning DHV. • Hodkinson, B., Williams, J., and Butler, J. (1999). “Development of Biological Aerated Filters: A Review.” Water and Environment Journal 13(8), 250-254. • Mendoza-Espinosa, L., and Stephenson, T. (1999). “A Review of Biological Aerated Filters (BAFs) for Wastewater Treatment.” Environmental Engineering Science 16(3), 201-216. • Miyaji, Y., Iwasaki, M., and Sekigawa, Y. (1980). “Biological Nitrogen Removal by Step-Feed Process.” Progress in Water Technology, 12(6), 193-202. • Naicker, M., Rosnik, R., and Zilverentant, A. (2015). “Aerobic Granular Sludge “Nereda®” Technology Applications.” Presented at OZWATER 2015, Australia's International Water Conference and Exhibition, Adelaide, Australia; May 12-14, Australian Water Association. • Schlegel, S. (1992). “Operational Results of Wastewater Treatment Plants with Biological N and P Removal.” Water Science and Technology, 25 (4-5), pp. 241-247. • Water Environment Federation (2009) Energy Conservation in Water and Wastewater Facilities: Manual of Practice No. 32. McGraw Hill. New York, NY. • Wuhrman, K. (1968), Objective, Technology and Results of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal Process, Advanced in Water Quality Improvement, Gloyna E.F. and Eckenfelder Jr. W.W.(Eds), The University of Texas Press, 24-48. S

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Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;¢ January 2017


PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This column highlights the East Water Reclamation Facility at Bonita Springs Utilities Inc., which won the Earle B. Phelps Award in the category of advanced secondary treatment in 2016.

Award-Winning Bonita Springs Utilities East Water Reclamation Facility Uses Innovative Technology to Treat Wastewater and Produce Wholesale Fertilizer Jamie Zivich s a franchise utility serving customers within Lee County, the Village of Estero, and the City of Bonita Springs, Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. (BSU) operates the East Water Reclamation Facility (EWRF). This facility is permitted to 4 mil gal per day (mgd) as an annual average daily flow (AADF) and currently treats an average daily flow of 2.1 mgd. The BSU has invested heavily in innovative technology at the facility to treat wastewater to public access reuse standards and produce high-quality Class AA solids that are sold to a fertilizer wholesaler. The EWRF effluent is reused 100 percent for residential and golf course irrigation. In addition to innovative technology investments, BSU also makes a significant investment in the community through educational outreach.


Construction of the existing EWRF facility was completed in 2006 with the ability to expand to a 16-mgd facility. The influent to the EWRF is treated through a headworks with a 6millimeter (mm) bar screen and grit removal, 1.2 mil gal (MG) influent equalization basin with jet mix aeration, and fine screening with 2mm perforated plate drum screens. Biological nutrient reduction is provided by the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE)-configured activated sludge process with two 0.4-MG anoxic basins and three 0.5-MG aeration basins. Filtration, clarification, and nitrification are provided by the four membrane bioreactors. The membrane permeate is further treated with sodium hypochlorite disinfection in two chlorine contact basins. Effluent is stored in a 4-MG-lined effluent reuse storage pond before distribution to public access reuse residential and golf course irrigation. Effluent that does not meet reuse per-

Picture 1. Bonita Springs EWRF headworks facility with 6-mm in-channel drum screen and grit removal.


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

mit limits is stored in a 4-MG-lined reject storage pond and pumped back through the treatment system. Solids treatment consists of a rotary drum sludge thickener, a 0.2-MG aerated sludge storage basin, two centrifuges for dewatering, and one thermal dryer. The EWRF must meet 20 mg/L of five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and 5 mg/L of total suspended solids (TSS) to meet reuse effluent limitations for residential and golf course irrigation. The innovative technology incorporated at the EWRF provides exceptional treatment that is well below permit limits and easily meets the public access reuse standards. The innovative technology used at the headworks facility and fine screen facility includes 6-mm and 2-mm in-channel drum screens operated in series. The drum screen technology provides excellent removal with no debris carry-over or bypass. Unlike traditional mechanical bar

Picture 2. Bonita Springs EWRF 2-mm perforated plate fine screen.

screens in which carry-over and bypass typically reduce capture to 85 percent or less, the drum screen debris capture is near 100 percent. This high level of debris capture is critical to prevent any damage or fouling to the membranes. The membrane technology employed at EWRF is more efficient in solids removal than conventional treatment. The membranes have a pore size of 0.04 Âľm. The small pore size of the membranes captures biological growth and other solids, resulting in the membrane permeate having a turbidity of less than 0.1 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). Activated sludge processes with membrane technology can have significantly higher mixed liquor concentrations, which results in a smaller footprint compared to conventional treatment. The BSU operates two water reclamation facilities and uses the EWRF to process biosolids for both. Waste activated sludge from the West Water Reclamation Facility (WWRF) is pumped to the EWRF for processing. The waste activated sludge from WWRF and EWRF are combined and thickened with a rotary drum thickener, dewatered using centrifuges, and dried in a thermal drum dryer. These sludge treatment technologies produce a Class AA pellet product that is sold to the fertilizer wholesaler. Operational control of the EWRF is enhanced by integrated programmable logic controllers (PLC) that allow operators to control the entire plant, either manually or automatically. This automation includes real-time monitoring and control systems for all unit processes. The system can calculate run times for the major equipment to assist in scheduling preventative maintenance. The system tracks equipment operation times and notifies the operators when preset maintenance intervals are met. Use of this automated system results in more efficient operation and less unscheduled downtime of equipment. Along with implementing innovative technologies, the operations staff at EWRF is active in educational community outreach programs. Such programs include an open house for utility customers, plant tours for high school and middle school students, and cooperation with the Florida Gulf Coast University environmental science department for onsite training. The innovative technology used at EWRF provides the platform for community outreach programs and water reclamation education. S

Picture 3. Bonita Springs EWRF aeration basin.

Picture 4. Bonita Springs EWRF membrane bioreactor air piping and reactor.

Picture 5. Bonita Springs EWRF educational display in operations building showing real-life screenings from fine screen facility. Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ January 2017


FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner ! The Public Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at

First Coast Chapter Activities and Events Offer Training and Fun New Subcommittee Helps FWEA Members Use Social Media Ryan Olinger and Lindsey Short ne of the most important aspects of any successful organization is strong member relations and open communication. Social media is now the most effective way to carry out communications, promotions, and updates on what we are doing within the community. The "community" refers to anyone in the water, environmental, or


The Facebook homepage for FWEA.

engineering business, or similar line of work or study. The Member Relations Social Media Subcommittee is a recently formed group that aims to help strengthen FWEA member relations through various social media platforms by reaching out to the community, showing our presence, and promoting ourselves, and our programs and events, online. There are three major social media platforms that will be utilized in interacting

with the community: Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. The FWEA has previously used both Facebook and Twitter to communicate with members, but is new to using Instagram as a social media tool. There are many benefits of using all three platforms. A Facebook page allows for more in-depth posts, such as flyers and descriptions promoting events, or reposts of interesting and related articles. Members and others who are interested

The tweet and photo show the use of Twitter to promote events like the FWEA Southwest Chapter Annual Charity Golf Tournament and give participants a chance to say thank you to all who were involved. An example of an Instagram post that FWEA could use to recap or advertise events from around the state.


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

can follow the Facebook page to view current articles related to water, the environment, academia, other professional organizations, local communities, people in the industry, upcoming technologies, and other topics. The association will also continue to post upcoming events from around the state on this page. Twitter is beneficial for use in real time, with multiple shorter posts being posted; for example, updates of what is occurring during the Student Design Competition or conference technical sessions could be posted. The use of hashtags, photos, and tags to other organizations would increase our presence on Twitter. Followers of the FWEA Twitter account can use this platform to interact with our organization through retweeting and tagging FWEA in their posts. Instagram, a more recently popular social media platform, will be used for showcasing photos and videos of fun events, such as conferences, water festivals, and other programs. Photos posted of the FWEA members socializing during these events, capturing award ceremonies, or saying “thank you” will be a way to show that the members of the community are most important to this organization. Instagram, hashtags, and tags will also be used to interact with members of the community. Increasing interactions between the community and these social media platforms is the current goal of the FWEA Member Relations Social Media Subcommittee. Frequent communications through these platforms will allow for a closer relationship between the members and the organization, as well as among the members themselves. A closer network of individuals leads to a stronger organization. Please follow or “Like” the official accounts of FWEA to help us build a network of water professionals in Florida. Follow FWEA Facebook: Twitter: @FWEA75 Instagram: @fwea75 (Not created yet; name can be discussed.) Ryan Olinger is engineer I with AECOM in Fort Myers and Lindsey Short is water resources engineer with Gresham, Smith and Partners in Tampa.

New Technologies and Trends Highlight Biosolids Seminar Thank you to all sponsors, speakers, volunteers, committee members, and attendees who made the FWEA Biosolids Fall Seminar a success! This event, put on by the FWEA Biosolids Committee, was held on October 27 and was titled, “The Future of Biosolids Process and Management Technology: Be on the Leading Edge.” This one-day event provided engineers and utility personnel with an overview of new technologies that are being used to advance the processing and management of biosolids. Speakers included innovative technology representatives, along with summaries on how newer technologies are being implemented in the United States and abroad. The event also provided an overview of the latest sludge technologies and trends presented by Dr. Richard Tsang. The seminar provided 4.5 professional development hours (PDHs).

Collections Committee Seminar: Save the Date! On Feb, 9, 2017, the Collections Committee will be hosting its upcoming seminar, "Extreme Makeover/Optimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation of Lift Stations and Force Mains," to be held at Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida, 411 Mercy Drive, Orlando, Fla., 32805. Additional details on the program, CEU/PDH credits, sponsorships, and exhibitor opportunities will be coming soon! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017



A New Year is Here: Time to Get Started Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

s I look back over this past year as president, the first thing that amazes me is how quickly the time has passed. I hope that all of you had a wonderful holiday season with family and friends and that each of you will be looking forward to a productive and prosperous new year. It doesn’t seem possible that another year is behind us. Much was accomplished in 2016, such as new online courses and the new website (if you haven’t had a chance to use it, please take the time check it out), and an updating of all the regions bylaws. Ken Enlow has done a wonderful job working with the regions to complete this and we should be able to finalize them at our January board of directors meeting in Destin. There is still much to do and I for one am excited about 2017. A few of the areas that FWPCOA will be concentrating on include getting all the regions to provide training to their members, whether it’s a short school or CEU courses, which some regions offer at their regular monthly meetings. Another area we will be focusing on is increasing our presence in the Florida Panhandle and helping to revitalize Region 1. All the regions need to see what they can do to bring in new members, and the association will continue to work on getting more people involved. The FWPCOA has the finest and the most reasonably priced training programs available, with dedicated instructors who have the handson experience necessary to make the training sessions more informative and valuable to those who attend. The association will continue to develop new training courses and examine how existing courses are offered and presented. The implementation of online training has been very successful and we will continue to provide additional course selections. We have listened to our membership’s requests to pro-



vide a wider variety of online course contact hours and many of our extended courses have been revamped to provide more choices for CEUs. If any of you have comments or suggestions on how the association can provide for your training needs, do not hesitate to contact me or any other officer. Contact information can be found on our website at The association will conduct four continuing education courses, on January 19-20, in Destin. These courses are offered at no cost to our members and are applicable to drinking water and wastewater treatment plant operators and water distribution system operators for the 2017 license renewal cycle. Training Programs (no cost to FWPCOA members!) Location: Destin Water Users George W. French Wastewater Treatment Plant 14 Industrial Park Lane Destin, Fla. 32541 January 19, 2017 • 7:30 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. Management of Collection and Distribution (DS/DW/WW02014204, 0.4 CEU) • 12:30 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. Troubleshooting Pumps (DS/DW/WW02014206, 0.4 CEU)

January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

January 20, 2017 • 7:30 a.m. – 11: 30 a.m. Introduction to Backflow/Cross Connection (DS/DW/WW02014207, 0.4 CEU) • 12:30 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. Introduction to Storm Water Systems (DS/DW/WW02014205, 0.4 CEU) A registration form is available on the website. Each course is limited to 50 students, so register soon!

Board of Directors Activities Elections for the 2017 board of officers were recently held, with the following slate of officers elected: S Scott Anaheim, president S Michael Darrow, vice president S Ken Enlow, secretary/treasurer-elect S Rim Bishop, secretary/treasurer S Tom King, past president As I mentioned previously, the association will hold its board meeting in Destin on January 21, and the board cordially invites all members to attend. The topic of importance is boosting the presence of FWPCOA in the panhandle, so bring your ideas and suggestions to the meeting for establishing a new regional executive board and training program. Board of Directors Meeting (open to all FWPCOA members) Location: Emerald Grand at Harborwalk Village 10 Harbor Boulevard Destin, Fla. 32541 Date and Time: January 21, 2017, at 9:30 a.m. If you have membership questions, please contact Darin Bishop, membership coordinator, at or (561) 840-0340. I’m looking forward to serving another term as FWPCOA president and working with all of you to make your jobs easier and more rewarding, and to continue to improve our industry. S

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Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Sewage Collection Systems? 1. When is the best time to smoke-test a sewer system? a. Immediately after a rain event. b. When the groundwater table is high. c. When the groundwater table is low. d. At night when the flow is lowest. 2. Water that enters a sewer line through surface drainage sources such as broken cleanouts, service laterals, and unsealed manhole covers is known as a. infiltration. b. inflow. c. exfiltration. d. effluent.

Ron Trygar

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: or by mail to: Ron Trygar, CET Senior Training Specialist UF TREEO Center Gainesville, Fla. 32608


3. Ladders used for safe entry and exit in trenches 4 ft or more in depth should be placed no more than how many ft from any work area in the excavation? a. 5 ft b. 10 ft c. 25 ft d. 50 ft 4. What is the recommended wastewater velocity in a gravity sewer main? a. Less than 1 ft per second b. 1 ft per second c. Greater than 2 ft per second d. Greater than 10 ft per second 5. What are the only two positive methods of hydrogen sulfide control? a. Maintain a low wastewater pH and a low oxidation reduction potential (ORP) value b. Installation of outside drop manholes and aeration of lift stations c. Keep all sewer force mains clean and use of odor masking agents d. Collection system is properly designed and constructed of materials that sulfuric acid will not attack 6. When working in manholes, lift stations, or other parts of the sewage collection system, operators must be aware of three important components of the working atmosphere. Oxygen content and explosive gas content (percent lower explosive limit [LEL]) are two components; what is the third? a. The sewage pH level b. Potential exposure to viruses c. Airborne anthrax d. Toxic gases and vapors

January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

7. Prior to closed-circuit television (CCTV) camera inspection of a sewer line, what should be done? a. Clean the sewer line b. Notify all residents of affected area c. Drain all sewer laterals and inverted siphons d. Advise all residents to avoid using water during inspection 8. Which statement about hydrogen sulfide is correct? a. Hydrogen sulfide causes corrosion due to the development of high pH conditions. b. The lower the pH of the sewage, the higher the potential for hydrogen sulfide to be present. c. Using acidic chemicals in lift stations is a method of preventing hydrogen sulfide formation. d. Hydrogen sulfide is lighter than air and will accumulate in the upper parts of manholes. 9. Trenches greater that how many ft of depth must be effectively shored to protect workers from the hazard of moving ground? a. 1 ft b. 2 ft c. 4 ft d. 5 ft 10. Gravity sewers, holding tanks, grinder pumps, and pressure mains are all components of what kind of collection system? a. High-velocity collection system b. Low-pressure collection system c. Vacuum collection system d. Gravity collection system

Answers on page 70

Register Today! Space is Limited!

Wastewater Process Ephemeralization Treating More with Less February 23, 2017

Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department • 3071 SW 38th Avenue • Miami, FL 33146 8:00 AM – 8:45 AM


8:45 AM – 9:00 AM

Opening Remarks

9:00 AM – 9:30 AM

Utilities of the Future – Ron Latimer, P.E. (Hazen and Sawyer)

9:30 AM – 10:00 AM 10:00 AM – 10:30 AM

Pragmatic Utility Sustainability through Rapid Implementation of Emerging Technology – Charles B. Bott, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE (Hampton Roads Sanitation District)

10:30 AM – 10:45 AM

Networking Break

10:45 AM – 11:15 AM

Bay County Military Point AWTP; WW Process Ephemeralization Epitomized – Albert Bock (Bay County Military Point AWTP)

11:15 AM – 11:45 AM

Expanding the World of Aerobic Granular Sludge Technology – Mari Winkler, Ph.D. (University of Washington)

11:45 AM – 12:30 PM

Lunch Presentation: Ocean Outfall Legislation (OOL) Program – Jim Ferguson, P.E. (Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department)

12:30 AM – 1:00 PM

CEU/PDH Applied For

Global Challenges and Solutions: AWTP Energy Efficiency and Footprint Constraints – Beverley Stinson, Ph.D. (AECOM)

Completion of Lunch / Networking Break

1:00 PM – 1:30 PM

Can Innovative Technologies Provide Benefits to Municipal Water Resource Recovery Facilities – Rod Reardon (Carollo)

1:30 PM – 2:00 PM

Low Carbon/Energy Nutrient Removal Alternatives – Jose Jimenez, Ph.D., P.E. (Brown and Caldwell)

2:00 PM – 2:15 PM

Networking Break

2:15 PM – 2:45 PM

Mainstream Shortcut Nitrogen Removal: Transitioning from BNR 1.0 to 3.0 – Charles B. Bott, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE (Hampton Roads Sanitation District)

2:45 PM – 3:15 PM

Membrane Aerated Biofilm Reactor: Doing More Nutrient Removal with Less Energy and Space – Jeff Peeters, P.Eng. (GE Water and Process Technologies)

3:15 PM – 3:30 PM

Closing Remarks

Registration Cost

$125 for FWEA members and licensed wastewater operators (payment must be received by February 6, 2017) $175 for non-member and late FWEA members (non-members can join FWEA online before the event and qualify for the member rate) $225 for late non-member registrants $250 Sponsor - includes logo on program, recognition on day of event (logo on slideshow during introduction and breaks) * No refunds after February 12, 2017

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017


Register Now for 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests!

Operations Challenge

Top Ops Competition

Treatment plant operators from across Florida will compete in the 28th annual Operations Challenge at the Florida Water Resources Conference, which will be held April 23-26, 2017, at the Palm Beach County Convention Center in West Palm Beach. Participants will be timed in five separate operational competitions to determine the state’s representative for the national Operations Challenge at WEFTEC 2017 in Chicago. The Operations Challenge promotes team building, leadership, education, and pride within a utility. Any utility that didn’t have a team in last year’s contest is especially encouraged to participate in the 2017 event. For information and entry forms, contact Chris Fasnacht, Operations Challenge chair, at 407-709-7372 or S

The annual statewide Top Ops contest will also be held at the 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference. Top Ops is the “College Bowl” of the water industry. Teams of one, two, or three water operators or laboratory personnel from the FSAWWA regions compete against each other in a fast-paced question-and-answer tournament at the conference. A moderator poses a wide range of technical questions and math problems, and the team scoring the most points in the championship round is awarded the Florida Section AWWA Top Ops championship. The winning team will earn a trip to ACE17 in Philadelphia to compete with teams from other American Water Works Association sections in the Top Ops contest. Utilities throughout the state are encouraged to enter. Teams do not have to consist of employees of the same utility, and multiple utilities can sponsor a team. No video, audio, or digital recordings will be allowed during the competition. For registration forms and the 2017 rules, contact Chris Wetz, Top Ops Committee chair, at or 727-215-3514, or visit S


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

A Hot Solution Nitrification at elevated temperatures is no problem for refinery moving bed biofilm reactors Caroline Dale

astewater in refinery applications frequently reaches temperatures in excess of 40°C, making biological treatment a challenge; in particular, nitrification. The Suncor Refinery in Montreal, Quebec, is no exception. The refinery processes 130,000 barrels per day, producing gasoline, distillates, asphalts, heavy fuel oil, petrochemicals, solvents, and feedstock for lubricants. The process of refining crude oil into finished products requires complex systems and generates large quantities of water. The desalter unit requires washwater and heat to remove dissolved salts from the crude oil before it can be further processed. Steam is used in many refining processes, as a stripping agent in distillation and for dilution in the cracking process.


Refinery wastewater contains a range of hydrocarbons, as well as ammonia. The most common process used to remove organic carbon and ammonia is biological treatment, either in a suspended growth system, such as activated sludge, or a fixed-film system, such as trickling filters or moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Long-term operating data have shown that the MBBR is a robust process that allows nitrification to take place at elevated temperatures. An MBBR was installed at the Suncor refinery to increase the plant’s nitrification capacity, and as a result, the facility has seen improved treated effluent quality.

Suncor Refinery in Montreal The wastewater treatment plant at Suncor is typical of refineries. Wastewater flows through an oil separator, followed by dissolved-air flotation. The pretreated effluent is then collected in an equalization tank prior to being pumped to the MBBR. The MBBR effluent is discharged into a lagoon prior to discharge to the Saint Lawrence River.

Table 1. Influent design parameters for a moving bed biofilm reactor


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 1. AnoxKaldnes™ K3 media

Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor Overview The MBBR process was developed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology around 25 years ago. It is a completely mixed, continuous flow-through process that combines the benefits of fixed-film and suspended-growth processes.

Table 2. Moving bed biofilm reactor influent and effluent characteristics

An MBBR consists of a tank equipped with an outlet sieve to retain media, the media itself, and an aeration or mixing system. The aeration system utilizes a medium-bubble design with stainless steel laterals and diffusers. An important feature is that biofilm thickness is controlled by media movement so that oxygen diffusion through the biofilm is encouraged. The MBBR at the Suncor refinery uses AnoxKaldnes™ K3 media, shown in Figure 1. The media is made of high-density polyethylene, with a protected surface area of 500 sq meters/cu meters (m2/m3) and a specific gravity of 0.95 kilograms per decimeter (kg/dm). Typical fill ratios range from 10 to 65 percent of total reactor volume. Nitrification The nitrification rate in an MBBR is directly related to the organic loading rate, dissolved oxygen concentration, and temperature. In most industrial applications where the organic load is significant compared to the nitrogen load, a two-stage system is recommended consisting of carbon removal followed by nitrification. However, the wastewater at the Suncor refinery is relatively diluted compared to other refinery effluents, so the MBBR was designed for combined carbon removal and nitrification to allow existing tanks to be used. The MBBR was designed to achieve discharge requirements of less than 10 mg/L of soluble biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 0.1 mg/L of phenols, and less than 3 mg/L of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N). The design parameters for the process are given in Table 1. Temperature As mentioned earlier, one of the design challenges was water temperature. Although the nitrification requirements are very low (assuming a BOD-to-nitrogen requirement for cellular synthesis of 100:3.5, only 5.9 mg/L of NH4-N needs to be nitrified under average load conditions), there is little information available on nitrification rates at high temperatures. Many researchers have investigated the impact of temperature on fixedfilm systems; however, very few have operated at temperatures in excess of 35°C. The optimal activity of Nitrosomonas has been shown to occur at 35°C, while the optimal activity of Nitrobacter occurs at 38°C, with a sharp drop-off in activity beyond these temperatures. Due to the limited data available at the time of the Suncor project, a conservative design approach was adopted to ensure that the monthly average discharge concentration could be achieved under all operating conditions.

The temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles in the MBBR are shown in Figure 2. The temperature increased gradually from April through May and remained above 40°C from May until October. The dissolved oxygen profile is almost the direct inverse of the temperature (as temperature increases, the dissolved oxygen concentration decreases); however, the aeration capacity was sufficient to maintain dissolved oxygen concentrations above 2.5 mg/L under most conditions, ensuring that the nitrification rate would not be limited by oxygen. Figure 3 shows inlet and outlet total BOD concentrations over time. The BOD removal across

the MBBR is consistently meeting discharge requirements, even at temperatures in excess of 45°C. The three data points showing BOD levels higher than 40 mg/L reflect days when the influent load exceeded the maximum daily design load of 1600 kg BOD/d and are not related to high temperature. Figure 4 shows the inlet and outlet NH4-N concentrations with nitrogen oxides in the MBBR effluent. Nitrate production is clear evidence of nitrification activity and to demonstrate nitrification, a nitrogen balance must be undertaken across the system. Nitrogen will be consumed for cellular synthesis. In this case, with an average influent total Continued on page 44

Figure 2. Yearly temperature profile

Figure 3. TBOD profile across the moving bed biofilm reactor

Treatment Results Effluent monitoring is undertaken on a biweekly basis by Suncor personnel. The MBBR influent and effluent characteristics from February 2011 through May 2014 are summarized in Table 2. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017


Anaheim Reappointed as FWPCOA President

Scott Anaheim was reappointed as president of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) for 2017 by the organization’s board of directors at its October 2016 meeting. Anaheim recently retired as director of city projects for JEA in Jacksonville. Anaheim has served FWPCOA at both the regional and state level. At the regional level, he was elected Region 2 director and helped create and taught CEU courses for the region. He holds a Level 1 water distribution license and a wastewater collection system license. “I’m truly honored to again be serving as the FWPCOA president and look forward to continuing to focus on opportunities to expand our membership, find ways to get our members more involved in the industry, and expand our training programs. I look forward to continue working with our sister associations and other water-related organizations in the coming year.” S


Continued from page 43 BOD of 61 mg/L and assuming a BOD:N ratio of 100:3.5 for a low-load system, an average of 2.1 mg/L N will be assimilated. For nitrification to be the dominant ammonia removal process, the total inorganic nitrogen in the effluent must be nearly equal to the inlet total inorganic nitrogen. Based on the data collected, the theoretic nitrate production should be 5.9 mg/L. The observed nitrate production was 4.8 mg/L at the Suncor facility. Researchers have conducted continuous laboratory studies with MBBRs operated at 35°C, 40°C, and 45°C (Shore J.L., M’Coy, W.S., Gunsch, C.K., and Deshusses, M.A., 2012. “Application of a moving bed biofilm reactor for tertiary ammonia treatment in high temperature industrial wastewater,” Bioresource Technology, 112, pp. 51– 60). They showed that, with acclimatization, nitrification could be sustained at 40°C, but not at 45°C. Their tests were carried out over a short period of time, with a step increase in temperature rather than a long-term gradual increase, which may have resulted in insufficient adaptation time. The results at the Suncor facility indicate that when temperature increase is gradual over a period of weeks, nitrification can be sustained at temperatures up to 50°C. This is supported by the nitrogen balance described previously. Occasional high-effluent NH4-N concentrations have been observed at the facility and the data were reviewed to determine the cause of the decreased nitrification; however, no clear correlation with the temperature could be found. In most instances, the higher NH4-N concentration in the effluent could be attributed to a high influent NH4-N load.

January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lower Costs Overall Most of the ammonia removal in MBBRs is accomplished through nitrification, as demonstrated by the production of nitrate. It can be deduced that the capacity for complete nitrification at the Suncor system is approximately 150 kg N/d. Being able to operate at elevated temperatures without cooling prior to biological treatment significantly benefits Suncor, both in terms of capital and operating expenses, allowing for substantial cost savings. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Caroline Dale is a principal process engineer at the Cary, N.C., office of Veolia Water Technologies in Saint-Maurice, France. S

Figure 4. Nitrogen profile across the moving bed biofilm reactor

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Wastewater Treatment. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before submit your Earn CEUsyou bycan answering answers! questions from previous

Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

An Overview of Innovative Technologies: Can They Provide Benefits to Florida Water Resource Recovery Facilities? Rod Reardon, Raj Chavan, Dwayne Kreidler, and Jon DeArmond (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. The Modified Ludzak-Ettinger process improved upon earlier post-anoxic treatment systems by utilizing influent _____________ for denitrification. a. chemical oxygen demand b. biological oxygen demand c. ammonia d. nitrate 2. Step-feed biological nutrient removal (BNR) and biologically active filters (BAFs) are two of the few innovative technologies that have been proven in a. Florida. b. the southeastern United States. c. large capacity installations. d. environmentally sensitive applications. 3. Which of the following processes can perform carbon removal, nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal in a single bioreactor? a. Modified Ludzak-Ettinger b. Granular activated sludge c. Membrane bioreactor d. Bardenpho 4. Membrane bioreactors do not require a. significant electrical power. c. downstream disinfection.

b. a downstream clarifier. d. routine scouring.

5. ___________ is the ballast material used in the ballasted activated sludge process. a. Silica b. Magnesium oxide c. Aluminum sulfate d. Magnetite

Northwest Water Reclamation Facility Phase-Three Improvements Project Kenny Blanton, Mark Ikeler, Mark Robinson, Nicole Quinby, Steven Scott, Neil Massart, and Bikram Sabherwal (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. In which of the five Bardenpho process stages does nitrification occur? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 ___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________

d. Stage 5

2. The author cites which of the following as a disadvantage of gearless turbo blowers? a. Energy use b. Larger footprint c. High mechanical maintenance requirement d. Increased sensitivity to transient plant disruptions

LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

3. A _________________ is being considered to assist in the denitrification process during colder winters or higher flow or loading periods. a. chemical feed system b. supplemental anoxic zone c. membrane bioreactor d. supplemental blower 4. To temporarily avoid the most stringent effluent total nitrogen regulatory limits, the utility could have a. down-rated plant capacity. b. diverted flow to a different treatment facility. c. ceased using two rapid infiltration basins. d. implemented direct potable reuse. 5. In addition to nitrogen reduction, the process implemented at the Northwest Water Reclamation Facility (NWRF) can achieve an effluent total phosphorus concentration of ____ mg/l. a. 1 b. 0.5 c. 0.1 d. 0.01 Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017



Lessons Learned From Design to Start-Up of a Greenfield Wastewater Plant in St. Johns County Cecile Toupiol, Teri Pinson, Scott Trigg, David Rasmussen, and Rick Newberg he St. Johns County Utility Department (utility) completed the design, construction, and commissioning of the new greenfield Northwest Water Reclamation Facility (facility) as a 100 percent reclaimed water facility providing advanced wastewater treatment to serve the developments in Northwest St. Johns County with effluent limits of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): total suspended solids (TSS): total nitrogen (TN): total phosphorus (TP) of 5:5:3:1 parts per million (ppm), respectively. The project location is shown in Figure 1. The facility is located on an unimproved 40.88acre site containing approximately 30 acres of uplands and approximately 10 acres of wetlands. The first phase of the plant had an annual average design flow and reuse capacity of 3 mil gal per day (mgd), with design consideration for future expansion. The proposed facility is permitted as a water reclamation facility under the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) F.A.C. Chapter 62:610 Part III– Slow-Rate Land Application Systems; Public Access Areas, Residential Irrigation, and Edible


Crops. The reclaimed water discharge from the facility will share a common reuse distribution system with the utility’s State Road 16 Wastewater Treatment Plant (SR 16 WWTP), which serves reuse water to a local golf course for irrigation and will add residential customers in the near future. The facility also has a backup discharge point for periods of reduced reclaimed water demand. The backup discharge is issued under the Florida APRICOT (A Prototype Realistic Innovative Community of Today) Act, contained in Section 403.086(7), F.S. The proposed discharge location is to the St. Johns River via the Mill Creek Subbasin (tributary of the Six Mile Creek Basin), which in turn is a tributary to the St. Johns River. Even though the facility was constructed as a greenfield plant, the utility was faced with several challenges and decisions to be made through the design, construction, and commissioning phases. This article presents the lessons learned throughout the various execution phases of this project, as well as the steps that the utility had to proactively identify and address in the rest of the

Figure 1. Project Location


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Cecile Toupiol, P.E., is senior project manager; David Rasmussen, P.E., is project engineer; and Richard Newberg is senior operations specialist with CDM Smith in Jacksonville. Teri Pinson, P.E., is an engineer and Scott Trigg, P.E., is chief engineer–capital projects with St. Johns County Utility Department in St. Augustine.

system in order to integrate the new 100 percent reclaimed water facility into the existing wastewater and reclaimed systems.

Project Background Since the St. Johns County northwest service area was projected to experience rapid growth over the next several years, the utility decided to construct a new regional wastewater treatment plant to provide for the wastewater treatment needs of this service area. The facility site plan is shown in Figure 2. The project included the following treatment processes and major structures: S Headworks with mechanical band screens, manual bar screen, and grit removal system. S Four-stage Bardenpho activated sludge biological treatment process with a fine-bubble diffuser system and air-bearing turbo blowers, positive displacement blowers for reaeration, carbon source (glycerin) addition in the second anoxic zone, and alum addition for phosphorus removal. S Two secondary prestressed concrete spiral scraper clarifiers with scum removal and associated return activated sludge/waste activated sludge (RAS/WAS) pumping systems. S Two stainless steel disk-type tertiary filtration systems. S Dual channel high-level ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems. S An electrical building and standby power system (backup generator, switchgear, and fuel tank). Continued on page 48

Continued from page 46 S A 2-mil-gal (MG) reclaimed water prestressed concrete storage tank and reclaimed water distribution pumping system, and an alternate surface water discharge system with aeration prior to discharge. S Solids treatment processes, including a

400,000-gal sludge holding prestressed concrete tank, dewatering with a three-belt filter press, truck unloading area, and vacuum truck receiving station. The dewatered solids will be sent to a private permitted facility for further treatment and disposal. S A 3-MG onsite-lined off-specification stor-

age pond to hold effluent that does not meet reclaimed water or surface water discharge standards until conveyed to the headworks for additional treatment. Design for this project was initiated in late 2008 and the construction started in May 2013. Substantial completion was reached in February 2016 and the facility is operating successfully. The facility is now treating an average daily flow (ADF) of approximately 1 mgd and meeting the required FDEP reclaimed water quality permit limits.

Design Considerations The design included the use of several relatively new technologies, such as air-bearing turbo blowers, high-level UV disinfection system, and high hydraulic loading rate stainless steel disk filters. Additionally, the design was completed during the implementation cycle of several total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for northeast Florida water bodies. This section will focus on the following two design items as they could apply to other projects: the TMDLs and the UV system.

Figure 2. Northwest Water Reclamation Facility Site Plan

Figure 3. Northwest Water Reclamation Facility Aerial Photographs (May 2013 and December 2015)

Table 1. Proposed EPA and FDEP Nutrient Reduction Total Maximum Daily Load for Mill Creek and Six Mile Creek

Total Maximum Daily Loads A backup discharge was provided during periods of wet weather, or in other situations when reclaimed water cannot be accepted by customers. Based on the results of the backup discharge effluent outfall alternatives study, the utility opted to pursue a backup discharge permit under the Florida APRICOT Act, with the discharge location in the St. Johns River via the Mill Creek and Six Mile Creek. The location of the facility, Mill Creek, and Six Mile Creek is shown in Figure 1. The utility actively worked with FDEP to ensure that the facility loads were incorporated in the TMDLs from FDEP; however, draft TMDL documents published later by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the same subbasins, Mill Creek, and Six Mile Creek did not include the loads from the facility. The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit application was submitted in April 2009, along with a preliminary design report and an antidegradation study, to prove that there would be no impact to receiving streams. But as a result of FDEP and EPA concurrently proposing TMDLs for Mill Creek and Six Mile Creek in early Fall 2009, the draft NPDES permit issuance was put on hold. Additionally, conflicting information was provided between FDEP and EPA TMDLs on Mill Creek and Six Mile Creek (Table 1). A public comment letter was issued to stop the TMDL process within 90 days and a meeting with EPA led to an agreement of technical evaluation (see Figure 4). Continued on page 50


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

ATTENTION N OPERATORS S We want you, as a member of FWEA!

DID YOU O KNO K W that operatorss working fo or municipalities can join FWE EA for o a reduced price of per year?


Benefits inclu ude: Educa d tion &TTraining X Bu uilding Lead dership skills XNe etworking XPublica u tions XOp pportunitie es for o Awards and d Recognition an nd much mo ore! X


Sig S gn up at www.f or contact Karen Wallace at (407) 574--3318 Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;¢ January 2017


Continued from page 48 The utility and CDM Smith worked collaboratively with EPA to find a solution that would allow this beneficial reuse project to continue with a backup discharge to Mill Creek. The lessons learned on this topic are summarized as follows: S Knowledge of the System. Technical evaluation was performed early in the design and project-specific analysis should be conducted. S Regulatory Proficiency. It is critical to have strong knowledge of the existing regulations and closely monitor future regulations. S Regulatory Coordination. Key FDEP and EPA players were identified early, and regular correspondence and follow-up were maintained during the project execution. Ultraviolet Design Considerations The utility experienced operation permit compliance issues at its other wastewater treatments plants. These issues were attributed to high-rate accumulation of algae in the chlorine contact basins, causing increased chlorine dosage and chemical costs that resulted in increased residuals and byproducts of the disinfection process in the wastewater effluent. As a result, the decision was made to design the facility with UV treatment for high-level disinfection.

To minimize unnecessary capital investment, an FDEP variance for the UV treatment was successfully obtained to size the high-level UV disinfection system for this new plant based on a UV treatment of 65 percent, even though FDEP guidance and the 2003 National Water Research Institute (NWRI) guidelines require a design UV treatment of 55 percent at 254 nanometers. This approach allowed the utility to save on equipment capital costs and obtain a permit for the minimum number of UV modules to treat the flows at a UV treatment of 65 percent. It was the intent of the utility to divert a portion of the influent flow being treated at the SR 16 WWTP to the facility for more advanced treatment, once commissioned; therefore, samples were collected for 75 days at the SR 16 WWTP to provide data on the UV treatment that could be expected at the facility. The sample location represents the worst-case water quality condition that could be expected at the new facility. This sample was used to support the installation of the modules to meet a UV treatment of 65 percent instead of 55 percent (with the channels constructed with capacity to add more modules to meet the 55 percent, if needed). As shown in Figure 5, the UV treatment at the SR 16 WWTP was measured down-

stream of the filters, and results averaged 71 percent. Out of these 75 days, four days presented a UV treatment of less than 65 percent, and during these four days, the plant operators reported very high solids due to plant upset. Additionally, the facility has chemical phosphorus removal using alum, which has been shown to significantly improve UV treatment. Recent studies performed by CDM Smith in the cities of Valdosta, Ga., and Birmingham, Ala., showed that chemical precipitation of phosphorus provides incidental improvements in wastewater UV treatment quality. A UV field performance testing protocol and data collection sheets were prepared to collect the necessary six months of UV field performance test data required by FDEP to rerate the UV system. While the UV treatment testing is ongoing, the system is initially rated based on a 100millijoules-per-sq-centimeter (mJ/cm2) dose, at maximum day flow (MDF) conditions with a minimum UV treatment of 55 percent. The UV system was initially rated for a 3-mgd MDF, which is equivalent to an average annual day flow of 1.67 mgd, using the facility peak factor for MDF to ADF of 1.8. Once the effluent data show conformance with the design UV treatment of 65 percent, the UV system will be rerated to be consistent with the plant capacity of 3-mgd ADF.

Construction and Commissioning Considerations

Figure 4. Agreed-Upon Steps for Total Maximum Daily Loads Technical Evaluation

Figure 5. Ultraviolet Treatment Testing Results at SR16 Wastewater Treatment Plant Downstream of Filters


January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

The utility also experienced lessons learned during construction of the greenfield plant, including the importance for the contractor to clearly acknowledge the site conditions during bidding and construction, and the challenges that are faced during commissioning and integration of a new plant within an existing wastewater and reclaimed water service area. An overview of the wastewater and reclaimed water service areas is provided in Figure 6. Acknowledgement of Site Conditions for Construction The facility site is in an area where the groundwater table is high and near existing grade, contains a ditch that conveys surface water runoff drainage from surrounding areas across the site, and is surrounded by wetlands on two sides of the property. Even though the geotechnical reports were made available to the contractor and identified the high groundwater table and poor draining soils, the contractor did not take all the measures that were required to ensure that the water table and stormwater runoff would not impede the construction, such as: S Detailed review of the available geotechnical information prior to starting the construction.

S Design of a groundwater dewatering system by a registered engineer to lower the groundwater to 2 ft below the subgrades of excavations. S Control the surface water runoff to prevent flow into excavation. As a result of the ineffective dewatering system and construction stormwater control measures, the contractor opted to overexcavate several excavations to remove and replace the existing material because moisture content and densities could not be met, and requested additional funding for providing out-of-site crushed rock (Florida Department of Transportation [FDOT] No. 57). These issues delayed the construction schedule significantly by repetitively reworking and retesting areas. This resulted in having to determine which construction delays were attributed to rain days versus inexcusable construction delays during a stressed construction period. The design lessons learned that would help to streamline resolution of these issues include: S Clearly define rain delay terms in the contract, including identification of a specific local and applicable weather station to generate baseline typical weather conditions and use as a comparison during execution of the contract; establish a clear definition of rain delays that would extend the contract; establish a clear definition of recovery days for impacts from excessive rain on nonwork days; and establish a definition of work days and resolution based on the contractorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s schedule (four-day work week versus a five-day work week). S Clearly define the terms for bidding from the recommendations in the geotechnical report and outline the method of resolution for accommodating differing subgrade conditions from bidding conditions for subgrade preparation and overexcavation of unsuitable soils. Limited Potable Water and Wastewater for Seeding for Commissioning The constraints faced installing a new plant in an undeveloped area were access to the site, limited availability of potable water, construction water, wastewater for biological seeding, and equipment start-up. The strategies that follow were implemented to allow for a successful commissioning plan tailored to the limited amount of wastewater and potable water available at this greenfield plant. The start-up plan and commissioning plan included biological seeding, communication, and analytical testing plans that were critical to the successful startup, and commissioning of the facility.

Access to the Site The facility is located approximately one mi from an improved county road. The design of the plant included a temporary compacted dirt access road from the main county road to the plant site along one lane of the proposed four-lane CR 2209 alignment. The temporary road was intended to be used during construction until CR 2209 was constructed; however, the plans between the developer and the county for construction of this roadway were indefinitely postponed at the start of construction. This resulted in upgrades to the design of the

temporary road for maintaining positive drainage across the adjacent farmland with the addition of the road, and improvements for continued use following construction. Ultimately, the road will be paved by the utility. Potable Water, Construction Water, and Wastewater Availability The potable water for the facility is provided by a 4-in. groundwater well located onsite. Due to the limited capacity of this well, the utility completed the design and construction of an offsite utilContinued on page 52

Figure 6. Overview of Wastewater and Reclaimed Water Service Areas

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ January 2017


Continued from page 51 ity extension project in parallel with the facility project to construct approximately 5,500 lin ft of 20-in. ductile iron pipe reclaimed water pipeline that will serve as the distribution main for reuse water. Completing the construction ahead of the facility commissioning, it allowed for reuse water to be available during construction at a flow rate of approximately 600 gal per minute (gpm). This reclaimed water was used to perform the hydrostatic and initial equipment tests of the major structures and equipment (totaling over 7 MG of tanks, basins, and pipelines). Proper planning and coordination between the utility and the contractor was required to ensure that enough reclaimed water was available during the different phases of this project. Testing was performed in several phases in order to work with the limited flow of reclaimed water available to the plant at any given time. Start-Up and Commissioning Plan Start-up was conducted in several phases and the start-up and commissioning plan was developed to allow the utility to take the SR 16 WWTP partially offline for maintenance. The summary of the start-up phases is: S Phase I – Prestart-up testing was performed on all of the facility equipment during this phase, including all associated mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation, and required prestart-up equipment maintenance.

S Phase II – Functional testing, also referred to as operational testing, was performed by the original equipment manufacturer’s representatives. Once the functional testing was complete, the representatives signed off that the equipment was ready to be placed into service. Figure 7 shows clean water test performed on the reaeration tank. S Phase III – Training for the utility staff was conducted by the manufacturer’s representatives. Prior to training, a training plan was submitted by the general contractor and approved by CDM Smith and the utility. Figure 8 shows one of the utility staff receiving some UV training from Ozonia. S Phase IV – Under this phase, the systems were placed in operation and operated for a period of time (48 hours minimum) using reclaimed or potable water to test the equipment for operation functionality prior to introducing raw sewage into the system. S Phase V – This phase consisted of placing the facility into service and involved introducing a predetermined volume of raw sewage and activated sludge to the biological treatment systems. The process systems included in this phase were the headworks, anoxic/aeration basins, clarifiers, internal recycle systems, and the RAS system. Once the biological treatment system reached a stable point where it was observed that it could treat raw sewage,

Figure 7. Clean Water Test Performed on Reaeration Tank


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the sewage was then sent to the facility on a continuous basis. S Phase VI – Final commissioning consisted of the completion of any required performance testing, compiling all the required project documents and turning the facility over to the utility staff. Figure 9 shows utility personnel inspecting the facility during the start-up period. Biological Seeding and Final Commissioning Overview During Phase V, the biological seeding and start-up of the treatment process took place. During this time, one of the two treatment trains was full of reclaimed water and offline, and the other one was filled with reclaimed water to 1 ft above the center line of the internal recycle pumps. The aeration system, mixers, and internal recycle pumps were turned on and operated manually by utility staff, with the assistance of CDM Smith. Raw sewage was introduced to the facility through the headworks at a flow rate of 350 gpm; once the raw sewage started flowing into the facility, the biological seeding process began. Utility personnel brought eighty-four 4,500- to 5,000-gal truckloads (392,500 gal) of activated sludge and WAS from one of their other facilities over a three-day period, ending on a Wednesday morning of the start-up week. Raw Continued on page 54

Figure 8. Ultraviolet Training from Ozonia at the Facility

Continued from page 52 sewage continued to flow into the facility at rates between 350 to 500 gpm until it overflowed the clarification system and traveled through the filtration and UV systems. This water was considered off-spec and sent to the 3MG off-spec pond. Figure 10 shows the off-spec pond during the start-up period. While this water was being sent to the offspec pond, utility staff collected samples for performance criteria that were outlined in the analytical test plan. By Saturday of the same week, the biological seeding process started, and it was determined that the facility effluent met the criteria for reclaimed water and was directed to the reclaimed water users through the reclaimed water distribution system. The facility was put into service three days after the biological seeding took place and the utility was successful in the start-up of the facility, also taking

another facility’s treatment process partially offline. The lesson learned is that good planning and coordination, with knowledgeable and experienced staffing, are required to successfully start and commission the wastewater treatment facility.

Considerations for Integrating New Wastewater Treatment Plant to the Overall Wastewater and Reclaimed Water Systems In order to integrate a new 100 percent reclaimed water facility to the existing wastewater and reclaimed systems, the utility had to actively identify and address many other improvements required in the system. The following steps were undertaken to get ready for the new WWTP to come online, such as:

Figure 9. Utility Personnel Inspecting Facility During the Start-Up Period

S Construction of approximately 3,000 lin ft of ductile iron outfall pipe from the facility to Mill Creek. S Diversion of existing wastewater flow from 21 manifold pump stations discharging to the northwest master lift station and ultimately to the SR 16 WWTP and to the facility. S Installation of approximately 5,000 lin ft of 20-in. ductile iron force main from the lift station to the facility site. S Interconnecting and rerouting of existing 20-in. and 12-in. influent force mains to the lift station wet well to the new 20-in. facility influent force main, with valving to direct wastewater flow to either location during construction. S Decommissioning of the lift station and 0.5 MG above grade wet well. S Upgrades to 12 pump stations, ranging from pump replacement to complete pump station upgrades to meet the increased head conditions of pumping directly to the new facility headworks. S Modification of the SR 16 WWTP reuse discharge system inline booster pump station to the ground storage tank and booster pump station system to allow both plants to discharge reuse into the common 8-in. pipe serving the golf course with irrigation water. S Construction of a new 1.5-MG prestressed concrete storage tank with concrete dome roof and rainfall capture system adjacent to the existing inline booster pump station S Modification of pump controls and piping, such that the SR 16 WWTP can pump reuse into the new storage tank as needed to meet plant effluent discharge rates. This project was required to be completed prior to facility commissioning to allow both plants to share the reuse distribution pipe to the golf course, since SR 16 WWTP does not have reuse storage available on site. S Integration of the facility, SR 16 WWTP, and several external ground storage tanks and pump stations into an overall pressurized reclaimed water system is required to balance reuse water storage to meet peak irrigation demands, while minimizing use of the backup discharges from the plants. The remaining work to complete this task includes: • Construction of a 1-MG ground storage tank at the SR 16 WWTP. • Installation of a pressure-sustaining control valve at the golf course discharge point. • Implementation of a new overall reclaimed water control strategy.

Figure 10. Off-Spec Pond During Start-Up Period


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The system is currently operating successfully with influent wastewater redirected to the faContinued on page 56

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Continued from page 54 cility headworks. Both plants, SR16 WWTP, and the facility are discharging reclaimed water utilizing their local reuse storage and a shared free discharge at the golf course pond. Approximately 100 residential customers are ready for reuse service and are currently operating on a potable water jumper until the system is pressurized in late 2016, once these improvements are completed.

Conclusions Even though the facility was constructed as a greenfield plant, the utility was faced with several challenges and key decisions to be made through the design, construction, and commissioning phases. The facility is a successful plant that is now in operation and meeting the effluent requirements. The lessons learned during the design, construction, and commissioning of this project include: S Regulatory proficiency and regulatory coordi-

nation throughout the implementation of the project. It is critical to have a strong knowledge of the existing regulations and closely monitored future regulations. Key FDEP and EPA players shall be identified early and regular correspondence and follow-up shall be maintained during the project execution S Identify any cost-saving measures that could be implemented during design. For example, on this project, a FDEP variance for the UV treatment was successfully obtained to size the high-level UV disinfection system based on a higher UV treatment. This required the collection of field UV treatment data on the filtered wastewater effluent from SR16 WWTP, from which a portion of the flow was diverted to the facility. S The contractor should clearly acknowledge the site conditions and understand them prior to and during construction. It is very important to clearly define certain terms in the contract, such as rain delay and interpretation of

geotechnical reports. The contractor should also be closely familiar with the geotechnical conditions of the site, as well as the need of a robust dewatering and temporary stormwater drainage system, especially on a greenfield site with no existing drainage system. S Consideration of limited availability of potable water, reclaimed water, and wastewater for biological seeding, as well as for equipment testing and plant commissioning. It is critical early on to develop a testing and commissioning plan tailored to the limited amount of wastewater and potable water available at any greenfield WWTP and review the proposed plan with the contractor. S Consideration and planning for integrating a new 100 percent reclaimed water facility to the existing wastewater and reclaimed systems on a confined schedule. A utility should proactively identify and address any additional improvements required in the system prior to the facility coming online. S

News Beat Steve Fussell, PMP, has joined Neel-Schaffer Inc. and will serve as a senior project manager and business development manager for the state. He will be based in the firm’s Maitland office and provide business development services throughout Florida. Fussell previously served as community development manager for Seminole County, where he was responsible for infrastructure improvements, public services, and economic development for communities and individuals. In his eight years with the county, he also served in a strategic planning role and managed the information technology project management office. He has extensive experience in information technology and telecommunications, serving on multiple boards and committees. In his role with Seminole County, he was appointed to and served as chair of the Central Florida Expressway Authority Operations Committee. He has also worked with Sprint Corporation and Embarq Corporation. “Steve will be a great resource to our Florida team in building new relationships and strengthening both technical and project management expertise,” said Rosemary Aldridge, senior vice president for Neel-Schaffer’s Florida operations. “He will also assist in managing larger, more complex projects and pursue grant opportunities for our clients.” Fussell holds a master of arts degree in corporate communication and technology at


Rollins College, where he also served as an adjunct professor teaching strategic planning, project management, and organizational design. He is a certified project management professional (PMP) with the Project Management Institute.


McKim & Creed Inc. is expanding its services in the Fort Myers area to include water and wastewater engineering. Leading the expansion is Thomas Pugh, P.E., who will serve as regional engineering manager. Pugh has nearly 30 years of experience providing water and wastewater engineering, wastewater treatment plant operation, and inspection services in and around Fort Myers and southwest Florida. He will oversee all aspects of project activity, with a primary focus on municipal water, wastewater, and water resources. He will also monitors quality control systems and maintains key client relationships. Pugh previously served as senior utility project manager/practice builder with KimleyHorn and Assoc. His local and regional projects include sludge production review for the 30mgd lime softening water treatment plant in Naples, Osprey Avenue Phase II utility improvements for Sarasota, reuse main extensions for Fort Myers, water and force main pipeline extensions, and wastewater treatment plant permit renewals for Lee County. “We are pleased to have Tom guide our expansion in the Fort Myers area,” says Robert Garland, regional manager with McKim &

January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Creed. “Tom brings a wealth of local and regional knowledge in the water and wastewater industry, and is a professional engineer, a licensed Class C wastewater treatment operator, and is NASSCO-certified in pipeline and manhole assessments. His experience and expertise will serve our southwest Florida clients very well.” Pugh is a graduate of Pennsylvania State University with a degree in civil engineering. He has been a member of the southwest Florida branch of the American Public Works Association since 1998, having served as chair, vice chair, district representative, and state chapter bylaws committee chair. He is also a member of the Peace River Engineering Society, Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, Florida Engineering Society, National Society of Professional Engineers, and Florida Water Environment Association.


Lucintel has analyzed growth opportunities in the global water treatment chemical market and has written a comprehensive research report, “Growth Opportunities in the Global Water Treatment Chemical Market 2016-2021: Trends, Forecast, and Opportunity Analysis.” This report serves as a springboard for growth strategy because it provides comprehensive data and analysis of trends, key drivers, and directions. According to the report, the future of the water treatment chemical market looks good, with opportunities in the oil and gas, power Continued on page 58

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Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017



Get to Know Tim Harley Lisa Prieto President, FWEA im Harley is such a joy to have on our board of directors. He is always so kind and welcoming, and his big bear hugs melt away the most contentious discussions. Tim is a native of South Carolina, where he obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Clemson University. After finishing a degree in agricultural engineering, Tim went to work for the federal government for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). After five years of working with USDA, he decided to pursue his graduate degree in environmental engineering. His first job as an environmental engineer was with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the equivalent of our Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Some of his coworkers there were active in the South Carolina member association of the Water Environment Federation, and Tim was encouraged to become a member. After serving in the regulatory sector, he went to work with the Spartanburg Sanitary Sewer District and Western Carolina Regional Sewer Authority. He later moved to Florida to work as a consulting engineer with Jones Edmunds and Assoc. in Jacksonville. It was there that he became an active member of the First Coast Chapter. He served in various positions on the chapter’s steering committee and served as chair for two years (2012-2014). He was then asked to serve as a director at large, and then on the executive committee as vice president in 2015. During this time he also went to work for St. John’s County Utilities, where he is currently the wastewater division manager. Tim oversees the County’s 11 treatment facilities, over 300 wastewater lift stations, 50 employees, fleet vehicles and equipment, assets in excess of $160 million, and an annual operational budget of approximately $10 million.



Tim is currently serving as presidentelect and will take on the presidency of FWEA at the Florida Water Resources Conference this coming spring in West Palm Beach. Tim is a great resource on the board. His business knowledge regarding insurance, local chapters, legal matters, and other issues is priceless when we are working through policies and procedures. He’s a great communicator and a consensus-builder with our board members. Through his years of service in the First Coast Chapter he also brings the local perspective to the state level. I asked Tim what he likes best about being part of FWEA and he told me the people. He said the relationships and networking are such great experiences, and if you have ever met Tim you will quickly see that he gets along with everyone. He is always willing to help out—and always with a smile. His advice to new engineers coming out of school is, “Don’t be afraid to say, ‘I don't know.’” He advises young engineers to ask lots of questions and find a more seasoned engineer to help them out. In Tim’s current role as president-elect he is involved in the planning for our Leadership Development Workshop, which will be held in February. Every year FWEA holds this two-day workshop for incoming chairs and board members to discuss policies and procedures and share lessons learned (good and bad) from the previous year. It’s also the kickoff for business planning, with plans developed throughout the spring prior to the beginning of the FWEA fiscal year, which starts on May 1. If you have an interest in attending the workshop or have an idea for a topic or presentation, please contact Tim at, or Karen Wallace, FWEA executive manager, at When Tim isn’t out solving the wastewater problems of St. Johns County, he enjoys playing golf and riding his motorcycle. Tim’s enthusiasm for our industry and FWEA, coupled with his wisdom, is a great asset for our organization. He brings a great perspective to the association, having served in a variety of positions, not only throughout his career, but also throughout FWEA. S

January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 56 generation, metal and mining, and food and beverage industries. The global water treatment chemical market is expected to reach an estimated $32.8 billion by 2021, with a compound annual growth rate of 3.4 percent from 2016 to 2021. The major drivers of growth for this market are improving water quality standards and increasing demand for clean water. The report has 133 figures and charts and 39 tables spread through 215 pages and can be found at In the water market, coagulants and flocculants, foam control, and scale inhibitors are the major product types. On the basis of comprehensive research, the report states that the demand for coagulants and flocculants for water treatment chemicals is likely to experience the highest growth in the forecast period, supported by stringent regulations in water quality and growing demand for clean water. Within the water treatment chemical market, the municipal segment is expected to remain the largest market by value and volume. Depleting fresh water reserves and clean water demand in municipal applications will spur growth for this segment over the forecast period. For business expansion, the report suggests innovation and new product development to enhance performance with low loading levels of water treatment chemical and low environmental impact. The report further suggests the development of partnerships with customers to create win-win situations and development of low-cost solutions for the end user. Emerging trends, which have a direct impact on the dynamics of the industry, include the municipal and industrial consumer’s initiative towards the zero-water discharge and longterm sustainable water treatment chemicals. The study includes a forecast for growth opportunities in the global water treatment chemical market (from 2010-2021) by application, product type, and region. By application: S Municipal S Pulp and Paper S Metal and Mining S Chemical Processing


Power Generation Oil and Gas Food and Beverages Others

By product type: S Coagulants and Flocculants S Corrosion Inhibitors S Scale Inhibitors S Biocides S pH Stabilizers S Foam Control S Others By region: S North America S Asia Pacific

S Europe S Other Areas


Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;¢ January 2017


PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This column highlights the Florida Governmental Utility Authorityʼs Golden Gate Wastewater Treatment Facility, which is operated by U.S. Water Service Corp. This facility previously won the Earle B. Phelps award in 2015, and was awarded runner-up in the category of secondary wastewater treatment for 2016.

Florida Governmental Utility Authority’s Golden Gate Wastewater Treatment Facility Proves Successes Through Innovation, Continued Improvement, and Staff Dedication

Robert Gaylord, Jacob Porter, and Nathaniel Mastroeni riginally built in the 1960s, the Golden Gate Wastewater Treatment Facility (facility) is a complete mixactivated sludge wastewater treatment facility that can be described as a modified Bardenpho system, with a permitted capacity


of 1.5 mil gal per day (mgd) annual average daily flow (AADF), and serves approximately 4,000 customers. The facility is located in Golden Gate, which is in Collier County, and is a Type I, Category IIB treatment facility, and is rated as a reliability Class III treatment plant. Florida Governmental Utility Authority owns the facility, which is operated by U.S. Water Service Corp. The facility contains two treatment trains in parallel (plants 1 and 2) that proceed primary treatment. Package plant 1 involves the modified Bardenpho system, secondary clarification, and chlorine contact chambers; plant 2 contains a clarifier and chlorine contact chamber. The clarifier in

plant 1 is rated for less capacity than the biological treatment capacity. Flow exceeding the capacity of the clarifier is then split into plant 2’s clarifier and chlorine contact chamber, which is a rake and skimmer design. The biosolids that are wasted from both plants are sent to two aerated digesters. Digester 1 is a converted equalization basin; after digestion, the biosolids are sent to a mobile centrifuge for dewatering and landfilling. Figure 1 shows a basic process flow of the system.

Process Flow The biological process is controlled by maintaining a mean cell residence time

Figure 1. Process Flow at the Facility


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

From left to right: John Scroggins, plant operator; Curtis Weeks, plant operator; Nathaniel Mastroeni, chief operator; and Chris Jones, regional operations manager.

(MCRT) and monitoring nitrate and ammonia levels; the goal of the MCRT is 10 to 15 days. The facility continually meets performance goals, even during the wet season. Table 1 shows the treatment goals and effluent quality. The facility also achieves low-effluent nutrient concentrations, but the processes are only part of the reason the facility received the Earle B. Phelps award. The staff â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ingenuity, innovation, continued improvement, and dedication are the key to the success of the facility. Examples of these qualities are abundant and include resourcefulness during planned maintenance activities, ownership and pride in the facilities, healthy competition among staff, and recognition of outstanding staff performance. U.S. Water also implements a proactive safety program that includes internal online training, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) training, and routine safety meetings that have led to a reduction in onsite incidences. A true sense of staff pride is apparent through its achievements, and staff members frequently exceed expectations. An example of resourcefulness and outstanding performance lies within the facilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s maintenance planning. Typically, during routine maintenance, a process must be dewatered, bypassed, and temporarily placed out of commission. A past challenge was when plant 1 (1-mgd capacity) required a shutdown that included the biological treatment of the wastewater, and plant 2 (0.5-mgd capacity) had to meet effluent treatment quality goals without having a biological process implemented. The staff converted digester 1

into a contact stabilization process to increase the capacity of plant 2 to the rated 1.5 mgd that is required and provide biological treatment of the sewage. The process was approved by the regulatory authority, on a temporary basis, through an internally developed desktop model and evaluation. The contact stabilization allowed plant 1 to be bypassed for maintenance for several months, and proved to be an effective maintenance tool. After plant 1 is brought online following maintenance, the old equalization basin is converted back into an aerobic digester. Plant staff (pictured) has taken ownership of, and pride in, the facility through upgrades and housekeeping. The entire facility has been updated to the 10-state standards. Flow direction and composition of each pipe through proper color coding and documen-

tation has been added throughout the facility. A valve exercising standard operating procedure was created and has been implemented by plant staff. The procedure exercises and tests each valve for operability on a semi-annual basis, and helps identify and fix inoperable valves. The plant staff participates in, and takes ownership of, housekeeping by assigning specific areas of the facility to each member, which also inspires competition and camaraderie. The staff is rewarded for outstanding performance with prizes, barbeques, and most importantly, by recognition of its accomplishments at the executive level of U.S. Water. The facility is a great example of outstanding leadership, continued dedication, and the true meaning of the Earle B. Phelps Award. S

Table 1. Treatment Goals and Effluent Quality

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ January 2017


FWRJ READER PROFILE What does your job entail? I currently manage CDM Smith’s Fort Myers office and I am responsible for providing engineering services to municipal clients in the southwest portion of the state of Florida.

Paul Pinault, P.E. CDM Smith, Fort Myers Work title and years of service. I have 43 years of experience in the water industry, 33 years in the public sector, and for the last 10 years I have been with CDM Smith, where I am currently an associate–client service leader.

What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of science degree in civil engineering from the University of Massachusetts–Dartmouth and a master of science degree in environmental engineering from Northeastern University. I am a registered professional engineer in the states of Rhode Island and Florida. I am also a construction disputes arbitrator for the American Arbitration Association. What do you like best about your job? The best part of my job is working with a number of different clients to help them solve their problems with assistance from a group of very talented engineers and scientists who work for CDM Smith.

New Products The new Gear Keeper RT3-5605 heavy-tool retractable tether, with an ultra-low profile, keeps tools close to the body when stored, while still allowing complete accessibility when in use. The retractor employs a very low 7-oz force to avoid arm strain when extended, but is strong enough to keep the line taut to avoid snagging or interference with the work being performed. The retractor mechanism’s force is designed to retract the lanyard, not the tool; when the tool is retracted, lanyard exposure is minimized to avoid snagging, especially when the tool is also placed in a tool bag or pouch. Using a retractable tether for heavy hand tools is particularly important when working in close quarters or climbing. Like other retractables in the Gear Keeper line, the RT3-5605 is engineered so that the tool, application, and recoil/retraction forces are in balance. Designed to avoid worker fatigue in order to maintain productivity, only minimal force is necessary to extend the tether for use. It has a generous reach that extends more than 55 in. and the strong, impact-absorbing nylon webbing for tools up to 3.5 lbs does not require an additional shock-absorbing lanyard end. Tools are attached via a stainless steel, thumb-controlled, locking-gate carabiner. The tether features a thumb-controlled gear lock to secure the tool at any extension length. Included with the tether is a lanyard loop strap that can adapt to virtually any tool of appropriate weight to be cinched securely to the tether. (



The AquaPrime cloth media filtration system is an economical and efficient solution for primary wastewater treatment and wet weather applications. It utilizes a disk configuration and exclusive OptiFiber® cloth media to filter screened, degritted, and raw municipal sewage. Features allow the system to handle high-solids applications and sustain low-effluent total suspended solids, making it ideal for both wet weather treatment and primary treatment in lieu of conventional sedimentation systems. It operates in less than 10 percent of the footprint of conventional primary settling basins and offers the added advantage of improving gas production in the anaerobic digestion system. (


The StormTech SC-160LP Chamber is 12 in. tall, with an installed volume of 15 cu ft of water for underground infiltration and detention systems. The new unit requires 14 in. of total cover to carry AASHTO HS-20 live loads, which reduces site development costs in shallow applications by minimizing the amount of needed fill and maximizing open infiltrative areas. The chamber requires no separation between chamber rows, making it easier for the contractor to install, while also minimizing the aggregate required. It can be installed using an injection-molded 8-in. end cap or a solid end cap. (

January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

What professional organizations do you belong to? I am a member of the Water Environment Federation, Florida Water Environment Association, and American Public Works Association, and I am CDM Smith’s representative for the National Association of Clean Water Agencies. How have the organizations helped your career? Throughout my career I have been actively involved in a number of professional organizations and I have met hundreds of professionals who I consider friends. These individuals have assisted me in many ways by providing me with advice and in obtaining new skills. These acquaintances are a resource I can always count on. What do you like best about the industry? The people. Everyone has the same goal to protect public health and the environment. What do you do when you’re not working? I enjoy golfing, boating, and travel in my free time. S


RODI Systems Corp. is the exclusive North American distributor for the Cembrane SiC (silicon carbide) ceramic flat sheet membrane. The technology provides high-flux and low-fouling oil resistance, long life, and tolerance to pH and temperature extremes. The membrane is chemically inert, oleophobic, and has a low pH isoelectric point. These characteristics are ideal for applications such as high total suspended solids and temperature/pH extremes. With features like outside-in filtration, compact design, high flux rates, and superior fouling resistance, the product greatly reduces operational expenditures and required footprint compared to other microfiltration/ultrafiltration systems. (


The Koch Membrane Systems Inc. PURON MP ultrafiltration cartridge is designed for highsolids water and wastewater applications, including surface water treatment, reverse osmosis pretreatment, and tertiary wastewater treatment. The PURON MP simplifies operation, eliminates clarifier pretreatment in many applications, minimizes downtime, and reduces chemical usage to provide a lower total cost of ownership. The PURON MP line fills an important niche within the company’s ultrafiltration membranes with an average continuous solids

tolerance of up to 250 mg/L. It features an advanced cartridge design for better solids management and a virtually unbreakable reinforced hollow fiber for superior reliability. This addition allows the company to offer a more complete range of ultrafiltration products. The system features a unique single-potting cartridge design that allows air scouring to penetrate the fiber bundle more completely and release accumulated solids to the bottom, where they are easily drained away. The cartridge uses the same virtually unbreakable reinforced fiber made popular by other products. The combination of durable reinforced hollow fibers and unique single-potted cartridge configuration makes the PURON MP cartridge an unparalleled solution for high-solids water treatment. The design finds the perfect balance between reliable, efficient performance, and highquality output. (


The DualAir® fine bubble diffuser system from Evoqua Water Technologies includes two diffuser bases molded together. This design allows the diffuser assembly to be bonded to the air header pipe in such a way that each of them is located on the opposite side of the pipe, connected by a curved saddle between them. Previous diffuser designs have only used single diffusers, arranged to mount on the top or side of the air manifold piping. The major advantage of this diffuser design is that two diffuser assemblies can be mounted at one location, instead of one diffuser. This mounting allows twice as many diffusers per header than is possible with other designs. The design also provides a greater contact area between the pipe and the diffuser assembly, thereby providing an attachment bond with greater holding power. Compared to single diffusers, the DualAir diffusers provide up to 40 diffusers per 20 ft of air header section; greater contact area for a stronger bond between the diffuser assembly and piping; use of heavy wall diffuser header pipes; a design with fewer air diffuser headers, pipe supports, and air manifolds to distribution piping connections; lower shipping costs; more open floor space for maintenance; installation time reduced by 20 to 40 percent; and more cost-effective aeration systems. These systems require half as many air diffuser headers, support stands, couplings, end caps, and manifold connections. The result is a very economical system that can be installed at 20 to 40 percent less cost. Either membrane or ceramic media may be used with the diffuser’s flexible design. The media is secured to the base by an easily installed threaded lock ring and the membrane diffuser includes a PVC support plate. The diffuser base assembly is firmly bonded to Schedule 40 PVC pipe, not lightweight sewer pipe, as is the industry standard. ( S Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017



Tank Engineering And Management

Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983






CLASSIFIEDS P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

Utilities Treatment Plant Operations Supervisor $55,452 - $78,026/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $37,152 - 52,279/yr.; $39,011 - $54,892/yr.

Water-Reuse Distribution Supervisor

- Traffic Sign Technician - Water Plant Operator – Class C - Wastewater Plant Operator Trainee - Solid Waste Worker II - Collection Field Tech I & II - Distribution Field Tech I & II Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

$55,452 – 78,026/yr.

Utilities Engineering Inspector $52,279 - $73,561.90

Utilities Treatment Plant Operator I $44,300 - $62,334/yr.

Utilities Electrician $51,283 - $72,160/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Make Orange County Your Home for Life. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to over 500,000 citizens and 66 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions:

Industrial Electrician I $36,733 – $43,035/ year Apply online at: Positions are open until filled.

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary Range: $39,893.88 - $67,004.60/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Electronic Technician The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $40,890.98 - $68,680.30/yr, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2016


Finance Director Okeechobee Utility Authority

Operator Trainee $14.00 - $18.00 Hourly

Plant Maintenance Technician $44,838 – $65,015 Salary DOQ. Positions require a high school diploma/GED equivalency, a valid driver’s license and background check. Excellent benefits. Send resume to EOE/DFWP

Wastewater Plant Operator Wanted Full Time Wastewater Utility in Key West is looking for a licensed wastewater plant operator. Pay range between $28 -$34/hour. Class “B” or higher and BAT/AWT experience is a plus. Compensation package includes Health, Dental, and Retirement Benefits. Please send all inquiries and resumes to

The Okeechobee Utility Authority (OUA) is currently seeking an experienced professional to serve as Finance Director. The position requires a Bachelor's Degree in Accounting, Finance, Business Administration or closely related area. CPA or advanced degree preferred, with governmental accounting, auditing, or related experience. For detailed information regarding the OUA, the Finance Director position or to obtain an application, go to

InDyne, Inc. – Mechanic, Water & Sewage Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL Requires a High School Diploma or GED. Minimum Florida Level C Water & Level C Wastewater License required plus seven (7) or more years’ experience in industrial/commercial water/wastewater systems. State of FL CDL driver’s license is required. Must possess a current security clearance or be able to obtain and maintain a security clearance. US Citizenship is required for obtaining a security clearance. Must be capable of lifting up to 50 lbs unassisted, climbing/working on ladders >6’, prolonged standing and climbing stairs. Apply on-line at EOE/AA/ADA/VET Employer

Journeyman Electrician Salary Range: $52,033 - $82,421. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is in need of a licensed Journeyman Electrician. Duties: Install, inspect, test, repair, and maintain all new and existing generators, motors, transformers, motor controllers, and associated equipment throughout our system, with base location in the lower keys. Minimum quals: Vocational/Technical degree w/training emphasis in electronics, electrical, pneumatics, controls, building automation, fire alarm and HVAC systems, thorough knowledge of NEC requirements, 10 yrs experience and/or training that includes electronics. Must be able to operate and use computers with various software applications, including Microsoft Office Suite. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license. Must be able to communicate and comprehend the English language. Electronic application found at: (click on “More About Us” >Community>Employment ) EEO, VPE, ADA.

CH2M CH2M, the leader in Operations and Maintenance of Water and Wastewater facilities, is seeking Licensed Water and Wastewater operators, and Utility/Operators in Training, for openings in the Florida Panhandle Area. Operators must have a valid Florida “C” WW or “C” DW license. Salary will be determined based on experience. Candidates must pass a drug screen and background check. Send resumes to


January 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Senior Hydrogeologist – Tampa, Florida Office Founded in 1944, LBG is the first U.S. firm to specialize in hydrogeology and is a recognized leader in development and management of groundwater resources and environmental consulting. The successful candidate can expect to work on a wide variety of multidisciplinary projects involving water supply and environmental investigation and remediation. The position requires experience with water use permitting; groundwater modeling; supply well design, permitting, construction and testing; injection well design, permitting, construction and testing; contamination assessment; report writing; project management; client management and professional staff management. Candidates should have a MS degree in geology, hydrogeology or a related field and have obtained or be working towards professional recognition in the form of professional certifications and registrations. Interested candidates should send a resume and cover letter to: David Wiley, P.G., Sr. VP Leggette, Brashears & Graham, Inc. Cypress Point Office Park 10014 North Dale Mabry Highway Suite 205 Tampa, Florida 33618

Coral Springs Improvement District


has multiple positions available Wastewater Plant Lead Operator Applicants must have a valid Class A wastewater treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience and a valid Florida driver’s license. Drug and pre-employment screening apply. The lead operator operates the Districts wastewater plant; assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. Reports directly to the WTTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Minimum starting salary is $63,000 Water Plant A Operator Applicants must have a valid Class A water treatment license and experience in Reverse Osmosis/Nano Filtration treatment processes is preferred however is not required. Position requirements include knowledge of methods, tools, and materials used in the controlling, servicing, and minor repairs of all related R.O. water treatment facilities machinery and equipment. Supervisory experience is also preferred however is not required. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. The minimum starting salary for an operator position with an A license is $56,000. The District is willing to negotiate actual salary to commensurate with level of expertise, and years of experience in the field. Potential advancement based on performance. Excellent compensation including a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match up to 5%. EOE. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at and fax resume to 954-753-6328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Wastewater Pump Station Operator in the Florida Keys $37,000 - $42,000/yr. depending on experience and qualifications. Inspects and repairs wastewater pump stations, pumps and electrical equipment. Also locates sewer lines and also uses a push camera. FL. Driver’s license required. For consideration, please send your resume to: Talent Acquisition Division Ocean Reef Community Association, Yael Skinner, Director of Human Resources, Equal Opportunity Employer.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES – Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

On Top of the World is now accepting applications for a State certified treatment plant operator, seeking full time employment to join our team. All applicants must hold at least a minimum FDEP Class “C” Wastewater Treatment Operator’s License. Must be able to work weekends. Valid FL driver’s license with acceptable driving history is required. Salary ranges from $16.57 to $26.44 based on experience. Please forward resume to Please apply in person or visit our website at On Top of the World Parkway Maintenance 2025 Denmark Street Clearwater FL 33763 Phone: 727-799-3270 Hours of applications Monday to Friday from 8am to 1pm.

UTILITIES ENGINEER Indian River County is seeking qualified applicants for the position of Utilities Engineer. Must possess a bachelor’s degree as well as an active Florida PE license. Excellent benefits, including participation in the Florida Retirement System. Review full job postings and requirements, and download application at Apply: Indian River County Human Resources, 1800 27th St., Vero Beach, FL. 32960. Fax: (772) 770-5004. EOE/VP/DFWP.

Equipm e nt Fo r S a l e GLYCERINE FOR SALE Omit the middle- man purchase quality glycerin, made from private feedstock, direct from the producer for $2.50 per gallon call 305-522-7655

P o s itio ns Wante d LASHONN WALLACE – Passed both Florida Water and Wastewater Operator’s test and needs in plant hours to obtain license. Prefers Pinellas County area. Contact at 1146 Wooddlawn St. Clearwater, Fl. 33756. 727475-0428

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2017


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 38 1.

C) When the groundwater table is low. High water table prevents the smoke from escaping cracks in pipes and broken joints and migrating to the pavement above.

Editorial Calendar 2.

January ........Wastewater Treatment February ......Water Supply; Alternative Sources March............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..............Conservation and Reuse

B) Inflow. Direct runoff of rainwater into ground-level openings like broken/uncapped cleanouts, cross-connected storm drains, and manhole covers usually shows up quickly on plant flow charts after even a small rain event.


C) 25 ft

May................Operations and Utilities Management; Florida Water Resources Conference


June..............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review


D) The collection system is properly designed and constructed of materials that sulfuric acid will not attack.


D) Toxic gases and vapors

August ..........Disinfection; Water Quality September ....Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management

The most common toxic gas is hydrogen sulfide, but carbon monoxide may also be monitored.

October ........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ....Water Treatment


December ....Distribution and Collection

C) Greater than 2 ft per second. Sewage velocity above 2 ft per second keeps solids suspended, prevents settling out of grit, and prevents septic conditions from occurring.

A) Clean the sewer line Cleaning the surfaces of the pipes being televised allows better view of cracks, infiltration staining, and other defects.

Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue).


The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue).


For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

B) The lower the pH of the sewage, the higher the potential for hydrogen sulfide to be present. Many chemicals used for odor control also raise pH, which prevents the conversion to hydrogen sulfide.

D) 5 ft

10. B) Low-pressure collection system Also known as a grinder pump collections system, this is common in low-lying areas where deep excavations for gravity sewers are too costly or not recommended.

Reference used for this quiz: Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems, Volume I, Sixth Ed. Office of Water Programs, California State University, Sacramento.

Display Advertiser Index Blue Planet ................................................71 CEU Challenge ..........................................45 CROM ........................................................63 Data Flow ..................................................37 Evoqua ......................................................21 FSAWWA CONFERENCE Drop Savers..............................................17 Thank You Sponsors..................................18 Thank You Membership ............................19 2016 Awards ............................................20 FWEA Seminar ..........................................27


FWEA Wastewater ....................................39 FWEA Membership ..................................49 FWPCOA Online Training ............................7 FWPCOA Region VII ..................................59 FWPCOA Training ......................................55 FWRC Conference ..............................................11 Exhibit Info................................................12 Floor Layout..............................................13 Registration ..............................................14 Team Spirit ..............................................15

January 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Garney Construction ..................................5 Heyward ..................................................31 Hudson Pump............................................47 Lakeside....................................................41 Polston ......................................................53 Stacon ........................................................2 Treeo..........................................................57 Xylem ........................................................72

Florida Water Resources Journal - January 2017  

Wastewater Treatment

Florida Water Resources Journal - January 2017  

Wastewater Treatment