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Cluster Set Up Training Session Sofia, 20 th November 2013


Roundtable

What is your level of experience with clusters ? What do you expect from this training ?

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Training objectives

• Give everyone an understanding of what a cluster is and what the benefits are • Be aware of the different stakeholders to involve and know how to get their buy-in • Identify major challenges to overcome when setting up a cluster • Develop a roadmap to initiate clusters


Scope

In-Scope

Out-of-Scope

 Cluster definition and

 Stakeholder’s identification and

 

characteristics Focus on cluster supportive organization (cluster as a legal entity)  Stakeholders buy-in  Governance & KPI  culture and competencies  Business service portfolio and business model Return on experience when setting up a cluster

management on the long term Cluster’s growth and development Cluster’s policies definition

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Agenda Wednesday, November 20 th Time

Agenda

Who

Module - Description

14:15-14:45 • Welcome & Introduction

Medicalps

• Free speech • Why we are here? • What is in and out of scope for this training session ? • What are your experience with clusters management and level of expectations ?

14:45-15:45 • Setting up a Cluster – An introduction

Medicalps (45’ +15’)

• Definition and rationale for setting up a cluster ? • What are the benefits ? • What are the characteristics ? • What are the challenges ? • Medicalps REX

15:45-16:15 • Working session presentation

Medicalps

•Exercise and group presentation

16:00-16:15

• Coffee break

16:15-17:45 • “Walk in the shoes of a 4 Stakeholder teams •“Imagine you are a ……what would be important for you?” (4 different stakeholder’s perspectives and objectives) stakeholder and play  Research & academics the set up of a cluster”  Industry (Round 1)  Institution  Social society • Share and discuss to develop a common vision of what could be the benefits/ risks, contribution (give & take) and proposed mission statement 17:45- 19:00 • Report out & discussion Stakeholder teams • “What did you learn when setting up a cluster that was important from your xyz point of view?” team presenter


Clusters An Introduction : Definition and concept


What is a cluster ? What is an ecosystem ?

Cluster

Ecosystem

 Many definitions of clusters exist driven by purpose and the specific context of its use

 No shared definition  The concept has been introduced by Moore in 1995

 Clusters can be defined as a group of firms, related economic actors and institutions that are located near each other and have reached a sufficient scale to develop specialized expertise, services, resources, suppliers and skills

 Moore defined business ecosystem as “an economic community supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and individuals – the organisms of the business world

Cluster is an organized group of co-located social actors in an ecosystem shaped by interactions that go beyond geographic frontiers


What is the origin of the concept ? The concept is a modern description of the long observed phenomenon of geographical concentration of economic activities Academics

1890

1939

1979

1990

A. Marshall described the advantages of agglomeration of economic activities in terms of availability of a qualified workforce and specialization

Schumpeter confirms the benefits of agglomeration of economic activities, and stressed the importance of the cluster system in terms of business competitiveness.

Beccatini introduced the concept of industrial districts for regional policy and territorial development, socio-territorial entity which is characterized by the active presence of both a community of people and a population of firms in one naturally and historically bounded area. Porter introduced the concept of industry clusters as a geographic concentration of inter-connected companies and institutions working in a common industry. The concentration of economic activities is viewed as the result of the search of competitive advantages by firms in finding new and better ways to compete and bring innovation faster to the market

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Why clusters matter ? Many successful clusters have established a greater competitive advantage and wealth creation for their regions when compared to companies not in a cluster Benefits

Essential attributes of clusters

 Strategic intent  Specialization  State funding  Geo-concentration  Various Actors (start up, SMEs, large companies, research organizations, innovation intermediaries….)  Interactions fostering information dissemination, knowledge transfer  Sharing of facilities

1

Local offer of knowledge & relationships development non relocated

2

Positive effects on the survival of new firms

3

Higher wages to employees due to specialization

4

Demand-driven framework and community organization leading to jobs creation in other sectors

5

Investments in infrastructure

6

Higher tax returns

There is a link between clustering and regional economic performance 9


What are the lessons learnt ? Five dimensions to take into considerations

1

2

4

A cluster can start in a number of ways but needs a strategic intent 3

Clusters are defined by relationships, not memberships

Spatial boundaries are variable Cluster supportive organizations provides a foundation for cluster

5 Each cluster tells its own story

Clusters are complex constructs of different dimensions that make them difficult to analyse

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1

A cluster can start in a number of ways but needs a strategic intent How does it form ? A big company choice of location

Clusters spontaneously created without any political support

Expression of a focused strategy to promote innovation, regional development and other policy goals (industrial, SME policy‌)

Repeated interactions between business leaders

Academic research clustering effort

Cluster emergence

Cluster policy driven sooner or later resulting in clusters

A clear distinction has to be made between clusters as real phenomena and cluster initiatives aiming to build new clusters or scaling up existing ones

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2

Spatial boundaries are variable

Illustration with the Alps Bio Cluster

Clusters are not necessarily corresponding with political borders

 Geography influences travel conditions, cultural identity and personal preference

 Key questions to consider to define the boundaries

• What is the distance and time that people

are willing to travel for employment ? • What are the distance and time owners and employers considered as reasonable for meeting and networking ? • What are the level of values, social norms sharing ?

• Internet are also changing the spatial

dimensions of a cluster however face to ace interactions remain important

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3

Clusters are defined by relationships not memberships Trust is key for any business relationships

Cluster’s stakeholders mapping (to be completed given the context) incubators

Innovation intermediaries

Tech transfer office

University

TRUST = CREDIBILITY X INTIMACY

Start ups and innovating companies

Business angels

Research institutes

RISKS

Patent office Venture capital

Big companies

Overtime clusters tend to develop social glue (norms, institution, personal network) that holds the different interlinked actors

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4

Cluster supportive organizations provides a foundation for the cluster

Clusters encompass an array of collaborating and competing services and providers so called “innovation intermediaries” Cluster organizations are service providers that create an infrastructure to support cluster

 They can be defined as the legal entity engineering, steering and managing the

clusters incl. the participation and access to the cluster’s premises, facilities and activities

Public funded organizations  Innovation agencies  Incubators  Technology transfers  Cluster management organization  ….

Private funded organization

 Biz angels networks  Venture capital  Consultancy

There is often co-opetition mechanisms between actors

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5

Each cluster tells its own story You cannot replicate a model from one country to another

Chronological sequence of selected Biotech clusters

Two different approaches are used to identify clusters

 Qualitative  Through case studies  Quantitative  The European Cluster Observatory has developed an approach based on indirect measurement of the effects of cluster such as the concentration of workers or high productivity

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Clusters undergo different phases through their life cycle Illustration – Biotechnology cluster Set up

Transfer

Start up

Workplace

-

5 - 50

Turnover

-

< € 10 Mio

Focus

Financing

Area Needs

Growth

Scale up

Maturity

50 - 200

€ 10 Mio - €100 Mio

Grown up > 200

> € 100 Mio

Basic research

Products or technologies development

First production and marketing of own products

Established products and product range expansion

State funding

2-3 financing rounds State funding

Exchange of capital cashflow

Capital increase

Medium

Low

Dynamically increasing

High

Size, specialization and focus can be chosen to assess whether the cluster has reached a "specialized critical mass" likely to spillover and develop positive relationships.

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Main challenges faced by clusters

Challenges  How to manage a network of various actors and build a sense of community ?  How to define a sustainable business model for supportive cluster organizations ?  How to develop and what are the right competencies for cluster management?  How to measure economic impact on competitiveness and innovation ?  How to accelerate the clustering process and reduce outcome uncertainty ?  How to reduce risks (IP, asymetric big actors/ SMEs relationships)?  How to address structural, cognitive and cultural challenges in scientific cooperation in clusters of excellence ? (Interdisciplinary knowledge creation)  How to influence policy that fosters entrepreneurship and innovation ?


Accelerate the time to international market for innovative companies and enhance connections within the local health ecosystem


Medicalps A practical cluster case study

Behind the screen, how to do it in practice ? Step by step : the cooking tools to create a cluster ÂŤ a melting pot of fruitful interactions Âť


Medicalps A practical cluster case study

• • • •

4 pillars Gathering different types of local actors : stakeholders By a driving force : a strong willingness to implement something new By sharing the same vision By achieving common goals


Medic@lps is an innovation intermediary, embedded in its local ecosystem Federating a network of 66 both public and private actors across the Grenoble Area

 Universities

and research centres  Major companies  SMEs and new companies  Local authorities

Medic@LPS represents the local Bioindustry worth 4.1 billion Euros of revenue and 8500 jobs; and nearly 200 state-owned laboratories and major European research institutes.


Medic@lps: Our Values

Medic@lps believes in  Innovation  Entrepreneurship  Trust  Exchange and reciprocity  Cooperation and Efficiency


Medic@lps: Our common goals

 To support growth and economic development of our companies in the health sector  To animate the Grenoble/Isère Innovation Health ecosystem for a greater economic dynamic  To stimulate the international attractiveness of this ecosystem  To facilitate markets access for our companies  To promote better employability of life sciences students


Medic@lps : Cluster' Stakeholders A true working alliance for biotech/medtech/e Health convergence and development Universities and Engineering schools

Clinical Centers

Health & ICT Industries

Major European facilities (ESRF, ILL)

Teaching hospital

Scientific research centers (CEA, INSERM, CNRSâ&#x20AC;Ś)


Return on experience with the SEHTA inception: South East of England Context and objectives at set-up

Description

 Date of creation: 2005  Scope: health industry in

south east England, especially SMEs  Founders: regional development agency, SEEDA  Objectives understand and meet the needs of the health industry in South East England

 Context. The regional development agency needed to engage with one of

its key sectors responsible for economic growth, the health sector. It attempted to do this by creating an arms-length not for profit company to provide an interface with the industry. The company SEHTA offered free membership of a network and provided intelligence on industry needs back to SEEDA who then responded by providing political and financial support for programmes dedicated to creating sustainable businesses.  Objectives : create large eclectic network membership, understand needs of SMEs, source resources and political support to meet those needs

What went well ?

   

Creation of network Support programmes Sourcing other funding in support of aims e.g. EU Flexibility in Team structure, agile Team

What could have been improved

 Planning for future sustainability  More freedom to collaborate with other regional networks

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