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Economic changes

Part # 1 Changes in gross domestic product minute 2.

Real annual GDP growth rate

Asian and South American markets are among the 2020 growth markets

Further inspiration

Part # 2 Changes in stock market index

Dow Jones industrial average;range=my

NASDAQ Composite

Ibovespa Brazil

FTSE 100


Hong Kong Hang Seng Index HSI:IND

Part # 3 Changes in interest rates

Long-term interest rates

Part # 4 Changes in food prices

Food price index

The poorer the country, the larger percentage of expenditure is spent on food

Part # 5 Changes in commodity prices

Commodity prices p. 25.

In the 20th century, average commodity prices declined almost 50%

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In the first decade of the 21st century, commodity prices increased sharply p. 30.

The oil price is partly determined by actual supply and demand, and partly by expectation. Demand for energy is closely related to economic activity. It also spikes in the

winter in the northern hemisphere, and during summers in countries which use air conditioning. Supply can be affected by weather (which prevents tankers loading) and by geopolitical upsets. If producers think the price is staying high, they invest, which after a lag boosts supply. Similarly, low prices lead to an investment drought. OPEC’s decisions shape expectations: if it curbs supply sharply, it can send prices spiking. Saudi Arabia produces nearly 10m barrels a day - a third of the OPEC total.

Part # 6 Changes in government debt

Average government debt ratios in G7 economies

Part # 7 Changes in work people do

The percentage of people working in service sector in the USA is increasing

Survey shows that for every job that the Internet destroys, 2.6 new jobs are created.

Youth unemployment in Europe is alarming.

Part # 8 Changes in wages

Minimum hourly wages – selected economies Country Uganda China Russia Turkey USA UK France Australia

Minimum hourly wages USD 0.12 per hour USD 0.67 per hour USD 0.91 per hour USD 3.38 per hour USD 7.25 per hour USD 9.98 per hour USD 13.10 per hour USD 16.45 per hour


Part # 9 Changes in savings

Savings in % of household disposable income Country China Japan Europe USA

Savings rate 50% 25% 20% -0.6%

As countries grow wealthier, their household saving rates decline

Source Development from 1960 to 2008. p. 160.

Part # 10 Changes in inflation

Core consumer prices, % increase on a year earlier

Economic changes  
Economic changes  

Part # 1: Changes in gross domestic product. Part # 2: Changes in stock market index. Part # 3: Changes in interest rates. Part # 4: Changes...