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For Alumni and Friends of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University Fall 2016





BLADE RUNNER Anna Conn wasn’t able to run as a child. Maybe that’s why she loves it now. The 27-year-old Conn, F16, was born with an underdeveloped right knee and no leg below. She underwent surgery at age 10 to become an above-the-knee amputee, and with her new mechanical knee and prosthetic “walking leg,” she swam, rowed on the crew team, played golf and competed in singles tennis in high school. Then in 2012, Conn won a grant from the Challenged Athletes Foundation to receive a “running leg,” the J-shaped, carbon fiber blade made famous by athletes like Paralympic sprinter Scout Bassett. These high-tech prosthetics cost about $20,000 and are not covered by insurance. Once the leg was fitted correctly, which took several months of trial and error, Conn took off—jogging in the United States,

Liberia, Ghana and elsewhere. “Every country I go to, I try to run to raise awareness that amputees can be athletic,” she says. This spring and summer she ran a 5K, a 10K and a half-marathon, finishing in the top third of the pack or better in each. Her new goal is to run all 26.2 miles of a marathon, which only a few women with above-the-knee amputations have ever done. Conn’s master’s thesis at Fletcher was on strengthening the health system in Ghana to make prosthetics more affordable there. She intends to pursue a career in international health. In the meantime, she’s boosting awareness of what amputees can do. “I would love to inspire more of the amputee population to take up distance running,” she says. “The question shouldn’t be, ‘Can you run?’ but ‘How fast can you run?’” —HEATHER STEPHENSON



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WHAT WAR FEELS LIKE “Your beautiful life from before is now dead,” writes Janine di Giovanni, F16, in an excerpt from her new book about Syria.

RACE TO THE TOPS Masha Gordon, F98, summited the highest peaks of all seven continents and skied the last stretch to the North and South poles in record time. BY HEATHER STEPHENSON





Post-traumatic stress doesn’t need to end an Army career, argues Major Brian Kitching, F15, a combat leader who speaks from experience.

COVER STORY Professor Sung-Yoon Lee offers insight into North Korea’s nuclear ambitions and its ruthless young leader.




HUNGRY FOR ANSWERS E-vouchers and cash transfers may help refugees more than old-style food shipments, but they also can stir up local resentment.

In Every Issue 2 3 4



News from Around the Globe 19 CONNECT Keeping Up with the Fletcher Community DISPATCHES

34 37 55 Cover photo illustration by Cristiana Couceiro





Letters GOOD BET I liked the article on Kelly Sims Gallagher and Dan Reifsnyder and the Paris Agreement (“2 Degrees of Separation,” Spring 2016). I was a little disappointed, however, that it mentioned the $1 bet I made with Kelly about the Paris Agreement, but didn’t mention my name. I was planning to use that to boast to my friends about how insightful I am! I’m still trying to decide how to spend my winnings. PAOLO COZZI, F12 WASHINGTON, D.C.

DEALING WITH IRAN In “Leveraging the Iran Deal” (Spring 2016), one of my fellow graduate students (who is a personal friend) suggests that the agreement reached in 2015 was a “good start” to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons. But if I had proposed to the American national security team in 2012 an agreement that serves as a “good start,” what would their response have been? “Absolutely not!” At the end of 2012, when international sanctions put unprecedented pressure on the Iranian regime and the military option was a credible threat, the U.S. goal was to force Iran to choose between its nuclear program and regime survival. The only objective was to ensure Iran does not acquire nuclear weapons: not in 2012, not in 2016 and not in 2030. How come the American president ended up signing an agreement that permits Iran to proceed with crucial elements in its nuclear program in the short term—namely, research and development and the missile programs—and that gradually lifts important constraints over its nuclear program after a decade? U.S. allies that find the Iranian nuclear program a threat are still preoccupied with this question. Instead of solving the problem, the nuclear deal is only the first round in a much longer struggle between the Iranian regime and those who wish to prevent it from obtaining the ultimate weapon. In the next round, Washington’s primary goal should be to regather its allies and come to an agreement about the red line for the Iranian nuclear program—as well as the means to deter Iran from crossing that red line, and how to detect and to act in case deterrence fails. One strategy should promote a follow-up agreement that preserves the achievements of the nuclear agreement and further denies Iran the oppor-



tunity to shorten its breakout time (the time it would need to produce enough fissile material to make a nuclear weapon). The current agreement stretches that time up to a year to give the international community a chance to detect and respond should Iran begin to revive its military nuclear program. Another strategy to prevent a short Iranian breakout time should also be developed in case there is no follow-up agreement and Iran is subjected to fewer restrictions and international inspections. For both strategies to succeed, the U.S needs to have its allies on board. If the next president fails to regain their trust and work with them effectively, we may find ourselves at risk of fullblown regional war, a regional nuclear arms race or a nuclear Iran—scenarios that both opponents and proponents of the deal want to avoid. AVNER GOLOV, F17 SOMERVILLE, MASSACHUSETTS

WELCOME LEADER At the Fletcher Club of Mexico, we could not be prouder in welcoming Ambassador Roberta S. Jacobson, F86, A19P, who was sworn in as the first female U.S. ambassador to Mexico on May 5. Her experience and political acumen, confirmed in the interview in this magazine (“In the Wings,” Spring 2016), makes us confident that she will outshine every expectation. Recent world events seem to outline a worrisome trend of rising identity politics and contempt for the rule-based international system. Nativism and protectionism seem to thrive on citizens’ dissatisfactions and frustrations. Now more than ever, Mexico and the United States must champion democracy and global cooperation. With Ambassador Jacobson’s clear-sightedness, we can continue to build bridges and nurture a relationship that will help us find solutions to North American challenges. ¡Bienvenida, Embajadora Jacobson! GUSTAVO ACEVES, F12 MEXICO CITY, MEXICO

V O L U M E 3 8 , N O. 1 FA L L 2 016 Editor HEATHER STEPHENSON Editor-in-Chief JOHN WOLFSON Design Director MARGOT GRISAR Designers FAITH HRUBY, LAURA MCFADDEN Contributing Writers DIVYA AMLADI JULIE FLAHERTY TAYLOR MCNEIL HELENE RAGOVIN Editorial Advisors JAMES STAVRIDIS Dean, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy KATE RYAN Senior Director, Development and Alumni Relations LINDSEY KELLEY Assistant Director, Alumni Relations LEANNA KAKAMBOURAS Alumni Relations Coordinator Stay connected with Fletcher. School website: Online community: LinkedIn: Fletcher Magazine is published twice annually by the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. The opinions expressed in this publication are the authors’ own and do not necessarily represent those of the Fletcher School. Send correspondence to: Heather Stephenson, Editor, Fletcher Magazine, Tufts Publications, 80 George Street, Medford, MA 02155 or email © 2016 TRUSTEES OF TUFTS UNIVERSITY

Fletcher Magazine welcomes your letters. Send them to Heather Stephenson, Editor, Fletcher Magazine, Tufts Publications, 80 George Street, Medford, MA 02155 or email Letters are edited for length and clarity.

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Dean’s Corner


$17.5 million last year, a near-record achievement. That success puts us in a much better position to tackle one of our top priorities: making a Fletcher education more affordable. Ambassador Philip Kaplan was one of several donors who made significant gifts to the school through the university’s Financial Aid Initiative, which doubled gifts to create or expand scholarships of $100,000 or more. The inaugural recipients of the Philip and Barbara Kaplan Scholarship were Paula Armstrong, F15, who is now working with the Danish Refugee Council assisting Syrian refugees in Turkey, and Emily Cole, F15, who is with an international development nonprofit in Washington, D.C. Other generous gifts were made by my classmate and friend Brad Meslin, F82, F84, and by Brian Radliffe and CBS in honor of the late Harry A. Radliffe III, A71, F73. (Read more about the Radliffe scholarship on page 26.) My wife, Laura, and I have also pledged $100,000, to be matched by the university for scholarships. We believe in the mission and ethos of the Fletcher School deeply and personally. Such gifts are helping the school achieve two key objectives of our strategic plan: maintaining a diverse, first-rate student body, and ensuring a robust revenue stream to support the school’s mission as well as emerging priorities. Some of our other efforts in these areas include: EXECUTIVE EDUCATION. We continue to capitalize on targeted opportunities to offer continuing education that draws on our strength as a multidisciplinary school of international affairs.

SPONSORED RESEARCH AND PROGRAMS. While maintaining our commitment to academic objectivity, we are seeking more private-sector sponsorship of school programs, centers and events. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS. In addition to our active TV studio, social media channels and other communications, this fall we released a new video about the school and we plan to launch a redesigned website in a year. These kinds of targeted outreach are designed to expand the global reputation of the school and broaden our admissions pool. FAR-REACHING STUDENT RECRUITMENT. We are encouraging applications from students in BRICS countries and other emerging markets and mid-income nations, as well as underrepresented groups, including prospective students from Africa and Latin America and U.S. students of color. We’re continuing our outreach to U.S. veterans, Peace Corps and AmeriCorps volunteers, younger students and students with families. A Fletcher education is infused with myriad perspectives that offer our students and faculty a distinctive world view. Our current student body includes citizens of more than 70 nations who speak more than 50 native languages; about 40 percent of them are from outside the United States. This fall we welcomed a dozen returning Peace Corps volunteers and 17 U.S. veterans, and we enroll roughly equal numbers of men and women. Because we have increased our financial aid resources, we will continue to attract and support the world’s top students. They will be our leaders of tomorrow. There is no better return on investment.






Dispatches human decision-making that stymied efforts to prevent or mitigate the worst impacts of the drought, the food price crisis and ongoing conflict in the region. Maxwell and Majid call for accountability from the people who made the choices along the line, including leaders in governments, armed groups, donor organizations, humanitarian agencies and academia—and they make no bones that analysts and academics like themselves could and should have done more to raise the alarm. Only by talking about mistakes openly, they say, will the humanitarian system keep such tragedies from repeating. Maxwell talked with Fletcher Magazine about the fallout. FLETCHER MAGAZINE: You

A mother and child sought aid at a camp in Somalia during the 2011 drought, which Dan Maxwell says was just one factor in that year’s famine.

Unnatural Disaster A quarter-million people died in the Somalia famine of 2011. It didn’t have to happen BY JULIE FL AHERT Y


HE SOMALIA FAMINE of 2011 was sparked by a confluence of disasters. A major drought ruined crops, killed livestock and took away wage labor opportunities for people who relied on them. At the same time, global food prices happened to rise sharply, a devastating blow for Somalia, which relies on food imports even in the best of times. Yet even with those factors, the famine that killed 250,000 people could have been avoided, says Dan Maxwell, a professor of nutrition and humanitarian studies at the Feinstein International Center and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts. In their new book, Famine in Somalia: Competing Imperatives, Collective Failures, 2011–12, Maxwell and co-author Nisar Majid examine what went wrong with the response to the crisis. They say it was



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say that despite the drought, this famine didn’t have to happen—that it was human factors that led to so many deaths. DAN MAXWELL: First

of all, the governing authority in south central Somalia, al-Shabab, was opposed to humanitarian assistance, and food aid in particular. It expelled agencies or threatened them to the point that they left. So several of the major agencies that could have responded to a crisis of this magnitude were not there. Second, al-Shabab had been labeled as an international terrorist organization several years earlier, so there were increasingly dire warnings that humanitarian agencies should not allow any assistance from Western donors to end up in al-Shabab’s hands. Agencies were so worried about the legal and reputational risks of being seen to be “assisting” terrorists that they were actually self-censoring, pulling themselves out even when they had some degree of access.

What else contributed to the situation?

The international response to the crisis was far too little and far too late. By the



time the famine was declared, mortality had already peaked. Even with the drought and the food price crisis, had there been a widespread consensus that prevention and mitigation was a priority, I doubt that it would have tipped over into an actual famine. Without food aid, what did people do?

What really determined whether people survived was the social network that people could call on to help. Some clans had more educated people, people in business, people in urban areas such as Nairobi and Mogadishu, people in the diaspora around the world. If you had a brother in the U.K. who was sending you a regular remittance, you survived. There was also a second sort of network. Instead of one person sending money to a family member, it would be groups in the diaspora raising money to send back to their community in Somalia—to support people even beyond their immediate family. Why is accountability important?

Every time one of these events happens, we say this can never happen again. But much of what we focus on are technical fixes. We don’t look at who is responsible for making the decisions that led to this happening. Famines only rarely result from situations outside of human control. When you start to think about accountability, it’s pretty clear nobody escapes unscathed. You can blame the donors for being late. You can blame the agencies for not having the courage to respond. You can certainly blame al-Shabab. Part of the reason we wrote the book was to put this discussion on the table, even though it can be uncomfortable for people in the humanitarian enterprise to address.


THE FUTURE OF FOOD Climate change will likely threaten agriculture more than previously thought, according to new research out of the Fletcher School. Food production in a key agricultural region of Brazil could decline by as much as 13 percent over the next decade because of climate change, the research suggests. The decline reflects not just reductions in crop yield—how much is produced per area harvested—but also how crop failures and farmers’ decisions lead to cultivating less land and growing only one crop a season instead of two, says Avery Cohn, the William R. Moomaw Professor of International Environment and Resource Policy. Changes in rainfall and temperature affect not just whether there is an abundant harvest, but also whether crops survive long enough to harvest, Cohn says. Because previous research has failed to account for losses from crops dying before they can be reaped, the effects of climate change on the food supply may have been underestimated, he says. Cohn and colleagues at Brown University focused on Mato Grosso, a Brazilian state that supplies 10 percent of the world’s soybeans. Their research, published in March in the journal Nature Climate Change, suggests that a temperature increase of 1 degree Celsius in Mato Grosso will lead to a 9 to 13 percent reduction in soy and corn production. Most of that decrease would be due to the combination of crop failure and farmers’ decisions to sow fewer crops, rather than lower yields. “We’re quite worried that the region’s production is imperiled,” Cohn says. The researchers found that hot, wet conditions were associated with the largest crop losses. During a typical growing season, farmers in Mato Grosso can plant a second crop, usually corn, after they harvest their primary cash crop of soybeans. To do this successfully, the first crop needs to be planted on time, but a late start to the rainy season can delay the planting. Farmers may even decide not to plant a second crop. “Developing better crop varieties doesn’t address the whole issue,” Cohn says. To advance his research, he is investigating whether more diversified farming—planting multiple crops or maintaining a mix of livestock and crops—might inoculate farmers from the effects of climate change and ensure a more stable food supply. “Some amount of climate change is inevitable,” he says. “So we’re asking, How vulnerable is the agricultural system, and what are the remedies?” —HEATHER STEPHENSON




Smart Money

Underwriting school for girls in Ethiopia pays big returns ALTHOUGH SECONDARY SCHOOL is

free in Ethiopia, many girls abandon their education for marriage or a job to help support their families. The solution to keeping them in school is often simple—cash for books and a uniform can keep their education on track and boost their income potential and options for a better life. Just 18 percent of Ethiopian women over age 15 are literate. Out of 127 countries on UNESCO’s Education for All index, which measures commitment to school all children, Ethiopia ranks 126th. To help more Ethiopian girls stay in school, Viola Csordas, F09, and her friend, Maria Zandt, launched SponsorHer!, a social fundraising platform, with $5,000 in seed money from the Fletcher D-Prize competition, which seeks entrepreneurial solutions for eliminating poverty. Their website matches individual and corporate sponsors with bright Ethiopian girls. In 2016, the program’s second year, sponsors are helping 26 girls. Here, by the numbers, is how they make a difference.

15.6 Percentage of Ethiopian girls who start secondary school. Less than one in 20 girls graduates.


Average number of years a girl with seven or more years of education delays marriage. Girls who continue school have fewer and healthier babies and are less likely to die in childbirth. They also earn more.


Average cost to sponsor one girl for a month. This pays for a school uniform, textbooks, supplies such as pencils, notebooks and a sanitary kit so she won’t be absent when she’s menstruating, mentoring support and $3 per month in savings to help her later start a business or go to college.



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Sources: Maria Zandt, UNICEF, UNESCO


PEACEMAKER Despite ‘no’ vote, Colombian president wins Nobel honor

PRECIOUS CARGO Daniel Drezner was busy blogging and tweeting about Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton over the summer, as befits a Fletcher professor of international politics. But when a Wall Street Journal article suggested that men should ditch their cargo shorts for more fashionable attire, Drezner quickly came to the defense of the comfy clothes with the big pockets. “I don’t want to sound like an extremist, but cargo shorts are an essential part of a man’s summer wardrobe,” he wrote in his blog for the Washington Post, “and this should be enshrined in the Constitution.” Like other fans, Drezner praised the shorts’ comfort and their namesake pockets, but he also noted their place in history. Cargo pants were designed in the 1930s for British military men, who used the large external pockets to hold field bandages and maps. During World War II, the practicality of the garb won favor with other Allies, and U.S. paratroopers reportedly filled their pockets with K rations and extra ammunition. “Any article of clothing that helped defeat Hitler is an article of clothing that should never go out of style,” Drezner wrote. What next, a defense of camouflage? Nope. Drezner returned to writing about the presidential race—wearing his cargo shorts, of course.

THE PRESIDENT OF COLOMBIA , a former fellow at the Fletcher School, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in October for pursuing a deal to end more than a half-century of war with a leftist rebel group. In a shocking move that epitomized the ups and downs of four years of negotiations leading up to the agreement, voters rejected the accord just five days before the Nobel was announced. In August, President Juan Manuel Santos forged the agreement with leaders of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) that would have led the guerillas to disarm and re-enter civilian life, even running for political office. Voters had been expected to approve the pact by a resounding margin. Santos said he would donate the nearly $1 million in Nobel Prize winnings to victims of the 52-year conflict. Approximately 220,000 Colombians have been killed and more than 5 million internally displaced by the war. “President Santos is a thoughtful, intelligent and personable leader who cares deeply about his country and its people,” said James Stavridis, F83, F84, dean of the Fletcher School, who has known Santos since a decade ago, when Santos was Colombia’s defense minister and Stavridis led U.S. Southern Command. “The stance he has taken in support of the long-negotiated peace accord is politically courageous and will benefit Colombia over the long term.” Santos, an economist, was a Fulbright visiting fellow at Fletcher in 1981. As Colombia’s defense minister from 2006 to 2009, he organized a counterinsurgency campaign that weakened the FARC.

Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos, left, with Timoleón Jiménez, commander of the FARC rebels, at a ceremonial signing of the peace accord in September. On October 2, voters rejected the deal.





Front Lines

The aftermath of an airstrike in Aleppo, Syria, in 2014.

What War Feels Like

Writer on the ground describes smells of carbine and rubbish, whistling of bombs in Syria


ETERAN WAR CORRESPONDENT Janine di Giovanni, F16, writes about the ongoing bloody conflict in Syria with often horrifying detail in her new book, The Morning They Came for Us: Dispatches from Syria (Liveright). As hundreds of thousands of Syrians have been killed and millions displaced, much of the public conversation has turned to the refugees who have fled the country. But di Giovanni, the Middle East editor for Newsweek and a contributing editor to



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Vanity Fair, shows how the war affects the ordinary people left behind. Having reported from the front lines of conflicts in the Balkans, Middle East and Africa for more than 20 years, she knows all too well what it’s like to live under siege, as she describes in this excerpt.


war means endless waiting, endless boredom. There is no electricity, so no television. You can’t read. You can’t see friends. You grow depressed but there is no treatment for it and it makes no sense to complain—everyone is as badly off as you. It’s hard to fall in love, or rather, hard to stay in love. If you are a teenager, you seem halted in time. If you are critically ill—with cancer, for instance—there is no chemotherapy for you. If you can’t leave the country for treatment, you stay and die slowly, and in tremendous pain. Victorian diseases return—polio, typhoid and cholera. You see very sick people around you who seemed in perfectly good health when you last saw them during peacetime. You hear coughing all the time. Everyone hacks—from the dust of destroyed buildings, from disease, from cold. As for your old world, it disappears, like the smoke from a cigarette you can no longer afford to buy. Where are your closest friends? Some have left, others are dead. The few who remain have nothing new to talk about. You can’t get to their houses, because the road is blocked by checkpoints. Or snipers take a shot when you leave your door, so you scurry back inside, like a crab retreating inside its shell. Or you might go out on the wrong day and a barrel bomb … lands near you. Wartime looks like this. The steely greyness of the city. The clouds are so low, but not low enough to hide government helicopters carrying barrel bombs, which usually appear at the same time each day, in the mornings and late afternoons, circling for a while at altitudes of 13,000–16,000 feet, little more than tiny dots in the sky, before dropping their payloads. What does war sound like? The whistling sound of the bombs falling can only be heard seconds before impact—enough time to know that you are about to die, but not enough time to flee.


What does the war in Aleppo smell of? It smells of carbine, of wood smoke, of unwashed bodies, of rubbish rotting, of … fear. The rubble on the street—the broken glass, the splintered wood that was once somebody’s home. On every corner there is a destroyed building that may or may not have bodies still buried underneath. Your old school is gone; so are the mosque, your grandmother’s house and your office. Your memories are smashed. Then there are the endless fields of garbage. The rooms that are as cold as tombs—having gone unheated now for five winters—are all you know. There are so many abandoned apartments.

are that still have money, and you have dark thoughts about people you used to trust and know well. But with the constant theme of survival surrounding your whole city, your neighborhood, your life, you don’t really know anybody’s intentions. War is the corner near the Old City where people are lined up with plastic Pepsi bottles, to buy a small amount of petrol on the black market. War is the wrecked hospital, Dar al-Shifa, bombed on 21 November 2012, which still stinks of carnage in hallways where stretchers once passed, and where doctors in scrubs and rubber gloves once walked. Now it is a twisted pile of cinderblocks

“As for your old world, it disappears, like the smoke from a cigarette you can no longer afford to buy,” writes Janine di Giovanni, F16.

Remember that beautiful house, what it looked like when someone lived there? Your beautiful life from before is now dead. The dirt, filth, fear and nausea. All the things you go without—toothpaste, money, vitamins, birth-control pills, X-rays, chemotherapy, insulin, painkillers. Petrol costs 170 Syrian pounds per litre. Today. Tomorrow it might be different. Then, suddenly, you might catch the odd sight of a man in a T-shirt despite the frozen air, squeezing oranges into juice for the lucky ones with money. Oranges? You wonder who the people

and concrete, broken tiles and glass—a shell exposed to the grey sky. War is empty shell casings on the street, smoke from bombs rising up in mushroom clouds, and learning to determine which thud means what kind of bomb. Sometimes you get it right, sometimes you don’t. War is the destruction, the skeleton and the bare bones of someone else’s life. Excerpted from The Morning They Came For Us by Janine di Giovanni. Copyright © 2016 by Janine di Giovanni. Used with permission of the publisher, Liveright Publishing Corporation, a division of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved.



NORTH POLE April 19, 2016

MOUNT ELBRUS Russia, Europe 18,510 feet March 10, 2016

MOUNT EVEREST Nepal, Asia 29,035 feet May 19, 2016

MOUNT KILIMANJARO Tanzania, Africa 19,340 feet October 23, 2015

CARSTENSZ PYRAMID Indonesia, Australasia 16,024 feet March 4, 2016

VINSON MASSIF Antarctica 16,050 feet December 5, 2015


DENALI United States, North America 20,310 feet June 11, 2016

Adventurer reaches peaks and poles in record time BY HEATHER STEPHENSON ILLUSTR ATION BY A ARON MESHON


SOUTH POLE December 15, 2015

asha gordon, f98, failed gym class as a girl and never thought of herself as an athlete. But about eight years ago, while on maternity leave from her job as managing director of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, she tried mountaineering in the French Alps and got hooked. Now the 42-year-old mother of two has set a new women’s world record in a challenge called the Explorers’ Grand Slam. She has summited the highest peaks of all seven continents and skied the final 60 nautical miles to the North and South poles—all in less than eight months. The adventure required physical and mental toughness, as well as detailed planning and good luck with the weather. Gordon, who is the vice chair of Fletcher’s Board of Advisors, summited Aconcagua, the tallest mountain in South America, just a month after breaking her wrist while ice climbing; she took her cast off early. To reach the South Pole, she pulled her own weight in gear—about 110 pounds—on an unwieldy sled, skiing up to 10 hours a day in minus 40 degree Fahrenheit weather. She continued up Mount Everest even though the weather forecast called for 50 mile per hour winds, which would have made it unclimbable; she managed to summit and start back before the windstorm arrived. And for the final mountain, Alaska’s Denali, she chose a difficult route, having climbed the easier way before. She made it, although her team slept for only 15 hours in three days and ran out of food. Gordon’s goal now is to share the fun of mountaineering— and the confidence boost it provides—with disadvantaged girls through her new nonprofit, Grit & Rock. In September, she started offering mountaineering training to about 60 urban teens in three locations in the United Kingdom. If the program is successful, she plans to expand. She also hopes to head out for more adventures of her own. “I’d like to climb the northern Patagonia ice ACONCAGUA cap or kite ski across Greenland,” she says. “I Argentina, South America 22,841 feet need the endorphins.” January 31, 2016



g On


I was diagnosed with PTSD. And I plan to continue serving in the Army for the rest of my career.




t was late 2012 and i was commanding an infantry company in Kandahar. At night, when we came back from foot patrols, five of us would build a small fire in the corner of the outpost. We’d light scraps of wood inside half of a rusty metal drum and line rickety benches around the braids of flame. Sometimes we talked about missions, smoked cigars and laughed with each other to the point of tears. Other times we quietly listened to the crackle of the wood, each man consumed in his thoughts, hoping the fire would never go out. In those times, I thought of the men who weren’t there.

Following that deployment, I moved to Massachusetts to study at Fletcher and Harvard. Yet even as I formed friendships with classmates and deepened my grasp of international affairs, I continued to think of those men who hadn’t been able to join us around the fire. Of the 135 soldiers I’d led in more than 200 battles over the course of nine months, five had been killed and more than 20 wounded. Having served in Afghanistan on four previous deployments, I had started this last one convinced that I was accustomed to the realities of war. I had witnessed casualties in the past, and had no illusions that we’d all be safe. However, the violence in 2012 was greater than any I had known before. One day, while I was leading a foot patrol, several IEDs detonated along a narrow path. Torn limbs, bloody faces and unspeakable guilt followed me out of that village. I carried all of it home. My self-imposed guilt wore on me as I relived the most difficult parts of the operation over and over again in my mind. I began to question my actions and leadership in combat, and found myself constantly hypervigilant in nonthreatening environments. I struggled to focus on my studies and lost significant sleep in the process. I believed I was too resilient to ever need help, and suppressed the need to seek it, fearing I’d be perceived



as weak. But at some level, I knew I wasn’t the same. In 2014, when a doctor diagnosed me with post-traumatic stress disorder, it made sense. What’s more, it drove home the reality that while so much has been done to raise awareness about PTSD, the stigma attached to it is still immense. That stigma compels many thousands of active service members with the condition to try to hide it. And I was one of them. I had led men into tremendously difficult combat, and I assumed that leaders were somehow exempt from the impacts of war. I was wrong. PTSD’s stigma grows partially out of well-intentioned but exaggerated portrayals of what the condition entails. In movies and on television, service members with PTSD are too often depicted as sketchy, drug-addicted characters prone to violence. These portrayals anchor society’s beliefs about what PTSD looks like, and tend to keep all of us, civilians and service members alike, afraid of it. Several men I led and served with were reluctant to reveal their PTSD, thinking they might miss out on key promotions or be perceived as fragile or dangerous. The drive to avoid such perceptions is particularly pronounced within combat and special-operations units. Soldiers with PTSD often fear that they will be labeled as quitters who can’t hold their lives together.

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This remains the case even though military policy has focused extraordinary effort on removing the stigma around PTSD and has attempted to make it easier for service members to seek help. Veterans and journalists often lend context by speaking and writing extensively on the condition and its effects in the military. What’s missing is the voice of activeduty members, especially those of us who lead at the small-unit level. It’s tough to find sharp young sergeants or captains who themselves are recovering from PTSD and who encourage their subordinates to get help while continuing service. And it’s the voice of such leaders that might make a big difference. The reasons we remain quiet vary. Too often we think silence somehow aligns with being hard or professional. We may medicate our internal wounds with alcohol, painkillers or any other substance that provides escape. In combat, we may banish dark thoughts so we can take the battlefield with clear minds. Or we may tell ourselves that combat casualties, while tragic, are natural and may create only small fractures in soldiers’ resiliency over time. Accordingly, it can seem appropriate to suppress or ignore the effects of traumatic experiences. Yet war can present horrors that cripple the mind. The way a young man screamed out in pain, the way a leg was torn away or how blood poured from a body, may haunt even the toughest survivor. Such horrors require an in-depth healing process, and we service members who lead at the small-unit level have a unique responsibility to speak up about that. We serve at the cutting edge of the military around the globe and have enormous leverage in the eyes of troops in the most challenging and complex assignments. Leaders in charge of small units are expected

Major Brian Kitching, F15, has led soldiers in hundreds of battles in Afghanistan.

Thousands of active service members with [PTSD] try to hide it. And I was one of them. I had led men into tremendously difficult combat, and I assumed that leaders were somehow exempt from the impacts of war. to represent the ideal mold of honor, courage and strength, and so our words carry exceptional weight. PTSD is largely a solvable problem, and troops seeking rehabilitation are proving it—80 percent of those diagnosed with the condition remain on active duty after completing treatment. Many thousands of


others deal with issues on their own. Rehabilitation comes in many forms, including counseling, connecting with veterans’ organizations and getting medical treatment. But it is never possible without a personal willingness to accept a measure of vulnerability in exchange for new strength. We will rid the ranks of stigma

only when we ignite change at the grassroots level, and frame our smallunit leaders’ experiences with PTSD treatment in a positive light. If we ignore this issue, we risk weakening a military population that is being asked to grapple with ever-increasing complexity around the world. I plan to serve others in the Army for the rest of my career, and that’s why I’m talking about this. Keeping our military mentally fit is the most important thing we can do for our service members. I still sit by the fire. It’s much warmer now. BRIAN KITCHING, F15, is an Army major. A version of this essay appeared in Small Wars Journal.



THE DICTATOR Kim Jong-un is often characterized as a spoiled buffoon. But could the North Korean leader actually be as cunning as he is ruthless? We sat down with Professor Sung-Yoon Lee to learn more about the life, and nuclear ambitions, of the world’s youngest—and most eccentric—head of state. BY HE ATHER STEPHENSON PHOTO ILLUSTR ATION BY CRISTIANA COUCEIRO



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im jong-un, the 32-year-old supreme leader of north Korea, is well known for his love of a good time—partying with the former NBA star Dennis Rodman and spending more than half a billion dollars one year on alcohol, cars, wristwatches and the like. But it’s not all fun and games with Kim. The world’s youngest head of state is also famous for controlling a nuclear arsenal, imprisoning and executing his perceived enemies

(including his uncle) while much of the rest of the population starves, and menacing South Korea and Japan with the regular testing of missiles presumably capable of carrying nuclear warheads. The nation his grandfather founded nearly seven decades ago is largely isolated from the global community, yet Kim has managed to command the world’s attention. North Korea was the subject of international sanctions long before its successful test-detonation, in January, of what it claimed was a hydrogen bomb. After that, the United States levied far heavier sanctions against the country, and established harsh new penalties for anyone maintaining business ties to its nuclear, defense, precious metals or raw materials industries, or assisting with its money laundering, counterfeiting or cyberwarfare operations. But can any of this really get North Korea to stop developing nuclear weapons and adhere to international standards of human rights? And what’s really motivating Kim? Is he the mad man he’s been made out to be, or is the story more complex? To find out, we spoke with Sung-Yoon Lee, F94, F98, the Kim Koo-Korea Foundation Professor in Korean Studies at the Fletcher School, who advised U.S. legislators on North Korea policy during the three years leading up to the adoption of the most recent sanctions. The world has imposed sanctions on North Korea before—the U.S. and the United Nations each have their own set. What’s different about the new ones by the U.S.?


SUNG-YOON LEE: They finally bring U.S. sanctions up to the level of those against many other countries.



Previously, U.S. sanctions against North Korea were very weak both in kind and degree. The U.S. has been sanctioning North Korea since the end of the Korean War in 1953 and we have this perception that there’s nothing more we can do. That is simply not true. To give you some examples: The number of North Korean designations—individuals and agencies and entities designated [for sanctions] by the U.S.—is about 100 now. Until last year it was about 70. The number of Iranian designations approaches 1,000. So just in terms of the sheer numbers, North Korea sanctions are weak. More importantly, the types of sanctions against North Korea have been, so far, quite weak. A 2014 U.N. study found that North Korea’s crimes against humanity and extreme human rights violations “have no parallel in the contemporary world.” They’re the worst. Yet, until this new legislation, there was not a single human rights-related sanction provision vis-à-vis North Korea, whereas the U.S. has sanctioned Syria, Iran and many countries in Africa for human rights violations. Most people today take the view that tough financial sanctions are what brought Iran back to the negotiating table [leading to a deal on its nuclear program]. So, if those financial measures work, if they actually enhance

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U.S. leverage and get your target to at least return to serious talks, why not apply them against North Korea? How are the U.N. and U.S. sanctions different?

The related U.N. Security Council sanctions are very tough. We’ve had six U.N. resolutions since 2006, and each has been tougher than the previous one. In 2006, the U.N. came out with a ban on so-called luxury goods. Each nation is supposed to come up with a definition and list of luxury goods that they will ban from selling to North Korea. Only 50 or so out of some 200 U.N. member states have done that. The U.S. has, and the number one item on the U.S. list of luxury goods is luxury automobiles, cars like Mercedes-Benz. The North Korean regime gives out fancy cars to powerful people as perks. In the past, Mercedes-Benz and all these fancy car makers have blatantly violated U.N. Security Council resolutions. International corporations are greedy, and multinational companies, they are not shy from doing business with the world’s worst dictators. Now per the latest U.N. Security Council resolution, as well as the U.S. unilateral sanctions legislation, any car manufacturer that knowingly does business with North Korea will be penalized, and that is a strong disincentive. It sounds like the sanctions are working.

Well, these U.N. Security Council resolutions and legislation from individual nations—these are somewhat like New Year’s resolution. At first the will is very strong, and there’s even full compliance. But after a while, the will dissipates. Noncompliance sets in. So it’s very important to not settle for political expediency, not settle for North Korea’s gestures of goodwill. Sustained financial pressure is the key in my view. Also sustained human rights campaigning.

How did you develop your interest in North Korea?

I’m a South Korean citizen. I was born in Seoul but spent many years abroad. My father worked for the South Korean foreign ministry, so growing up in the ’70s, it was a privilege for a boy from a very poor country to travel outside South Korea, to learn English at a young age. I took no interest in North Korea until I was well beyond the mature years that I should have. I did not study North Korea at the Fletcher School. Instead I studied international history, cultural history, political philosophy. I was interested in Confucianism. Then, in the late ’90s, I started to read about concentration camps in North Korea. The level of repression in them is probably the worst in the world. Yet very few people know about it. And they’re my brothers and sisters of the same ethnic stock, and I didn’t know enough about this. So that got me to study as much as I could on the issue. I came to take the view that the nature of the regime, the human rights violations, really lies at the core of the nuclear threat and North Korea’s foreign policy. The regime, unlike China in the ’80s or even Vietnam in the mid-’80s, cannot really afford to open up, because North Korea is really weak, except for military power. The conventional indices of measuring state power, economic power, soft power, the size of your country, territory, population, whatever—North Korea does not fare very well, except in the field of military power. Which, of course, has motivated the saber rattling that has led to the sanctions. So with all of these sanctions, how does North Korea keep its economy afloat?

The North Korean state is the only country that we know of that counterfeits U.S. currency as a matter of state policy. They’ve been at it since the ’70s. They are the best counterfeiters in the world. North Korea is also the only


country that produces drugs: heroin, methamphetamine. The state operates like a giant criminal syndicate. Fake famousbrand cigarettes are probably its most lucrative source of hard currency. Its “Marlboros” have been found in at least 13 states across the U.S. They use Southeast Asian criminal organizations to move these things all over the world. Because of its dependence on money laundering, selling of drugs, counterfeit U.S. dollars, fake cigarettes, etc., the North Korean regime in my view is very vulnerable to targeted financial sanctions. The vast majority of international transactions are conducted in U.S. dollars. That gives the

U.S. tremendous financial leverage. Most countries of the world, and most corporations, would rather do business with the U.S. than with North Korea. What are the sanctions trying to achieve?

The legislation spells out its goal: the complete, verifiable, irreversible dismantlement of North Korea’s nuclear weapons. I think very few people believe that’s really feasible. But if North Korea even freezes its nuclear program or dismantles one or two, that’s not insignificant. There are also, for the first time ever, human rights provisions in this legislation. If North Korea takes sincere action,

Sung-Yoon Lee





makes some progress on denuclearization or freezing its nuclear weapons program or freeing political prisoners, then some sanctions will be suspended for a year. The U.S. won’t completely lift these measures until North Korea becomes, as the legislation puts it, an “open, transparent, peaceful society.” Can the sanctions work with someone as apparently bizarre as Kim Jong-un in charge?

Kim Jong-un is, indeed, weird. We have this fuzzy image of North Korea as kind of crazy and a little unstable—the leader, he might go berserk, start a war. That kind of image, while I completely understand the sentiment, is a misreading of North Korea. In their own perverse way, they are very rational and calculating, very crafty, and have gotten a lot on the diplomatic stage. By my rough estimation, North Korea

Among the “strange things” Kim has done since taking power after his father’s death in 2011 is ordering the

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Selected North Korean missiles Maximum range estimates

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over the past quarter-century has reaped from the world’s biggest, most powerful, richest countries—the U.S., Japan, China, South Korea—about $20 billion worth of goodies: cash, food, fuel, medicine, all kinds of things. All for what? For repeated lies, pledges of denuclearization. If you are unstable and crazy, you can’t do that. You have to be pretty smart to be able to do that. They do strange things, irritating things, even blowing up a South Korean navy ship in 2010. But these are always controlled provocations, lethal at times, but small-scale. There’s never been any kind of military retaliation, because South Korea and the U.S. don’t want to escalate. There’s never been any kind of real biting sanction until this year.

KN-08, 9,000km Enhanced 10,000Musudan, 13,000km 3,500km IN DEVELOPMENT

Sources: IISS; 38 North Reprinted with permission from The Economist

IN STRIKING RANGE North Korea’s Nodong missile can reach targets in Japan and South Korea, including American bases. A test of the longer-range Musudan missile in June was considered partially successful, and testing of a missile that could reach the United States is expected soon.



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execution of officials he considered a threat to his power.

When Kim killed off his uncle in December 2013, I was not surprised. Being the number two man in a system like that is dangerous. Your life is often short and precarious. You would have tremendous influence and your nephew would listen to you, of course, but after he comes into his own, feels confident, you become the biggest potential threat to the young man. And if I were Kim’s father—Kim Jong-il—on my deathbed, one major point that I would have driven in to my inexperienced, perhaps incompetent, son is, If your uncle steps beyond his boundaries, steps over the line, do it. Dramatically. Make a point. Kill him off. Because that’s what totalitarian states do. And Kim Jong-un has, according to the South Korean Intelligence Service, killed off more than 70 very high-ranking people. To me that’s more business as usual. It’s how such regimes operate. People said he was perverse. He was crazy. But if you imagine North Korea more as a criminal syndicate—and we’ve all watched The Godfather or The Sopranos —killing your brother even, you know? It’s not personal, it’s business. Under Kim Jong-un, we have seen provocations, like missile tests, at a far more accelerated rate. In the past four years, we have had two nuclear tests, three long-range missile tests, and an intense border crackdown that has led to a 50 percent drop in the number of North Koreans escaping to the south. Kim Jong-un has proven to be violent, cruel, belligerent. He needs to make a point of his toughness, you know? Externally as well as internally. How was Kim raised?

Along with his older brother, he spent at least two years at a private school in Switzerland. They lived there under a pseudonym, but with body guards, with chauffeurs, people who posed as parents. He definitely saw the broader

world out there. Therefore many people prognosticated when he took over that maybe Kim Jong-un would be a reformer like the former Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, who had studied in France as a young man. I thought at the time that was a very shallow analysis, because, you know, if exposure to European cosmopolitanism were a cure for totalitarian ways, one wonders how that kind of transformative experience was lost completely on the likes of Pol Pot in Cambodia or Assad in Syria, who both studied in Europe. I think the more pertinent circumstances would be the nature of the North Korean state, the cult of personality, how the North Korean state needs to keep its people in the dark and be repressive. Why? Because it faces a far more successful, richer, freer Korean state across the border. Kim was also obsessed with basketball as a young man, right? In fact, he had Dennis Rodman visit North Korea several times in 2013 and 2014. Rodman calls Kim Jong-un a “friend for life.” What do you think of Rodman’s “basketball diplomacy?”

Actually, I’m all for Dennis Rodman visiting North Korea, because whenever he goes there’s a media circus that follows. Along with the silly reporting, there is also a lot of serious reporting that would not have happened if not for Mr. Rodman—on serious subjects, like the hunger, the human rights violations, the political prisoner concentration camps. Awareness on North Korea is raised whenever Rodman goes, so I’m grateful to Mr. Rodman. Speaking of serious subjects, China, which is North Korea’s main ally and accounts for about 90 percent of its trade, has violated international sanctions in the past. Will China change its ways with these new sanctions?

It remains to be seen. In my view, the way to get China on board and really

pressure North Korea is not through moral suasion. The way to get China on board is to give the Chinese an economic disincentive. Penalize Chinese companies, individuals, banks, corporations that continue to do business with North Korea. The new sanctions legislation not only allows for that, but makes it mandatory. North Korea is notorious for a preventable famine in the 1990s that killed hundreds of thousands of people. Is hunger still an issue in the country?

The state is using hunger, food, as a weapon. North Koreans born after the ’90s, people now in their 20s, are significantly shorter than South Koreans: 10 inches, on average. North Korea lowered the height requirement for male soldiers to 4-foot-10. You have an entire generation of stunted North Koreans. They starve to death by the dozens or hundreds now, rather than by the thousands or millions, but most people in the country still don’t have enough to eat. You mentioned earlier that issues of human rights are addressed in the new North Korea sanctions, which would presumably include hunger in the country. You advised members of the House and Senate who worked on the sanctions legislation. Are you happy with the results?

Yes. And let me emphasize, the new legislation is in no way radical or unfair. It’s actually weaker than U.S. sanctions against Iran. But it is very comprehensive and well thought out. Much care has gone into doing what’s best not to hurt the North Korean people. There are many exemption waivers, including allowing for the continued delivery of humanitarian aid—food, medicine, clothing. I think the odds are that sustained financial pressure, choking off some streams of revenue for the regime, will instill doubt and fear. The diminished ability to pay off

your generals and high-ranking people: I think that is the most effective way of pressuring the North Korean regime. Sanctions are not a silver bullet. They will not cure everything. But sanctions are the most powerful component of a comprehensive policy vis-à-vis North Korea. Given that sanctions are not a silver bullet, what other strategies should we be pursuing?

You’ve got to have diplomacy, of course. You’ve got to have conventional military deterrence as well. And you’ve got to also give the North Korean regime a way out. If the regime is so squeezed financially that it fears collapse or an uprising—we’re nowhere near that stage at the moment—I think it makes sense to give the Kim regime a way out, an exit, so that war does not become acceptable to the regime. What exit strategy would you be willing to offer?

The least dangerous, least disagreeable scenario will be for the regime to collapse. And that carries certain risks, of course. Will the regime go down quietly like the Soviet Union, or will it go for a last hurrah? You never know. I think we want to make them feel the pressure, paint them into a corner, and then give them an exit. Not everyone sees it that way, because some people will say the Kim family is responsible for all sorts of crimes against humanity and we have to punish Kim Jong-un. We have to have him stand trial at the Hague. I understand those views, but that carries a much bigger risk of war. If Kim Jong-un wants to go live in Hawaii, if the U.S. would accept him, or live somewhere in China, I could accept that. It took me a while to come to take that view, because I’m no fan of the Kim regime. But that kind of political compromise, if it leads to the liberation from bondage of millions of North Koreans, I think I can live with that.

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Hungry for Answers We’ve used the same strategy for decades to provide refugees with food aid. Does it work? BY JULIE FLAHERTY


S THE ONGOING refugee and migrant crisis continues to dominate international news, it has given new urgency to an age-old question: What is the best way to get desperately needed food to people who have been forced to flee their homeland because of war, natural disaster or persecution? The traditional method of providing aid has been either distributing sacks of flour or rice off the back of trucks, or handing out packages of oil, pasta, lentils and other foods to families residing in camps. But the strategies for delivering food aid have not kept up with the times, according to Karen Jacobsen, Henry J. Leir Professor in Global Migration at the Fletcher School. Now Jacobsen, who directs the Refugees and Forced Migration Research Program at Tufts’ Feinstein International Center, is analyzing new methods for serving one of the world’s most vulnerable populations. What is the point of relying on a strategy of distributing food to refugees living in camps, Jacobsen asked during a recent interview, when most refugees do not live in camps at all? Of the 2.29 million Syrian refugees living in Turkey, for example, 90 percent live in residential communities, alongside people who are not refugees. For that reason, Jacobsen said, humanitarian organizations have begun turning away from shipping bags of commodities and instead are giving refugees the means to buy their own food—“especially in urban areas, and especially for Syrian refugees.” That often means vouchers that can be used at supermarkets or even cash wired directly to those in need. It’s an approach that has won praise for its efficiency and its support of local markets. But the news isn’t all good, as Jacobsen and her team found when they evaluated one high-profile food voucher program from 2015.



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As part of a $6.5 million program, the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) surveyed 9,100 Syrian refugee families living in southern Turkey to determine which were most in need of food aid. About 95 percent of the families reported coping with lack of food in some way—such as borrowing from neighbors or eating less so their kids could eat. From there, the DRC provided more than 32,000 of the refugees with e-vouchers that they could use at designated supermarkets. The vouchers did help alleviate hunger: The refugees who received the benefits were less likely in follow-up interviews to report skipping meals or going a day without food. They said the e-vouchers reduced their worries, and even “conferred dignity and respect,” since they were able to go to the grocery store and choose their own food. But the vouchers also caused friction. Everyone in the neighborhood knew who was receiving them, most likely because only a small number of supermarkets were involved. Some refugees reported that neighbors and extended family who did not receive the benefits were jealous, and that they felt pressured to share their benefits with

Syrian refugees use humanitarian aid vouchers to shop at a mall in Amman, Jordan.

Refugees said the e-vouchers reduced their worries, and even “conferred dignity and respect,” since they were able to choose their own food. them. And because the DRC did not explain clearly enough why some people qualified for e-vouchers and others did not, some refugees perceived the qualification process to be unfair. They called a hotline to complain, started a Facebook page for grievances, protested


outside the DRC offices, and even threatened DRC staff on the street. What lessons can be learned from the DRC e-voucher program? Jacobsen said that some of the problems could have been avoided by first asking the refugees what they thought would be

a fair way to distribute the vouchers. Making the qualification metric clearer and more transparent might also have helped—basing it, for example, on the ratio of household members to money-earners. But the biggest takeaway from the DRC program, Jacobsen said, is that the best way to help urban refugees may be by giving them not food, or even food vouchers, but cash. While many of the refugees said they worried about putting food on the table, they worried about other needs even more. “Much more of a concern is paying rent,” Jacobsen said, with health care, education and transportation also competing for their



Migration scarce funds. “In a camp you get these things for free, but in an urban setting you have to pay for them.” Accordingly, cash transfers are being used more and more often by humanitarian groups. The World Food Program, for instance, said cash now accounts for just over a quarter of its assistance, a “conceptual shift” the organization made in the end of the last decade because of the flexibility, efficiency and choice that cash gives to beneficiaries.

the system away from shipping in food. “For 50 years, the automatic response was to wind up the food aid machine,” Maxwell said. Some of the inertia is attributable to the usual skepticism about new ideas, he said, but other factors are also at play. The traditional method of food assistance started out as a solution to both human suffering and surplus U.S. grain production. “A whole industry grew up,” Maxwell said, “and that industry still lobbies on Capitol Hill

“The government might ask, ‘Why are you giving this cash to these refugees, when our people are just as much in need of help?’” Opponents of cash payments have argued that recipients could use the aid money for alcohol or cigarettes, or that the money could fall into the hands of terrorist organizations—a concern that has left some aid agencies skittish about sending cash, lest they run afoul of government counterterrorism imperatives and lose their funding. But those fears have proven to be largely unfounded, said Dan Maxwell, acting director of the Feinstein International Center. During the Somalia famine, for example, people used the vast majority of the cash they received to buy food or repay debts they incurred from buying food before assistance was available. “The overwhelming evidence is that money is used on things that people genuinely need,” Maxwell said. and yet, while research demonstrates that e-vouchers and cash transfers can be superior approaches to providing assistance to refugees, there continues to be resistance to changing



to block or delay proposals for food aid reform.” Part of that lobby is aid agencies themselves, some of which feel threatened that their specialized roles as food purveyors will be made obsolete by upstart organizations doing cash transfers. “Many agencies can figure out how to do a cash transfer program,” Maxwell said. “In fact, Visa Card can probably figure out how to do it better than a humanitarian agency.” Of course, it is true that cash won’t work in every refugee situation. In places such as South Sudan, there may not be enough food in the markets for people to be able to buy their own. In other places, there is the danger that sending cash would cause inflation in the local economy. “A lot of the work that we’ve done over the past five years has been to say this isn’t just an automatic response, one-size-fits-all question,” Maxwell said. But for refugees living in urban areas, money transfers seem to be a

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good fit. Even then, though, there can be problems. “When people are living in refugee camps, you can easily say everybody here needs food, everybody needs tents,” Jacobsen said. “But most of the refugees settling in cities live amongst the urban poor. Their neighbors and hosts could be even poorer than they are. Targeting cash assistance at refugees can create a lot of antagonism with the host population. The government might ask, ‘Why are you giving this cash to these refugees, when our people are just as much in need of help?’” Indeed, recent studies predict that rising social tensions between displaced people and their new neighbors have the potential to generate new conflicts, this time within the host countries. So humanitarian groups are looking at a new approach: providing aid to everyone in the areas where the refugees are settling. Jacobsen said that areas with many refugees can be easily identified, and several of them are clearly in need. “In urban areas that have been heavily affected by a huge influx of refugees, especially in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, their systems—water, roads, housing—are all being burdened.” The scope is not as financially overwhelming as it may sound. “You can target those areas that are being affected,” Jacobsen said. “Don’t just focus on the refugees, treat it as a whole area that needs to be supported.” In the end, solving the problem of feeding millions of refugees may mean reimagining humanitarian aid as something more holistic, that addresses not just hunger but the many interconnected struggles that go along with urban poverty. It’s a new way of thinking, and one that Jacobsen, Maxwell and their colleagues will be pushing the sometimes entrenched humanitarian industry to explore.



DIPLOMATIC VISIT Thirty lucky Tufts students, including 15 from the Fletcher School, had an opportunity to chat with U.S. Secretary of State John F. Kerry before he held a meeting with his counterparts from the European Union, the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy in the Coolidge Room of Ballou Hall on September 24.





Harry A. Radliffe II “had a natural curiosity about the world,” says colleague Jeff Fager.

Support for Storytellers

New scholarship honors award-winning journalist Harry A. Radliffe II BY HELENE RAGOVIN


HEN HARRY A. RADLIFFE II was growing up in Indianapolis, he’d disappear on his bicycle for hours, exploring the city’s neighborhoods. That wanderlust never left him. Radliffe, A71, F73, went on to become an award-winning television journalist and longtime producer for CBS’s 60 Minutes. “Harry was a true journalist—he had a natural curiosity about the world,” recalls his friend and colleague Jeff Fager, the executive producer of 60 Minutes. “He just loved the adventure of getting out, helping people understand a story and living it at the same time.” Radliffe’s work resulted in scores of memorable segments for the TV newsmagazine—anyone who tuned in to 60 Minutes during the 26 years Radliffe was there has



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undoubtedly seen his Emmy and Peabody Award-winning work. His reporting always reflected his deep and nuanced understanding of world affairs, and he never forgot that his time at Fletcher helped set him on his career path. After he died of colon cancer in 2015 at age 66, his family and CBS News decided to memorialize him with a scholarship program. Each year, the Harry A. Radliffe II/CBS Endowed Scholarship will provide support for four students who are pursuing studies in news media, public diplomacy or digital communications through Fletcher’s Edward R. Murrow Center for a Digital World. “Fletcher played a huge role in enabling Harry to pursue his dreams, so it was only fitting that we support the scholarship to help other budding scholars at the Murrow Center to achieve their goals and dreams,” says Harry’s brother, Brian Radliffe, a retired AT&T executive from Bridgewater, New Jersey. CBS has matched Brian Radliffe’s donation, creating a $500,000 scholarship fund. The connection between Harry Radliffe and the Murrow Center is particularly meaningful for the network’s news division, Fager says. Murrow was a pioneering broadcast journalist—most famous for his dispatches from London during World War II—and spent much of his career with CBS. His papers are housed at Tufts. “I know that in his heart, very few things meant as much [to Harry Radliffe] as the Fletcher School,” Fager says. “And the Murrow collection has a really important place in terms of [CBS] history.” Another connection: in 1986, Radliffe became the CBS bureau chief in London, the first African-American to head a news bureau for the network. “I know it was the honor of Harry’s life to have the same job that Murrow had during World War II,” says Edward Schumacher-Matos, F73, director of the Murrow Center and a Fletcher classmate of Radliffe’s. David Rhodes, president of CBS


News, will be at Fletcher in February to inaugurate the scholarship program. “[Rhodes] believed in this effort from the very beginning—he was the one who really pushed this initiative through the corporation,” Fager says. The Radliffe/CBS Scholars will help to build a core group of researchers, Schumacher-Matos says, particularly in the field of digital communication and its impact on social, political and cultural arenas, and on the emergence of cyberspace on national and international issues. The first scholarships are expected to be awarded for this academic year.

A RENAISSANCE MAN In the early ’70s, Radliffe studied with author David Halberstam, then a visiting professor at Fletcher. At the time, Halberstam was working on the book that would become his classic about the Vietnam conflict, The Best and the Brightest. “Harry and I were part of a small

group who met regularly with David and with others at the Murrow Center, and so while Fletcher was not a journalism school, it was a great way to be introduced to the field of journalism, to understand many of the issues, to be inspired,” says Schumacher-Matos, who was part of the reporting team that won a 1980 Pulitzer Prize for its coverage of the Three Mile Island nuclear disaster. “Harry and I both went off, and while we did a lot of learning on the job, which was the old way of learning journalism, we had a very strong grounding in the ethics and principles and the quality that you wanted to achieve.” After graduating from Fletcher, Radliffe worked at a television station in Portland, Oregon, and quickly moved to network news jobs at CBS and ABC. In 1979, he became a producer on the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite, and in late 1980, CBS sent him to London. He returned to New York in 1988, and joined 60 Minutes shortly after.

He became known for his expertise covering stories from the Middle East, but he remained something of a Renaissance man—one of the stories that was dearest to him was about a visit to Mount Athos, a deeply secluded Eastern Orthodox monastic community in Greece; it aired in 2011. His colleagues knew him as the go-to person when they wanted to learn about a destination—particularly the local cuisine. “At his funeral, the minister said Harry was probably interviewing St. Peter at the Pearly Gates,” Fager recalled. “And a lot of us thought, no, he’s probably talking to St. Peter about where to find the best Chinese restaurant.” To his brother Brian, Harry followed in the footsteps of their parents, who were not journalists, but educators. “I think that rubbed off on my brother,” Brian Radliffe says. “He taught in his own way, by helping people to understand the world outside the U.S.”

JOURNALISM FOR A DIGITAL WORLD EDWARD SCHUMACHER-MATOS, F73, launched his international journalism career while still a Fletcher student, landing a gig as a part-time reporter for a paper covering Boston’s South Shore. Since then, he has shared a 1980 Pulitzer Prize and served as bureau chief for the New York Times in Madrid and Buenos Aires, among other globe-trotting accomplishments. Now he’s come full circle, returning to the Fletcher School as director of the recently renamed Edward R. Murrow Center for a Digital World. His latest assignment is an ambitious one: transform the center into a global player in shaping how the rapid creation and transmission of information will alter international relations. Aided by a generous gift, Schumacher-Matos wants the center—inaugurated 50 years ago by Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey to honor its namesake’s distinguished career in journalism and leadership of the U.S. Information Agency—to be the preeminent voice in analyzing how the digital age


Edward Schumacher-Matos

can give rise to democracies or plunge the world into chaos. The center has all the buzz of a start-up with big ambitions. New ventures include the Fletcher Ideas Exchange, a TEDxstyled event that helps students hone skills critical to public diplomacy, and new international collaborations pushing into uncharted issues, such as an examination of digital rights as human rights. Working with partners in India and China, the center is also developing an online interactive news platform.



Connect A Roma family in Sarulesti, Romania. “I attempt to write about difficult subjects, but for my own sanity, there needs to be some sense of redemption,” says Lenore Myka.

Tales of Hope and Fear

Lenore Myka’s book of linked stories portrays survivors in Romania BY HEATHER STEPHENSON started writing fiction inspired by her Peace Corps stint in Romania, her imagination was drawn to dark topics: discrimination against the Roma people, sex trafficking, the challenges of orphanage life and cross-cultural adoption, and the missteps and blind spots of naïve Americans who try to help. She worried that the stories would upset her friends, but when she tried to steer her fiction toward more positive themes, it became clichéd and sentimental. “I did not like my work when I tried to be kind and generous,” she wrote in an essay published on the website Necessary Fiction. “I was bored and knew my readers would be, too.” She decided not to worry about what others would think as she wrote King of the Gypsies (BkMk Press, 2015), a book of linked short stories that won the G.S. Sharat Chandra Prize for Short WHEN LENORE MYKA, F99,



Fiction and was a finalist for the 2016 Chautauqua Prize. Although the stories often feature characters in tough circumstances, they are not overwhelmingly bleak, in part because the people are fascinating and resilient. As one reviewer wrote, “Her characters—a cast of endangered survivors— obstinately hold to a slender, probably illusionary, but universal dream of hope.” Or as Myka puts it, “I attempt to write about difficult subjects, but for my own sanity, there needs to be some sense of redemption.” Although each story in the collection can be read alone, some characters appear in more than one narrative, at different points in their lives, which adds to the power of the book. Such is the tale of Drago, a Roma boy who climbs onto a stone bust of former communist ruler Nicolae Ceauescu and declares himself “king of the

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gypsies” in the title story. After Drago’s father abandons his family, his mother leaves him at an orphanage, where he later meets a 13-year-old Roma girl named Irina, who is brought there by her older sisters. A man takes Irina from the orphanage, and Drago spots her soon after, outside a bar surrounded by men. Her face painted in gaudy makeup, Irina calls his name, then “claps her hands as if she is privy to a tune no one else can hear, and starts to dance, shaking her hips left and right.” She reappears in later stories, one of the “endangered survivors” whose tenacious spirit leavens the book. Myka served in the Peace Corps from 1994 to 1996, teaching English to middle school and high school students and volunteering at an orphanage. While her book is inspired by her experiences in post-communist Romania, she says the characters are not drawn directly from real people. Myka came to the Fletcher School intending to pursue a career overseas. After graduation, she worked as a program associate at the Centre for Development and Population Activities in Washington, D.C., and fed her longtime interest in creative writing with evening classes. One day she decided to quit her job to focus on her fiction. Now 43, she lives in St. Petersburg, Florida, where she teaches creative writing at the Ringling College of Art and Design and is writer-in-residence at New College of Florida. Thanks to a $25,000 creative writing fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts, she took a leave from teaching this summer and fall to work on a new novel—a story set in the 1970s in a New York steel town. Myka doesn’t know how the story will evolve. “I start with an image or a character,” she says, “and move from there.”


On the Shelf ALUM NI

RETURN TO COLD WAR Polity “Cold war,” ROBERT LEGVOLD, F63, F67, points out, is often convenient shorthand for a relationship gone bad, but in a world where the threats of stateless terrorism and sectarian violence loom


large, is it really the best way to understand the current toxic dynamic between Russia and the U.S.? Unfortunately, yes, argues Legvold, a leading expert on Soviet and Russian foreign policy—and the confrontation over Putin’s annexation of Crimea and war in eastern Ukraine are only part of the story. This compact but penetrating analysis examines the similarities between the original Cold War and today’s conflict and traces the tortuous, decades-long path to our current predicament. Underscoring the disastrous global consequences of maintaining our present postures, Legvold closes by suggesting a way out of the impasse.

FROM CRISIS TO CALLING: FINDING YOUR MORAL CENTER IN THE TOUGHEST DECISIONS Berrett-Koehler As an aid worker in war-torn Congo, SASHA CHANOFF, F04, N04, arrived in a refugee camp with strict orders to evacuate exactly 112 massacre survivors. When he discovered an additional 32 widows and orphans

who also needed to be moved to safety, he was forced to choose between jeopardizing the entire mission or leaving them behind to face certain death. Writing with his father, journalist David Chanoff, Sasha Chanoff dissects that agonizing decision and illuminates the transformative potential of choices that demand moral courage. Accounts of pivotal decisions by eight other leaders, including a Navy SEAL, a government official and a Holocaust survivor-turnedentrepreneur, illustrate the steps that go into making moral decisions and show how we can harness the power of ethical intuition to turn crises into opportunities for altruism.

LOVE AMID THE TRASH One day shortly after moving to West Oakland, California, Amir Soltani, A90, F90, heard a rustling noise coming from his yard. He peeked out the window and saw people rifling through his trash. Who would be interested in my garbage? he wondered. He found his answer down the street: Alliance Metals, now known as Alliance Recycling, a beacon of industry in the otherwise economically depressed Dogtown neighborhood. In talking to its manager, he discovered that the recycling center turns over millions of dollars in sales from recyclable goods. Those goods, the manager explained, are scavenged by “recyclers,” poor and often homeless individuals who redeem them for cash, relying on the proceeds as their main source of income. To the recyclers, Alliance is more than a place they can trade in shopping carts full of bottles and cans for money; it is their community center. After getting to know some of its regulars, Soltani, an advocate for human rights in his native Iran and author of the best-selling graphic novel Zahra’s Paradise, decided to document their lives in a film. The result is Dogtown Redemption, which he produced and co-directed with Chihiro Wimbush, a documentary filmmaker.

From left, Landon Goodwin, Miss Hayok Kay and Jason Witt.

They chronicled the lives of three recyclers over seven years: Jason Witt, who has been recycling since he was 13; Miss Hayok Kay, a former drummer for the polka-punk group Polkacide; and Landon Goodwin, a minister. Getting to know them and other recyclers helped Soltani realize just how hardworking, resilient and creative they were. “We thought we were going to make a film about poverty, and we ended up making a film about love,” he says. The documentary aired on PBS in May. –DIVYA AMLADI



Connect an in-depth analysis of the country’s hardline conservatives. He argues that unlike other revolutionary regimes, which eventually embrace pragmatic rhetoric and stable institutional structures, the Iranian

POLAND: THE FIRST THOUSAND YEARS NIU Most European history books, if they mention Poland at all, portray a long-suffering nation straddling East and West, victimized by everyone from Prussia to Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union. In a sweeping new history that spans the Middle Ages to the present, PATRICE M. DABROWSKI, F92, provides a much-needed corrective to this view, showing us a country whose multiethnic population valued democratic, constitutional forms of governance long before they caught on in the rest of Europe. Passionate freedom fighters, whether in their 19th-century struggle for independence or the Solidarity period under Soviet communism, the Poles have been inspiring other nations striving against tyranny for centuries.

Two new alumni books offer fresh insight into different aspects of Iran’s political culture. In The Eternal Revolution (I.B. Tauris), HAMAD H. ALBLOSHI, F09, F13, probes the ideological debate in Iran with



system is unique in that it continues to rely on revolutionary Islamic ideology. Saudi Arabia and Iran (Palgrave) by BANAFSHEH KEYNOUSH, F99, F07, challenges the notion that sectarian tensions between the two

nations are inevitable. She argues that their rivalry is a consequence rather than a cause of regional instability and blames foreign interventions for disrupting the local balance of power.

ALSO OF NOTE With humor, candor and plenty of practical tips, MARTHA BRETTSCHNEIDER, F91, shares her transformation from stressed-out economist and screaming mother to mindful meditator and gardener in Blooming into Mindfulness (Damselwings). | REYNOLD BURROWES, F73, F79, tells the touching story of his return to Guyana after 35 years away in I Never Said Goodbye (Hansib). | In How Mass Atrocities End (Cambridge), edited by BRIDGET CONLEY-ZILKIC, assistant research professor, case studies from Guatemala, Burundi, Indonesia, Sudan, Bosnia and Iraq create a nuanced picture of the factors that help terminate regional conflagrations. | In Foreign Affairs Federalism (Oxford), MICHAEL J. GLENNON, professor of international law, and Robert D. Sloane highlight the role that states and cities now play in U.S. foreign policymaking, from establishing sanctuaries for undocumented immigrants to sanctioning oppressive foreign governments. | Combining both primary documents and expert commentary by Simon Chesterman, IAN JOHNSTONE, professor of international law, and David Malone, the second edition of Law and Practice of the United Nations (Oxford) tackles the most challenging issues facing the global community, including terrorism, climate change, poverty and nuclear proliferation. | Edited by DYAN MAZURANA, associate research professor; KAREN JACOBSEN, associate research professor; and Lacey Andrews Gale, a visiting fellow at the Feinstein International Center, Research Methods in Conflict Settings (Cambridge) compiles lessons from field researchers who have faced violence, distrust and social fragmentation in their attempts to understand the experiences of local people in conflict zones. | Saint Margaret, Queen of the Scots (Palgrave) by CATHERINE KEENE, F86, fleshes out the political and religious contexts in which the 11th-century queenturned-saint lived. | NATASHA LEGER, F97, coaches road warriors weary of room service and airport convenience food in Travel Healthy (Blue Pearl). | STEPHEN C. MURRAY, F71, uses oral histories to inform The Battle over Peleliu (University of Alabama), an ethnographic and historical account of Japanese and American encroachment on the island nation of Palau during World War II. | The Law of Investment Treaties (Oxford International Law Library) by JESWALD W. SALACUSE, the Henry J. Braker Professor of Law, explains the history, nature and significance of investment treaties, which grant protection to foreign investors and have become increasingly important in managing international investments. | Also by SALACUSE, The Three Laws of International Investment (Oxford) examines the legal frameworks that govern international investments: the laws of the host country and the investor’s home country, contracts and international law. | In Prioritizing Security Sector Reform (United States Institute of Peace), Querine Hanlon and RICHARD H. SHULTZ JR., professor of international politics and director of the International Security Studies Program, argue that as the U.S. enters an era of more cautious international engagement, our government needs a new strategy for addressing the security challenges posed by politically unstable regions.

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The Fletcher Alumni of Color Association “is a place to share experiences and turn for help,” says Danielle Daley, who received summer internship support.

BOOSTER CLUB Alumni of color offer stipends and scholarships, foster sense of community BY DIVYA AMLADI DANIELLE DALEY, F17, spent

the summer identifying ways that corporations can create sustainable solutions to global problems such as the refugee crisis. As an intern at the U.N. Foundation in Washington, D.C., she also prepped a team for trips to Jordan and Sweden to assess the entrepreneurial efforts that have emerged in refugee camps there. “The internship experience was invaluable,” says Daley, noting that it inspired her to focus on financial inclusion and helped her land an internship in microfinance this fall. While summer internships are a great way to gain career experience and focus, many of them—like Daley’s— are unpaid, which can strain a student’s budget. Enter the Fletcher Alumni of Color Association (FACA), which awarded Daley a stipend to offset the


costs of temporarily living and working in D.C. for the summer. That freed her to focus on learning and networking, she says. The internship support springs from FACA’s mission to foster community among alumni of color and help them and students advance their careers. The organization was founded in Washington, D.C., in 2004 by alumni who wanted to expand their professional networks and improve the Fletcher School experience by addressing issues of diversity, inclusion and financial insecurity. People of color often face barriers to career advancement that begin in school and continue after graduation, says Kelly Smith, F03, a founding member of the group who serves on FACA’s executive board. “Access is key,” he

says. “People of color may be first-generation graduate students, and they are often disproportionally impacted by [lack of] access to capital.” “FACA is like a community within a community,” Daley says. “They really want to make sure students of color have a great experience at Fletcher, but also in their internships and their careers. Within these fields, there’s not a lot of minority representation, so FACA is a place to share experiences and turn for help.” Daley was among 17 students FACA selected to receive financial assistance for internships this year. “Most internships don’t pay, so students and parents are going into debt to pay for these vital opportunities for professional development,” notes Nihal Goonewardene, F73, F75, the initiative’s lead fundraiser. Since the FACA Internship Support Fund was created in 2011, it has distributed $103,000 in stipends to 56 students in fields ranging from foreign policy to business development. FACA also awards the Ralph Bunche Endowed Scholarship each year. Named after the American diplomat who was the first person of color to win the Nobel Peace Prize, the scholarship is designed to attract students from diverse backgrounds to study at Fletcher. The alumni group has also helped to create a scholarship in honor of award-winning African-American journalist and 60 Minutes producer Harry A. Radliffe II, A71, F73 (see “Support for Storytellers,” page 26). Mentorship is a major focus for FACA. “After graduating, the challenge is getting to know the right people and getting them to know you,” Smith says. FACA helps by organizing networking events, career panels and recruitment events. “Supporting students and other alumni of color is beneficial for everyone,” says Goonewardene. “Diversity enriches the workplace.”




Going Global Fletcher professor will develop university’s strategy for international efforts BY TAYLOR MCNEIL


UFTS FACULTY HAVE been key players in the landmark Paris climate accord, in thwarting Ebola, Zika and other infectious diseases, and in confronting the European refugee crisis—all in just the past few years. The university’s international footprint continues to grow. Right now faculty and students are working on projects in nearly 140 countries on issues as diverse as women’s empowerment, religion in colonial Bengal, energy access for the poor, and diet and cardiovascular disease. Provost David Harris says he’s convinced that Tufts’ international outreach and impact can be even more dramatic with the development of a concerted global strategy that would bring together disparate initiatives and forge partnerships among faculty, students and others who may be attacking the same problem from different angles. To lead that effort, he’s appointed Diana Chigas, F88, as the

“We have many partnerships abroad, but we need to coordinate them more,” says Diana Chigas.



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university’s first senior international officer. Chigas, who has been involved in top-level negotiations in hot spots around the world, also has been named an associate provost and will continue to teach as a professor of the practice at the Fletcher School, as she has done for 15 years. “Historically, Tufts has had a strong commitment to understanding the world and using that knowledge to address global challenges,” says Harris. “We’re intent on pursuing interdisciplinary research and scholarship and engaging our far-flung networks of alumni, friends and others for the benefit of society,” he says. “Diana will help us develop a comprehensive strategy that will enable us to do that in a more purposeful way, while also helping our students broaden their perspectives.” Chigas says she’s spending this year learning about the international work happening across Tufts and identifying ways to share that information more widely. There’s a lot of it, from the popular study-abroad programs that Tufts has offered to undergraduates for 50 years to faculty research and scholarship—and that’s not counting the more than 6,300 alumni who live outside the United States. The provost’s office is also convening an international advisory group that will help identify priorities for a global strategy. “We need to think—are there geographic priorities we should have?” says Chigas. “And what kind of presence abroad? We have many partnerships abroad, but we need to coordinate them more.” Chigas, who holds a J.D./M.A.L.D. from Harvard Law School and the Fletcher School, first worked internationally through the Conflict Management Group, a nonprofit started by former Harvard law professor Roger Fisher. She was involved in negotiations between El Salvador’s government and rebels and between South African anti-apartheid movement leaders and that country’s minority white


government, among other assignments. She started teaching a course on negotiations at Fletcher on a temporary basis in 2001, and soon became a fixture at the school, while also signing on with CDA, a nonprofit focused on improving the effectiveness of international development and conflict resolution work. She co-taught a course on that and also teaches in Fletcher’s Global Master of Arts Program (GMAP). Chigas was able to get a bit of a head start on her new position, which she officially began on September 1. Since August 2015, she worked on global strategy one day a week in the provost’s office, and helped lead a faculty survey to get a sense of the international work happening across the university. Among the findings: faculty reported scholarly activity in 138 countries. They’re also very interested in learning about what their colleagues are up to overseas and how they might collaborate more. Chigas is also assisting in the administrative coordination of international work. “If someone has a project in Tanzania, and they want to hire someone, how do they do that? And with grants—we need to be able to collaborate and connect with them,” she says. Yet international experiences don’t only happen off campus. Tufts has nearly 1,600 international students. The university’s 459 international faculty and scholars are natives of 69 countries, from Afghanistan to Zambia. “We also need to think about how we organize ourselves on campus so students here, including those who do not study or do clinical or internship work abroad, can have a global experience in some form or another,” Chigas says. Another issue is supporting international students who come here— especially those in the health sciences, where there are fewer organized support structures. “We need to orient them and connect them with activities here,” she says.


Rockford Weitz

START-UP SUCCESS a serial entrepreneur. After stints as founding executive director at FinTech Sandbox Inc. and founding CEO of CargoMetrics, he’s now president of the nonprofit Institute for Global Maritime Studies Inc. and president and CEO of Rhumb Line International, which consults on maritime and entrepreneurship projects. At Fletcher, he’s a professor of practice, entrepreneurship coach and director of the school’s Maritime Studies Program. And he still has time to raise money for financial aid and help students find jobs and internships. You can also call Weitz a rainmaker of sorts. Some of the students he advised, and one group he helped create, made their mark at the 2016 Tufts $100K New Ventures competition—four Fletcher teams were among the finalists. Two of them, Blue Water Metrics and Uliza, placed second and third in the social impact category, receiving start-up money and free office space in downtown Boston. For his part, Weitz was named the inaugural recipient of the Fletcher First Ten Award in May in recognition of his success outside the classroom and contributions to the global Fletcher community. Blue Water Metrics aims to equip ferries, fishing boats and cargo ships with networked sensors to capture data on ocean health and weather systems. The data would help researchers explore issues such as climate change and fisheries management. The group received $7,000 in start-up capital and $5,000 in legal assistance. Weitz is part of the team, which also includes Matt Merighi, F16; Sea Sovereign Thomas, F02; Jack Whitacre, F16; and Caroline Troein, F14, a researcher at Fletcher’s Institute for Business in the Global Context. The Uliza team is developing a voice-enabled internet search service for the billions of people who do not have access because of infrastructure and language barriers. Uliza’s automated services would be accessed through a toll-free call, allowing anyone with a phone to ask a question and receive an answer in their own language. Team members Grant Bridgman, F16; Janet Jepkogei, A17; and Abhishek Maity, F16, received $3,000 in start-up capital and $5,000 in legal assistance. The other Fletcher finalists in the competition included PowerShare International, which proposed creating a mobile platform through which voters and elected officials could prioritize goals for their community. The team included Tarun Gopalakrishnan, F16; Nathan Justice, A17; James Powers, F16; and Jack Whitacre, F16. Team Rashmi—with Alisha Guffey, F16; Rajiv Nair, F16; and Sreedhar Nemmani, F16—wanted to develop a market-driven media program focused on hyper-local news. CALL ROCKFORD WEITZ, F02, F08,








The Fletcher Club of Houston welcomed Dean JAMES STAVRIDIS, F83, F84, in November 2015 at a reception hosted at the offices of CB&I, led by CEO and GMAP graduate PHIL ASHERMAN, F04. Also attending were MEMA BEYE, F07; DAVID HWA, A74, F76; ALEXANDER KAZANIS, F13; JAMES WILLIAMS, F14; SAMINA JAIN, F08; ANGELO YODER, F12; JAIME CORREAL, F10; YVONNE XIONG, A15; EDMUND GAITHER, F00; and TRAVIS PACE, F14.

The Fletcher Club of Brussels hosted a cocktail reception with Fletcher professors Eileen Babbitt, director of the Institute for Human Security and professor of practice of international conflict analysis and resolution, and ELIZABETH PRODROMOU, J81, F83, visiting associate professor of conflict resolution, on Jan. 30, 2016.

ATHENS The Fletcher Club of Greece had a delightful dinner on April 19, 2016, at an outdoor café. Attending were GREGORY DIMITRIADIS, F06; IOLI CHRISTOPOULOU, F03, F11; KATARINA VOUTSINA, F15, and her fiance, Ioannis Nelos, a naval officer and incoming M.A. student; DMITRIS KARAPATAKIS, minister of the interior and incoming M.A. student; and Jenifer BurckettPicker, director of the Fletcher Ph.D. program and M.A. program, and her husband, Dennis. Burckett-Picker spoke about Fletcher’s strategic plan.



DUBAI Twenty alumni and friends met at the home of Fletcher Club of the UAE leaders PAUL BAGATELAS, F87, and CHRISTINE LAUPER BAGATELAS, F87, on March 10, 2016, to meet MICHAEL DOBBS, F73, F75, F77. Dobbs, who is formally known as Lord Dobbs of Wylye, wrote the novel House of Cards.

GENEVA The Fletcher Club of Switzerland hosted a spring happy hour with Professor Hurst Hannum, who was visiting.

THE HAGUE The Fletcher Club of the Netherlands met at Whoosah Beach Bar at Zwarte Pad on June


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25, 2016. In attendance were JENNIFER CROFT, F99; BOB BRAGAR, F03; RIK KRUISDIJK, F03; THOMAS POLS, F15; ARJEN VAN DEN BERG, F04; DAVID CHIH-HSIANG WU, F10; BRANKA PEURACA, F02; and CARRIE STEFANSKY, F11. They had such a great time they forgot to capture a picture until the very end. The last ones standing, from left: Arjen, Carrie, Jennifer and Branka.

HONG KONG The Fletcher Club of Hong Kong met in December 2015 with Professor Thomas Hout, a fellow at Fletcher’s Center for Emerging Market Enterprise and a visiting professor at the University of Hong Kong’s School of Business during the fall 2015 term. The raucous event at Les Fils à Maman included ALICIA EASTMAN, F04; DOROTHY CHAN, J97, F03; COURTNEY FUNG, F12, and her husband and first MIB graduate, JASON FUNG, F10; CHARLES LEE, F90; and HASHAM

MEHMOOD, F09. From Jan. 15-17, 2016, the Tufts Global Reach event in Hong Kong featured speaker DIANA CHIGAS, F88, advisor to the provost on global strategy and Fletcher professor of international negotiation and conflict resolution. Alicia Eastman moderated the international finance session, and Courtney Fung was a panelist for the politics session. Fletcher hosted a happy hour that included the aforementioned as well as PAUL SCHULTE, F88; Jason Fung and Hasham Mehmood. In March, CYNTHIA CORBETT, F78, visited as her gallery presented at Art Central.

KIGALI YVONNE DURBIN, F15; ERIC JOSPE, F15; IMAD AHMED, F11; ANNE WANLUND, F13; and ROSALIND ZAVRAS, F11, enjoyed a dinner at Gardens for Health. The Fletcher Club of Rwanda welcomed three interns over the summer.


The Hague


KYIV In April 2016, VALERIA LAITINEN, F98, and CHIP LAITINEN, F98, hosted a happy hour for the Fletcher Club of Kyiv at their home. They were joined by EVELYN FARKAS, F95, who was visiting from D.C.; Kyiv-based ANDREI PIVOVARSKY, F03; OLENA TREGUB, F13; ERMINA SOKOU, F04; and INNA DZHURYNSKA, F15.

MEXICO CITY ULISES CANCHOLA, F92, the Mexican ambassador to Iran, received the Fletcher Globe Award from the Fletcher Club of Mexico on Jan. 17, 2016, at Club de Industriales in Mexico City. He shared an inspiring account of his experience serving as a diplomat in the U.S., Switzerland, Austria and Iran. In May, JULIO GARRO, F97, Peru’s ambassador to Mexico, also received the Fletcher Globe Award, and opened the doors of the Peruvian embassy in

Mexico City for a presentation on the Pacific Alliance, a major trade bloc comprising Peru, Mexico, Colombia and Chile that represents nearly 40 percent of the Latin American GDP. The Fletcher Club of Mexico is raising funds to endow the first Fletcher Club of Mexico Scholarship for deserving Latin American students. ARIEL JAHNER, F13, recognized by Forbes magazine in a “30 Under 30” feature for her prominent work at the U.S. embassy in Mexico City, is heading to the U.S. embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, and will be sorely missed, particularly at the celebrations to welcome ROBERTA JACOBSON, F86, as the new U.S. ambassador to Mexico. ¡Bienvenida a México, Embajadora Jacobson!

PARIS The Fletcher Club of Paris, in cooperation with Tufts Alumni Paris, hosted a panel discussion

Fletcher Women’s Network

on “Perspectives on Challenges and Opportunities in Mexico and Cuba” on Feb. 12, 2016, in the library of the American Cathedral of Paris. Featured speakers were ALDO ALDAMA BRETON, F02, permanent representation of Mexico at the OECD, and Manilo Hernandez Carbonell, councilor, permanent representation of Cuba at UNESCO.

its annual reception in April 2016 at the Embassy of Pakistan. Ambassador FARUKH AMIL, F89, hosted the reception at his residence for the second year in a row. Ambassador AKASHI YASUSHI, F57, led a moment of silence for the many victims of natural and manmade disasters. Twenty alumni and 17 prospective students attended.



Tufts and Fletcher alumni gathered for a dinner talk in Taipei on April 1, 2016, with YU-MING SHAW, F66, chair of the Taiwan Public Television Service, who gave a talk titled “Cross-Strait Relations: Retrospect and Prospect.” KEN FAN, E01, F07, a member of the Tufts Alumni Council, spoke about the council’s international outreach efforts.

TOKYO The Fletcher Club of Tokyo held

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The Bay Area chapter of the Fletcher Women’s Network hosted a brunch at which BANAFSHEH KEYNOUSH, F97, F07, discussed her book, Saudi Arabia and Iran: Friends or Foes? On June 1, the chapter hosted a lunch with guest speakers Rebecca Pearl-Martinez, a research fellow and head of the Renewable Equity Project at Fletcher, and Professor Bobbi Kates-Garnick.





MORGAN LERETTE, F13 morgan.lerette@gmail. com CALIFORNIA





SEATTLE JENNIFER CAUSTON, F13 causton.jennifer@bcg. com


KABUL Seeking new leadership ARGENTINA

JIMMY ANTIA, F09 fletcherdc.nationbuilder. com





ATLANTA STEVE BERGEY, F06 stephen.bergey@alumni.









CHICAGO GREGG BAKER, F85 greggrbaker@yahoo. com

DHAKA SARWAR SULTANA, F98 sarwar_sultana@



BOSTON ADRIA CHAMBERLAIN, F08 fletcherboston@gmail. com NEW YORK*














Seeking new leadership CANADA


ANDRES MONTERO, F85 GERMAN OLAVE, F97 germanolave@gmail. com CHINA

BEIJING* JASMINE BARRETT, F12 barrettjasmine@gmail. com HONG KONG* DEIDRE LO, F90 HASHAM MEHMOOD, F09 SHANGHAI JAY DONG, F00 jaydong2000@yahoo. com



BUDAPEST ANITA ORBAN, F01 orban_anita@yahoo. com INDIA

DELHI* SANDHYA GUPTA, F08 sandhyagupta02@ MUMBAI VIKRAM CHHATWAL, F01 vikram.chhatwal@gmail. com IRAQ

BAGHDAD Seeking new leadership ISRAEL






MARIANO BATALLA, F11 batalla@alumni.tufts. edu ECUADOR

ROME/MILAN CHIARA DI SEGNI, F15 chiara.di_segni@tufts. edu

QUITO GENEVIEVE ABRAHAM, F11 genevieve.abraham@



NAIROBI ANNE ANGWENYI, F02 anne_angwenyi@


PARIS WILLIAM HOLMBERG, F05 fletcherclubofparis@ fletcherclubofparis GERMANY

BERLIN PAUL MAIDOWSKI, F13 paulmaidowski@gmail. com TIHOMIR TSENKULOVSKI, F09 ttsenkulovski@gmail. com FRANKFURT JOEL EL-QALQILI, F15

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Seeking new leadership M A L AYS I A


GUSTAVO E. ACEVES RIVERA, F12 gustavo.aceves@ritch. ENRIQUE ALANIS, F12 enriqueraul.alanisd@


RAM THAPALIYA, F02 ram_thapaliya@yahoo. com










MUMTAZ BALOCH, F13 CATHERINE HARTIGANGO, F92 cathartigango@hotmail. com POLAND



KIGALI IMAD AHMED, F11 imad.ahmed@alumni. SAUDI ARABIA

JAMIL AL DANDANY, F87 jamil.dandany@aramco. com SINGAPORE

KIM ODHNER, F03 kodhner@alumni.tufts. edu SOUTH AFRICA





NESLI TOMBUL, F12 Seeking new leadership UKRAINE



HO CHI MINH CITY NICOLAS DE BOISGROLLIER, F03 ndeboisgrollier@gmail. com


KELLY SMITH, F03 kellymillersmith@gmail. com FLETCHER PHD ALUMNI*


KIMBERLY (CORCORAN) RHATIGAN, F14 fletcheralumnae@gmail. com



ravi.kaneriya@gmail. com ZURICH JOACHIM JAN THRAEN, F12 joachimthraen@gmail. com

*Change or addition since the previous issue of Fletcher Magazine

In Memoriam 1930s GEORGE CONOVER, F39, on Dec. 31, 2015. He earned the rank of Eagle Scout in 1930 and was granted a full scholarship to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he earned his bachelor’s degree, followed by a scholarship to the Fletcher School, where he earned a master’s degree in 1939. He met his wife, Margaret Carter Conover, in Pensacola, Florida, in 1944, while serving as a naval aviator in World War II. At the close of the war, the couple moved to Milton, Florida, where they raised four children. He earned a teaching certificate from Florida State University and taught in the Santa Rosa County School District for 30 years. After he retired in 1982, he and his wife moved to Gulf Breeze, Florida. He was active in his church and was a Boy Scout leader. He is survived by his two sisters, a son, three daughters, eight grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.

1940s NANCY MCDUFFEE CHASE, F44, on Jan. 20, 2016, her 94th birthday. She graduated from Bryn Mawr College before earning her master’s degree at Fletcher. She worked at the State Department in Washington, D.C., from 1944 to 1948 and attended the U.N. Conference on International Organization in San Francisco in 1945. She then worked for many years at Time magazine in New York City as a researcher, eventually becoming assistant editor of the letters to the editor department. She was a longtime elder of the Rensselaerville (New York) Presbyterian Church and an honorary director of the E.N. Huyck Preserve.

Ambassador F. HAYDN WILLIAMS, F47, F58, founder and chair emeritus of the Friends of the National World War II Memorial, on April 22, 2016, at age 96 in San Francisco. He earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and a master’s and doctorate from the Fletcher School. He served as deputy assistant secretary of defense under Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy and ambassador to the Micronesia and Mariana Islands from 1971 to 1976; his negotiations helped lead to the end of U.S. trusteeship over the islands, which were taken from Japan during the war. In 1994, President Bill Clinton appointed Williams to serve on the American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC). He subsequently was named chair of the ABMC’s National World War II Memorial Committee, which had primary responsibility for the location and the design of the National World War II Memorial. During the complicated approval process, Williams presented and defended ABMC’s recommendations at 22 public hearings over five years. Following his retirement in 2009, he was elected chair emeritus and remained actively engaged in the organization and its mission to preserve the national memory of World War II. On Dec. 7, 1941, he was playing touch football with friends when the first bombardment of Midway occurred, shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Soon after, Williams was commissioned to the U.S. Naval Reserve and served as an air operations officer in the Central Pacific, the Marianas

and Japan, with the primary mission of evacuating American prisoners of war. Following the war, he was an assistant professor at the University of Washington and then came to Fletcher for six years, serving as an associate dean and associate professor. While at Fletcher, he was an advisor to the U.S. Navy and to naval officers sent to Fletcher for advanced study. Williams also served 25 years as the president of the Asia Foundation, the longest tenure of any president. He was predeceased by his beloved wife, Margaret French Williams. He is survived by his sister, stepson and many nieces and nephews. GREGORY B. WOLFE, F47, F61, on Dec. 12, 2015. After a distinguished career in international diplomatic service, he became the third president of Florida International University in 1979, serving until 1986. A World War II veteran, he was an intelligence analyst for the U.S. State Department and worked on the White House staffs of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. The son of Russian immigrants, he was fluent in Spanish, French, German and Portuguese and earned a Ph.D. at the Fletcher School. From 1968 to 1974, he was president of Portland State University in Oregon. During his tenure at Florida International University, he won legislative approval and funding to transition the institution to a four-year university. Under his leadership, three new schools were added: Engineering, Nursing, and Journalism and Mass Communication. He is also credited for the development of the Biscayne

Bay campus, adding its first student residential housing, a new student center, an aquatic center and a library, and for offering a host of adult education programs. In recognition of these accomplishments, the university named the student center the Wolfe University Center. He is survived by his wife, Mary Ann Wolfe. WALTER ADAMSON, F48, F53, F56, on Dec. 30, 2015, after a long illness. He was the son of Swedish immigrants and worked full time while earning a B.A. at New York University at night, followed by a master’s degree in 1939. He taught a year of high school before being commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Navy. His major postings were in Washington, D.C., at the U.S. embassy in Venezuela, and later in Ecuador, where he was honored with the Order of Abdon Calderón. Later, he attained the rank of captain in the naval reserve. After completing his military service, Adamson taught and served in the administration at Central Connecticut State College, while also completing a doctorate at the Fletcher School in 1956. He then joined the U.S. Office of Education (USOE) in Washington and developed a cooperative research program involving consultation and negotiation with colleges and universities. In 1960 he moved to USAID Guatemala under the Alliance for Progress, which led to the construction of more than 200 rural elementary schools. Next he was appointed U.S. advisor to the Superior Council of Universities of Central America in San Jose, Costa Rica, where he developed



Connect a still-thriving Graduate Institute for Business Administration and coordinated President John F. Kennedy’s visit to and speech at the National University that 10,000 people attended. In 1965, he returned to the U.S. as regional director for USOE in San Francisco. He then served as director of human resources development for Latin America (USAID/Department of State) in Washington, D.C., and finally as a World Bank specialist on Latin American education. By 1970 he was in Rio de Janeiro as USAID education office director, where he implemented an $80 million middle school construction program. He began and finished his career with students, a passion he pursued after retiring to Asheville, North Carolina, in 1987. While serving in the Navy in Venezuela, he met Mariza de Faro, a daughter of the Brazilian ambassador. They married in Caracas on Jan. 12, 1945. In addition to his wife, he is survived by three children, five grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. RALPH E. COOK SR., F49, F57, on Nov. 25, 2015, at his home at Lake of the Woods (LOW) in Locust Grove, Virginia, where he and his wife, Louise, had lived since 1986. He was commissioned as a naval officer in World War II and served in the Pacific. He returned to civilian life in 1946 but remained in the naval reserve, retiring in 1971 as a lieutenant commander. His education included study at Middlebury College, bachelor’s degrees from the College of the Holy Cross and Clark University, and a master’s degree and Ph.D. from the Fletcher School. He was also a graduate of the Senior School at the Naval War College. He was employed by the National Security Agency for five years and did analytical work for the


CIA for 35 years; he was academic coordinator for the director of Central Intelligence. He was awarded the Career Intelligence Medal when he retired and continued to consult on training and recruitment for the agency for eight years after that. He was active with the LOW Church and the LOW Lions Club, where he was elected a Melvin Jones Fellow and was editor of the Lions Log; he served as president of the club and wrote an official history from its founding in 1982 to 2000. He was an avid reader and followed current events. For the last 15 years, he had cared for his wife of 64 years, L. Louise Cook, as she battled dementia. He is also survived by four children.

1950s JOHN G. DAY, F54, at his home, Glidden Farm, in Ossipee, New Hampshire, on Dec. 14, 2015. He graduated cum laude from Bowdoin College and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. In 1953, he married Susan A. Day, a graduate of the University of Vermont. The couple then moved to Medford while he earned his master’s degree from the Fletcher School. He was a career Foreign Service Officer. Over 27 years, he, Susan and their three children were assigned to many diplomatic and consular posts, including Naples, the Hague, Athens and Ottawa. He traveled officially to Africa, Eastern Europe and the Far East, including Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Much of his career was devoted to Greece, where he served in the 1960s before and after the military coup in 1965. He also served in the early 1970s as director of Greek affairs at the State Department. He and Susan moved to Ossipee, where they spent much time restoring and renovating Glidden Farm, a property that has been in his family since


1840. Every summer, he donated flowers to be used in arrangements for the open houses during the Hospice Garden Tour. Additionally, he was the patriarch for the Glidden family and welcomed extended family to a picnic reunion at Glidden Farm each summer and to a black tie dinner every New Year’s. In addition to Susan, his wife of 62 years, he is survived by three children and six grandchildren. RONALD FERREE DICK, F54, on April 26, 2016. While growing up, he summered in Newport, Rhode Island, becoming a skilled sailor. He graduated cum laude from Harvard in 1950 and married Alison Kelsey. He served as an officer with the U.S. Navy’s Sixth Fleet, and then as a military attaché at the Hague. Returning to the United States, he earned a master’s degree at the Fletcher School and became an accomplished executive in the New York, Ankara and London offices of Mobil Oil Co. His 20-year marriage to Kelsey, the mother of his three children, ended in divorce, as did his marriage to his second wife, Jane Cunningham. He returned in 1983 to Newport, where he met Lilly Rothe. They married in 1986. A lifelong supporter of the arts, he served on the Newport City Council and was a board member of the Preservation Society of Newport County, the Aquidneck Land Trust and the Island Moving Company. He and his wife ran a successful import business, which gave them an opportunity to spend treasured time in England and throughout Europe. WILLIAM BOLAND KELLY, F54, F58, a native of Louisville, Kentucky, on Aug. 27, 2015, in Washington, D.C., as a result of a stroke. He had a distinguished career in international trade policy. In Geneva

from 1980 to 1987, he was deputy director-general of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the predecessor of the World Trade Organization. Prior to that, he was a member of the U.S. Trade Representative office, where he held the post of associate U.S. trade representative and also served as chair of the Trade Policy Staff Committee in the Executive Office of the President. During the Kennedy round of trade negotiations in Geneva, from 1965–67, he was senior advisor to the U.S. delegation. Prior to his government service, he taught international economics at the Fletcher School. In 1981 the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative established an annual award in his name, given to a staff member for professional excellence. In retirement, he participated in U.S. Information Agency programs in Italy, Germany and India; he was a guest lecturer at the Ministry of Economic Affairs in Taiwan; and he served as a dispute settlement panelist under the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. from the Fletcher School. He earned his B.S. from the University of Louisville, where he became a member of the Kappa Alpha Order. In 1949–50, he was a Rotary Foundation fellow at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and in 1948, the Louisville, Kentucky, International Center sponsored his participation in the Experiment in International Living in Sweden. He served in the Philippines in World War II and in the postwar occupation of Japan. He is survived by his wife of 62 years, Cecile Begnoche Kelly, three sons and seven grandchildren. RHODA EISMAN DERSH, F56, on Feb. 1, 2016, in Boca Raton, Florida. She was a prominent Berks County (Pennsylvania) civic leader, founder

and longtime president and CEO of the Pace Institute and a businesswoman, philanthropist and artist. She earned a bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of Pennsylvania in 1955, a master’s from the Fletcher School in 1956 and an M.B.A. from Manhattan College in 1980. She served as an interpreter for the consul of Chile and held staff or faculty positions at Albright College, Mount Holyoke College and Amherst College. She settled in the Berks County area in 1960, when her husband joined an area ophthalmology practice, beginning a lifelong endeavor as a civic leader. She was a founding member of the World Affairs Council of Reading and Berks County, Citizens Active for Reading Education and the Visiting Homemaker Service. She also took on other leadership roles in the United Way, the League of Women Voters, the Berks County and Pennsylvania chambers of commerce, the Family Guidance Center, Leadership Berks and the Pennsylvania State Board of Private Licensed Schools. She was appointed a delegate to the White House Conference on Children and Youth, and was the first woman invited to join the board of the Rotary Club of Reading. She wrote a book, The School Budget: It’s Your Money, It’s Your Business, which was adopted as a textbook at several universities. She also established a management training and consulting firm, Professional Practice Management Associates, which specialized in hospital and medical office management and training. Her work in this area prompted local business leaders to ask for her help with the growing population of workers displaced from downsizing and closing businesses, leading her to establish Pace Institute in 1981, a private licensed career school

that offers diplomas, certificates and specialized associate degrees in 29 programs. She remained president and CEO of Pace Institute until her retirement in 2013. Other endeavors included a lifelong interest in African art, eventually leading her to establish a collection, some of which has been gifted to the Reading Public Museum and the Boca Raton Museum of Art, and in collaboration with her husband, an important collection of contemporary postwar artwork. She was a longtime supporter of the arts and an accomplished artist herself, starting as a weaver in the 1970s and more recently creating jewelry pieces that have been exhibited. She is survived by her husband of 59 years, Jerome Dersh, two children and a grandson. PETER RANDON ODELL, F58, on April 12, 2016, in Ipswich, England. An energy economist, he earned his Ph.D. at Birmingham University in 1954, followed by a fellowship at the Fletcher School. He spent three years at Shell as an economist before taking a position as a lecturer at the London School of Economics. He is survived by his wife, Jean, and four children.

1960s EDWARD JORDAN GOTCHEF, F60, on Nov. 26, 2015. He attended Principia College, where he met his wife, Tam, majored in political science and graduated in 1959. He received a master’s degree from the Fletcher School. After attending Officer Candidate School and serving in the U.S. Air Force, he joined the Foreign Service. He and his wife spent the majority of his 35-year career overseas, with tours in Moscow, Budapest (twice), Bombay, Copenhagen, London and Warsaw. He was an avid golfer, skier and

tennis player and a lifelong French horn player. He was predeceased by his wife and is survived by two daughters and four grandchildren. WILLIAM ALSTON HAYNE, F60, at his home in St. Helena, California, on Nov. 14, 2015, following a courageous battle with cancer. After high school, he joined the U.S. Navy, which sent him to Doane College in Nebraska and then to its V-12 Program at UC Berkeley, where he earned his undergraduate degree in two years. Just after the war ended, he served as a lieutenant (j.g.) on the USS South Dakota. After his release from the U.S. Navy Reserve, he earned an M.B.A. from Stanford University under the GI Bill, followed by positions at the Spice Islands Co. and Riley Precision Tool Co. In 1952, he met and married Elisabeth (Lisa) Church, a transplanted Philadelphian, with whom he raised three children. He joined the Foreign Service in 1954 and was posted to the U.S. consulate in Kingston, Jamaica. Subsequent postings sent him to Washington, D.C. (three times), Lima, Paris and Mexico City. The State Department also sent him to the Fletcher School, where he earned another master’s degree, and to Harvard University, where he served as a fellow. He retired in 1980, with the personal rank of ambassador, and he and his wife moved to his family’s century-old vineyard property in St. Helena. He became a director of the St. Helena Rotary Club and a member and senior warden of Grace Episcopal Church. In 1990, he was elected mayor of St. Helena and reelected in 1992, running unopposed. He supported Lisa as she suffered from Alzheimer’s-related illnesses until her death in 2008. In 2014, he married Christine Gorelick, who survives him along

with three children, five grandchildren and a brother. CHARLES A. SEMONES, F60, in Las Vegas on Feb. 3, 2016. Following four years in the U.S. Air Force, he attended the University of Virginia, graduating summa cum laude in 1959, and then earned a master’s degree from the Fletcher School. He joined the U.S. State Department and was a Foreign Service Officer in Curacao, the Philippines and Brazil. He later spent 20 years as an international economics officer at Security Pacific National Bank (now Bank of America) in Los Angeles. He is survived by his wife, Marilyn, and his two sisters. HENRY DELFINER, F62, on Jan. 3, 2016. Born in Vienna, Henry and his sister fled Austria on the day of the Anschluss, coming to the U.S. via Paris. He graduated from Amherst College in 1943 and joined the U.S. Army, serving with the 88th Infantry Division in northern Italy. On May 2, 1945, acting as the translator for his commanding officer, he took the surrender of a whole German corps, including the 1st German Parachute Division. Decorated with the Bronze Star, he left the Army as a major. After the war, he was instrumental in reclaiming the family business from the Nazis, thereafter running the Herzmansky Department Store himself. Afterward, he received a Ph.D. from the Fletcher School and taught international relations courses at Tufts. He is survived by his wife, Barbara (Schudawa) Delfiner, three children, three grandchildren and a great-grandson. MARGARET ISABELLE HAUPT, F63, F70, on April 8, 2016, at the Dennis and Donna Oldorf Hospice House of Mercy in Hiawatha, Iowa, after a lengthy struggle with cancer.



Connect PETER OSLIN HEFRON, F68, F72, F76, on April 16, 2016, in Sturdy Memorial Hospital in Attleboro, Massachusetts. He received his bachelor’s degree from Middlebury College and two master’s degrees and his Ph.D. from the Fletcher School. He served in the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War and lived overseas for more than 30 years, spending time in the European theater and Guam. He was a professor of international affairs at Troy University in Alabama, where he was in charge of its main European campus for two years, educating military officers overseas in international affairs. He loved to travel and had visited more than 60 countries and six continents. He is survived by his brother and sisterin-law, a nephew and nieces. HAROLD ARTEMUS RICE, F68, F69, F75, on Feb. 18, 2016, at Kate B. Reynolds Hospice Home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.


He served for 27 years in the U.S. Navy, retiring with the rank of lieutenant commander. After his military career, he earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Maine in 1967 and his M.A. and MALD from the Fletcher School in 1968 and 1969. He received his Ph.D. from the Fletcher School in 1975. He is survived by his wife, Janet Baxter Rice, a son, brother, two stepchildren and two step-grandchildren.

1970s DAVID LEVINTOW, F70, on Feb. 18, 2016, at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire of complications from a bone marrow disease. In 1951, he married Arsenia Gonzalez, who predeceased him in 2003. He served in the U.S. Army Air Corps from 1944 to 1945. He graduated from Antioch College in 1950 with a B.A. in government and earned his M.A. from the Fletcher School


in 1970. From 1958 to 1984 he served as a Foreign Service officer with the U.S. Agency for International Development, retiring as a career member of the Senior Foreign Service with the rank of counselor. He and his wife raised their four children in his various overseas postings, including the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Iran, Turkey, Vietnam, Liberia, Afghanistan and Ghana. His Washington, D.C., tours included serving as director for the Pakistan and Nepal Office and in the Bureau for Private Enterprise. He also was on the U.S. delegation to the Asian Development Bank and helped to establish the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. After his Foreign Service career, he worked in D.C. for the Institute for Public-Private Partnerships, the Center for Financial Engineering in Development and the Center for Privatization. After his wife died, he relocated to Lyme, New Hampshire, where he enjoyed biking, kayaking,

canoeing and stoking his woodstove with logs he had stacked himself. He was raised in the Jewish tradition, but after moving to Lyme, he joined the Lyme Congregational Church, where he served on the Outreach Committee and on the board. He was also an active member of Those Guys, a men’s service organization in Lyme. He is survived by his daughter, three sons and six grandchildren. He had many favorite sayings, but often said that his life’s goal could be summed up in the famous quotation from the American educator Horace Mann: “Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity.”

2010s ISABELLE WAFFUBWA, F12, on Feb. 8, 2016. She was the principal political affairs officer at the East African Community Secretariat in Arusha, Tanzania. She is survived by her husband, KIOKO KAMULA, F10, and three children.

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Professor Alan Henrikson at commencement in May.

A Great Place to Teach—and to Learn Reflections on 44 years at Fletcher


taught students the nuts and bolts of diplomatic history, my students have taught me so much more, about places, about people, about predicaments, about philosophies and about the manifold gift of humanity. The main reason I have found the Fletcher School a great place to teach, and therein learn, is Fletcher students, and our graduates. When I joined the faculty in the fall of 1971, the United States was mired in war in Indochina. Vietnam War veterans were here in those days, and some Foreign Service officers who had served there, too. The school was viewed as being generally supportive of the war, although many had deep moral concerns. One Sunday morning, the office of Dean Edmund Gullion was incinerated by a firebomb thrown





through a large glass window. It was not an easy time for any of us, whatever our thoughts. What I learned from that time was respect for the views of others. I learned not to be judgmental. I have also learned to respect fearlessness and those who take decisive action. Many of our graduates have worked with refugees and others in dire need. I marvel at their self-confidence and bravery. One who comes to mind is Maria J. Kristensen [F02], who headed the Darfur office of the Danish Refugee Council during the 2006 Danish cartoon controversy. The Janjaweed attacked her encampment, and she had to arrange an evacuation quickly. In recognition of this and other “selfless efforts in the world’s hotspots,” Maria received the Ole Lippmann Memorial Award, given in honor of the Danish World War II

| FALL 2016

Resistance leader. From Maria’s example, and those of other Fletcher graduates, I have learned to notice and to honor personal courage. Our students have made significant contributions at the school itself, including founding The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs. For years there was an unresolved question as to whether the school should have its own journal. Several students, perhaps just fed up with this endless discussion, took the initiative, and with a little help from the school, created The Fletcher Forum. They were Jeffrey Sheehan [F76, F77], who went on to become dean for international affairs at the Wharton School; the late Frederick Smith [F76], who served as principal deputy assistant secretary for international security affairs in the U.S. Department of Defense; and Shashi Tharoor [F76, F79], a distinguished novelist and now a parliamentarian in India, who became the U.N.’s under secretary-general for communications. Those three, and many others in their own ways, have taught me the value of fresh eyes and impatience, as well as energy and initiative—and ambition. As I have emphasized to my students over the years, knowledge of history is like money in the bank. It can be drawn upon and augmented—by further study, of course, but also through experience. History is the central intelligence of statecraft. Diplomatic history, which has been my principal subject, is also about diplomacy itself, and, indeed, life. I would like to think that as a teacher of diplomatic history I have had foresight as well as hindsight. I know that my students are looking toward the future. I hope that such “intellectual capital” as I have been able to give them, on the basis of my understanding of diplomacy and the past, will serve them well. ALAN HENRIKSON, the Lee E. Dirks Professor of Diplomatic History Emeritus, stepped down from teaching last spring at age 75. This essay is adapted from a lecture he gave at the alumni reunion in May.


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10 7 peaks, 2 poles

22 Cash for refugees

26 Honoring Radliffe


with the trauma of war. But he returned to active duty—and decided to speak out about PTSD. FOR MORE ON THE STORY, TURN TO PAGE 12.

Fletcher Magazine Fall 2016  
Fletcher Magazine Fall 2016