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Communication Practicum 2: Social Media

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Communication Practicum 2 (COMM 3014)

Social Media

Prepared by: Claire Harris Prepared for: Sue Myburgh Due Date: Wednesday, January 27, 2010 2|Page


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“Social media builds relationships, generates sales, builds knowledge, generates new ideas and builds internal teams. It can truly create value.� (Cook and Hopkins, 2006, p. 6)

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Abstract Paper Type: Research

Objective: To discover more about the understanding, acceptance and integration and acceptance of social media in large and small-medium organisations.

Methodology: This study is qualitative in nature using face-to-face interviews from four (three large and one small-medium) organisations from four industries (education, government, finance and technology) while using Social Shaping of Technology as a theoretical framework.

Findings: Organsiations have a similar fundamental understanding of social media, while reluctance towards social media is evident through a lack of understanding of social media. Benefits of social media are acknowledged based on existing implemented social media moreso than the potential benefits. Social media is considered to be a separate role but should be integrated throughout the entire organisation.

Limitations: Interviews were conducted with one to two employees and taken as a representative for the entire organisation. Three of the considered organisations were large, with one small-medium.

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Introduction “Social media are a category of sites that are based on user participation and usergenerated content including social networking sites like LinkedIn or Facebook, social bookmarketing sites like Del.icio.us, social news sites like Digg or Reddit and other sites that are centered on user interaction” (Search Engine Watch, 2010). See Appendix 2: Social Media Landscape for a detailed account of what social media encompasses as provided by Headworth (2009).

Social media have extended communication and networking techniques which utilize everincreasing technological advances, particularly the internet. Due to popularity and high usage, social media have infiltrated and implemented into small, medium and large organisations resulting in both acceptance and reluctance issues. As the name implies social media is used in a social context. However, this paper aims is discover the formal use of social media in work related processes while also considering issues relating to acceptance and reluctance in three large and one small-medium organisations. Digital,1 is the organisation which has introduced and excelled such organisations in social media and thus was the contact base for all four organisations interviewed.

There are a few central concepts and terms throughout the paper which need to be defined in order for any assumptions or misconceptions to be alleviated. For the purpose of the paper the term ‘tools’ is referred to throughout the paper and refers the types of social media; that is, G utilizes the social media tool of blogging in order to generate awareness

1

For the purpose of this report and confidentiality, the digital media company with be referred to as Digital (Pseudonym). Digital, a digital media company, is an innovative and growing agency which aims to connect people to their brand through digital media techniques and tools.

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and enables a platform for communication which they were unable to achieve prior to the social media era. A large organisation is defined as a company with greater than 250 employees, with a small-medium organisation having fewer than 250 employees (McAdam & Reid, 2001).

The theoretical framework applied is the Social Shaping of Technology (SST). The qualitative nature of this paper permitted interviews to be the employed methodology.

Although there is extensive literature on social media, its application in organisations, particularly considering the topics of acceptance and reluctance, demands exploration. Due to the somewhat new nature of social media and, in particular, its rapid and continuous exponential growth, this topic is of notable interest. Furthermore, a goal of this paper is to assist with the future understanding and integration of social media and the associated tools into organisations.

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Research Problem Social media are currently used both individually and within organisations. However, it would appear that some are reluctant to embrace it, while others do so with enthusiasm. Thus, this paper will investigate the understanding, benefits and integration of social media in a small-medium and large organisations.

Research Questions Although the scope of this topic allows for extensive research in several specific areas, for the purpose of the report I will consider the following research questions: 1.

Is there an understanding of what social media are?

2.

Do employees acknowledge how social media can benefit an organisation (including acceptance and reluctance towards social media)?

3.

To what extent is the integration of social media into work processes seen as a separate role?

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Literature Review It is impossible to consider all literature on social media, so several have been chosen to discuss. It is important to note that, to date, there are no experts or authors who have extensively covered the topic. Researching the topic for the literature review was a somewhat standard procedure including local and universities libraries and the university database and catalogue for the location of journals, books and e-books. However, through correspondence with Digital, several internet links and books were suggested to enhance knowledge and boost the overall credibility of paper. Understanding Social Media In order to accept and embrace social media, the associated tools and therefore opportunities a clear universal understanding of the topic must be determined. It must be noted that the opportunities and tools within social media continue to grow faster than many understandings of it and therefore ideas, descriptions and definitions may vary over time. For example, Anderson (2007, p. 4) describes Web 2.0 as the groups of technologies (such as blogs, wikis, multimedia sharing services, content syndication, podcasting and content tagging services) which, facilitate a more socially connected web where everyone is able to add to and edit the information space; that is, people can contribute as much as they consume. The idea of user-generated content is also clearly related to social media as Andersons’ ideas of contribution and consumption directly relate to this concept. Social media can also be defined under the concept of the participative web which is defined as the expanding of the Internets’ capabilities and on the creativity and communication abilities (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007, p. 17). Doyle (2009, About.com) says social media includes the various online technology tools (text, audio, video, images, podcasts, and other multimedia communications) that enable people

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to communicate easily via the internet to share information and resources. Thus, social media has several definitions and is clearly related to and interchangeable with several associated concepts. But, in relation to accepting and, in turn, reducing or eliminating reluctance towards social media, it is important to recognise the varied proposed definitions, in order to thoroughly understand the concept. Accepting social media and its benefits “Social media is in your organisation whether you want it there or not, so you better find a way to embrace it.� (Arnold, 2009, p. 6)

Briggs and Burkes (2005, p. 89) describe the change of communication processes, through the changes and advances in technology over time, and defines this process as the communication revolution. Although social media is only an element which has become a part of technological change, namely technological changes and advances in relation to the Internet, the importance of embracing it is clear which is cemented by Briggs and Burkes (2005, p. 88) poem with particular reference to the last lines; For move you must! ‘Tis now the rage, The law and fashion of the age. Thus, the changes in communication appear to have sense of urgency. Similarly, Cook and Hopkins (2006, p. 1) insist on embracing this powerful new medium because they argue old communication tools2 lose their relevance and effectiveness. Further to this they argue that the conversation is happening anyway so it is better to join in rather than risk having lies

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As, Mayer (1999, p. 97) interestingly states that in a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face-to-face with machine communication being the new communication method and face-to-face being considered old.

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and distortions go unchallenged in the conversations that are happening every day over coffee, in phone calls, emails, forums and online meeting areas (Cook and Hopkins, 2006, p. 2). Gibson (2009, p. 16) notes alarming similarities to that of Cook and Hopkins as she states that it is the water cooler where employees meet to open up about themselves and their work...what is needed is a virtual water cooler. In summing up accepting new communication tools is essential as things change over time they lose their effectiveness and communication tools are not exempt to this. Social media are arguably the most effective new communication tool and therefore must be both accepted and embraced and used in strategies in order to remain competitive in the age of new media. Reluctance towards social media Facebook helped me reconnect with my high school class from 30 years ago, but it’s not nearly as effective as a well-distributed press release (Baumann, 2009, p. 42). But ignoring social media completely can deprive a company of an important marketing vehicle and potent, cost-effective tools (Arnold, 2009, p 6). Clearly there are significant arguments for and against the implementation of social media in organisations. Furthermore, personal opinion is evident. Both Baumann and Carmi make clear arguments detailing reluctance towards social media. It would be a mistake to use it because its’ free (Baumann, 2009, p. 42) as half-hearted efforts to engage increasingly techsavvy customers and stakeholders can do more harm than good3 (Carmi, 2009, p. 21). A reluctance to embrace social media is that social media in organisations dissolves power and hierarchies introducing a somewhat more level playing field. This notion is supported

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Particularly financially and time-related. It requires resources and money. It must be integrated into the budget as although many social website tools are free, financial allocations need to be made in order maintain it.

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by Meyrowitz (1985, p. 161) who states that through electronic media, many authorities who once had a clear advantage over the average person are now often put on equal or lower footing. Similarly Cook and Hopkins (2006, p. 5) state that it is foolish for a business to bury its head in the sand and pretend that the old command and control one-way, top down, communication style is still going to work. However, if this hesitance is dominant it can be easily countered by the understanding that despite organisations losing power, they can now gain a greater knowledge of clients thoughts, ideas, and disappointments as previously discussed. Furthermore, the Internet has become a place where people can talk to other people without constraint, filters, censorship or official sanction (Levine et al, 2001). Thus, embracing social media, will, in turn, open opportunities and possibilities to become involved with clients on a more personal level and enable organisational conversations that could not happen before the social media era.

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Theoretical Framework The Social Shaping of Technology (SST) is the theoretical framework that has been adapted for the purposes of this paper. This theory is described as an approach that examines the content of technology and the processes involved in innovation (York University, 2009). There is a notable affiliation with the Social Construction of Technology, Actor Network Theory (York, 2009) and the Diffusion of Innovations (Lievrouw and Livingston, 2002, p. 183) but for the purpose of the paper, only SST is examined in detail. In understanding STT, Lievrouw and Livingston (2002, p.185) state that the aim is to formulate policies to guide technology development so that its benefits are more humancentred, usable, equitable, appropriate and responsive to everyday culture and practice‌SST emphasizes the importance of human choices and action in technological change. Therefore, SST effectively posits that technology, in particular technological innovation, is advanced by societal and human desires. SST not only identifies the influence of social factors on advances in technology but highlights the need to embrace the emergent and growing trend that is social media. It should also be recognised that technological advances are not instantaneous or random.

New technology typically

emerges not from flashes of disembodied inspiration but from existing technology by a process of gradual change to, and new combinations of, that existing technology (Mackenzie and Watchman, 1999, p. 9) In addition, Mackenzie and Watchman (1999, p. 4) consider that technologies change and then have effects on society. Therefore, the changes in technology that have advanced may not be fully recognised or valued until integrated back into the society that necessitated the change in the first instance. The scope of the framework must consider in light of some key factors:

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SST is a modern theory which has not yet been well-defined.

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As such, York

University (2009) highlights the contrast between this theory and the more traditional approaches, which address outcomes or impacts of technological change; -

SST does not specify any desired methodology for conducting research;

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The parameters of the paper necessitate qualitative research; and

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Due to the new nature of the topic, the availability of applicable frameworks is somewhat limited.

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Methodology As qualitative research aims to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and what governs this (Johns Hopkins, 2010) and SST considers the influence of social factors on advances in technology, it is clear that qualitative research is the most appropriate in relation to the discuss problem. Interviewing is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations for people’s attitudes, preferences or behavior (Dissertation Guide, 2009) and thus, for the purpose of the paper is deemed a useful data collection technique. More specifically structured face-to-face interviews were considered the best option. A few of the advantages of this methodology are the ability to interpret body language (including tone of voice, facial expression, hesitation etc) while investigating motives and feelings (Dissertation Guide, 2009). It was anticipated that an hour interview would enable a thorough insight into the organisations perspective on social media along with specific campaign information. However, it is unreasonable to conduct an interview for this amount of time when the respondents have daily commitments and responsibilities within the workplace.

The organisations interviewed were suggested and contacted on my behalf by Digital4. Upon acceptance I was able to e-mail the proposed contact to detail the study goals and boundaries and ensure confidentiality while also detailing the specifics of the proposed interview considering both time frame and availability. Due to time restrictions two interviews were conducted per organisation (See Appendix 2 – Digital Clientele Interview Outline for the complete interviews).

4

Five organisations were contacted with four accepting and satisfying interview timeframes

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General Social Media Questions a. Length: 10 minutes b. Aims: i. Generate an overall idea of what organisations understand social media to be ii. Insight into effective communication beliefs iii. Reasons why organisations use/embrace social media i.e. benefits (and drawbacks)

2. Specific Campaign Questions a. Length: 20-30 minutes b. Aims: i. What social media tools have been implemented and are futures plans related to social media ii. Acceptance, reluctance and maintenance of social media (and its tools) within organisation

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Results & Analysis 1.

Is there an understanding of what social media is and how it operates within an organisation?

Summary: Similar fundamental understanding of social media with differing terminology offered, while reluctance towards social media is evident when a lack of understanding of social media is evident.

All four respondents adopted differing terminology when asked to define social media, but each response was based on the notion of user engagement.

For example, (G) made

reference to a ‘two-way process’ and (T) made reference to the ability to ‘discuss’. Other terms and concepts suggested were ‘user-generated content’ (E) and ‘fast and effective communication and development from traditional media’ (F). As seen in the literature review, the definitions of social media include tools or social media platforms, including (but not limited to) blogs, wikis and podcasts. Interestingly, T was the only respondent to mention platforms in defining social media. All respondents acknowledged the most effective form of communication is determined by the purpose of the communication and recognise the importance and effectiveness of the Internet for communication. Nonetheless, they still acknowledge the importance of face-toface communication and the need to continue it. And thus it is important not to lose sight of the value that face-to-face communication still holds. The growth potential of social media must be carefully guided by strategy and a universal definition of its scope.

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Do employees acknowledge how social media can benefit an organisation?

Summary: Benefits are acknowledged based on existing implemented social media moreso than the potential benefits i.e. those that aren’t being currently experienced.

All participating organisations have an active blog which is proven to be a vital social media tool, particularly given that 36% of active internet users think more positively about companies that blog (Social Media Tracker, 2008). In turn, this not only shows organisations the importance of furthering their online presence beyond a mere website, but moreso represents that it is becoming increasingly important for internet users to be able to observe active social media tools on organisational websites. For T, just improving the look of their website boosted their hit rate from around 2,000 per month to averaging 25,000 per month in 2009/2009. Perhaps the most fundamental finding from the literature review is the necessity that organisations keep abreast of technological advances, if for nothing else, the prospect of being left behind. The interviews overwhelmingly indicated that it is essential to use and embrace social media in organisations. Furthermore, a parallel is represented in the respondent results, with all four strongly voicing support for this notion. No marketing campaign or engagement these days can be created and sustained without considering the potential of making a social connection (imedia Connection, 2009). Each of the respondents identified key benefits that social media had brought to their respective organisations. However, interview responses represent a much more narrow and specific viewpoint. Respondent T stated that it enabled the company to communicate to desired and extended audiences what it was that they were achieving as an organisation. In contrast, E identified that the key benefit experienced was tracking, managing and resolving

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an issue that a user flagged on the company blog. E has enjoyed the benefit of enabling and receiving hard data and analytical feedback from users, which has subsequently encouraged business development. Respondent G has observed the removal of communication barriers between people of authority and citizens, enabling a common bond between parties previously unable to connect. However, the implementation of social media tools is not without obstacles. For example, respondent G re-branded the company by adding social medial tools to the existing website, which saw undisclosed problems at the outset. While the launch of social media tools by respondent E did not go according to plan due to the absence of social media implementation planning, the outcome was still desirable. The opportunities that social media lends to organisations are slowly evolving. T, for example, is in the process of implementing a more structured cross-linking strategy with like-minded companies/industries to improve reach. Therefore, through collaborating with organisations in the same or similar industries has potential boost overall individual organisations. The opportunity to re-brand the organisation as T has done.

3.

To what extend is the integration (and maintenance) of social media into work processes seen as a separate role?

Summary: Social media is considered to be a separate role but should be integrated throughout the entire organisation.

The maintenance of social media and the associated tools is of paramount importance. In the case of F and T there are qualified people specifically employed to use and maintain the organisational usage of the tools. In contrast, E and G indicated that maintenance and

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assessment is a secondary role to initial employment. The importance of such a role is reflected in statistical information, which indicates that user reactions and feelings towards organisations are affected by the degree of social media implemented by the organisation. Results from a previously completed survey on G indicate that social media can not only have an impact on satisfaction for the viewer, but can also generate awareness for a company. Next to verbal word of mouth (49.7%), Facebook (31.2%) was the most popular method of spreading the news about the website.5 Interestingly, global financial services are number one when it comes to experimenting with and embracing social media (Cook and Hopkins, 2008. p. 2), so it is unsurprising that F has not only has embraced and accepted this from an industry viewpoint, but also from an organisational one. Furthermore, F has employed people to form a social media representative department. Facebook usage is actively encouraged at work, in contrast to the usual practice of discouraging (or even deactivating) access to Facebook common to many organisations. While this approach has worked for F, in a different industry/organisation there may be implications surrounding productivity or usage. However, the impacts of specific social media tools on employee productivity and usage are outside the parameters of this paper. The overall response to the implementation of social media and associated tools was that it had exceeded expectations.

Furthermore, each respondent indicated that they will

continue to use social media tools, while respondents G and T have developments underway. With minimal regrets, respondents ideally would have liked to implement such online changes at an earlier date. Furthermore, it must be done right (F) as too many people are using it badly (E). 5

Please note that this survey report cannot be fully referenced due to confidentiality restrictions. However, this survey was completed for company G on July 16 2009.

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Recommendations This list is not intended to be exhaustive, however, there are some recommendations that should be considered in light of the research results. Specifically: -

It is important not to lose sight of the value that face-to-face communication still holds;

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The opportunities that social media lends to organisations are slowly evolving. T, for example, is in the process of implementing a more structured cross-linking strategy with like-minded companies/industries to improve reach. Therefore, through collaborating with organisations in the same or similar industries has potential boost overall individual organisations;

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The opportunity to re-brand the organisation as T has done;

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The growth potential of social media must be carefully guided by strategy and a universal definition of its scope;

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Social media and associates must be embraced and maintained across the corporate hierarchy;

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Techniques must be continuously refined. It is important to recognise that anyone and any organisation can use/embrace social media Even without consideration of a target audience Furthermore, it must be done right (F) as too many people are using it badly (E);

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Internal newsletters need to filter through all offices and through all levels within the organisation; and 20 | P a g e


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It requires resources and money. It must be integrated into the budget as although many social website tools are free, financial allocations need to be made in order maintain it.

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Conclusion Social media has generated a new medium for communication. With the infiltration of social media into organisations, its role must be critically considered to enable organisations to embrace, and fully exploit, this emergent trend. The objective of this paper is to further discover social media in organisation in both large and small-medium organisations. Specifically understanding social media, how it can be applied and its maintenance is of focus. It can be concluded there are no organisational universal understanding of social media. However organsiations have a satisfactory understanding of social media and report the benefits through the implementation of social media and its associated tools within their organisation. Thus, definitional issues must be overcome in order to eliminate discrepancies in understanding the concept of social media. Majority of those interviewed report that the results of implemented social media exceeded their expectations. It is also important to note that all four organisations believe that they will continue to use and increase their usage of social media tools. This qualitative research paper enabled interviews to be used as the methodology. This proved to be a satisfactory method gaining the best insight into the problem given the time frame and criteria of the paper. Despite the limitations in adopting the Social Shaping of Technology theory, it is the most relevant and appropriate theory to apply within the parameters of this research paper. SST not only identifies the influence of social factors on advances in technology but highlights the need to accept and embrace the emergent and growing trend that is social media. In order for an organisation to successfully embrace social media, it is clear that it must be formally integrated as a constructed strategy. Desirably, jobs will be constructed around social media in order to fulfill the maintenance needs of this new communication medium.

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However, it must be recognised that organisations must commit at all levels (from senior management to employees) to understand, accept and embrace this new media. Thus, it must be an overall integration into the organisation which considers and engages all departments. However, the integration may not be complete without a level of training for those not directly related to the adopted social media tools. It is important, if not essential, for all organisation members to have a base knowledge of social media and how it operates. The research conducted does not propose to reflect a complete picture of how organisations have embraced social media; however respondents have been drawn from four different sectors to provide a cross-section of industry perspectives.

Therefore,

research conducted on a larger scale may produce varied results. An aim for future research is that a more developed and adaptable theoretical framework will evolve with social media and the associated technological advances.

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References -

Anderson, P 2007, What is Web 2.0?: Ideas, Technologies and Implications for Education, JISC Technology and Standards Watch, HEFCE.

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Briggs, A & Burke, P 2005, A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet, 2nd edn, Polity Press.

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Cook, T and Hopkins, L 2008, Social Media: How we stopped worrying and learnt to love communication, 3rd edn, Wordpress

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Dissertation Guide, 2009, Thames Valley University, http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1u1/hm1u1text2.htm

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Doyle, A 2009, Social Media: Social media Definition, About.com Guide, accessed September 5, 2009, http://jobsearch.about.com/od/networking/g/socialmedia.htm

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Gregg, M 2002, Field Epidemiology, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford

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Headworth, A 2009, How to use Blogs, Twitter and Facbook to you’re your business, Slideshow, accessed 20 September, 2009, http://www.slideshare.net/Andy.Headworth/how-to-use-blogs-twitter-andfacebook-to-grow-your-business

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Holtz, S Johnson, L, Havens, J 2008, Tactical Transparency: how leaders can leverage social media to maximize value and build their brand, John Wiley & Sons

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imedia Connection, 2009, Media Connection: What will be the heir to the Twitter throne?, accessed 28 September, 2009, http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/24503.asp

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Investigation into the Content of on-line Service: Report to the Minister for Communications & the Arts, 1996, Commonwealth of Australia, Sydney

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Levine, R Locke, C Searls, D and Weinberger, D 1999, The Cluetrain Manifesto, accessed 10 September, 2009, http://www.cluetrain.com/book/apocalypso.html

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Lievrouw, L and Livingston, S 2002, Handbook of new media: social shaping and consequences of ICTs, SAGE

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McAdam, R and Reid, R 2001, SME and large organisation perceptions of knowledge management: comparisons and contrasts. Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 5, No. 3. Pp 231-241, emerald Group Publishing

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MacKenzie, D and Wajcman, J 1999, The social shaping of technology, 2nd edn, Open University Press

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Mayer, P 1999, Computer Media and Communication, Oxford University Press

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Meyrowitz, J 1985, No Sense of Place, Oxford University Press

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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007, Participative web and user-created content: web 2.0, wikis and social networking, accessed 10 September, 2009, http://213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/browseit/9307031E.PDF

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Power to the people social media tracker, Wave.3, 2008, Universal McCann, accessed 28 August, 2009, http://www.universalmccann.com/Assets/wave_3_20080403093750.pdf

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Pozzebon , M and Pinsonneault, A 2005, Challenges in conduction empircal research using Structuration Theory: Learning from IT research, organisation studies, SAGE, Vol. 26, No 9, accessed 28 October, 2009, http://oss.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/26/9/1353

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Pustejvsky, J, Sillane J 2009, Question-order effects in social network name generators, Elsevier.

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Qualitative Research, Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2010, accessed January 24, 2010, http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/gim/research/method/qual.html

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Warburton, J 2009, Conducting a literature review: starting to write the literature review, University of Melbourne, accessed 20 September, 2009, http://www.lib.unimelb.edu.au/postgrad/litreview/starting.html

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Sobreperez, P 2009, Social shaping of technology, York University, 2009, accessed 12 September, 2009, http://www.fsc.yorku.ca/york/istheory/wiki/index.php/Social_shaping_of_technolo gy

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Rip, 1994, A Technology: society’s missing mass, Public Understanding of Science, SAGE, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp 233-238.

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Taubenheim, A Long, T Smith, Jeffers, D Wayman, J and Temple, S 2008, Using social media and internet marketing to reach women with the heart truth, Social Marketing Quarterly, Routledge, Volume 14, No. 3

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Appendices Appendix 1 – Social Media Landscape

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Appendix 2 – Digital Clientele Interview Outline General Social Media Questions 1. How would you define social media?

2. What do you consider to be the most effective communication method today?

3. Mayer (1999) states that in a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. Do you agree or disagree?

4. What do you believe social media is enforced in organisations primarily for (e.g. conversation, opinion etc)?

5. How much do you believe the use of social media in organisations is based on social networking? (Provide answer as a percentage and please comment)

6. Do you believe that if you are not engaged in this powerful new communication media i.e. social media you will in fact get left behind? Thus, is social media essential to use in organisations today? Give reasoning.

7. Do you believe there are organisations that should not use social media? If yes, please provide example/s

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Specific Campaign Questions NB: Interviews may have been slightly modified in according to campaign

1. What are the social media tools that _________ use and what value has it given to ________ (company)?

2. What were the initial key benefits for ________ (to implement social media techniques)?

3. Are these benefits the same as initially desired (now that the social media techniques are active?

4. Why/how did you choose this digital media company for your social media solution?

5. Are you happy with the outcome? Explain.

6. What would you do differently if you were to do it again?

7. How was the process of the _______________ (adding social media techniques): a. Accepted by staff b. Understood by staff c. Maintained (If it needs to be)

8. What do you see the future of _________ in relation to social media techniques? NB: Some interview questions may have been slightly altered in order to satisfy the individual requirements of the social media tools that the organisation implemented. However, this does not affect the results. 29 | P a g e


Social Media (Claire Harris)