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BREDA FRANZISKA UNZNER

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AR2U090 Research & Design Methodology for Urbanism Q1 2015 Tutor: Victor Munoz Sanz Franziska unzner 4509269

Culture, Nightlife, Shopping, the Brabantsche „Gezelligkeit“. That‘s what Breda is famous for. The city is doing extremely well. It is a retreat for families that fled the Randstad. But what about the other parts of Breda? The districts no one has heard of? How does the city work as a whole? Where are problems, what the opportunities?

CONTENT Historical Development...................................................................P.04 Landscape...................................................................P.10 Open city: Public spaces and connectivity...................................................................P.16 Typomorphology...................................................................P.34 Demographics...................................................................P.72 Economy...................................................................P.78 The City Portrait...................................................................P.86 Synthesis and Vision...................................................................P.90 Appendix: Land Use Plan...................................................................P.102

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THIS IS THE BREDA EVERYONE KNOWS. IS THERE MORE TO IT?

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1200

1400

1300

1254. Municipal

charter

Beginning 14th century: Gilded Age. Construction of old castle and first fortification

1500

1410. Start construction Grote Kerk

1535. Construction new Castle and fortifications by Hendrik III of Nassau

1600

1700

17th Century.

Reinforcement Fortifications

Spanish Wars

Sand ridge Sand Enk River valley Peat

Development of first settlements on stable sand soils.

Confluence of Mark and Aa.

Breda and its villages protected by a fortification system.

marshland Teteringen

Breda

forest

Princenhage Ginneken

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1800


1850

1870

1855. Train line Breda - Rosendaal

Growth along the 3 main streets.

1864. Breda Tilburg

1872. Breda Rotterdam

1890

1875. Teardown fortifications

1910

Construction mansions on the road to Ginneken

Housing growth. Mansions Ginniken.

1930

1914-1918. WW1

Industrial growth. First Indistries along Railway.

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THE BABY-BOOM GENERATION MADE BREDA BIG!

1950

1939-1945. WW2 Breda liberated 10/1944

Increasing automobile ownership

Housing growth. First Post war districts.

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1960

Construction Heuvelkwartier and Booeimeer

1970

1960s. consruction modernist districts:

1972. first highway: A16

Heusdenhout, Ijpelaar, Hoge Vucht

Industrial growth. Growth along Railway and Canal.

Housing growth. Large scale expansion. Modernist urbanism.

1980

1970s. Emergence Cauliflower Neighborhoods. 1980s. Construction Haagse Beemden

Industrial growth. Development Industrial district along Mark river.


1990

2000

2010

1990s. 1980s. Industry shift:

Services and Logistics

Housing growth. Haagse Beemnden last large scale expansion.

Reinforcment Breda University town. BrabantStad union.

Industrial growth. Growth along Highways. OďŹƒces.

Third Industrial Revolution? Emergence of Creative Industries.

Transformations.

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20..

Recent developments. Transformations ChassĂŠ District and Station Surroundings (via.Breda). 2013. structural Vision Breda 2030.

Industrial growth. Growth along Highways. Offices.

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ARE THERE DISCONTINUITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT? After 1960 As Breda expands to the north, the new districts are built on the peat. Drainage is necesseray.

Until 1960 City continues to on rather stable soils. Yet, the advantages of the proximity to water outweighs the risk of building in the river valleys. Rivers are canalized/dikes are built.

Geomorphology River valley (brown) and peat soils (dark brown) are unfavorable for construction. The early settlements are founded on the higher sand grounds (white) and the fertile Enk grounds (light brown).

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Big Infrastructures The train lines and highways are ruptures in the historically continous radial street layout. They form barriers that are hard to cross.

Main Streets today The radial development is still visible in the modern street layout: the roads match more or less the historic main streets. The exception are the newer districts in the North.

Main streets 1920 The early street system consists mainly of radial connections between the city center of Breda and the surrounding villages.

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LANDSCAPE Breda is not as obviously characterized by its surrounding landscape as Arnhem or Dordrecht. No Big rivers, dike landscapes and flood problematics. How is Breda embedded in its surrounding landscape? Can structures be found that are important for the city in its current state or could become important in the future?

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HOW IS BREDA EMBEDDED IN ITS SURROUNDINGS?

Coastal zone Clay Bog River area Peat Land reclamations Sand Urbanized area

Main landscapes of the Netherlands (Source: EDUGIS) Breda is located in the relatively dry sand landscapes above sea level.

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Natura 2000 Forest Forest Peat landscape National Park

River valley

Natura 2000

(Agri)cultural landscape

Ecological Network

Urban area

Ecology Brabant (Source: PDOK Viewer) The landscape around Breda is not part of an important ecological network. Yet, to the North, the Mark and the Markkanaal could connect Breda‘s landscape with the Biesbosch National Park.

Main landscapes surrounding Breda Breda is embedded in a continous rural landscape. In the North, the city is surrounded by the wet peat areas, and it is framed by forests to the South and West. Along Mark and Aa in the South, landscape „fingers“ enter the city structure.

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WHAT ABOUT THE GREEN STRUCTURES WITHIN THE CITY? Haagse Beemden

Teteringse Heide

Liesbos

Bavelsche Leij Mastbos

Land Use map

Evaluation of Breda‘s green structure

The Digital land use map distinguishes Forest, Grassland and Agricultural land. However, the Grassland layer integrates too many too different uses to give a clear image: Meadows and pastures, traffic and residual green, parks and ecological areas.

This map shows that large parts of the green structure within Breda are actually traffic and residual green - not usable, sometimes not even accessible. Along the main infrastructure axis, the traffic green is so wide and dominant that the feeling of being in a city is completely lost. The Forests, the river banks and the central cultural landscape of Haagse Beemden form large recreational areas around the city.

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1.

Parks Large recreational landscapes TraďŹƒc Green River landscape Surrounding landscape matrix

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Potentials

2. Image sources: 1. http://www.breda-en-alles-daaromheen.nl/rondweg-breda-viaducten-en-tunnels.htm 2. City of Breda, http://www.mastbosch.nl/afbeeldingen/gallery/normal/activiteiten4%20(1)-223.jpg

In order to integrate Breda better into an ecological framework, both the rivers and the traffic green along the main infrastructural lines could be revaluated and transformed into ecological corridors. The traffic green along the radial street network that leads into the city center should be urbanized - clearly distinguishable from the ecological corridors along the main infrastructures - and serve as orientation structure. The width could be reduced to restore a feeling of urbanity.

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OPEN CITY Breda‘s city center is famous for its shops and „Gezelligkeit“. But what about the rest of the city? This chapter researches the quality, supply and accesibility of public space in the different areas of Breda.

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WHICH SPACES CAN BE DEFINED AS PUBLIC? AND HOW ARE HEY DISTRIBUTED WITHIN BREDA?

STREET SYSTEM

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Highways

Major roads

Medium roads

Minor roads

Pedestrian and cycle paths


BUILDING USE

PUBLIC SPACES

Cultural

Retail and supermarket

Education

Urban squares

Parking spaces

Sports ďŹ elds

Parks

Residential green

Leisure landscape

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Time and Ownership Shops, cafes, cultural buildings, but also schools and sports fields act as public spaces, but are privately owned. They can only be accessed to specific times and under conditions set by the owner- you have to be a club member to use a sports field, be a student or teacher to enter the school, pay if you want to sit in a cafe... Yet, it is exactly these places that often act as main attractors in a city.

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Disfunctional spaces

Degree of „publicness“

Disfunctional spaces are technically public - however, there are not fit for use. Parking lots fall into this category, but also spaces that are designed to be public but lack of accessibility, like the landscape core of Haagse Beemden.

Some places feel more public than others. Main streets, parks, city squares and the leisure landscapes (colored in white) certainly feel public, whereas neighborhood parks and smaller streets have a „residential“, or even private feeling to it (semi-public: grey). Highways or other non accessible and privately owned land are colored in black. The agricultural landscape that is surrounding the city is a special case: Privately owned, it is usable and feels public nonetheless, also because of the open views.

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Modified Nolli map

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The distinction between private and public, open and not open space is not as simple as black and white. As described on the previous page, there are places that feel public but are not, and places that are public but feel private. This is why the categories „semi-public“, „places that act as public but are privately owned“ and „disfunctional public spaces“ are added the map.


THE DISTRIBUTION LOOKS QUITE HOMOGENIOUS...

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First conclusion: Distribution public space The city center is clearly visible as very important public space. In the surrounding districts, the overall distribution of public space looks quite homogenious - even though there are slightly more residential parks in the North , and retail and parks in the South.

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BUT WHAT ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT PUBLIC SPACES?

Haagse Beemden

Princenhage De Heuvel

Hoge Vucht

City center Teenager Ginniken

Student Middle Age/Family Senior

Site visit

Fluxes

The goal for the site visit in Breda was to get an overview of the city as a whole. Therefore, the route was chosen so that districts from the most important growth periods could be visited: I started in the city center, took the road to Ginneken with its many shops and early 20th century villas, then went to the first big after-war extension De Heuvel. I stopped by the old village core of Princenhage before visiting the cauliflower neighborhood Haagse Beemnden and the modernist Hoge Vucht.

To better understand how the city works and to get a feeling for the city and its residents , I did basic interviews with about 5 persons from different age groups at each stop. The questions were: - Where do you live? - Where do you work/go to school? - Where do you go in you free time?

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THEY ARE ALL LOCATED SOUTH OF THE RAILWAY...

Valkenbergpark and City Center

Princenhage Ginnikenweg

Mastbos

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Main public spaces Almost everyone I interviewed answered the question „Where do you go in your free time?“ with „To the city center“ or „To the Valkenbergpark“. Also, Ginniken and Princenhage were mentioned as attractions. Interestingly, the residents of these two districts tend to stay in their neighborhood, whereas the others ususally go somewhere else in their free time. As result of my interviews, the personal impression of the site visit and my online research on Breda, I could map Breda‘s most important public spaces - they are all located south of the railway!

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IS IT AT LEAST EASY TO GET THERE FOR EVERYONE?

Water

Traffic Machine

Waterways are a very attractive element in every city. In Breda, however, most banks are not accessible or usable. Water is a just visual element , but mainly a barrier.

The drawing of Breda‘s traffic machine, on the basis of Frits Palmboom‘s Rotterdam drawings, shows all the spaces in the city that are taken up by larger infrastructures. These big roads and train lines connect Breda on a regional scale, but function as barriers - especially for pedestrians and cyclists - on the city scale.

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LET‘S INVESTIGATE THE BARRIERS.

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Barriers Combined, the traffic machine and the waterways form the barriers people have to cross in order to get to another part of the city.

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Possible crossings

Strong and weak barriers The number of possible crossings indicates if a barrier is weak or strong. For instance, as there are few crossings over the highways or the river Mark in the North, these are strong barriers. The rivers Mark and Aa in the South are weak barriers, as there are many bridges.

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THE NORTHER DISTRICTS SEEM QUITE ISOLATED...

Haagse Beemden

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Islands

Isolation from center

The traffic machines divides the city into islands. Depending on how strong the dividing barrier is, some islands are more remote from the city center than others.

The Northern districts, especially Haagse Beemden that is seperated from the city center via various barriers, represent very remote islands. Also, the districts outside of Breda‘s highway ring are poorly connected.

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Main public spaces

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Possible crossings


...AND LACK CONNECTIVITY.

Lunetstraat Teteringse Dijk

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Fluxes

Problems

The location of the main attractions and the possible crossings over the barriers determine the people fluxes.

Around Haagse Beemden and Prinsenbeek, there is no coherent pathway system (dashed lines), which hinders the orientiation in the city. Either, commuters face to many turns and changes in the street, or there are too many coequal pathes to choose from. On the other hand, the Lunetstraat, but also over the River and the Teteringsdijk, are narrow points where too many fluxus lines collide.

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Lunetstraat

Princenhage

Synthesis

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In summary, there is a grave imbalance between North and South. The North, lacking attractive public spaces, is also seperated from the South via multiple barriers. Structurally, Haagse Beemden is the problem district: With only little qualitative public space and missing a coherent pathway system within, it is totally dependent on the Lunetstraat as only connection to the city center.


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Reminder: Green Potentials

Potentials To balance out the inequality between North and South, the Northern districts need higher qualitative public space. The creation of a green corridor along the Mark, and an improvement of the East-West connections might be a solution? In addition, parking lots, Haagse Beemden‘s core landscape and Hoge Vuchts residential Parks could be revaluated. Urban street green, as presented in the Potentials drawing of the Landscape chapter, might be a key to improve the lack of connectivity and orientation especially around Haagse Beemden.

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HOW URBAN ARE THE DIFFERENT DISTRICTS OF BREDA?

TYPOMORPHOLOGY In order to further investigate the imbalance between North and South, each two districts from the North and South are selected to analyze and compare their typomorphology: Hoge Vucht and Haagse Beemden as representatives of the North, and Zandberg (a part of Ginneken) and de Heuvel for the South. The criteria for evaluation are the Street pattern, the relation of the buildings to each other, the position of the building in the parcel, the building height, the density, the relation to green space within the district, the supply of retail and urban public space, and the diversity of the built structure. These criteria are arranged in a matrix that evaluates their contribution to the feeling or urbanity. Of course, it is never the single criterion, but the interplay between several factors that characterize the urbanity of a district.

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U

R

B

A

N

I

T

Y

STREET GRID

The evaluation of the urbanity of the street grid is only valid for Breda. A „hierarchical grid“, for example, creates very urban situations in other places.

Linear

Radial

Hierarchical Grid

Labyrinth

RELATION BETWEEN BUILDINGS

Dense row

Block

Solitaire building

Double row

POSITION OF BUILDING ON PARCEL

Full parcel

Building directly borders street

Front Garden

Building in the middle of the parcel

BUILDING HEIGHT

High rise

Medium rise

Low rise

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Loose row

Scattered


U

B

A

N

I

T

FSI GSI

DENSITIY

The evaluation of densities in high or low is only valid for the comparison of the different districts of Breda. Compared to other cities, they are all relatively low.

R

Y

FSI GSI

FSI GSI

High

Medium

Low

RELATION TO GREEN SPACES

Central Park

Non-hierarchical system of green

„Green Finger“

DIVERSITY

Mixed

Monotonous

DISTRIBUTION RETAIL/SUPPLY

Linear/Along street

Centralized

Green as Border

Framed on 2 sides, „Land finger“

Surrounded by Green

Dispersed

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ZANDBERG

River valley

In the beginning of the 20th century, the area between the city of Breda and the village Ginneken is built up with mansions and villas along boulevards. Here, the wealthy enjoy their life exempt of city taxes and in a beautiful landscape. After the First World War, the interstices between the boulevards are filling up with middle class housing, and after the Second world war, small neighborhoods are added. The highway connection from the 60s cuts through this continous development.

Sand ridge

5oom

Underlying Soil

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Streets and Parcellation 1870

Street structure today

Building structure today


Zandberg Similar growth pattern/time period Old village and city cores

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FSI 0,65 GSI 0,29

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Zandberg is a dense and diverse district characterized by the linear growth along its main streets. Along the Ginnekenweg, the building rows with public ground floor use directly border the street and make the streetscape very urban. Sometimes, even the whole parcel is built up. Along the boulevards and smaller streets, front gardens are more common. Towards the west of the district, the buildings shift to the middle of the parcel, the rows become looser and the overall impression of the area more green.


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Ginnikenweg

Street pattern Zandberg‘s main street is the old connection between Ginniken and the city of Breda. East of the Ginnikenweg, the streets follow that radial logic, in the West, they form a rather modern grid. In this district, no squares, but the street itself is the main public space.

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Relation to Green

Sports fields Park Residual/traffic green

Zandberg has two big Green elements: the Wilhelminapark in its Northwest and the „Green Finger“ of the - only partially accessible - banks of the river Mark with large sports fields.

2oom

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Distribution public functions Retail/Restaurant Public buildings Education

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The Ginnekenweg is one of the main shopping steets of whole Breda. Other public buildings and school are dispersed over the district.


Building height High rise Medium rise Low rise Low Solitaire buildings

Breda is a low rise town, so even the urban Zandberg consists mostly of 2 storey buildings. Excemptions of 3 storeys or more are found along the old main streets.

2oom

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DE HEUVEL

The Heuvelkwartier is Breda‘s first large scale city expansion after the Second World War. Designed by Granpré Molière, it was conceived as independent village with its own small center, a square and church, situated next to a central green strip. In the recent years, improvements and renovations have been made along the Dr. Struyckenstraat and the southwestern edges.

Dr. Struyckenstraat

Sand ridge

River valley

5oom

Underlying Soil

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Streets and Parcellation 1870

Street structure today

Building structure today


De Heuvel Similar growth pattern/time period

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FSI 0,50 GSI 0,23

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De Heuvel has a quite monotous character: Long dense rows of similar brick buildings, some with, some without front garden. Together with an (mirrored) identical row of houses, the private gardens facing inwards, the buildings form these almost block-like double rows that are typical for Breda. Even though the mostly low rise buildings result in a medium FSI, the comparatively dense figure ground basis (GSI 0,23) make the Heuvel still feel quite urban.


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Dr. Struyckenstraat

church plaza

Street pattern De Heuvel‘s street pattern is a typical modernist grid structure, even though it mainly consists of rather narrow residential streets. Two squares open up from the streetscape: one at the Dr. von Struyckenstraat, the other one, Molière‘s church plaza.

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Relation to Green

Park Residual/traffic green

Molière‘s Green Strip is the center of the district, yet plain and hardly used. The other green areas in de Heuvel also function mainly as „Visual Green“. The most important structure - if there is one - might be the Zaartpark at the banks of the Aa- a proper park with pathways and furniture.

2oom

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Distribution public functions

Retail/Restaurant Public buildings Education

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Other that planned by GranprÊ Molière, the church square with its few restaurants and shops now plays a minor role in the district. The most important public space is the square at the Dr. von Struyckenstraat, a modern development with large retailers and cafes.


Building height High rise Medium rise Low rise Low Solitaire buildings

Most parts of the Heuvelkwartier are two storey housing. Medium rise developments can be found in a large area in the east, around the green core and on the southern edge.

2oom

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HOGE VUCHT

Hoge Vucht was built in the early 1970s. Until then, the unstable peat soils north of the city of Breda were not used for construction. Hoge Vucht is Breda‘s largest modernist city extension. In recent years, parts of it were redeveloped and new neighborhoods added on its edges.

Peat

Underlying Soil 54

Streets and Parcellation 1870

Street structure today


Hoge Vucht Similar growth pattern/ime period Village or district extensions in that time period

5oom

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Building structure today 55


FSI 0,48 GSI 0,16

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Hoge Vucht, despite its large scale development in the 1970s, is a surprisingly diverse district. The reasons are mainly the new building styles of recent redevlopments, but also the variation of building height. Two types prevail in this district: Highrise solitaire apartment blocks and the small dense „double rows“ similar to the Heuvelkwartier. The solitaires divide the district into sub-neighborhoods. Yet, with their large semi-private surrounding green, they have a negative effect on the streetscape. The streets are not defined anymore, and the pedestrian is lost in a scale that is too large to be human. Even though many people live in this district, it does not feel urban. This is also reflected in the extremely low GSI.


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Street pattern De Heuvel‘s street pattern is typical modernist: a hierarchical grid with wide main roads and smaller residential streets. The main roads are so wide that the feeling of urbanity is lost. Together with the drainage ditches that follow them, they form strong barriers.

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Relation to Green

Sports fields Park Residual/traffic green

Hoge Vucht‘s green structure is characterized by a system of small residential parks. Some are furnished and used, others less so. Remarkable is the northern park: a beauti-fully designed cultral landscape, well accepted by the residents. The biggest problem in Hoge Vucht are the large areas of traffic and residual green: as described above, they are of no public use and make the pedestrian feel out of place.

2oom

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Distribution public functions

Retail/Restaurant Public buildings Education

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The center and the only shopping facility of Hoge Vucht is the „Winkelcentrum“ at the junction of the main roads. Furthermore, some community centers are dispersed over the district, and schools are located on its southeastern edges.


Building height

High rise Medium rise Low rise Low Solitaire buildings

2oom

The highrise apartment blocks are mainly located along the wide main roads and frame the lowrise sub-neighborhoods. With their univiting facades, they even shield the sub-neighborhoods off from each other. Who would enter if he doesn‘t live there?

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HAAGSE BEEMDEN

Haagse Beemden is the last large city extension of Breda - and quite isolated, as stated in the previous chapter. Built in the 1980s, it is a typical cauliflower neighborhood. Yet, remarkable is the horseshoe shape around a core of an old cultural landscape with farmhouses, forest patches and canals. The analyzed area is only the eastern part of Haagse Beemden, but as the district is quite homogenious, the conclusions are also true for the rest.

Enk

5oom

Underlying Soil 62

Streets and Parcellation 1870

Street structure today


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Building structure today 63


FSI 0,40 GSI 0,20

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As characteristic cauliflower district, Beemden is low in density and very uniform. „All the houses look the same“, said one resident that I interviewed. These houses, built in denser or looser rows draped along curving streets, all have their own backyard and a small front garden/parking space. Kids, play on the streets. It is quite idyllic, but monotonous.


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Street pattern Typically for cauliflower neighborhoods, Haagse Beemden is surrounded by a large access road. In the inside, there is a labyrinth of small residential streets, dead ends and play streets. Even though the street layout largely differs from the historic parcellation, the bike paths reflect the old system.

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Relation to Green

Sports fields Park Residual/traffic green

2oom

Several well used parks open up along the canals that stream through Haagse Beemden. They are provided with play and sports facilities. Problematic is the core cultural landscape. Even though beautiful, it is badly connected: no pathway that leads along the edge, just small gaps in the line of private houses and hedgerows. Thus, it stays a blank spot in the mind of Haagse Beemnden‘s residents.

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Distribution public functions Retail/Restaurant Public buildings Education

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Haagse Beemden doesn‘t have a center, or a facility core. All there is are few supermarkets dispersed over the district.


High rise Medium rise Low rise Low Solitaire buildings

Building height The dominant building height is 2 storeys.

2oom

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STREET GRID

RELATION BETWEEN THE BUILDINGS

POSIITION ON PARCEL

= problems

Y

ZANDBERG

U

R

B

A

N

I

T

DE HEUVEL

HOGE VUCHT The main streets don‘t have a human scale

HAAGSE BEEMDEN

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The semi-public green around the apartment blocks is uninviting and destroys urbanity


DENSITY

BUILDING HEIGHT

DISTRIBUTION RETAIL

DIVERSITY

RELATION TO GREEN

FSI 0,29 GSI 0,65

FSI 0,23 GSI 0,5

FSI 0,16 GSI 0,47 Most residential parks are too plain and need to be revaluated

Lack of shopping and entertainment options

FSI 0,40 GSI 0,20

Lack of shopping and entertainment options

Monotony needs to be broken

Lacking connection to the Green Heart

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DEMOGRAPHICS The previous research made it clear that the Breda‘s problem districts are in the North. Does that also show in the demographics?

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FEW OLD PEOPLE LIVE IN HAAGSE BEEMDEN, AND FAMILIES AVOID THE CITY CENTER, BUT:

Seniors

Average household size

(Source: NRC, http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2012/02/14/statistiek-saai-cbs-cijfers-komen-tot-leven-op-een-kaart#)

(Source: NRC, http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2012/02/14/statistiek-saai-cbs-cijfers-komen-tot-leven-op-een-kaart#)

> 30 %

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>3

20-30 %

5-10 %

2,3-3

1,5-1,7

10-20 %

<5%

1,7-2,3

1-1,5 persons


HOGE VUCHT IS THE PROBLEM DISTRICT.

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Non-western immigrants (Source: NRC, http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2012/02/14/statistiek-saai-cbs-cijfers-komen-tot-leven-op-een-kaart#)

> 50 %

Average monthly income per person (Source: NRC, http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2012/02/14/statistiek-saai-cbs-cijfers-komen-tot-leven-op-een-kaart#)

< 2000 €

30-50 %

5-10 %

2000-2500 €

3500-5000 €

10-30 %

<5%

2500-3500 €

> 5000 €

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THIS ALSO REFLECTS MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCE.

Neighborhood impressions As described in the Open city chapter, I interviewed people during the city visit. The map shows interesting statements people made during the interviews. The symbols indicate the age group of the person, the color if it is a positive (orange), neutral (black), or negative (brown) statement. Generally speaking, the people in Ginniken and Princenhage were happy and friendly, and their comments positive. In Haagse Beemden, the people were also friendly, but seemed unsatisfied with their environment. In Hoge Vucht and Heuvel, the demographically underprivileged districts, people reacted less friendly to me and made more negative statements.

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Conclusion

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The overlay of the monthly income and the percentage of immigrants, together with my personal experience and the occurence of â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Buurtpreventieâ&#x20AC;&#x153; plates (a sign of vandalism), show that especially Hoge Vucht is the Problem district. Hence, also demographically, there is an imbalance between north and South.

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ECONOMY The final chapter of the research is the analysis of the economic development of Breda. Large parts of Bredaâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s North are industrial areas - could the solution of the imbalance be found in the evolution of Bredaâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s economy and these areas in particular?

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Groningen

HOW IS BREDA INTEGRATED IN THE (INTER)NATIONAL AND REGIONAL NETWORK?

Amsterdam The Hague Utrecht

Arnhem

Rotterdam

Eindhoven

Antwerp

Highway through Breda Highway Highspeed train Train

to Bruxelles

Maastricht

Connections country scale Breda is well connected in the national and international highway and train network. It is strategically well positioned between Amsterdam/Rotterdam and Antwerp/Bruxelles.

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Oss

sâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Hertgenbosch Oosterhout Tilburg Roosendaal

Eindhoven

Connections regional scale

Highway system city scale

The comparatively high density of highways around Breda make in an ideal location for trade and business.

Breda is entirely framed by highways.

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AND HOW IS IT INTEGRATED ECONOMICALLY? Randstad

Eindhoven -LeuvenAachen-Triangle

Central Benelux Region

Economic zones Breda is located in the center of the Benelux region, inbetween the Randstad and the innovative Einhoven-Leuven-Aachentriangle.

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sâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Hertgenbosch

Tilburg

Helmond

Eindhoven

Brabantstad

Economic zones city scale

Breda is part of the Brabantstadt network, a union of Brabantâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s 5 biggest cities. The partnership promotes research, knowledge industries and education.

Breda has several industrial districts (purple). But especially for retail and tourism, the city center (red) also plays a very important economic role.

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HOW DID BREDA‘S ECONOMY DEVELOP?

1960

Today - Importance moved

Before 1960, Breda‘s economy was mainly based on industry, namely the food industry.

After the 1960s, Breda‘s industrial districts grew significantly - first along the Mark river. But since the construction of the highways, that harbor district constinues to lose importance. Breda‘s strategic position attracted and still attracts large numbers of logistics and trade companies that settle along the infrastructural nodes. Spatially, this is Breda‘s dominant sector, whereas Care economy is the largest employer.

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AND WHAT IS THE FUTURE?

de Krogten Number of employees *

Emer

via.Breda development

Trade/ Logistics

Care economy

Creative Industries

Education

knowledge district

1km

Target sectors Industry Trade & Logistics OďŹ&#x192;ces Large scale retail (furniture, cars) Retail

Future aspirations In the future, Breda will focus stronger on its target sectors. Around the train station, the via.Breda project develops offices for business and creative industries. In correlation with the Brabantstad network, research and education will gain importance - a big knowledge hub is planned in the Southwest. Also, further trade and logistic centers are planned along the highways. According to the Struktuurvisie, the Harbor district, de Krogten and Emer, needs to be revitalized.

* Source: http://english.breda.nl/data/ďŹ les/artikelen/breda_business_update_17_april_2013.pdf

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CITY PORTRAIT For my City Portrait, I wanted to create something that goes beyond a simple summary or systhesis of the research I have done. Something, that shows how the different part of the city work together. A base for discussion, that is open to other interpretations.I wanted to create an image that needs no legend , something that everyone can read. That is why I had the idea to draw the Breda as it is today as a 17th century style map. In an era where most people were illiterate, maps had to be visually understandable. As they were drawn as axonometries or birds eye views, illustrating the different characteristics, functions and uses in three dimensional images, no legends were needed. No professional eye, no separate examination of the different layers. These beautifully drawn maps are the prototype for my city portrait.

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City Center and Wall Surrounded by canals, the city center can only be entered from a few points. This situation is translated into the image of a medieval town with fortifications and protected gates. The only parts of Breda I drew as buildings (also outside the center) are mixed use areas or retailers - the true urban elements.

Waterways and harbors Highways and large main roads are drawn as waterways - important connections but barriers at the same time. The harbors - the industrial districts dominated by trade and logistics - fill large areas. Breda as harbor city?

Green South The south presents itself as idyllic farmland. Only main streets are drawn as streets, the minor streets translated into agricultural parcels. Larger crops indicate higher buildings, cabbages single family houses. Mark and Aa turn into peaceful valleys.

Hoge Vucht The problem district - military camps fighting against each other? Or against the rest of the town? Anyways, they are well protected: the highrise appartment blocks fence off their enemies.

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Industry and Mark The chimeys of the industries are still smoking, but the Mark river - the reason of their existence - has dried out. Not used for shipping any more, all it represents these days is a barrier. Can it be restored one day?

OďŹ&#x192;ces and large retail Offices are represented by the sheds to the right. On the left are the tents of the large scale retail circus: Ikea and the other furniture shops.

Haagse Beemden

Education and care

A monotonous swamp. Not the actual streets, but the bike paths are drawn as streets: the only direct connections in this labyrinth of ponds and mudholes.

Hospitals and universities are important parts of the cityscape.


Breda as a 17th century style map In an era where most people were illiterate, maps had to be visually understandable. As they were drawn as axonometries, illustrating the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent characteristics, functions and uses as three dimensional images, no legends were needed. No professional eye, no separate examination of the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent layers. These beautifully drawn maps are the prototype for my city portrait. 89


90

AND NOW?


VISION

How can the imbalance be equalized? Could the economic developments be the key?

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IN SUMMARY... NORTH VS. SOUTH.

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Landscape

Most important public space

Connectivity

Traffic green and marshland vs. Forests and river banks

Lack of attractions vs. Urban centers and leisure landscape

Connection problems and isolation vs. Good connectivity


via.Breda

Typomorphology

Demographics

Potential

Large modernist city expansions vs. organic growth

Large problem area vs. Smaller problem zones

The evolution/revitalization of the industrial Harbor district could result in overall improvements for Bredaâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s North. A starting point that could trigger further developments is already being planned: via.Breda.

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WHAT IS HAPPENING ALREADY?

2. 1.

WHAT EXACTLY IS PLANNED FOR VIA.BREDA?

3.

5. 4.

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Image sources: 1. http://www.guestzone.nl/user_files/image/headlines/jun15/ploegendienst_rep2.jpg 2. http://www.bredavandaag.nl/sites/bredavandaag/files/styles/large/public/fotos/201308/_mg_2722.jpg?itok=A8ATp6tY

3+4. Presentation Hans Thoolen 5. http://www.viabreda.nl/data/files/via_breda_bidbook_0.pdf


... AND HOW CAN I TAKE UP THESE DEVELOPMENTS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE NORTHERN DISTRICTS? Via.Breda is the prestige project of the city. The train station surroundings will be redeveloped into a modern commercial and business district. Combined with this project, the Mark banks will be renaturalized and the Belcrum harbor turned into a superior residential area.

Haven de Krouwelaar

Today, the abandonned Belcrum Harbor is already used for festivals and events. In summer, sand is banked up and the area turns into an urban beach. After the construction of the residential district, this interaction zone could move northwards to the disused Krouwelaar harbor. The new interaction zone could trigger a development similar to via.Breda, but further in the North of the city: A new creative/commercial/industrial district could emerge and revitalize the desolate industrial zone. The Mark bank park could be extended and retail, workshops and cultural acticivities implemented around the Krouwelaar harbor.

High end residential Interaction zone Belcrum Harbor

Residential/ OďŹ&#x192;ces, business and creative industry

Mark banks park

OďŹ&#x192;ces, business and creative industry

Alsongside with small improvements within the districts of Haagse Beemden and Hoge Vucht, this development could improve the lack of high quality public and commercial space and improve the overall quality of life in the Northern districts.

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THIS IS THE ENGAGEMENT AREA.

HAAGSE BEEMDEN

Highway and Train

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Insuï¬&#x192;cient connections/ (mental) barriers to central cultural landscape

EMER

Supermarket


DE KROGTEN

Unused Harbor

100m

HOGE VUCHT

Shopping Center/Restaurants

Empty Residential Green

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FIRST STEPS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE NORTH...

Remove barriers, create connections: opening of the Beemden Landscape!

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Improve East-West connectivity: new bridges!


Interaction zone Harbor Park Activate edges: Mixed use

via.Breda high end residential 100m

Promote tempo- Activate edges: Public buildings, Workrary uses Create park. shop, Restaurants...

Extend business use northward from ViaBreda. Target sector creative industries.

Improve Residential green. More program and furniture!

Add uses.

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SCENARIO 1. Breda‘s economy is doing good and the revitalization of the Harbor district was successful. The trade and logistics companies moved closer to the highway nodes, and a new mixed, creative district emerged around the Krouwelaar Harbor. The North finally has its own center, and the city of Breda wins a further attraction.

Activate the edges. What a beautiful view to enjoy with your lunch!

Break Beemden‘s monotony. New, denser architecture in central locations!

SCENARIO 2. Breda didn‘t manage to expand the economy in its target industries the way it was hoped for - the station district offers more than enough space for Breda‘s commercial and creative industry. The economy is bad and more and more companies moved away from the harbor. But that gives space back to nature, and a wide ecological corridor can be put into place!

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Activate the edges. What a beautiful view to enjoy with your lunch!

Preserve Riverbanks as ecological corridors!


New mixed (creative) district: Businesses, Offices, Workshops, Retail and Living!

Remove high „fencing“ buildings, create urban boulevard.

Offer greater mixture of use within the district!

De Krogten turns into an ecological corridor, connecting the Mark with the Biesbosch area. Marshland could be restored or forests planted. This modern ecological park can be a great destination.

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APPENDIX: THE VISION TRANSLATED INTO A LAND USE PLAN DESIGNATIONS

Water Street

Moerla

ken M1

Mixed: Retail, Cultural, Offices, Business and Residential. Percentage Residential max. 15%

M2

Mixed: Retail, Cultural, Offices, Business and Residential. Percentage Residential max. 30%

M3

Mixed: Retail, Cultural, Offices, Business and Residential. Percentage Residential max. 50%

M2

jdens

i Terhe eweg

berg

nen

ij Kon

G1

M1

Groundfloor use: Retail or Cultural

M3 G1

Park

G2

Green corridor

INDICATIONS

Bridge M2 G2

Backer en Ruibweg

Pathway connection Building alignment (Bouwgrens) Boundary land use plan

SCALE 1 : 10.000

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Profile for Franziska Unzner

BREDA urban analysis I city atlas  

MSc1 Urbanism project 2015 I TU Delft, Netherlands Urban analysis of Breda (Netherlands), synthesizing historical, morphological and socio-...

BREDA urban analysis I city atlas  

MSc1 Urbanism project 2015 I TU Delft, Netherlands Urban analysis of Breda (Netherlands), synthesizing historical, morphological and socio-...

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