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ENERGY DENMARK PE

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2016

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DANISH EXPORTS INSPIRE SOLUTIONS

Green dreams brought to life in Hamburg Connecticut town goes for cogeneration HAMBURG SENATOR IN THE DRIVING SEAT

All our power, heating and cooling will come from renewable sources of energy INTERVIEW: LARS CHRISTIAN LILLEHOLT

Energy minister with a global mission


Leader

Let us continue to show the way forward

D

enmark must remain an energy technology pioneer. We must show other countries that an ambitious yet cost-effective, realistic energy policy goes handin-hand with economic growth and jobs, and a transition to green energy makes good economic sense. Exports of energy technology from Denmark, despite a dip in 2015, continue at a high level, with growth in major markets like Germany and the US. But we are up against ever- tougher competition to deliver cheap and effective energy technology.

LA RS C HRI STI A N LI LLEHOLT, ENERGY M I NI STER PAGE 8

JØRGEN TA NG-JENSEN, V ELUX PAGE 18

Most recently, the Paris climate agreement created momentum for a global energy transition and at DI Energy we see the dip in exports in 2015 as just a bump on the way to reaching DKK 100 billion (€13.4 billion) in energy technology exports in 2020. Our participation in the American led Mission Innovation initiative will boost Danish energy expertise and gives us the opportunity to show the world how much we have to offer.

FOCU S:

UNITED STATES PAGE 36

In its annual magazine, DI Energy has focussed on export, not only because we are good at it, but also because we can do even better. We must exploit the momentum of the Paris agreement. At DI Energy we have pointed out the need for a more active export strategy to stimulate further growth and take advantage of the industry’s many qualities. Historically, the Danish energy sector has been an engine of growth, expanding in recent years far more than any other branch of industry. We are proud of that, but now we must change up a gear once more if we are not to be overtaken.

FOC U S:

GERMANY PAG E 2 2

The agenda imposed on government by the energy commission give us a new chance to present practicable recommendations to politicians for a forward looking energy policy to 2030. We need a long-term policy that creates a secure environment for the industry’s investments and avoids burdening it with charges that put our competitive ability at risk. For politicians it is all about creating a stable and long-term framework and promoting a more market-based green energy transition. Denmark’s energy industry exports are primarily to other EU countries, but growth in exports to China and the US continues, with US exports doubling in two years to 7.3% of energy technology sales. That growth must continue and hopefully increase. DI Energy is a strong believer in broad, cross-party, long-term, energy policy agreements. After 2020 there is more need than ever to think export and energy technology into everything we do. To a large extent the solutions are international and we must make use of the EU’s Energy Union to achieve much greater integration of energy and climate policy across national borders. That will further strengthen our export potential.

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Interview

We lack an offensive export strategy We have to be better at capitalising on what we are good at and that means thinking export into every cross-party political agreement on energy. That is totally missing, says DI Energy sector director Troels Ranis TEXT: JESPER WITH

W

ith a 2020 goal of at least DKK 100 billion (€13.4 billion) in Danish energy industry exports, DI Energy is stressing its unabated optimism in the sector’s export potential. The sum is triple that achieved in 2000 and a quarter more than in 2014. “There are challenges ahead, but seen against

the backdrop of the COP21 agreement the forecast is pretty good. To borrow an expression from national football trainer Morten Olsen, there are no auto-mechanisms. We have to make a big effort to stay on top and that requires development of an offensive export strategy with both private and public sector players. I’m delighted that DI Energy’s proposal for such a strategy has been taken on board by energy

ENERGY - DENMARK

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and climate minister Lars Christian Lilleholt who has put it at the top of the agenda for 2016,” says Troels Ranis, who heads the energy division within the Confederation of Danish Industry, DI. Ranis draws attention to big-growth countries like Mexico, China, the US and also the EU, all of which are moving ahead with a number of initiatives to transition to a green energy sup-


Interview

ply, though from different starting points. With strategic and focused work, he estimates that Denmark could easily double its export to these three countries and the EU from DKK 60 billion (€8 billion) to DKK 120 billion by 2030.

ble framework. For the 2020-2030 period, he views the new Energy Commission established by the current government as an excellent idea for forging an energy policy framework, where all parties can be involved and provide input.

"We have focused for a long time on the US and China, but what more should we be doing? Most of the growth in Denmark’s energy exports has come from the EU but momentum is building after the COP21 agreement and we need to be ready to take on both the US and China,” says Ranis.

“I see joining up what we do in Denmark with what we do together within the EU as the DNA in Danish energy policy. The green energy transition has to be both ambitious and realistic,” says Ranis. He has identified four main lines of reasoning that DI Energy will champion in Denmark’s fu-

“I see joining up what we do in Denmark with what we do together within the EU as the DNA in Danish energy policy. The green energy transition has to be both ambitious and realistic.”

He points to district heating as an area where Denmark has failed to capitalise on its excellence. The whole sector needs to get to work on the problem. Another area Ranis highlights is the strong Danish bioenergy industry, where suppliers are building big projects in the UK and Germany. But bioenergy — with biogas as the engine of growth — still has to find its place in the energy mix, believes Ranis. It needs to stress its particular advantages, its flexibility and its ability to meet demand from sectors that other technologies cannot easily satisfy, such as the transport sector, particularly heavy transport and air transport. “Given Denmark’s ambitious export goals we need to redouble our efforts on the energy sector. The competition will get tougher and so will the challenges. We can’t rest on our laurels if we are to achieve our ambitions. We need to get out, put our money down and win new markets,” says Ranis. The DNA in Danish energy policy Ranis sees Denmark’s cross-party political agreement on energy from 2012 as the backbone supporting the country’s efforts and direction to 2020. It provides the industry with a sta-

ture energy policy and on which he feels the Energy Commission should focus: 1 There must be no divergence in Danish and EU climate and energy policy. The EU’s 2030 goals create a pan-European framework and must be supported. The EU Energy Union is a vehicle to help countries march together in realising the EU’s 2030 policy and this must be accepted by all countries in close coordination. That will also make the transition more cost effective. At the same time we must meet climate ambitions and maintain a common focus on security of supply in the EU. 2 We must move away from political control of the details and create more space for market players, also concerning the choice of renewables to be installed in Denmark. We must maintain the principle of technology neutrality. 3 We must secure Denmark’s competitive position and that means a responsible approach to financing the green transition. 4 We must think export into all energy political agreements and in that way secure the basis for increased exports.

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Drop the Public Service Obligation Ranis is unashamedly still riding his hobbyhorse with regard to scrapping Denmark’s Public Service Obligation (PSO) green-energy levy on electricity consumers. “A main task for Denmark in 2016 is to clarify the financing of the green energy transition and move it from electricity bills and into the national budget,” he says. Before long he hopes to see publication of the green analysis that will point the way to a new arrangement for energy taxes. Taxing electricity as heavily as is done today is not a smart approach, given that more energy will come from green sources in the years ahead, he says. “We must see a continued electrification of society. That is the way forward for the green transition and that is why taxation through the PSO levy must be moved away from electricity bills,” he stresses. Still plenty of North Sea potential Denmark continues to export energy products from the North Sea for billions of euro, much of it from oil and gas extraction. That must go on, but the pressure on oil prices means that production has to be increased out there. “There is a growing convergence of the oil, gas and wind industries. As a country we have multiple offshore industry skills and we need to take advantage of them by building a strong offshore cluster as the hub of an offshore industry in Denmark. This needs to be thought about in a North Sea strategy that brings together all the offshore and onshore activities so they can benefit from one another,” says Ranis. Such a strategy includes the workforce — 27,000 full time jobs in offshore oil and gas and 11,000 in wind. Many of these lie within the energy industry metropolis of Esbjerg in the far west of Denmark, but there are also many in mid-Jutland and the Copenhagen area. “We have proposed a harmonisation of regulations in order to bring synergy benefits that will reduce investment costs. At the same time a cable link to England will increase the value of our energy production. The entire area of North Sea cooperation must be strengthened,” says Ranis. •


ENERGY - DENMARK


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Interview

Now it is time to reap the rewards An interview with Danish Minister for Energy, Utilities and Climate, Lars Christian Lilleholt TEXT: JESPER WITH / PHOTO: STEEN BROGAARD

?

What are your expectations of Danish energy industry exports in the years ahead? Do you see the need for a more offensive export strategy to drive further growth?

In the past eleven years, export of green energy technology has more than quadrupled and with the climate agreement from Paris the growth rate can be faster still. The agreement sends a clear signal to the world to change course and accelerate the transition. There is really good potential for even greater demand in the years ahead for the products the Danish energy industry leads the world in producing and implementing. The confederation of Danish industry estimates that Danish export of energy technology can potentially double in the period to 2030, as the national energy action plans delivered by parties to the Paris Agreement ahead of COP21 are gradually implemented. Our ambitious climate and energy policy through 40 years has contributed to the strong position of Danish companies and I believe the time to reap the rewards of that investment has come. In the coming months I will host a series of roundtable discussions to hear the Danish en-

ergy sector’s opinion of how we can best create the conditions for making the most of the opportunities that have received a boost from the COP21 agreement.

?

Wind energy now provides 40% of the electricity fed into the Danish grid. How do we continue the electrification of Danish society and what is your view of the roles to be played by natural gas and biogas?

We must lead the green energy transition, but we must not get so far ahead that others lose sight of us. We risk falling by the wayside before the finishing line in 2050 when Denmark is to be independent of fossil fuels.

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With a more integrated energy market we will get better connected energy systems and energy markets, both regionally and across the EU. That gives us the opportunity to get much more out of the Danish energy system. It will give us more security of supply at less cost. The well functioning gas system in Denmark is of great value to the future energy system. The gas network can play a balancing role in an integrated energy system, which will require energy to be stored and exchanged across supply entities and national borders. Natural gas is the fossil fuel that does least damage to the environment and it makes sense for it to have a role throughout the transition.


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Interview

“We must work for improved regional cooperation on implementing the internal market for electricity. The solutions are to be found in the EU’s Energy Union and its goal for much better coordination and integration of energy and climate policy, both regionally and at EU level.”

Biogas development has moved faster in the past couple of years and that opens up good prospects for future supply using green gases. As yet it is too early to say anything definitive about when the green gases take over in the gas system. As well as continued technology development, there must be a focus on lowering subsidies.

?

The EU’s objections to our Public Service Obligation (PSO) tax on electricity bills in support of green energy and decentralised combined heat and power is a challenge, as is the politi- cal requirement for a more cost effective climate and energy policy. How will the Danish energy transition be financed in future?

Above all the government’s climate and energy policy has to be based on green reality. The goals must be pursued at lowest possible cost and must not be accompanied by sacrificing the competitive ability of our companies on export markets. That is why I have announced that the former government’s climate goal for 2020 is too costly to reach. The government is working hard to find an acceptable solution to the discrimination problem [heavy industry burdened by the size of its electricity bills]. It’s not easy. The economic dimensions of the PSO arrangement are substantial and there are many interests to take

into account in connection with amending its structure. For that reason it’s important that an upcoming long-term solution is thoroughly analysed in order to take good care of Denmark’s interests and at the same time solve the discrimination problem. I would like to stress that the government wants to make the best choice for Denmark, Danish companies and the Danish people. The green transition must happen in a cost effective way that is sensible, seen in relation to the development of Denmark and the world around us. The government does not want to make a decision in haste.  

?

The government has reduced the funding for its energy-technology, development and demonstration programme. Critics point out that stop-go policies are unhelpful when it is necessary to plan long-term. How do you see it?

The economic conditions require us to continuously adjust spending priorities. The government and I are very pleased that we have managed to get Denmark included in the international initiative Mission Innovation, which is one of the few initiatives we want to prioritise. In Mission Innovation, 20 countries have joined forces to strengthen research and develop-

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ment in clean energy technologies in relation to meeting the climate challenge. Countries like Brazil, India, France, Norway, the UK, Sweden and South Korea are participating. For the government, participation involves two concrete aims. First, we are working towards setting aside a total of DKK 580 million (€78 million) in 2020 for research into clean energy technologies. Second, it means we can mobilise financing from private investors. For example, Bill Gates is involved in the project and is providing $1 billion to Mission Innovation in the period to 2020. Our involvement should be seen as an expression of the government’s ambition and intention to maintain and develop Denmark’s strong position within clean energy technologies, so the country can continue to be a pioneer in this area.

?

Is there sufficient balance between Denmark’s and the EU’s climate and energy policies? And how do you see the Energy Union’s role in the interac- tion between the national energy poli- cies of member states and European energy policy?

In the government we believe that Denmark can continue to be one of the leading countries in the green energy transition. We also need to influence the other EU countries into committing to ambitious goals and policies together. And in Denmark we must take a good part of the responsibility for seeing these goals reached. The Energy Union sets the direction for future European energy and climate policy and among other things it must make sure that the EU’s member states together reach the EU’s 2030 goals and meet the EU’s long-term goal to be a low emissions economy before 2050. In my eyes, the Energy Union is essential and important, both for Europe and Denmark. The time is past for viewing energy and climate as a strictly national matter for European countries. They do not occupy isolated energy-political islands — energy systems and energy markets are tightly interwoven. In 2015, agreement was reached on the direction for the Energy Union, but it is first now that the Energy Union has to be seriously implemented. •


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Danish biomass knowledge secures orders abroad Biomass-fired combined heat and power plant are part of the solution for reducing CO2 emissions. Energy efficient plant blend well into the green energy mix, says Anders Heine Jensen, CEO at BWSC

environment and economic perspective, particularly with regard to when the distance to the next town does not make it profitable to create a connecting network. It is here we can contribute state-of-the-art solutions that are extremely energy efficient,” says Heine Jensen. He sees big potential for sales of biomass CHP stations in European countries such as Germany, France and Spain, but also in places like Poland and the Czech Republic where district heating is already well developed. Outside Europe, a giant country like India also holds potential. “As well as biomass, there is no doubt we will also see many more natural gas-fired CHP stations in the years ahead, because gas is far cleaner than coal and oil. We will also be among the bidders here,” says Heine Jensen.

TEXT: JESPER WITH

M

any of the biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) stations currently being built in the UK contain Danish technology. Over the past five years, power plant producer BWSC has sold a number of decentralised CHP plant to British customers and more are on the way. The Danish designed stations are highly energy efficient and are born of a long Danish tradition in development and production of the technology.

A large number of European heating and CHP plant operators are converting from coal to biomass, including Drax Power in Britain, DONG Energy in Denmark and several other European companies. Control of the biomass fuel is essential to make sure the source is sustainable and the delivery distance relatively short so that CO2 emissions are actually reduced. ity. In response, the government, which otherwise in 2015 severely restricted the market for development of both solar PV and onshore wind capacity, says it will strengthen the generation mix.

“Biomass is both green and a good choice because it is available locally. It is better to burn straw in our facilities than let it lie on fields where it will release CO2,” says Heine Jensen.

“Offshore wind, biomass, natural gas, nuclear power and �clean coal� technologies are the selected solutions. The market for green energy might have been undermined in the UK, but we are good at CHP stations, so that suits us fine,” says Heine Jensen.

Financing a challenge Financing is one of the major challenges for CHP projects. BWSC has entered into a cooperation with pension foundations such as PensionDanmark for long-term debt for several projects in the UK.

He is in no doubt that biomass will always be needed to supplement renewables like wind and solar on the way to a fossil-free — or at least fossil-light — energy future.

Britain has no infrastructure for the heat side of CHP, but BWSC is convinced it will happen. No country can stand by and see half of the energy produced (heat) disappear into the blue. What is needed is a huge amount of heat system planning. First and foremost, development of district heating is needed to enable heat to be used efficiently, believes Heine Jensen.

“With a financing agreement with PensionDanmark already in place through Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners we can move fast. On several occasions that has made us the winning bidder. Getting such long-term loans arranged with banks has been hard, so we have found a good solution,” says Heine Jensen.

Antiquated heating system In the UK, a number of old fossil fuel plant are reaching the end of their working lives and Prime Minister David Cameron's Conservative government has aired its concern about a potential shortage of electricity generating capac-

Capitalising on market trends “It is essential that both the electricity and heating networks are better connected where it is practical and economic to do so. What we are good at is identifying the product package that provides the best solution from an energy,

“The British need to replace a worn out energy production apparatus with greener and more efficient solutions and we can contribute with our energy efficient decentralised plant,” says a satisfied Heine Jensen from BWSC.

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He expects more projects with such long-term debt arrangements in future. •


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Dip in energy technology exports just a bump in the road After four years of growth, Danish energy technology exports fell by 3.9% in 2015 compared with the previous year. Energy technology to the value of DKK 71.4 billion (€9.6 billion) was exported in 2015 compared with DKK 75 billion in 2014. Despite the decline, Denmark remains the EU country where energy technology makes up the largest proportion of total exports, with sales to important markets like Germany and the United States continuing to grow TEXT: JULIE SØGAARD

E

nergy technology is separated into “green” and “other” technology (see fact box). Primarily, a fall in exports of green technology lies at the heart of the overall drop in exports in 2015. Green energy technology has otherwise been responsible for steady growth in energy technology exports from Denmark since 2005, with other energy technology exports more or less stable aside from in a handful of years. Green energy technology exports amounted to DKK 40.9 billion (€5.5 billion) ) in 2015, a fall of 6% compared to the previous year. Exports of other energy technology reached DKK 30.4 billion, a drop of 1% in relation to 2014. Fall in exports to EU countries The 6% dip in Danish green energy technology exports is mainly a result of fewer sales to several EU countries, which together declined by 7.4%. Given that exports to all 28 of the EU’s member countries make up 78.1% of Denmark’s global exports of green energy technology, a decline in EU exports has a significant impact.

Exports to the EU also accounted for the 1% fall in “other” energy technology, which in the EU declined by 6.8%. Most of that decline was compensated for by a 5.8% increase in exports outside the EU. Rising exports to Germany and the US On several markets, growth in exports continues. Germany received 34.6% of total Danish exports of energy technology in 2015, an increase of 13.6% from 2014. The US has gone from fourth place in 2014 to second place in 2015 with a share of 7.3% of total Danish exports of energy technology, a 63.9% increase compared to 2014. Denmark leads in energy technology exports Despite the 3.9% fall in exports of energy technology, the sector accounts for 11.1% of all Danish exports, which is the largest share of any country in the EU15. Finland lies in second place with a share of 8.9%.

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GREEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGY AS DEFINED BY EUROSTAT STEMS FROM TWO BRANCHES OF BUSINESS: 1. Exploitation of renewable energy, which is products and technologies connected with wind power (onshore and offshore), conversion of biomass to bioenergy, geothermal heat, wave power and solar energy. 2. More efficient use of energy, which is products and technology involved in energy saving, energy control systems and storage, green transport solutions and combined heat and power technology, including heat pumps and so on. “Other” energy technology is primarily made up of fossil fuel technologies and includes offshore technology and electricity production technology. In addition, technologies connected with distribution and transmission of electricity are included in this category because electricity primarily stems from fossil fuel sources. Production technology connected with renewable energy is included in green energy technology.


Export

Top ten recipients of Danish energy technology exports by country EXPORT OF ENERGY TECHNOLOGY FROM DENMARK (DKK BILLIONS) Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Germany United States Britain Sweden China Netherlands Norway Poland France Finland Total

2013 15.23 2.77 9.65 4.29 2.15 1.38 2.79 1.10 1.96 0.81 42.12

2014 22.40 3.32 8.08 5.48 2.65 1.27 2.89 1.58 2.59 1.44 51.69

2015 24.68 5.22 3.97 3.82 3.01 2.55 2.45 2.07 1.81 1.69 51.27

Share 34.58 7.31 5.56 5.36 4.21 3.57 3.43 2.90 2.53 2.36 71.82

Green share 79.73 52.23 65.94 45.44 27.57 66.82 20.80 50.17 43.78 65.95 63.87

Note: Green share is the proportion of green technology in Denmark's total exports of energy technology to the respective countries. Share is the proportion received by each country of Denmark's total exports of energy technology. Exports are in current prices and exclusive of drilling rigs. Source: Eurostat and calculations by DI, Danish Energy and the Danish Energy Agency

Export of energy technology from Denmark and the EU15 Index, 2005=100

300 250 200 150 100 50 2006

“The energy technologies are of course dependent on the health of the global economies. If we see significant growth in the global economy, we’ll see corresponding growth in exports of energy technology and of course we’d be pleased to see more. On the other hand, if the global economy goes into recession it’s not certain we’ll reach our 2020 goal. But based on the information we have from experts and politicians we’re retaining that goal,” he says. If the decline in exports proves to be more than a bump in the road, Madsen has some advice on what the sector can do about it.

350

2005

to a certain degree on support programmes. Changes in market structures in particular countries can have contributed to reduced demand. He is convinced, however, that in the long term demand for green energy technology will rise, not least seen in the light of COP21. He continues to believe that Denmark can reach DI Energy’s goal for energy technology exports of DKK 100 billion (€13.4 billion) by 2020.

2007

2008

Denmark, green

2009

2010

EU15, green

2011

2012

Denmark, other

2013

2014

2015

EU15, other

Note: Exports are in exclusive of drilling rigs Source: Eurostat and calculations by DI, Danish Energy and the Danish Energy Agency

DI ENERGY CHAIRMAN:

We must stand united to strengthen the overall effort

T

he fall in Denmark’s energy technology exports in 2015 is particularly apparent in two countries. Exports to Britain fell by as much as 50.8% and to Sweden by 30.2%. From looking at the numbers alone, the chairman of DI Energy, Managing Director of ABB Denmark, Claus Madsen, cannot explain the decline in detail, but he believes it has two main causes.

“First, energy technology is often a matter of projects — and projects come when they come — so in essence it can be about timing. Second, it can be changes in the supply chain, with products once made in Denmark now produced closer to the markets they serve and no longer included in export statistics,” says Madsen. With regard to green energy technology, the decline can also be related to its dependence

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“As a sector we can stand united and together go out and present our unique technologies. We can invite customers and delegations to Denmark to show what we have done here and demonstrate the expertise we have to offer. I don’t believe we should panic about the decline overall. Of course we should keep an eye on developments and make sure that the initiatives set in motion are continued while holding our politicians to the promises they have made on paper. Specifically, we have politically paved the way for development of an export strategy for the sector, so we can strengthen the combined effort. That has been well received and in 2016 we will actively follow-up on detailed development of the strategy in close dialogue with the sector’s companies and involved authorities,” says Madsen. He also has a specific request to Danish politicians in that he regrets the cuts made to the budget for research and development. These could hit the sector hard, but it appears there are solutions on the way to enable money to once again flow to research and development as well as to demonstration projects. “Taking a delegation out to visit a demonstration facility is a thousand times more valuable than standing in a foreign country and delivering a presentation — and that demands that we build more test and demonstration projects,” concludes Madsen.


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AFTER COP21

Buildings are at last on the climate change agenda

Executives at VELUX are delighted with the agreement to fight global warming that the world’s major countries at long last made at COP21 in Paris. Now it is just a matter of following the agreement with action. We talked to VELUX CEO Jørgen Tang-Jensen TEXT: JESPER WITH / PHOTO: LARS JUST


Energy efficiency

We are pleased with the agreement and are particularly pleased that for the first time buildings are specifically included on the climate change agenda. We have worked hard for that to happen for years. Buildings account for 40% of the world’s energy consumption so energy related renovation has to play a big role. We actually need to triple the speed at which CO2 emissions from buildings are being reduced to reach the 2050 targets,” says Tang-Jensen. He expects the result reached in the French capital, helped by the improving economies of both Europe and North America, will lead to business coming from particularly these two continents in the years ahead — both with regard to new buildings and renovation, with the emphasis on the latter. Of the buildings in existence today, 90% are expected to be standing in 2050. For that reason, a step change is needed in the pace of energy renovation. Tang-Jensen believes that in the competition for market share, VELUX’s double focus on both energy efficiency and indoor climate will be an advantage.

is a leader in managing and calculating these things. It’s all about energy balance — the relationship between the heat that penetrates into a building and the heat lost from it,” says TangJensen. VELUX is also focussed on exploiting the benefits of daylight in buildings. By making better use of windows to reduce use of electric lighting, VELUX has calculated that Europe could save 15 million tonnes of CO2 emissions every year.

ments. It gave us the chance to create new energy efficient products. We did it in the belief that energy efficiency will never go out of fashion, even though global economic consumption had fallen 35%. That investment has given us a lead today,” says Tang-Jensen. In the new products VELUX has focused on indoor climate and energy efficiency even more than previously. “In Europe, North America and Russia, people are in buildings 90% of the time. For that reason we need to make buildings ever more sealed while at the same time making sure that daylight and ventilation are properly utilised. Otherwise people can’t stand being inside,” he says.

“Energy related renovation has to play a big role. We actually need to triple the speed at which CO2 emissions from buildings are being reduced to reach the 2050 targets.”

Energy balance Not surprisingly, Tang-Jensen is keen to stress the role windows play in answering the climate challenge. Energy use in buildings must be significantly reduced, with floors, ceilings and walls insulated as much as possible. Windows are a bit different. For large parts of the year, they contribute solar heating, free of charge. In a well insulated house, heating from other sources is often not needed. Buildings are of course not just outdoors in the winter, when it is coldest, but also during the rest of the year, when it is warm. It is here that a building’s windows become a factor in both ventilation and cooling. “If we’re to optimise energy use it has to be done with the right number of windows, the right configuration of windows and with the right dimensions so that the total annual energy consumption is minimised. It’s not just a case of windows having the correct insulation properties, they also have to let the heat in. VELUX

Cutting-edge When the world in 2011 was still recovering from the global financial crisis, VELUX invested in entirely new production equipment at its 17 manufacturing facilities in nine countries. The investment enabled the development of a new product programme with new types of construction, which set new standards for what is possible. The programme has now been launched. In addition, VELUX developed an entirely new product platform for buildings with glass roofs, like that over the atrium in DI’s renovated headquarters in Copenhagen. “We chose to invest a very large sum in product development and new production equipment while many others stood still with their invest-

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VELUX has worked on solutions to improve the indoor climate for many years. In Europe and North America, a selection of modern homes have been built using material that is freely available today. They have demonstrated that it is perfectly possible to meet the equivalent of the toughest Danish building regulation (known as BR2020) using today’s materials and technology.

“The perspectives are enormous and we expect to grow in the years ahead. Now we are only lacking concrete action on energy renovation based on the Paris agreement,” says TangJensen.


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Intelligent energy planning for largest urban development project in Northern Europe


GERMANY

In Hamburg city’s newest quarter, HafenCity, the skyscrapers provide an impressive view over the River Elbe. If a direct view of the river is not on offer from an office or apartment there is likely to be one over the area’s inner harbours. HafenCity is by far the largest city quarter in Germany and from the beginning it was equipped with a modern energy infrastructure. A cornerstone of the development has been the supply of combined heat and power to all business and residential buildings — to the delight of technology suppliers like Denmark’s Danfoss, which has placed district heating substations in the basements of nearly 120 multi-storey buildings TEXT: JESPER WITH / PHOTO: EVGENY MAKAROV

H

afenCity is a town planner’s dream. From the start it was planned and developed to exactly meet what the politicians wanted. The 127 hectare (314 acre) former port area in the middle of Hamburg was originally owned by the city authority. Planners had no external landowner they had to negotiate with and there were few existing buildings.

Danfoss marketing manager Michael Schumburg looks across the water at HafenCity, Hamburg's most energy efficient city-quarter

“Energy supply has been planned in fine detail and that makes it a unique area in Germany. It was decided that combined heat and power (CHP) district heating should supply the whole quarter and connection to it was compulsory, justified by the argument that all investors knew what the conditions were from the start. Along with tough demands on energy efficiency in buildings that makes HafenCity Hamburg’s greenest quarter,” says Michael Schumburg, marketing manager for Danfoss GmbH. On a sunny day we meet with him and sales manager Ulrich Eckelmann at one of HafenCity’s many new cafés. Here at lunchtime there is full house at many of the lunch restaurants and cafés located in the attractive harbour area within walking distance of the centre of Hamburg. “We have supplied a large number of these buildings with district heating substations and hot water storage tanks so we know the owners and their heating consumption. The aim has been to supply multi-storey buildings in the most economic and sustainable way. In practice we have expanded Hamburg’s existing CHP

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system with decentralised local district heating substations all over HafenCity,” says Eckelmann. In contrast to most of the rest of Germany, Hamburg already has a well developed CHP network with 19% of all households connected to it. In central areas that figure is nearly 90%. Nationwide, 12-14% are connected although the percentage is rising along with the country’s transition to clean energy supply, known as the Energiewende. The declared aim of the Hamburg city executive is to add another 50,000 households to the network along with a series of businesses by 2020.

Hamburg is aiming for 100% renewable energy, also for its collective supply of heating and cooling

Gigantic area With its 127 hectares of land and 30 hectares of water, HafenCity covers a huge area filled with a mixture of businesses, residential property, restaurants, cafés, a concert house and an open

“The latest development is Wärmewende which combined with the Energiewende gives us a new perspective on a city like Hamburg.” space for outdoor activities. A requirement from the beginning was that ordinary residential housing should be part of the development to make sure the area did not become an exclusive quarter for high income families. In fact, however, some of Hamburg’s most expensive square metres are found in HafenCity. Over the past three to four years, restaurants and cafés have rapidly appeared, which has helped draw people to the area, also in the evening. In 2017 the Elbphilharmonie will open, which as well as being a concert hall will also house a cultural centre and hotel. Metropolis with district energy ambitions As with many other big cities, the north German metropolis is growing rapidly. Hamburg is an economic power house, attracting many new citizens and businesses each month demanding lots of new dwellings and business prem-

ises. The city council wants to develop the city and its state sustainably with district heating and cooling as part of the solution. “Hamburg is a very attractive city for Danfoss, partly because there are many new district heating projects, which we of course enter the bidding for, and partly because Hamburg — including HafenCity — is a place that the rest of Germany is watching and gathering inspiration from. Many observe what we are doing here,” says Schumburg. Together with operational manager Thorsten Binder from utility Vattenfall we head down to the parking basement below a business block on Singapurstrasse to take a closer look at the building’s district heating substation. Its job is to distribute the heat sent into the building by Vattenfall’s CHP plant to the various offices

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within the block. Danfoss has worked closely with the utility’s technicians during installation of the district heating substations in various buildings. “There are 120 of this type of district heating substation in the quarter and Vattenfall has worked closely with Danfoss during the development phase to adapt every single substation to the heating demand in each single building,” says Binder. On the way to a sustainable city So far Vattenfall has used coal in the two CHP stations that together with smaller local heating plant in HafenCity supply the quarter with district heating, supplemented by heat from a waste incineration plant. It is likely, however, that within the foreseeable future coal will be exchanged for renewable sources of energy —


GERMANY

MAJOR DANISH EXPORT FOCUS ON GERMANY Denmark has intensified its energy cooperation with Germany, particularly with the three states that are forging ahead with the national transition to green energy supply, Hamburg, Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia. They have entered into a cooperation agreement with the Danish Energy Agency, the Danish Trade Council and several of Denmark’s industry bodies, including DI Energy. The cooperative project has initiated a number of trade visits in both directions and a stronger cooperation has resulted between partners and customers in the three states. The German government’s decision to transition the country to a clean energy supply, dubbed the Energiewende, is a main reason for Germany’s interest in Denmark and Danish solutions, given that Denmark has gathered a number of learning lessons that can be inspirational for Germany. One example that delegations have found interesting is that large solar heating facilities can be coupled into district heating networks, which is an important part of the Wärmewende in several German states. There is equal interest in gathering inspiration from waste-to-energy and

cogeneration in combination with district heating. SOLAR HEATING

first and foremost wind — when in 2019 the city council takes over the district heating network from Vattenfall along with the two coal-fired CHP stations, which from then will be owned by the city of Hamburg. From that point the CO2 emissions from HafenCity and Hamburg will be significantly reduced and the city will move closer to its goal of

becoming a sustainable city supplied primarily with renewable energy. The cornerstones will be wind power and district heating. “For Danfoss and other Danish suppliers like Grundfos and Kamstrup the indications are that we are heading towards some interesting years in Hamburg,” says Schumburg. •

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An 1800 square metre roof area on Am Kaiserkai street in HafenCity is being equipped with solar heating panels. It is Hamburg’s largest solar heating plant to date and will meet 49% of the hot water demand in connecting buildings, reports utility Vattenfall. Hamburg has a population of nearly 1.8 million and is Germany’s second largest city. Five million people live in the metropolis of Hamburg. After Rotterdam, Hamburg is home to Europe’s largest port and is spread over an enormous area.


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GERMANY

Hamburg leads German energy transition with ambitious example Hamburg’s environment and energy senator Jens Kerstan has together with the city council called full steam ahead for the city’s Energiewende. Key to the initiative is a close cooperation with the wind rich neighbouring state of Schleswig-Holstein TEXT: JESPER WITH

H

amburg has established a close cooperation with neighbouring state Schleswig-Holstein through its NEW 4.0 (Norddeutsche EnergieWende) programme. Lying between the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the east, it is here that a good proportion of Germany’s wind energy is produced and brought ashore from offshore wind stations. Hamburg is a steadily more eager purchaser of the large volumes of wind power. “We have gone out in front in Germany with our intention to transition to 100 percent renewable energy by 2035 in the Hamburg-Schleswig-Holstein region. That demands a new system integration, changed regulations, and above all, active participation from the relevant players — energy companies, network operators, the wind sector and other producers of renewable energy, and of course from electricity consumers, with heavy industry in the lead,” says Hamburg Senator Jens Kerstan. Hamburg is a huge consumer centre with an enormous demand for electricity and it was an obvious decision to enter into a binding agreement with Schleswig-Holstein which can deliver what Hamburg needs. Schleswig-Holstein is already self-sufficient in electricity for a large part of the year, primarily due to wind energy production from both onshore and offshore wind farms. “Compared with many other states we have easy access to green power. It is a bit harder for states further south which do not have a wind resource as good as that in our region while at

“Luckily they are very interested in being involved in NEW 4.0, partly because we can help them save money on energy and partly because they gain a greener profile. And we make Hamburg more sustainable. It’s a win-win situation,” says Kerstan. He looks forward to showing off HafenCity to visitors from at home and abroad as an example of best practice for large development projects with combined heat and power (CHP), smart metering and intelligent control systems. When the city quarter was devised ten years ago, however, it was before there was talk of a smart grid. “That can better be applied to NEW 4.0, which is both ambitious and realistic. In Germany we’ve long talked about the Energiewende, which is primarily about electricity supply. In Hamburg we’ve added Wärmewende as we see heat supply as a fundamental part of the Energiewende,” says Kerstan. Extending Hamburg’s existing CHP network was an obvious step, copying Denmark’s leading example and also looking closely at how large solar heating plant can be coupled into the system to contribute to supply. Another plan is to use the hot water in the network as shortterm storage for wind energy.

“We help them save money on energy and gain a greener profile and we make Hamburg more sustainable. It's a win-win situation.” the same time transmission cables from north to south lack sufficient transmission capacity,” says Kerstan. Big challenge Hamburg is home to large energy intensive industries, including companies working in copper and aluminium production. The city is working with them to improve the efficiency of their electricity consumption as well as making it flexible, so it can follow the ups and downs of wind production. The city would also like to put industrial process waste-heat to work.

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“We are both a city and a state at the same time. It gives us more freedom to throw ourselves into new initiatives. We have brought the electricity network back into public ownership and from 2019 we are taking over the district heating and CHP power stations from Vattenfall. Because we will soon own the infrastructure again it makes it easier to take big strides towards a more climate friendly supply with renewable energy,” says Kerstan. Cooperation with Denmark Hamburg, together with the states of Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia, entered a cooperation agreement with the Danish Climate and Energy Ministry, DI Energy and Copenhagen city council, among others. “The broad legal framework and waste incineration system in Denmark has impressed me. We already deliver waste heat from one plant to the district heating network, but we want to expand that at the same time as using more waste heat from businesses. It’s here we can be inspired by Denmark,” says Kerstan.


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GERMANY

Solar heating and CHP go hand in glove

Facing economic challenges and the national transition to clean energy, electricity suppliers in German cities are looking to Danish solar heating technology. In particular, suppliers in Hamburg and Baden-Württemberg, states where the energy transition is high on the agenda, are showing great interest in Danish know-how TEXT: JESPER WITH

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n increasing number of electricity suppliers in Germany’s cities have accepted that their coal-fired combined heat and power plant (CHP) are no longer economically viable. At the same time, they see more energy efficient, competitive and sustainable solutions on the market. Suppliers are now casting a critical eye over their traditional business models. One of the solutions is solar heating, a technology in which Denmark’s prowess is exemplified by companies like Arcon-Sunmark. “Large scale solar heating plant are a really good match with CHP. Even though only 12% of Germany’s consumers for heating are served by CHP, in a country with a population of 80 million

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An Arcon solar heating plant in Chile

that still amounts to 10 million people, which is quite a big heating demand,” explains Christian Stadler, Arcon-Sunmark GmbH’s director with responsibility for Germany and Austria. The company, the result of a merger between Danish Arcon Solar and Sunmark Solutions, established itself on the German market in 2014. Stadler expects the first large facilities to be operational in 2016 in Hamburg and Baden-Württemberg states. “Green and renewable energy is riding the crest of a wave and many companies have become aware of their social responsibility. The timing is good, what with the energy transition, the climate agreement in Paris, the economic difficulties of the supply companies and major demand from the people for green solutions,” says Stadler. At the same time prices for renewable energy (wind and solar PV) are falling, putting CHP revenues under increasing pressure. Leaning on Danish experience “Until now solar heating has not been particularly widespread in Germany. For that reason we have participated in arrangements by the Danish Industry federation, the Danish Energy Agency and Danish district heating organisation DBDH, where representatives from German and Austrian electricity suppliers have visited the large Danish solar heating facilities in towns like Vojens, Dronninglund and Bræd-

strup. They’ve been enthusiastic about what they see in Denmark,” says Stadler. In Germany, solar heating is primarily of interest in towns with populations from 50,000 to two to three million (such as Hamburg) which have a district heating network. Adding solar heating in such cities is advantageous and leads to lower heating costs. In this way, solar can meet up to 20% of annual heating demand. In Denmark, solar heating solutions are often found in small towns which have already taken the further step of using large seasonal heat storage options to meet up to 50% of annual heating demand. “In a town like Hamburg, with large district heating pipelines, it’s easy to place a large solar heating plant out at the end of the network where there is most room. But every town has its own structure and its own district heating network, which is why individual solutions are needed,” says Sadler. He would welcome legislation in Germany similar to that in Denmark where electricity suppliers are required to find ways to reduce CO2 emissions by 2% a year. That would drive investments in renewable energy solutions like solar heating. Austria has adopted this model, which is driving market growth faster than in Germany. “But as soon as we have a big plant running in Hamburg, for example, I have no doubt that a breakthrough will happen for large scale solar

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heating in German cities and regions. Germany is a large market, where today the districting heating network is gradually being expanded,” says Stadler. •

LARGEST SUPPLIER GLOBALLY Arcon-Sunmark has specialised in large scale solar heating and has a sizable market in Denmark, particularly because solar heating can be combined with district heating. The company is responsible for more than 80% of the world’s large scale solar heating facilities. It has developed solutions that enable excess solar energy to be stored from day to night and from summer to winter use using seasonal storage (heating water in underground tanks or piping systems under buildings). A large scale solar plant with seasonal storage can replace 50% of fossil fuel used in a district heating system. SOLAR PHOTO-VOLTAIC AND SOLAR HEATING — TWO TECHNOLOGIES While solar cells use the sun’s energy to produce electricity, large solar heating plant absorb and store the sun’s energy in water (thermal energy). By doing so they can provide extremely cost effective heating.


INNOVATION PROJECTS TO OPEN THE WAY FOR SUSTAINABLE DISTRICT HEATING ENERGY SOURCES District heating is key to Aarhus City Council’s plans to become CO2 neutral by 2030. The transition from coal to wood pellets is already in progress at the Studstrup power plant. But more effort is needed. Once 2030 comes around, a large proportion of district heat is to be generated from sustainable sources. The Studstrup plant lies to the north of Aarhus and is just one of the plants that provide heat to the local population. So far, its primary source of heat has been fossil fuels, but the future has arrived. District heating needs to remain cheap yet become CO2 neutral. The first step is to switch from burning coal to biofuels. “The ’Affaldvarme Aarhus’ plan, designed to generate heat from refuse, will ensure green heating for our customers. We can already ensure CO2 neutral district heating by using biofuels such as wood pellets. But our aim is that sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power, complemented by biofuels, will be the primary energy sources for district heating,” says Bjarne Munk Jensen, head of the Department of Waste and Heating, City of Aarhus.

The department already has a range of demonstration projects in progress, ranging from heat pumps using seawater as energy source to the READY project generating energy from refuse. ”We are very interested in quality, relevant demonstration projects that we find via our own curiosity and the position of strength we are in, not to mention working with partners able to develop district heating solutions,” adds Munk Jensen.

New technology paves the way To achieve that aim, the department is working on the development of new technology. ”We need to develop new solutions and that’s where we as a utility can act as a laboratory to test their application working together with various partners. They can be businesses or academic institutions,” explains Munk Jensen.

District heating last year: The majority of heat production in Aarhus is based on coal.

Green heating in 2016: The mix of district heating in 2017 will be comprised of.

2015 Heating in 2030: The illustration shows what the composition of heat production is expected to be by 2030.

2016 Fossil

Biofuel

Non-fuel-based

SUSTAINABLE HEAT PRODUCTION By being CO2 neutral, the Department of Waste and Heating can work towards 2030 and a growing level of sustainable heat production. It will supply an increasingly sustainable local authority in continued growth with district heating.

2030

The department will be able to gradually introduce more sustainable energy via an increasingly diverse supply system, made possible because biofuel plants will no longer have to bear such a large part of production. The entire heating system will be upgraded to be able to take heat from sustainable energy and there can be new forms of energy partnerships extending across regions and local authorities, able to open up for more non-fuel production.


Danish district heating wins through in North America


An unstable situation for American energy supply has led to rapid growth for solar PV and wind power technology and focused attention on large scale collective solutions for district heating and cooling. Eyes are turned towards Denmark. With the purchase of Environ, Ramboll has strengthened its position on the US energy market TEXT: JESPER WITH / PHOTO: LARS JUST

B

ridgeport, Connecticut. Midway between New York and Boston on the American east coast the town is no large city, but it is becoming a place that the rest of America is looking to in the search for effective and viable energy supply solutions. Over the past two years Danish engineering design company Ramboll has been helping Nupower LLC, a sustainable power developer, with detailed planning of a district heating and district cooling system (district energy) for a business quarter and university in central Bridgeport. The project employs heat from a waste incineration plant and fuel cell facility. Through a newly established thermal piping network and using heat exchangers Nupower delivers heating and cooling to a series of companies and the university. “Until now, district energy in the US has mainly been established in and around university campuses. But interest in large scale collective solutions is spreading to the business world. That’s exactly what is happening in Bridgeport, where we won the bid to be project adviser,” says managing director of Ramboll Energy, Thomas Rand. Whether or not state governments are supporters of Barack Obama’s Clean Power Plan they are keeping an eye on it and looking to Denmark’s energy supply solutions. In Denmark they recognise a leader in district heating, also in the provision of advisory services and technology. Several Danish companies are part of a consortium bidding to be selected supplier for the entire Bridgeport system.

Many local markets “The US is not one market but many local markets with big regional differences. That is one of the reasons for our purchase of energy consultancy Environ, which provides us with 52 offices in the US — a good platform for achieving the necessary local contact with customers,” says Rand. He points out that one of the challenges in convincing Americans to choose collective decentralised solutions is that deep in their mentality is a desire to be independent with their own supplies. “So far we’ve had most success with universities, business parks and industrial estates, but I’m sure that decentralised energy supply solutions will also spread to the residential market,” says Rand. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 blacked out large parts of New York and caused huge damage in several states. It is estimated to have destroyed property for at least $75 billion and was also destructive of energy supply. It is the kind of experience that strengthens recognition of the benefits of decentralised energy. At the same time there is widespread ignorance of what district heating is. Coal no, gas yes Rand follows developments in the US closely. He sees a general movement away from coal, despite resistance from traditional coal states like Kentucky and West Virginia, where big revenues and many jobs are on the line. But major

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"I see a big desire among the people to change energy supply. And it won't be stopped, even if a less green Republican government comes to power in 2017. But it may take a little longer," says Thomas Rand


America�s big investors are putting less money into coal and more into gas and renewable energy. Photo: POLFOTO

Back in 2002, 50.2% of electricity in America came from coal. In 2015 the proportion dropped to 33%. And according to a report from the US government, every seventh coal-fired power station will have disappeared by 2025. In recent years, 175 of the most polluting coal power stations have closed. Instead of coal, shale gas is making strides, although that has more to do with its low price than a political desire to reduce coal consumption.

investors have become reluctant to put their money into the coal industry. Cheap shale gas is taking over and the US has plenty of it. The gas is used both in power stations and in industrial gas boilers as well as for heating. “The environmental optimum is to use waste heat from power stations for district heating, but at first glance gas is a quick and simple solution for new decentralised district heating solutions. Gas goes hand-in-glove with Solar PV and wind energy, which are both growing strongly, so an American green energy transition is well under way,” says Rand. Universities out in front Universities with their big campuses are still leading the way with decentralised and often highly profiled energy efficient solutions. Elite universities like Harvard, Dartford, Stanford, MIT and Columbia all have district heating and cooling systems.

Originally these were established as steambased energy supply, but there is a growing recognition that hot water supplied from district heating is far more energy efficient and is far cheaper than steam, so many are converting from steam to hot water. “The specialists and politicians of the future are educated at these institutions, so when they choose collective green solutions there is an advantage for Danish energy technology,” says Rand. New infrastructure solutions are expensive and must stay the course of time. Major decisions have to be taken. But when potential customers understand that piping for “Danish” district heating only has to be buried at 60 centimetres, instead of the two metres necessary for steam, they realise it will be cheaper. For a university campus the cost is not a barrier, but in New York, where conversion of its steam-based district heating will be difficult, the expense involved is considerable.

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RAMBOLL IS INVOLVED IN A LONG SERIES OF PROJECTS IN NORTH AMERICA. HERE IS A SELECTION:

» Bridgeport, Connecticut: District heating and cooling for businesses in the town centre » Dartmouth College, New Hampshire: District heating and cooling on university campus » West Palm Beach, Florida: Waste incineration plant » Guelph, Canada: First project in North America for district heating of a whole town » Sheridan College, Toronto, Canada: Conversion of district heating from steam to hot water

“The US and Canada are not on track to exploit district heating and cooling on the same scale as in Denmark, but a smaller scale market is good. We are involved in many, many projects and more are on the way,” says a satisfied Rand.•


“Americans have to get used to the idea of common heat supply in the cities. This demands time and good references.”

SIMPLYFING COMPLEX

Shortly before Christmas both the US Senate and Congress passed extensions of both the 30% investment tax credit (ITC) for solar energy and the $0.023/kWh production tax credit (PTC) for wind. The PTC was extended for a surprising five year period with a staged phase-out. “It is one of the most important incentives for renewable energy that I've seen in the past 10 years,” says Alex Klein, senior director of research for renewable energy at consulting firm IHS, to Climatewire magazine. The passing of the tax credit legislation lends strength to arguments for President Barack Obama's Clean Power Plan (CPP), which in contrast is up against a number of legal challenges after 29 states and several large industrial corporations appealed to the US High Court to intervene in the law's implementation. With a five-four vote, the court put a stay on the CPP while its legal basis is considered, with a final decision not expected until 2017. The subsequent death of one of the court members who voted for the stay puts the outcome in limbo, however. If Obama is successful in appointing a new High Court judge, who supports the CPP, before the end of his presidency, the outcome of the court decision tips in the law's favour. Meantime, the election of a new US P resident in November 2016 will also have a bearing on the CPP's implementation.

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The road is clear for lots more American wind energy “We’re increasingly seeing large concerns like Google, IKEA and Apple, as well as financial investors like Goldman Sachs and BlackRock, invest in wind power, either to acquire their own energy supply or as a safe investment in contrast to fossil fuels. So of course we’re happy when Google selects Vestas for its projects, like the 200 MW wind farm in Oklahoma,” says senior vice president for Vestas in North America, David Hardy. TEXT:JESPER WITH

How do you view the prospects for wind energy in the US? As a matter of principle, we don’t speculate about future markets, but I can say that wind energy has built up significant momentum in recent years. It is key to the positive business climate we see for wind today in the US and globally. Everybody in the US is aware of the COP21 agreement in Paris, the extension of the PTC tax break for wind and Obama’s Clean Power Plan, but the migration to wind energy comes from many sides, first and foremost driven by its greater competitiveness.

ENERGY - DENMARK

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How do you see the chances for growth in the number of onshore and offshore wind projects and can Vestas win an even larger share of the market? The investment climate for onshore wind looks really good. The industry was very active in 2015, which was a record year for Vestas, measured in both orders and its annual result. We expect even more activity in 2016. According to BNEF [Bloomberg New Energy Finance], global investments in clean energy in 2015 reached nearly 330 billion dollars, the highest sum ever. It is estimated that globally, wind accounted for more than 20% of new installed electricity production capacity in 2015, so we think the future for wind looks fine.


Can you identify a good business case for Vestas in the US? I won’t identify one specific wind farm, but wind energy generally is a good business case. Wind is basically now in the same price class as polluting energy sources, so when we weigh up the real price of energy and include pollution costs, our wind energy solutions become very attractive business cases. Which states are the most successful in Vestas’ eyes? Generally there are excellent wind resources in the US, but states like Texas, which tops the list for installed wind power with 18 GW, and Iowa, where about 29% of grid electricity comes from

wind, are obviously good examples of states with big potential. We see many states that have started to go the same way so it looks very promising.

time, in the US we are helped by the recent extension of the PTC tax credit [$0.023/KWh for wind]. It provides the industry with the long time secure market we have asked for.

What are your expectations of renewables growth compared with fossil fuels? The price of wind energy has fallen dramatically in recent years and has made wind a viable energy resource, with prices of onshore wind fully competitive with gas and coal in many parts of the world. You could ask why we should invest in a polluting energy source, with unstable prices and big risks associated with its import in many cases, when clean domestically grown energy sources like wind cost the same? At the same

Has the COP21 agreement strengthened your expectations for growth of renewable energy in the US? The Paris climate agreement has the potential to strengthen the momentum built up by wind and other renewable forms of energy in recent years and in that way strengthens the foundation for renewables investment. We think the agreement can positively influence renewables in the long term, but the short term influence for our business will be minimal. •

ENERGY - DENMARK

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CL I MATE & ENERGY BUS INES S DEN MARK

Danish solutions deserve a global audience. Now there’s a magazine for that. FORESIGHT W WW. F O RES I G H T D K . CO M


“ I RECOMMENDED MAGNA3 BECAUSE IT’S ENERGY EFFICIENT, RELIABLE, EASY-TO-INSTALL AND FUTURE PROOF”

Danish Jyske Bank cut 60% of the energy in its operations by replacing old pumps with new, energy-efficient Grundfos MAGNA3 circulators. See full story at Grundfos.com/cases

Torben Bentsen Installer Henning Mortensen A/S Silkeborg, Denmark


Americans are more green minded than we believe If you ask Grundfos, US interest in renewables and energy efficiency is much greater than the impression gained from listening to discussions in the American Congress or following the debate between Republican presidential candidates TEXT: STEEN HARTVIG

T

he biggest American companies want a greener profile and that hangs together with the growing body of consumers who are interested in environment and climate change issues. At the same time, the increasing number of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, typhoons and flooding, have sharpened interest at state level in taking preventive action and adapting to climate change. Cities are challenged The trend is clearly seen in the latest company results from Danish pumping solutions concern Grundfos. The company produces its reliable and energy efficient pumps at five American facilities, and the US has become its strongest growth market. “Both state governments and big companies have noticed the potential in European solutions. California suffers from extreme water shortages and many large cities are challenged by extreme weather events, population growth, air pollution and security of supply. It can mean a breakthrough for district heating and cooling, even though American customers want to see

concrete results before they sign contracts,” says Grundfos information director Kim Nøhr Skibsted. Eighty percent energy saving The company can already present a series of innovative reference projects. One example is an 80% energy saving in the water supply of a 14 storey office building in California after the installation of variable frequency drive pumps. In Pasadena, Texas, a renovation project using Grundfos pumps has saved the town’s 150,000 residents from flooding caused by extreme rain during hurricanes. “At St. John’s University in Minnesota in 2013 we exchanged outdated pumps for new Grundfos pumps and as a result they came through the record cold winter that followed just fine. With a payback period of only three years the project has become an important reference case for us at technical universities where innovative renovation solutions can also be used during teaching of future engineers,” says Skibsted.

Climate is a competitive parameter Despite widespread scepticism in the American Congress for binding international climate agreements, American customers are increasingly focused on renewables and energy efficiency. They demand innovative technology and that gives Grundfos an advantage on the market for advanced pumping solutions, whether for buildings, irrigation projects or waste water processing. “We also benefit from having local production. The big companies feel the pressure, both from their customers and local authorities and want to position themselves as the most climate friendly on the market. That pressure passes through to us as suppliers of smart solutions that are beneficial for energy costs and climate considerations,” says Skibsted. For Grundfos it has resulted in significant growth on the US market in recent years and the climate agreement from COP21 in Paris is creating even greater optimism. •


WE ARE KEEPING AN EYE ON THE SUPPLY GRID Using aerial thermography and hydraulic analyses, we quickly and safely identify leaks and constraints in the supply grid, thus creating the basis for renovation, extensions and optimizations of the energy supply in Denmark and abroad.

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DI_Energi_185x132_UK.indd 1

01/04/16 11.04


Energy efficiency

Global market leader with unique cooling technology When two cooling nerds at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI) established Aarhus based firm Advansor ten years ago it was the start of a growth and export adventure story. The company has since become a global market leader in energy efficient and environmentally friendly cooling systems using CO2 as the refrigerant

“To maintain our position we are focused on targeted innovation,” says Christensen. “Since 2011 we have developed an entirely new technology for the compSUPER series.” Pushing industrial sales Most recently, Advansor established a unit to further develop and specifically market the company’s industrial products: cooling systems and heat pumps for the food, plastics, and pharmaceutical industries and for use in combined heat and power. Industrial cooling systems using CO2 are competitive with existing solutions using ammonia or HFC. Advansor’s heat pumps can deliver process heat at up to 80 C with high efficiency. Sales for industrial use have so far been purely in response to demand, but still reached DKK 25 million (€3.4 million) in 2015. As renewables electricity takes hold in Europe, heat pumps in heating systems will be an increasingly attractive option.

TEXT: STEEN HARTVIG

Driven by ambitious environmental legislation, Denmark in the 1990s pioneered the battle against a potent body of greenhouse gases, the so called HFC cooling refrigerants that contribute to global warming. That legislation gave the two DTI cooling experts the courage to put their core competencies into commercial production. “High levies on Danish electricity pulled the carpet from under an obvious domestic market for our industrial heat pumps, which was our first idea. Luckily some Danish supermarkets began asking for more environmentally friendly cooling technology,” says Advansor CEO Kim G. Christensen.

Gazelle growth Advansor’s growth rate is around 25% and in 2012 it was voted fastest gazelle in Denmark. After ten years, employment stands at 90, including ten sales staff abroad. Turnover exceeded DKK 200 million (€26.8 million) in 2015. The goal for this year is to land on the plus side of DKK 250 million, with 95% of production exported.

The company was established in 2006 and the first significant customers were supermarkets who sought environmentally correct, but also cheap, reliable and energy efficient alternatives to traditional cooling systems, which taxes on synthetic HFC gases had made expensive to run.

Danish paradox Although Denmark, with the world’s highest share of fluctuating electricity from wind and solar, is the biggest potential market for large electrically driven heat pumps, demand is restricted by a complex network of taxation. Advansor’s large heat pumps have instead been sold to Norway, Germany and France. Christensen wants to see a change in the Danish levies on electricity to make it financially viable to employ production from the steadily growing wind power base directly in the heating system, thus making Denmark's district heating even greener. At European level an EU Directive on HFC greenhouse gases provides natural refrigerants and artificial refrigerants that have a very low impact on global warming with a competitive advantage. EU energy policy for more district heating and district cooling and more renewable energy make an obvious case for changing the energy taxation rules in Denmark. “It’s about making the regulations transparent and stable and aimed at motivating the use of environmentally correct technology. In that way we can build a strong home market as the springboard for European expansion, just as ambitious environmental legislation in the 1990s gave Danish companies a market lead in natural cooling refrigerants,” says Christensen.•

Advansor’s international breakthrough came when British supermarket chains Sainsbury’s and Tesco together with French Carrefour put their money on cooling systems using CO2. Sales of Advansor’s compSUPER series have topped 2,000, mainly to the Nordic countries, Germany, UK, France, Switzerland, Poland and Romania.

ENERGY - DENMARK

48


Klintholm Harbour is ready for Kriegers Flak - are you? We have at least four good reasons for choosing Klintholm Harbour as a maintenance harbour for a offshore windfarm at Kriegers Flak

• Local planning ensures an O&M building with direct access to the harbour and an airfield for helicopters close to the harbour • Local business network with subcontractors and certification of personnel in GWO offshore courses 20 minutes from Klintholm Harbour

• Klintholm Harbour offers the shortest possible distance and crossing time to Kriegers Flak • Klintholm Harbour is home to a state-owned rescue ensuring rapid lifesaving response

GREEN DISTRICT HEATING THROUGHOUT EUROPE

DID YOU KNOW THAT THE SHARE OF DISTRICT HEATING SOLUTIONS CAN BE EXTENDED 3-4 TIMES AS MUCH IN EU ALONE? These years, an extensive transformation towards sustainability is taking place in the district heating industry. Denmark gains unique export possibilities to countries in need of stable, green and affordable heating solutions. Grøn Energi, the think tank for district heating industries and utilities, cooperates with corporations, NGOs and universities on providing knowledge about good solutions nationally and globally.

gronenergi.org


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GREEN ENERGY MUST BE CHEAPER THAN BLACK Today, Denmark produces such a large amount of green power that it corresponds to more than half of the Danes’ power consumption. DONG Energy generates a quarter of the green power production in Denmark and since 2006, we have reduced our CO2 emissions to an extent that equals more than half of Denmark’s total CO2 reduction. Our next objective is to make green energy cheaper than black energy. This has already been achieved for onshore wind, and offshore wind must follow suit. We have committed ourselves to making green energy from offshore wind cheaper than energy from coal and natural gas within the next decade, and we are already well on the way. This will reduce CO2 emissions and increase exports.

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"Energy Denmark"- DI Energy annual magazine 2016