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SEQUENCE OF VISUAL EXPERIENCE IN PARC DE LA VILLETTE Examine Tsuchmi’s concept as Cinematic Landscape with the use of diagram analysis

WAI W O Resea NG 16038 448 rch Me th Modu le Lea od in Design der (P Schoo l of Arc : Dr. Igea T 30026) roiani hitectu re, Ox ford B rookes Univer sity


ETHICS NOTE This Design Research Dissertation is presented to the School of Architecture, Oxford Brookes University in part fulfilment of the regulations for the MArchD Applied Design in Architectd RIBA part 2). STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY This Design Research Dissertation is an original piece of work which is made available for copying with permission of the Head of the School of Architecture. Signed

Wai WONG (21/12/2016)


CONTENT I. Research Method Diary

A. B. C. D.

Diagram Visual Ethnography Experience of Space: Bruno Zevi’s Seven Invariables Painting

II. Research Essay

A. Introduction B. The built theories C. Diagrammatic sequence D. Linear of Fragmented sequence? E. Conclusion III. Bibliography

A. Literature B. List of Illustrations IV. Filmography V. Appendix

A. Lecture Notes B. Workshop outputs


RESEARCH METHOD DIARY The first section of the coursework is the Research method diary. This section is about using the four chosen research methods to examine the research topic about the visual experience in the Parc de La Villette, Paris. A. B. C. D.

Diagram Visual Ethnography Experience of Space: Bruno Zevi’s Seven Invariables Painting


Research Method Diary

A. DIAGRAM “Diagram emerged as a necessary mechanism

for the subject to control its object of knowledge”” Hyungmin Pai in (Gracia, 2010) Drawing diagrams is a fundamental skill that architects uses to describe their ideas. Therefore, this has been the first method use to study the visual experience in the park. Two types of diagrams, autogram and scriptogram, introduces in Research Methods lecture has been tested in this diary. The first image on the right is an autogram. It records the journey in the park by following the points of attractions. Regarding experience, autogram can tell what has been powerfully visualised that creates a memory, but this kind of diagram is not considered for record other sense like touching and hearing.

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NOV 18 2016 NOV 20 2016

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Research Method Diary

Another type of diagram has taken into practice is sciptogram. It is known for the publishing of the Manhattan Transcripts (Tschumi, 1981) by Bernard Tschumi, who is also the architect for La Villette. In the process of producing a series of scriptograms for researching the visual quality, different cinematic techniques, like tracking and jump cut have been explored to test out how to create cinematic diagrams corresponds the research topic. The benefits of this kind diagram are that designers can tell the story through a diagrammatic sequence and also gives the sense of spatiality. Although these diagrams are useful in telling the story, this type of analysis is anemic on explaining the exact situation of the site, like the human activities. It is a fantastic process of analysing the research in the place through drawing diagrams as it is a fast and powerful to deliver an idea and sorted out what to emphasise through a simple piece of work.

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Research Method Diary

ZOOM IN - ZOOM OUT

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Research Method Diary

TRACKING

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Research Method Diary

CROSS CUT

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Research Method Diary

B. VISUAL ENTHOGRAPHY “The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled. Each evening we see the sun set. We know that the earth is turning away from it. Yet the knowledge, the explanation, never quite fits the sight.� (Berger, 2008) Photography and filmography categorise as visual ethnography regarding research method. Both of the methods have been widely used during the process of studying La Villette. For both photography and filmography, apart from using them as a tool for recording, they also capable of expanding the research topic by introducing different angles for the cinematographer. This approach suggests that more varieties about different perspectives, for example, placing the camera on the ground or in front of the chest will give a different idea of using the eyesight at the standard height.

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Research Method Diary

Photography is about a single moment while video offers a period. Both of them have pros and cons regarding what can those images show. In photography, it can express the activities, the townscape and the atmosphere in a single picture; In videos, they can create a story through a period of captured scene.

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Research Method Diary

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In this ection, the photos take in the site show diversity of elements that enhance the visual experience in the park, like the long aerial promenade along the canal, gives a sense of progression and openness. Vice versa, from the screencaps of videos taken from the site, an exciting moment like how a folie behind a folie creates a feeling of mystery and discovery. Even these visual methods are robust to put forward the research; the imagination is relatively difficult to captured through a single image or video since both of this approach to recording the reality.

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Research Method Diary

https://youtu.be/_tODGBPwNzY

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Research Method Diary

https://youtu.be/-aX9P1G_-Bk

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Research Method Diary

https://youtu.be/G1vlWRQvxWI

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Research Method Diary

C. EXPERIENCE OF SPACE : BRUNO ZEVI’S SEVEN INVARIABLES “With perspective, it was no longer architecture but its container that was dominant.” (Zevi, 1978)

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The third research methodology identified is the critical analysis of existing buildings employing Bruno Zevi’s seven invariables. This evaluation of an architectural space can develop an architect’s sensibility when used in hindsight.

The research allows designers to understand what elements in a space derive the visual quality. Although Zevi’s theory of the seven invariables is subjective, the results of it vigorous about giving a sensibility of how space is constructed thus to understand the visual quality of space.

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Research Method Diary

In the following section, producing photomontage helps people understand the walking journey in La Villette. The process of making these images are vary based on different topics that decide to explore, for example, the first one is taken from one standing a static point, a panoramic image then created. Another montage is set up with an idea of following the light which is believable that that’s one of the methods for how people experience the space.

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Despite the fact that these figures manage to express the spatiality, these images are not able to create until space is constructed. Therefore, this method of research cannot be used as a tool for architects to imagine the space when they start designing.


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Research Method Diary

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Research Method Diary Research Method Diary

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Research Method Diary

D. PAINTING “Oil painting did to appearances what capital did to social relations. It reduced everything to the equality of objects. Everything became exchangeable because everything became a commodity.� (Berger, 2008) Painting is the fourth research methodology that used for the study in La Villette regarding the visual experience. Comparing to the other research methods, painting is the most aesthetic way of analysis. In this research diary, watercolour and acrylic are used to produce artworks. By the use of drawing, architects can apply their imagination in their work. This benefits to both designers and the users because it can bring upon more possibilities for further discussion.

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Research Method Diary

Moreover, painting itself invites different media during the progress of the design. Also, artists can create their language by specialising in colour, line thickness and layout of the drawings. Following the resulting artworks produced regarding La Villette by using Katherine Lubar and Alison Smith as references of painting. The former’s works involve a lot of solid colours that creates a firm sense of contrast in that space. In contrast, a few artworks use Alison Smith as an inspiration.

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Research Method Diary

The advantage of using watercolour is the transparency of it as it creates more layers on a piece of painting to express the sense of temperature, distance, openness and even the memory created by existing texture. Even supposing that painting is open to infinite combinations, this kind of research is restricted to certain reasons, including weather, sizes of canvas, etc.

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Research Method Diary

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RESEARCH ESSAY The second section of the coursework is the research essay. This essay widely uses the findings from drawing diagrams, the chosen research method that have been practiced in the site and various literature references to examine the selected research topic. One stylistic note: to avoid repetition, the Par de la Villette will henceforth be referred to as ‘La Villette’ (no italics).


Entrance of Parc de La Villette


Research Essay

INTRODUCTION This essay mainly explores the sequence of visual experience in the La Villette. As a grand project of the French government in 1982, President Mitterrand organises a competition which invites over 470 teams from 70 countries. The brief of this contest is to create a masterplan for an “Urban Park for the Twenty-first Century” to accommodate entertaining and cultural facilities such as outdoor theatres, art galleries, restaurants, etc. The park locates on one of the largest sites in Paris (over 55 hectares) which previously owned by the central slaughterhouses, located in the northeast of the city of Paris. In March 1983, Bernard Tschumi, a French-Swiss architect won the project with a large metropolitan proposal adopted the idea of disjunction and dissociations. When the result announced, he is known as an architecture theorist who commonly associated with Deconstructivism and also a lecturer but has no experience in constructing a real project. He Fig. 01 Plan of central slaughterhouse of La Villette (Janvier, 1868)

proposed that La Villette is the “largest discontinuous building in the world” (Tschumi, 1987). Jacques Derrida, a French philosopher, introduces the first idea of deconstruction for this project. He has also been invited to collaborate in this project.

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Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Again with another architect, Peter Eisenman, they suggest that the park should demonstrate a new typology to respond the brief as a “park of the future” (Hardingham & Rattenbury, 2012) says Tschumi himself during the Supercrit #4 held at the University of Westminister. The designed park should organise without referencing to the traditions, especially the rules of form, hierarchy and structure. Hence, new concepts like, “Superimposition”, “Cinematic Landscape” and “Folie”, are not only theories but also a built idea. “[…] the experience of architecture is primarily visual and kinesthetic” (Meiss, 1990) This essay will discuss how do these new approaches accomplish a different visual experience through the movement of the public and thus address whether Tschumi’s approach initiate a positive or negative atmosphere in terms architecture based on the diagrammatic analysis produce during the site visit and a considerable amount of academic writing by the landscape and architectural theorists.

Fig. 02 Plan of Parc de La Villette (Tschumi, 1987)

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Research Essay

THE BUILT THEORIES ‘La Villette, then, aims at an architecture that means nothing, and architecture of the signifier rather than the signified – one that is pure trace or play of language’ (Tschumi, 1994) Based on Derrida’s idea of deconstruction, Tschumi proposes to use this anti-tradition philosophy to develop a new typology for his first built project, La Villette. To demonstrate his theory in one of his remarkable publication, the Manhattan Transcripts, it defines architecture as individual components, “space, movement and events” (Tschumi, 1981). This section is to illustrate how are these key concepts briefly applied into the design project.

SYSTEM AND SUPERIMPOSITIONS Tschumi interprets the park as an “encounter of three autonomous systems […] the system of objects, the system of movements and the system of space” (Barzilay, et al., 1984). Fig. 03 The initial sketch for the deconstrction layers (Tschumi, 1982)

At the beginning of the project, Tschumi decides the project to be designed as a superimposition of three systems into the park. It develops from the fundamental principle of architecture which are points, lines and surfaces. Tschumi individualises these three layers as point-like activities, linear activities and surface activities respectively.

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Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Furthermore, there is another “system� applies to formulate the design, a point grid system, as well as a large orthogonal coordinate structure throughout the whole park. Tschumi believes the point grid system gives a sense of French rationalism and it offers great flexibility to designers. Also, this virtual grid then causes more tension to the site. Points The system of points, as corresponds to the system of objects. This system is arranged according to the underlying grid throughout the park with a network bright red folie at 120 intervals. Each folie designs within a framework of 10mx10mx10m cube. (The concept of a folie will discuss later in this section.) Lines The system of lines, as corresponds to the system of movements. The two 5 meters covered path is what represented this scheme. One of the pathway links the

Fig.04 The Superimposition of the three systems (Tschumi, 1982)

two metro stations which run along the axis which perpendicular to the canal. The other one lies along with the canal in the form of an aerial walkway. This layer demonstrates a connection for the city. Surfaces The system of surface, as corresponds to the system of space. This issue as all the surfaces in the park which offers a large open space for all kind of activities to take place. Unlike the other two systems, this layer is unprogrammed. Accompanied with the provision of vegetation and gravel surface allows the public enjoy the complete programmatic freedom.

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Research Essay

FRAMES AND SEQUENCES

“At La Villette, a frame means each of the segments of the sequence; in the Cinematic Promenade, each frame defines a garden. Each of these frames can be turned into a single piece of work.” (Tschumi, 1987) The frames set by Tschumi layout as a grid system. A sequence of then creates like the arrangement of a film; Tschumi introduces it as ‘cinegram’ (Tschumi, 1987). These frames and sequence are superimposed and mixed in the masterplan of La Villette and thus produce a unique spatial experience. (This will elaborate later in this essay.) Deconstruction is the key design philosophy throughout the design project. The Manhattan Transcipts is known as Tschumi’s analysis of deconstruction. The idea of “frames that confronts spaces, movements and events” (Tschumi, 1981) forms a sequence with its structure and thus develop a set of rules. Similar to a film, the Transcript generates a set of scriptograms by comparing the process of filmaking which Fig. 05 The Tower [excerpt], The Manhattan Transcripts (Tschumi, 1981)

uses the frame by frame technique, with accumulation, then meaning is developed for the context. Furthermore, the concept of cinematic landscape demonstrates in La Villette which entitles as the Cinematic Promenade.

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Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Fig. 06 Night view of the cinematic promenade

“An axis is perhaps the first human manifestation; it is the means of every human act […] The axis is the regulator of architecture […] Arrangement is the grading of axes, and so it is the grading of aims, the classification of intentions.” Corbusier & Goodman, 2008)

This term ‘architectural promenade’ is referenced as Le Corbusier design principle in both architecture and city planning. It is about how an observer’s pathway through a built space. During the Supercrit #4, Tschumi says the Plan Voisin and Plan Obus, two masterplan project by Le Corbusier during the 20th century, is one of the inspiration for La Villette.

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Research Essay

CONCEPT OF FOLIES “Each folie is thus a rigorous marker and an enclave, a rally point and haven of experimentation within the programme and within the site” Tschumi in (Barzilay, et al., 1984) This section is to discuss further the idea of folies regarding the visual effect they bring to the project. A total number of 26 folies in a layout of a grid, although Tschumi designs all of them using the idea he develops from the Manhattan Transcripts, i.e. the rules of transformation inlcuing repetition, distortion, superimposition and fragmentation) and leave them unprogrammed. He still offers two ‘functions’ for them. Firstly, folies as a ‘point of intensity’. In La Case Vide: La Villette, Jacques Derrida has written that “the point concentrates, folds back towards itself the greatest force of attraction, contracting lines towards the centre.” (Derrida, 1986). The unique form Tschumi propose provide a sense of attractiveness and a guide to the location within the park. It also maximises the footfall within site and thus each of the folie become a point of gathering for all sorts of events to occur. Folies is also a ‘symbol for the site’. Although Tschumi has no idea why he chooses red for the folies according to the transcript from Supercirt #4, Giovanni Damiani, an American architecture historian, has written that the repeating folies create a strong sense of identity like the British public telephone booth (Damiani, et al., 2003). Eventhough Tschumi claimed the folies are not programmed, the location of particular folies indeed serves as various functions. Fig. 07-10 Folies [L9, N7, P4, N4] (from top to bottom), Parc de La Villette, Paris

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For example, Folie N1 is programed as Clocktower; Folie N9 is the south park entrance with the information centre.


Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Fig. 11 Programmatic Deconstruction [excerpt], Cinegramme Folie le Parc de la Villette (Tschumi, 1982)

Fig. 12 folie matriix, Parc de la Villette, Paris (Tschumi, 1982)

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Research Essay

Fig. 13 Autogram output

DIAGRAMMATIC SEQUENCE Since diagram is “the central mechanism of ordering and design” (Hight, 2008), this research method has demonstrated a different ability to visualise Tschumi’s idea of cinematic propose in La Villette. In the following section, it focuses on the cinematic sequence based upon the use of diagrammatic analysis that has come across during a site visit in mid of November 2016. As mentioned above, the three key built concepts make the La Villette an extraordinary ‘landscape’. The new typology for an urban park is strongly influenced by Sergei Eisenstein and Jacques Derrida (among the others). The publishing of Manhattan Transcripts and the honour of winning the project in 1983 explains why Tschumi keeps encountering his diagrammatic ideas in La Villette. During the research journey in the La Villette, scriptogram is broadly used to study the site. This approach is to examine whether the idea of cinegram that Tschumi applied in La Villette and hence to discuss whether the cinematic landscape creates a positive or negative experience.

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Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Before the discussing on scriptogram, a note about the research in the park is worth to address. Regarding Tschumi’s masterplan, there are nothing as a ‘route’ throughout the park apart from the two pre-programmed covered walkways which also act as the X and Y axes of the grid. This idea of the cinematic sequence has vigorously affected how people explore the park. By then, the system of folies is the one that constitutes the journey. The first diagram introduced here is created according to the methodology of autogram. This type of diagram uses to record what attracts the passenger on a vehicle. It provides a sense of attraction by indicating different elements like sizes, colours, etc. Instead of using any vehicles, the diagram then produces through walking in La Villette. The diagram itself shows how is the adventure complete without any preferences but purely base on visual experiences. The outcome is surprisingly informative as it records what has taken the person attention and hence change the route of the journey.

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Research Essay

“The Manhattan Transcripts explicit purpose was to transcribe things normally removed from conventional architectural

representation,

namely

the

complex

relationship between spaces and their use, between the set and the script, between ‘type’ and ‘program,’ between objects and events.” (Tschumi, n.d.) Scriptogram suggests the use of diagram to form a sequence, hence to tell the story behind. Regarding the research on visual experience, this kind of diagram can stimulate the choreographical movements of the journey by applying different filming and editing techniques. In the following explanations on the research findings from producing scriptograms, some of the techniques will be introduced with filmography to provide a better understanding of the typology of this research method. The first scriptogram is taken as the journey on approaching to one of the folies. This set of diagram uses the tracking technique. According to The Construction of Drawings and Movies (Forget, 2013) Tracking is a linear movement that set along a path or track that is typically either parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of the person. Michelangelo Antonioni’s movie, Blow Fig. 14-17 Screencaps of Bloow Up (Antonioni, 1966)

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Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Up (1966) demonstrates this technique in the scene of zooming into the photograph and hence find out the secret behind the murder (Fig. 14-17). Antonioni uses this to explain the story spatially by providing a continuation view for the audience to get the sense of existence. With the set of four frames, the diagram shows the continuity of the scenes during the journey. Thus, this forms a unique visual sequence of space with the progressive view that contains a sense of continuity, discovery and mystery. Another sciptogram is an approach to recording the elevated promenade with a tracking and zooming. In regards the zooming technique, it happened to emphasise “the movement through an adjustment to the focal length of the lens” (Forget, 2013). One of the scenes in Alfred Hitchcock’s, Vertigo (1958) (Fig. 18-21) exhibits this technique to emphasise the protagonist fear of height. The use of zooming here then provide a sense of distance and thus to surprise the audience with shocking scenes.

Fig. 18-21 Screencaps of Vertigo (Hitchcock 1958)

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Research Essay

This set of diagram constructed in four frames. It aims to visualise the journey that parallels to the projection view of the walkway. The series of folies that set along it becomes the zooming target due to its colour, structure, etc. In this case, the scriptogram becomes a series of zoomed-in and zoomedout views of a continuous journey then gives out a sense of attraction, distance and projection. Nevertheless, here is one last set of scriptogram produces during the research in the park. This set of diagram uses the editing technique, cross-cut. This method aims to create “spatially discontinuous and temporally continuous” (Forget, 2013). Christopher Nolan applies this editing skill in one of his iconic movie, Inception (2010) (Fig. 22-25) and hence to tell a story that happens in multiple layers of a dream while they are all connected. This approach encourages the audience to analyse the storyboard themselves. Same as the previous, the scriptogram is set within four frames, and the diagram aims to capture the walking journey into a folie, meanwhile, inserting two unique spatial environments. These generate a steady rhythm in between frames. Unlike the previous scriptograms, this set of the diagram is in the form of Fig. 22-25 Screencaps of Inception (Nolan, 1966)

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fragments. Although they are ‘broken pieces’, the sequence in between the frames can be spatially formed in mind.


Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Fig. 26 Scriptopgram output - Tracking

Fig. 27 Scriptopgram output - Zooming

Fig. 28 Scriptopgram output - Cross cut

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Research Essay

Fig. 29 Serial Vision in La Villette [A]

LINEAR OF FRAGMENTED SEQUENCE? From the above diagrammatic research that demonstrate various cinematic experience. Steen Eiler Rasmussen said, “the object of architecture is to provide a framework for people’s lives, then the rooms in our house, and the relation between them, must be determined by the way we will live in them and move through them.” (Radmussen, 1959) This section of the essay will discuss the questioned raised at the beginning of this piece, did the linear and fragmented sequence that Tschumi proposed offers a better visual experience with a freedom of movement by adopting various sources of related theories to examine the visual quality in La Villette. From the earlier section in this essay, The Built Theories, it explores the idea of frames and sequences that Tschumi raised in the Manhattan Transcripts and thus demonstrated in the masterplan for La Villette. In regards the deconstructed system, the architect himself identify it as “diagrammatic visuality” (Gracia, 2010) in The Diagrams of Architecture edited by Mark Garcia. “Take La Villette; the diagram is visible during certain seasons. Right now [in summer], it is not visible when you go into the park. You rarely see more than four follies at a time; you can’t follow the logic of the superimposition because you are in it. But in winter there is not a problem, you get it right away.”

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Tschumi in (Gracia, 2010)


Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

The quote Tschumi says during his interview with Mark Gracia raises an interesting idea about the visuality of the park. As the research trip has taken in winter, the virtual grid for the system of points is effectively examined in La Villette, especially on the two walkways which prove the relationship between diagram and architecture has been elaborated in this project correctly. Also, this approach enhances the “visual permeability” (Bently, et al., 1985) to the public as it provides infinite alternatives to delve into the park. Moreover, “Order is always more or less miserable […] but you have to take the world as it is, and for that, a certain inelegance is required.” (Tessenow, 1986). Regarding the visuality is varied by a different period, the firm sense of linear perspective gives a sense of order. Thus, according to Gordon Cullen, an English architect and urban designer, this offers a high visual quality for a public experience. His theory about “projection and recessions” (Cullen, 1961) identify that a linear approach turns out to be charming as the alignment be able to avoid complexity, thus, to defined the boundary. Also, as the folies are served as the “points” in the park, the framework of a folie bring in the issue with lacking hierarchy in height. The lack of variety negatively affects the view since the function of “focal point” (Cullen, 1961) according to Cullen is no longer exist in this circumstances.

Fig. 30 Serial Vision in La Villette [B]

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Research Essay

Fortunately, the consecutive appearance of the element of folies in the autogram mentions in the previous section explains that the sharp contrast between the three colours, red (folies), green (grass and trees) and grey (gravel pavement) takes the attention throughout the journey. Noted that “the understanding of it [colour] as an architectural element that gives shape to the interface between surface and space…” (Mack, 2001), the use of colour act as a role to create “spatial illusion” (Baljon, 1995) as it aids to improve the perspective and sequence of the movement in the park. “At La Villette, the cut between two garden two garden sequences is executed by means of a line of trees.” (Tschumi, 1984). The scriptogram (Fig. 31) produced in the research investigates the cinematic relationship in between two folies. The sense of continuity, discovery and mystery through the screening of the trees and the hence the red folie captured as a landmark which also leads the journey in a particular direction. This proposal responds to the theory of “serial vision” (Cullen, 1961) which states that high quality of spatial experience is the one that the progress of a person walk from one end to another is impressed by a series of sudden contrast, screening, landmark, etc. These creates a great visual approach and also bring upon the plan to life. Fig. 31 Scriptopgram output - Zooming

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Fig. 32 Photomontage of a folie


Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

Along with the serial vision, one of Bruno Zevi’s invariables, “Four-dimensional decomposition” (Zevi & Oppenheimer, 1983) suggests that when spaces are connected in a meaningful sequence, distinctive perceptions will occur. In La Villette, spaces are layout in a grid in one layer and overlayed in three systems throughout the park to provide cinematic sequence like a film. Tschumi makes it as an open-mind idea by not programming every detail in the park. Thus everyone could formulate their unique experience when they start to enjoy and explore.

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Research Essay

CONCLUSION “Film provides a very rich representation of architecture” Christopher Gerard in (Clarke, 2012). Bernard Tschumi proposed an urban park based on the concept of the cinematic sequence wins the competition for Parc de la Villette held by the French government in 1983. The project marks the new era of deconstructivism which is a philosophy raised by Jacques Derrida. From an architecture theorist to a practising architect, La Villette is Tschumi’s first built project as well as a turning point in his career. This project demonstrates his theories published in The Manhattan Transcript, which is an iconic series of diagrams investigating the events, movement and space regarding architecture. Also, these theoretical ideas including the relationship between sequence and frames. In La Villette, these ideas are built corresponding to more new concepts introduced by Tschumi like “system and superimposition”, “cinematic promenade”, “folies”, etc.

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Sequence of visual experience in Parc de La Villette

In the section, Diagrammatic Sequence it analyses the idea of the cinematic experience that Tschumi brings into La Villette, This research leads to a production of a vast number of scriptograms which tested various cinematography skills from making a film, including tracking, zooming and cross cut. The dissection of cinematic events around La Villette examines how does the sequence of visual experience successfully elaborated in comparison to Tschumi’s design principle. After all, the diagrams raise a question whether these kinds of vivid scenes provide an extraordinary place to the public. By carrying out a comparison of the La Villette diagrams and photos taken in the sit with the different theories by architectural theorists like Gordon Cullen, Bruno Zevi and Henrich Tessenow, it is accomplishing that the new typology of the discontinuous urban park provides an outstanding quality of space to explore.

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REFERENCES A. Filmography B. Bibliography C. List of Illustration


References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Baljon, L., 1995. Designing parks. Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura Press. Barzilay, M., Hayward, C. & Lombard-Valentino, L., 1984. L ‘Invention du parc. Paris: Graphite Editions. Bently, I. et al., 1985. Responsice environments. London: Routledge. Berger, J., 2008. Way of seeing. s.l.:Penguin Classics. Bowring, J. & Swaffield, S., 2009. “Diagrams in Landscape Architecture” in The Diagrams of Architecture. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Clarke, A., 2012. Spatial Experience: Narrative and Architecture. [Online] Available at: http://www.architects.nsw.gov.au/download/BHTS/Clarke_A_Spatial_Experience_Narrative__ BHTS2012.pdf[Accessed 18 12 2016]. Corbusier, L., 1927. Towards a new architecture. Oxford: Butterworth-Architecture . Cullen, G., 1961. The Concise Townscape. Oxon: The Architectural Press. Damiani, G., Michelis, M. D. & Hays, K. M., 2003. Tschumi. London: Thames & Hudson. Derrida, J., 1985. La Case Vide: La Villette. London: Architectural Association School of Architecture. Derrida, J., 1986. “Point de Folie - Maintenant lárchitecture” in La Case Vide: La Villette. London: Architectural Association. Forget, T., 2013. The Construction of Drawings and Movies. New York: Routledge. Gracia, M., 2010. The Diagrams of Architecture. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons ltd. Hardingham, S. & Rattenbury, K., 2012. Super Crit #4 Bernard Tschumi Parc de la Villette. Oxon [England]: Routledge. Hight, C., 2008. Architectural Principles in the Age of Cybernetics. London: Routledge. Mack, G., 2001. “Between surface and space: color in architecture” in Colors. Blarcium: Birkhäuser. McQuillan, M., 2001. Deconstruction A reader. New York: Routledge. Meiss, P. v., 1990. Elements of Architecture. London: Spon Press. Papadakis, A. C. & Glusberg, J., 1988. Deconstruction in Architecture. London: Academy Editions. Radmussen, S. E., 1959. Experiencing architecture. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Tessenow, H., 1986. Hausbau und dergleichen. Braunschweig: Vieweg & Sohn. Tschumi, B., 1981. The Manhattan Transcripts. London: Architecutural Design . Tschumi, B., 1984. “Cinematic Promenade” in Etude de Definition. Paris: unpulished. Tschumi, B., 1987. Cinegramme: Folie le Parc de La Villette. Sevenoaks: Butterworth Architecture. Tschumi, B., 1994. Architecture and disjuction. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Tschumi, B., 2014. Tschumi Parc de La Villette. London: Artifice. Tschumi, B., n.d. The Manhattan Transcripts 1976-1981. [Online] Available at: http://www.tschumi.com/projects/18/ [Accessed 18 Dec 2016]. Wigley, M., 1993. The architecture of deconstruction. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Zevi, B., 1978. The modern language of architecture. Seattle: University of Washington Press . Zevi, B. & Oppenheimer, A., 1983. On Modern Architecture. New York: Rizzoli Publications.

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FILMOGRAPHY Blow Up. 1966. [Film] Directed by Michelangelo Antonioni. UK; Italy: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Bridge Films Inception. 2010. [Film] Directed by Christopher Nolan. UK; USA: Legendary Vertigo. 1958. [Film] Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. USA: Paramount Pictures

LIST OF ILLUSTRATION Cover

Original Photograph

Fig. 01

Louis Janvier (1868), Plan of La Villette slaughterhouse and cattle market, Avaliable at : https:// lavillette.com/en/history/ [Access on 18 DEC 2016]

Fig. 02-04

Tschumi, B. (1987), Cinegramme: Folie le Parc de La Villette. Sevenoaks: Butterworth Architecture.

Fig. 05

Tschumi, B., 1981. The Manhattan Transcripts. London: Architecutural Design .

Fig. 06 - 10

Original Photograph

Fig. 11-12

Tschumi, B. (1987), Cinegramme: Folie le Parc de La Villette. Sevenoaks: Butterworth Architecture.

Fig. 13

Illustrations originally prepared as part of the research method diary

Fig. 14 -25

Screencaps from Youtube

Fig. 26 -30

Original Photograph

Fig. 31-32

Illustrations originally prepared as part of the research method diary

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APPENDIX Lecture Notes and Workshop Outputs


Appendix

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Appendix

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Appendix

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1b8cgKi_7E

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Appendix

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Sequence of Visual Experience in Parc de La Villette  

MArchD Research in Methods [Research Method Diary + Research Essay] Oxford School of Architecture, Oxford Brookes University

Sequence of Visual Experience in Parc de La Villette  

MArchD Research in Methods [Research Method Diary + Research Essay] Oxford School of Architecture, Oxford Brookes University

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