The Philippine history

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The ~ilippine History A "T ABLEA U VIVANT" IN 12 EPOCHS Written, Staged and Dir ected by IGNACIO GARciA ROXAS

Chairman of the "Tableaux/ Vivants" Show 2 ND PART


I- Spain and the Philippines-Pro ogue 2-The arrival of the Malays 3-The arrival of Magellan 4-First Mass in the Philippines 5- Baptism of Queen Humabon 6-Death of Ferdinand Magellan The first part, to be staged on Jan. 30th, Feb. 1st and 3rd, 1937

7-Meeting between Don Ma r tin de Goiti and Rajah Soliman 8-Blood Com pact 9-Death of Don Simon de Anda 10-August 13th, 1898 ll-Death of General Lawton 12-America an d the Philippines ("Per Pacem et Li bertas") -A potheosis The second part, to be staged on Jan. 31st. F eb. 2nd and 6th, 1937

At the Exposition Grounds Audi torium at 9 p. m. Stage Manager: I. Ga1'cia Roxas Wigs and Characterization: Eliseo Carvajal Curtains: Juan Abelardo and Son 1

J08e Rizal Monullnent

A Pageant of Philippine History Depicted in TWELVE TABLEAUX VIVANTS By IGNACIO GARCIA ROXAS

PURPOSE In this pageant, efforts to keep ourselves free, until Destiny brought which will be a faith- about a change in sovereignty over our beloved counful reprod uction of try. the glorious events The scenes of this grand spectacle have been and epoc\ls of Philip- adapted from the paintings of Filipino masters, and pine History, the spec- in giving life to the pictures we have endeavored to tator will see the out- interpret them as truthfully as the painters have givstanding achievements en them expression on the canvas. in war of our noble The chief purpose of this pageant is to reproduce a ncestors, the vast the memorable events which, on account of the lapse and lasting culture which Spain brought of more than three centuries, have been alfl)f>st fort o our shores, the pa- gotten by the youth of the land, and also 'ftb depict tience and devotion before our visitors the highlights of our immortal which her missiona- past. The magnitude of the work we have undertakIgnacio Garcia Rozas des displayed in the en is such that we had to seek the help of authorities propagation of t he F aith in our land, and finally, on the subject to overcome the difficulties arising the wars we had to face since the beginning in our out of our own limitations.


It is thus that we have secured the assistance of well known Filipino historians and writers like the Hon. Jaime C. de Veyra, former Resident Commissioner to the United States and now head of t he Spanish Department, University of the Philippines ; Hon. Teodoro M. Kalaw and Mr. Eulogio B. Rodriguez, Director and Assistant Director, r espectively, of the Philippine National Library ' Don Leoncio Gonzalez Liquete, who have made s ecial studies in P~ilippine history and linguistics and Antonio Abad, associate director of "El Debate." The majority of them are also members of the Spanish Academy, and each and everyone is thoroughly acquainted with the details of our history and the ideals of liberty of our people. They have gladly written the ar t icles

which are published in this program. For these articles we feel profoundly indebted and it is with great pride that we say to them is due whatever credit may come for the success of 'the whole show. This pageant is specially dedicated to the visitors who these days have honored the City of Manila with their presence and at the same time will be afforded the opportunity to see its presentation. Thus they will be given an insight into our glorious hi story. The pageant will give a vivi d r eproduction of the warlike character of our people, t heir hospitality, the outstanding changes wh ich have led to their presen tday civilization and religion, ther eby making the Philippines the f irst and only Christian nation of the Or ient.

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Spain and the Philippines ESPANA Y FILIPINAS By ANTONIO ABAD Al con tern pIal' e te cuadro el aficionado no debe In looking at this picture one should not fijarse solo en aquello hacia 10 cual el autor quiere turn one's eyes only lIamal" enseguida su atencion: la salida de un sol de to what the artist wanted to bring out un nuevo dia, bello e ingenuo, envuelto aun en el cain bold relief-wmch puz del futuro. Es la madre que sefiala a su hija, was the sun rising to pura e inocente aun, un futuro inundado de luz, y bring forth a new mientras Ie cine la cintul'a con un brazo fuerte y amanday, fr,esh aud beau- te, como para sostenerla para que no desmaye en el tiful, s~ill veiled in the mist~ of the fu- camino que todavia tiene que recorrer, COll el otro exture. WHall. really de- t iende un dedo senalador, imperativo, autoritario, tiserves one's attention ranico como un mandato del destino. is the mother who Madre e hija han convivido tres siglos. Larga points to her daughter, still pure and convivencia aun entre pueblos. Y de la larga conlovely like the first vivencia, la hija, al mad ural' como fruta cuya semilla l'ose of summer, a fu- esta dispuesta a /1.Undirse en el surco obedeciendo leyes t ure flood e d with eternas y vita'les de reproduccion, POI' fuerza habia light. While the momadre Antonio A.bad t hel' has one arm de babel' entre ellas cierto forcejeo: el de around t he daughter's que路 no esta cansada aun de los besos de la hija, y el wa ist as if to suppor t her so that the maiden' may not de la mja demasiado ansiosa acaso de responder a la fa It I' on the road that remains to be covered, the llamada del destino. other is extended w ith t he pointing finger protruding, Tal forcejeo que en uno y otro caso solo quiere givin g a n imperati\'e and almost tyrannical sign. Mother and daughter have lived together for decir amor, tenia que pl'oducir desgarraduras; pero 6

three centuries-a record in the history of nations. In their long years of association, the da ughter, blossoming forth into full womanhood, and the mother still feeling the warmth of the kisses of her beloved girl, must perforce come to the parting of the ways as the young woman appears eager to answer the bugle call of Destiny. However, separation necessarily produces heartaches and sorrows. Thus it is that the painter, exquisite artist that he is, possessed of a sensible soul and a tender heart that easily re~pond to the fine sentiments of love, as mother and daughter ascend the road toward the pinnacle of their dreams, has wanted to leave nothing but an impression of beauty and idealism. As mother and daughter together have won palms of glory, the palms in falling to the ground are perfumed by roses strewn on their path . - Roses symbolize happiness and are a reminder of halcyon days of the past. It is thus that the artist, in creating this picture, wants to glorify the history of Spain in the Philippines. Spain, the empress of a brilliant age, points to her daughter, the Philippines, the glorious future that awai ts her if she will but persevere in the path of virtue. Spain and the Philippines~a picture of love which is a challenge to the future!

el pintor, artista cxquisito, alma sensible, coraz6n de cera blanda a todos los sentimient08 nermosos del amor, no quiere dejar en el camino que recorren cogidas madre e hij a hacia la altura ideal de sus suenos, otra cosa que un a estela de belleza e idealidad. POI' e80, como las dos conquistal'on pal mas juntamente, las palmas, al caer sobre el polvo de la escalinata, se confunden con las rosas que sul'gen en los intel'sticios de la piedra du r a qu e pisan sus pies. Las rosas . . . He ahi la estela, que en el coraz6n y en la mente es rccnerdo de dias de ventura, que el

autor qui ere que exista del paso de Espana pol' el Oriente del brazo de su hija, Filipinas. Espana, hija de una civilizaci6n de siglos, ensena a Filipinas, mas que las bravas gestas de su historia, el brillante fu turo que la espel'a si perseve ra en el camino de la virtud. E spana y Filipinas : cuadro de amor clavado como una saeta en el porvenir.

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Juan Luna y Novicio Asheisbetter known in full, was born in Badoc, Ilocos Norte, on October 23rd, 1857. His parents were: Joaquin Luna and Laureana Novicio both of wellto-do families. He entered the Ateneo de Manila and later took up nautical courses in the Naval Academy. At sixteen he enlisted himself for practical training in a boat and went to China, Batavia, Singapore and Colombo. He felt however, Juan Luna y No vicio that he was not in the con-ect path. The scenes of the countries he visited, the slopes of the mountains and i he gentle sweep of the landscape: all these things awaken on him a different feeling conceived in love and beauty that was to make him perhaps, the greatest Filipino painter of all times. It was during these moments while serving as a pilot 8

that the desire to paint and later see more of the world was born to him. He returned to his country and enrolled in the Ateneo de Manila, where under professor Agustin Saez he learned his first drawings. It was the thought that made him strong in his determination. He went to the Academy of Fine Arts; and studied more painting under Lorenzo Guen 路ero. Desirous of broadening his knowledge of the art of painting, he sailed for Spain in 1877 to continue his studies in the school of Fine Arts in Madrid. At the Madrid Exposition in 1881, Luna surprised the Italian painters with his "The Death of Cleopatra," which was awarded second prize Gold Medal and one thousand duros. The painting was later sold for 500,000 pesetas. Other important works which won his fame, though not as much as his "Spoliarum," may be memtioned the "Battle of Lepanto," and the "Surrender of Granada." Both of these received prizes. The "Battle of Lepanto" is described as beautiful and horrible reality. . He I~ft Europe some time in 1899, but while in Hong Kong he was attacked 'by an old ailment and on December 7th, of the same year, he gave his soul to his mother artist. Here is Rizal's toast of posterity to Luna : "The greatest painter the Philippines ever had."



Irineo L, Miranda Professor Miranda was born in San Fernando, Pampanga, on December 15, 1896. He enterf d the School of Fine Arts, Uni versity of the Philippines, in 1909, and was graduated on March 15, 1916. He was Bureau of Agriculture Artist in 19131916, then employed

in the Pacific Co mmercia l Company as Commercial Artist in 1917-1921. He is cartoon ist and ill ustrator for the followin g dai lies, weekly magazines and newspa ers: "EI Debate," "Pakakak," "Watawat," "Telembang,'" "Lipang Kalabaw," " Republic," "Sampaguita," "Liwayway," " Graphic," " Alitaptap," "Mabuhay," Philippine Magazine," " National Review," Philippine Forum," and "Today," a newly edited magazine in English, and illustrator of several textbooks. In 1926, he was appointed faculty member of the School of Fine Arts in painting. At present he is in charge of the department of Commercial and Decorative Art.

lrineo L. Miranda.


The Filipino Malays at the Corning of the Spaniards (1521-1565) By HON. JAIME C. DE VEYRA

Memuer of the Spanish A cademy of the Language It is difficult to give an accurate idea of social conditions in the Phil ippines at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards. Ou r only sources of information are to be had in the chronicles of Pigafetta, a companion of Magellan, in the first accounts of Religious Orders, and, in particular , in the eighth chapter of Morga's "Sucesos," as edited by Rizal and Retana. With regard to the mental an d the spiritual aspect, we must refer to the first vocabularies compiled by missionaries. Among these, t he expurgated edition of the "Vocabulario" by P ila is of use when compared with the first edition of t he same book. The Spanish explorers did not land in a country inhabited by savages or by noma dic tribes. Settlements were in existence. Ag ri culture was the main occupation of t he nati ves. The sea-coast was wellpopulated. The people had a well-developed social life. Their customs were such that the early Spanish governors r espected t heir method of dealing out justice. Their monot heistic religion proved to be fertile


soil for the teachings of Christ Crucified. Certain dialects, like the Tagalog, were in a sense, more rich than the Spanish language. The alphabet was syllabic. It is true that the Spaniards found no stone monuments. Neither have there been found native writingl'/ of a literary or historic nature, of these early times, due to the religious zeal which prompted the destruction of works which might have impeded the rapid christianization of the people. The theory that the Hindu civilization has had a marked influence upon the Filipinos, a theory recently asserted by Prof. Beyer, has been upheld by the studies of Kern and Pardo de Tavera, who ha'/e found, in the Tagalog and in the Visayan dialects, words of Sanscrit origin. With regard to the question of race: the people; wherever found, whether in the more advanced settlements along the coast 01' in the almost inaccessible villages of the interior, including those in the mountain regions, be-


(At the possession of t he aut hor )

tray a common origin, both to ethnology and to philology. Even geology which holds to the belief that the archipelago was at one time a part of the Asiatic continent, strengthens our stand that these people possessed a civilization comparable to that of her more famous neighbors. Magellan's dealings with Si-Agu and Si-KolambU and later with Humabon, those of Legaspi with SiKatuna and of Goiti with Raxa Matanda and the " blood

compact," prove against that the Spaniards found here a people worthy of treatment befitting an equal. The traits of these early people may be drawn from the writings of the first missionaries. Further details may be obtai ned from Paterno's "Antigua Civilizaci6n Tagalog" or from the more accurate accounts in Dame Delbeke's "Religion and Morals of the Early Filipinos" and Prof. Beyer's "The Philippines before Magellan."

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Ramon Peralta Pursued in 1886 his secondary education which he completed in the "Instituto Burgos" College, fount\ed by the late Don Enrique Mendiola. After g raduation , transferred to San Juan de Letran College, where he obta ined his A. B. degree. In 1892, enrolled in Ramon Peralta t he "Academia Superior de Di bujo y P int ura de Manila," under the direction of the famous painter, Don Lorenzo Rocha, where he won honors and different medals and diplomas in competit ive examinations. At the suggestion of the "Centro de Artistas" Col12

lege, was appointed Professor in Decorative Painting and Landscapes. He participated in the St. Louis Exposition of 1904, having won a diploma and a bronze medal. Was Honorary Member of the "Sociedad Internacional de Artistas de Manila," presided by the late Don Rafael Enriquez. In 1909, took part in a contest for the best diploma to commemorate the arrival on this shores of the American Fleet commanded by Admiral Sperry, and won the only award of one hundred pesos (P100.00) for the symbolic diploma, which was presented to the Admiral of the said fleet. One of his great and historic work entitled "Sikatuna" was purchased by the Dominican Fathers now to be found in the social hall of San Juan de Lett路an College. At the suggestion of Director Kalaw, he depicted 011 the canvas the historic spot of "Tirad Pass," which marked the fall of General Gregorio del Pilar, now to be found at the Philippine Library and Museum.

In a close contest won the position of Assistant Instructor in the School of Fine Arts in 1918. From this position was promoted to that of Laboratory Insh路uctor, his present position. In recognition of his artistic ability and of his wholehearted and unfailing cooperation, the University of the Philippines placed him in charge of the annual celebration of the U. P. Day, National Heroes Day, and Tableau-Vivants in the U. P. Campus, and at the Carnival Grounds from 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928. 1929, and up to the present. Was sent to Europe by the Univers路ty of the Philippines as a pensionado to specialize himself in scenographic and mural painting, and to gain more knowl-

edge. In Barcelona, Madrid, and Paris, work under well known scenographic artists. This enabled him to raise the standard of the School of Fine Arts. On his retu rn trip to the Philippines, he visited France, Italy, Spai n, Cairo, East Indi es, Port Said, and Colombo, where he had the opportunity of admiring the great works exhibited at the museums of Louvre, Del Prado, and in the P a lace and Museum of Fine Arts of Barcelona. Assuming his position in the School of Fine Arts, soon after his arriva l, he was appointed by Dr. Rafael Palma, then P residen t of the uni versity, to make th e mural painting entitled "Alma Mater," now adornin g the President's office.

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Magellan's Arrival By M emb~


The Magellan expedition sight ed land fo r the fiJ:st time, as it entered P hilippine waters, on March 16, 1521. However, it did not make any effort to land . The land it saw must have been somewher e a long t he eastern coast of Samar, between the present municipalities of Borongan and Giwa n. Regarding that f irst voyage, "primo viaggio" as P igafetta calls it, ther e is a slight dispar ' ty between him and Albo. The diaries of the t wo are t he only wri tten documents whi ch gi ves deta ils of the happenings of t hose days. The first g ives the impr ession that once land had been sight ed on March 16, 1521, t he expedit ion did not send any party ashore. He ch roni cles that the first land on which the Spaniards positively set foot was Homonhon, this being the correct name, al though he inciden tally mentions Zuluan. On t he other hand Albo states categorically that ". • • there we anchored and it was on the same day, Ma rch 16, the island being called Suluan • • • ."




of the Spanis h A cademy of the Lan guag e

Magellan, the captain general, wanted to give member s of t he crew rest and relaxation on land and also secure water. In effect, the f ollowing day, March 17, the expedition moved toward the next island, which was uninhabited and which was called Humuuu, a name it learned afterwards, and there it dropped anchor . Once on la nd, t he party pi tched two tents where t he sick were laid. A pig was butchered for them. This, therefore, was the first time Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil. The island they occupied was really called Humunu. There they found two springs with crystalline water. They likewise saw gold for the first time in these islands. Thus they called the place the "Fountain of Good Omen." White coral abounded on the island and there were huge trees which bore fruit somewhat smaller than almond. There also was a great vari ety of palm trees.


(lJ:xJlosed at th e San Juan de Letrn n College. Wall ed City. Manila )

The First Mass in the Philippines By HON. JAIME C. DE VEYRA MembeT of the Spanish Academy of the Language

Where and when was The fact that Limasawa was then of the property of the first mass held in the king of Butuan, located on the big island of Minthe Philippines? Dr. danao, was undoubtedly responsible for t he error Pardo de Tavera in made up to this day by Philippine historians, who have his last work, "Notas associated Butuan with the important religious event Para Una Cartografia referred to. Not on ly was the first mass not held de Filipinas," answers in Butuan, as we say, according to the testimony of this question definite- an eye-witness, the historian Pigafetta, but Magellan ly by saying that the did not even get to Butuan nor anywhere in Mindafirst mass was held in nao, because when his fleet touched that island, it was Limasawa on March after his death in Maktan." Colin f or his part observes ; "And Eastern Sun31, 1521. He says; "It was in Limasa- day (March 31), which r eally it was for the Philipwa and not in Butuan pines, was set aside (by Magellan) for the celebrawhere the first mass tion of the fi rst mass said and heard therein." Jaime C. de Veyra The Jesuit fathers have been the ones who have was given in these islands. it was the first land where Magellan set foot taken special enthusiasm over the idea that the first on Philippine soil and the date was March 31, 1521. mass was said in Butuan. A mon ument is reported 15

to have been erected t here to commemorate t he event. The monument, ser vi ng now no purpose with the correction of this blun der , should be demolished-if it has not been demolished yet- to prevent the per petuation of a historical f law. With regard to the reference made by Dr. P a rdo de Tavera to Pigaffeta, the following is quoted fro m the latter's work, "Primer Viaje Alrededor del Mundo" (First Voyage Around the Wo Id ) : "Sunday, the last day of Ma rch, which was Easter Sunday, the Captain General very early sent to shore the chaplain-probably Pedro de Valderr rna, who was on the 'Capitana'-with some men in older to make preparations for a mass. The interpret l' was sent along with instruction to inform the king that we were to disembark, not to partake of meal with him but to discharge a religious obligation . When the King of Limasawa was informed of th e message, he sent two butchered pigs on board. "We were about 50 who landed, all without ar mor, but armed and attired in the best we could. Before t he boats moored along the shore, the ships

fired six guns as a signal of peace. When we set foot on shore, the two kings, Si-Kalambu and Si-Agu, who were waiting for us, embraced the Captain General a nd placed him between them and we flanked them as we marched toward the place where the mass was to be held, which was near the beach. " Before the Holy Sacrifice began, the Captain General besprinkled the two kings with holy water. In the offertory the two kings gave adoration to the Cross, but made no offer; and as the host was raised they knelt with hands across the breast, imitating our action . The report of a musket was then heard on lan d, which was the prearranged signal, and the ships fo llowed with a general salvo. After the mass, some of our men took holy communion and the Captain General ordered the soldiers to perform a few maneuver s and exercises with the sword, a spectacle which hi ghly pleased the kings." So detailed is Pigafetta's narration that it can leave no room for doubt regarding t he act thus described. Magellan's fleet was then riding at anchor off Limasawa, which lies to the south of Leyte.

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(Exposed at the Philippine Museum, Port Area, Manila)

Fernando Amorsolo "The foremost Filipino impressionist painter," Mr. Fernando Amorsolo, is at heart an essentially romantic realist. He is mostly known for his typical Filipino girls in Balintawak that show the glow of health, the sunny smile and the fragile water jar, symbolic of the rustic or "Bukid Maid." Fernando Amorsolo He was 3ent to Madrid where he spent a year studying at the "Academia de San Fernando," the bighest school of fine arts in Gld Spain. He stopped in New York in hiS way to the Islands and studied moi-e cj.f modern art and life in America. His pictures were later exhibited in the Grand Central Galleries in New York. The exhibition

gained for him sales a nd favorab le comments of the highest kind. Mr. Amorsolo is a talented pain ter; his pictures seem to be a melange of Velasquez, Goya and Rembrandt. Take for example: " An Old Man with a Violin," Amorsolo seems there to be at his best as an impressionist; "The Early Christian Converts," "Elias" and "Nude Feminity" as f ragi le as the jar on her lap, " Nabasag ang Banga," is he not there as a rea list ? But glance at his typical "Bali ntawak Girl," and there is Amorsolo himself-for emost in interpreting life, custom and atmosp here of his native land. And the secret of it all seems to be in these few words of Mr. Amorsolo, as he modestly, but truly has said: "You must be original, patient and painstaking, pu tting yourself and your soul into the canyas; never min ding what other s would say." This truly demonstrates what foreignel路s say : " The Filipinos are artists to thei r finger t ips, really if they would stick to where they are, interpreting the beautiful scenery and breezy atmosphere of t he tropics, the lands of dream and romance-being less exotic and more native!"


The Baptism of Queen Humabon By EULOGJO B. RODRIGUEZ A ssistant Director, National LibraT1J It is necessary to retrace our footsteps some four hundred and sixteen years back in order to witness the colorful baptism of a distinguished Filipino lady dignitary-the baptism of Queen Humabon . Her baptism and that of about eight hundre men, women, and children was an event f ull of color and pageantry whose far-reaching consequences were osely interwoven with the history of the Philippines ince Magellan's epoch-making effort to sail aroun d the world brought him to Cebu in 1521. Queen Humabon was one among the members of the long line of historic Fi lipino royalties t o have been baptized and converted into the Catholic faith . The baptismal cer emony per formed to seal her conver sion not only marked the beginning of the Christ ianization of t he Fili pinos by Spain but served as the basis for a friendl y relation and mutual trust between two notable peoples in that epoch as well. With such a beginning the cross, the symbol of Spanish authority in the Philippines, may be said to have


triumphed for the first time. No other baptisms had taken place in this archipelago until after a lapse of forty-four years. The setting of the baptismal cer~mony was the shore of Cebu; it took place on Sunday, April 14, 1521, at noon. It was held in the open air where one could see the distant mountains and rivers of the surrounding country on one side and the wide seas on the other, and at a point near the shore where trees, ferns, flowering plants, and birds as if in communion, all combined to furnish the necessary background. The three ships of Magellan, the Victoria, the Concepcion, and the Trin'idad, witnessed the whole proceedings from the open sea. Queen Humabon, the esteemed wife of the Cel:man Rajah Humabon, the native ruler who held sway over that lair southern realm of this archipelago, was young and beautiful. She had 'white complexion and an imperious grace all her own. She was, according

THE BAPTISM OF QUEEN HUMABO N By F'ern(Lnclo Am-orsolo (Property of MI'. Salvado.'~ AI'.a~ eta , Wa~~-~ack Golf & Country Club,

" ~

to Pigaffeta, "entirely covered with a white and black cloth. Her mouth and nails were very red, while on her head she wore a large hat of palm leaves in the manner of a parasol, with a crown about it of the same leaves, like the tiara of the pope." How she conducted herself in the ceremony was re:ated to have been as follows: She came to the baptismal place with forty women. She was ' "conducted to the platform, and was made to sit down upon a cushion, and the other women neal' her. She was shown a very beautiful wooden (image of the) child Jesus, and a cross. Thereupon, s e was overcome with contrition, and asked for bal?tism amid her tears." Queen Humabon as might be expected, was given a different name-not native at all. She was named Johanna, after the mother of Emperor Charles V, who sponsored Magellan's expedition around the world. After the ceremony she asked the Spaniards "to ~ive her the little child Jesus to keep in place of

her idols." Padre Pedro de Valdera ma was the priest who baptized her. In the aftern oon of the same day King Humabon and the Queen, "acco mpanied by numer ous persons, came to the shore (the place where th e baptismal ceremony was held ) . Thereupon the Captain General, Magellan, had many trombs of fi re and large mortars di schal'ged, by which they wer e delighted. Magellan and King Humabon called one another brothers." Such, in brief, is the histori cal backgt'ound of the baptism of Queen Humabon, one of the first Filipino Royal ties who subjected t hemselves to the Christia~ faith. This event, possessed of a color of its own and of a unique sign ifica nce as well, was mad e vi vid ill an impressive an d spectacula r pageant, given by the Philippine Women 's College in 1927. The presentation of a histori cal pageant such as this later on give inducement to the brush of Fernando Amorsolo. who dep icted in a dra matic manner the baptism of fail' and gracef ul Queen Humabon.

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Toribio M. Herrera Dr. Herrera was born on April 27, 1,888 in Tondo, Manila. His father was Flaviano Herrera and his mother wa Benita Mendoza, bot~ having died already. As a toddling youngster of eight, he already showed promise in the realm of painting. His ambition to become a famous painter, however, had to give way to Toribio M. Herrem his studies. He entel'ed the municipal school of Binondo, which was at that time under the capable direction of ex-Judge Catalino Sevilla. He enrolled in the now defunct Liceo de Mani la at the time when the Americans and the Filipinos came to grips, and obtained his bachelor of 90

arts degree from that institution. Later, he enrolled in the University of Santo Tomas to take up medicine. The turning point in his career was reached after he had framed the preciolls sheepskin that announced to the world that he was a full-fledged "medico." His first love, painting, now came back to him with such force that he enrolled in the school of fine arts. He was admitted to the elementary class and studied painting with students still in their shorts. He directed his studies to the difficult line of coloring. Three months later, he was promoted to the head of his class, and at the end of the course he obtained a medal for his masterful presentation of subjects assigned to him. Dr. Herrera was awarded various prizes and diplomas in history of arts, landscape painting, composition, coloring, perspective, natural paipting, 路 and other subjects. He graduated as artist in 1921. Two years after his graduation, Dr. Herrera was made instrllctor of Anatomy in painting due to his knowledge of art and .science, a vital factor in the

teaching of that important subject. The next step, which was very natural enough, was his appointment to the chair of the secretary of the institution. Besides this, he was made instructor in history of arts and prespective. In Dr. Toribio Herrera we find science and art wedded. He was asked what relation exists between these two separate hranches of human activities. HElr e is his reply: " I believe that art and science are, identical as both should be based on the truth; when t hey are not ',hey cease to be, objectively, art and science. To both may be applied what Heine said, that 'all that is t a tio nal is r eal

and all that is real is rational,' considering their results. Subjectively, however, I believe t hat art is superior to positive science. In truth, I cannot understand why t here is no philosophy of art when it is indisputable that art, as a spiritua l attribute, can be placed, like the philosophic disquis itions in the regions of fanta sy. As there exist man y things which seem irrational and yet are real, and which a painting or a status can reflect, it follows to my way of thinking that art has a certain supremacy over positive science. All art, po~i tively, is nearer man than science, as its tendency is and always has been to make for beauty ra t her than wisdom; it can be said that t he primary and constant exercising of the artistic faculties awaken in man t he scientific facultie s: science should be founded on beauty. This is the relation which, in my opinion, exish' between the two things."

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Death of Magellan



Mernbel' of the Spanish Academy of the Language

Leoncio Gonzal ez Liquete

This picture repro路 duces the unexpected death of Ferdinand Magellan. Only a few days prior to the fateful event, he had discovered the San Lazaro Archipelago, which we now call the Commonwealth of the Philippines. This episode is the greatest set-back which Magellan's famous expedition suffered in its attempt to circumnavigate the world.

Magellan's death occurred on the island of Mactan. The end of the illustrious navigator as depicted in this canvas drawn by one of the foremost Filipino 22

painters, forms a sad cont rast to the happy and auspicious moments when he first entered into friendly relations with the kings and principal inhabitants of the islands he visited during the few days intervening from his arrival at Homonhon to t he disaster on Mactan. On Homonhon island which the expedition called the "Fountain of Good Omen," two tents were pitched in which the sick were housed and cared for, Magellan himself ministered to them with solicitude, visiting them daily during the eight days in which they stopped off there. He served with his own hands coconut wine which was spontaneously offered by the nati ves of the region. These also furnished the party with victuals, in return for which Mage' lan gave wearing apparels and other valuable goods which the galleons brought along to exchange them with gold and other precious products of the East. The fleet anchored off Limasaua on March 28, and there by exchanging gifts and other tokens of

mutual regard, friendly relations were established between the envoy of the Catholic King of Spain and the natives of these islands, who naturally were represented by the kings and caciques who persQnally received and dealt with Magellan. In this connection it is worth remembering, on the occasion of t he present XXXIII International Eucharistic Congress being held in Manila, that the first mass said in the Philippines took place on Easter Sunday, March 31, 1521- "an important and me mora Ie date in the annals of the Archipelago, since it com emorates the breaking in this land of the first light of, the E vangel wbich the missionaries subsequently propagated wi th heroic perseverance," to use the words of Don Manuel Walls Merino'; Spanish translator of Pigaffeta's chronicles. - A week after the holding of the first mass, the three caravels left of the expedition entered the port of Cebu on Sunday, April 7, 1521. On the trip from Limasaua to Cebu the King of Limasaua, who had then become a close friend of Magellan's, served as the pilot. Magellan had ordered that the usual forms of the time be observed, which consisted in flying all the flags, 'sailing with full sails and firing a salvo. After the formalities of introduction between the head

of the expedit ion and the native leaders, the King of Sugbu, now Cebu demanded of Magellan t he pay ment of a tribute, in accor dance with established cllstom. The Cebu king ci ted the case of a shi p whi ch, according to him, having arri ved there four days pr eviously wit h cargo of gold and slaves, had to pay t ri bute. N egotiations were at once begu n as a result of whi ch the king of Sugbu agr eed not only not t o collect the tribute demanded but to pay it to t he King of Spain. Magellan r ema ined on board a ll t his while, t he conversations being car ried on by one of hi s subordinates wit h t he aid of an in terpreter . The king of S ugbu also accepted t he term imposed by the expedition not to permit any t r ading within h is domains except with t he Spaniards. The t radi tional blood pact foll owed, which sy mboli zed alliance and friendship bet ween the king of Sugbu an d the leader of the expedi tion. During the foll owi ng eight days, events came rapidly in succession. Through Magellan's forceful persuasion and r easonings, t he fo llowing Su nday the Cebu ki ng, his wife, son, t he king of Li masaua a nd other isla nd leaders wer e bapt ized. Du ring the whole day a bout 800 received thei r baptism and t he next 23

eight days all the inhabitants of the island as well as those of other islands nearby were also baptized. The work of winning the heart and goodwill of the natives of these islands was begun almost the same day that Magellan by chance discovered the Archipelago. The most favorable auspices helped him in his great task until the day when he learned that the proud Rajah Lapulapu of Mactan, an enemy of King Humabon of Cebu, refused to ecognize the sovereignty proclaimed by Magellan and to come to him to do obeisance. It was then that Magellan decided to head a party to bring the defiant kin to submission. However, the proud king proved equal to the occasion by deciding to repel the invaders. Despite the entreaties of his friends not to go in person, Magellan placed himself at the head of the punitive expedition for which t hree boats were fitted out. No sooner did the party r each Mactan than the native warriors engaged t he enemy in hand-to-hand

fighting. The followers of the rebellious rajah spotted the leader of the invading soldiers and against him they hurled thei r attack. The picture shows Magellan standing knee-deep in water when he was attacked. He fell mortally wounded. Seven others of the expedition were killed, besides four Christian natives. In addition many of the invading force were wounded in that engagement. Pigafetta was one of them. After a narration of the battle he pays the following tribute to Magellan in his book: "One of the virtues which best characterized him was his perseverance in adversity. In mid-ocean he suffered hunger more than any of us. Unsurpassed in marine charts, he dominated the science of navigation with greater perfection than any mariner did, a fact proven beyond refutation by the attempt he made before any other, impelled as he was by his own ingenuity and courage, to circumnavigate the world."

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THE DEATH OF M AGELLAN IJy T oribi,) .1/. Il crl't'nI (At the possession of lhe author )

The Meeting of Martin de Goiti and Rajah Soliman By LEONCIO GoNZALEZ LIQUETE The painting before us is entitled, "The Meeting of Don Martin de Goiti and Rajah Soliman on the Banks of the Pasig River in 1570," by the prominent Filipino artist, Fernando Amorsolo. The canvas is of the property of Don Enrique Zobel of Manila. In order to understand better this event in Philippine history as shown in the painting, it is necessary first to know the principal characters. Martin de Goiti came with Legaspi '~ expedition as captain of infantry. He distinguished himself since his arrival by his courage and intelligence. Upon the death of Mateo de Saz in 1567, Legaspi appointed Goiti maestre de campo. In 1570 Goiti , headed the expedition sent to conquer Luzon. He then returned to Cebu, where he became commander of the garrison there. His wife, Dona Lucia del Cornal, arrived at Cebu in 1571, both moving to Manila almost immediately afterwards when this place had been definitely won by Adelantado (Governor) Legaspi. In the same year Martin de Goiti subdued the Pampangos, the following year the Zambalenos, Pan-

gasi nanes and Ilocanos. Thjg expedition brought him a handful of gold which the Igorrotes were panning. Martin de Goiti was ill in bed when Manila unexpectedly was attacked by Li mahong. H is house was ransacked. Dona Lucia was wounded seriously and left as dead. She later recovered. Goiti on the other hand was killed by the Chinese pirates on November 30, 1594. It was not known whether he left any children by his wife, but he did leave a boy by a Visayan WIOman, the boy bearing his own name. King Soliman, called in Tagalog Rajah Mora and Rajah Bago, both words meaning t he Young Rajah, was the heir presumptive to the domains of his uncle, Rajah Matanda (which means the Old Rajah) . The latter had already decided to make his nephew his heir so that Soliman was also the Old Rajah's understudy wh en the Spaniards came to Manila. The Young Rajah had married the daughter of the Sultan of Borneo, from where he had originally come. When the Goiti expedition alTived at Manila in May, 1570, Rajah Matanda and his nephew and heir 25

entered into a blood pact with the Spanish conquerors in token of pe:lce and friendship. Nevertheless, Soliman la ter decla red war on the Spaniards and although he was defeated, the conquistadores had to 'ret urn to Panay as they did not consider themselves wi th sufficient force to carry on the campaign . The following yea l' another expedition headed this time by Legaspi came. Rajah Matanda and another king who ruled par t of Manila, Lacando' a, called aboard the flagship to pay their respects to Legaspi, who a. ked about Soliman. The two rajahs replied that Soliman did not dare go with them "for what happened last year." Legas pi, after regretting the young rajah's absence, offered to pardon him if he presented him elf. . Soliman, accompanied by two principales (principal subjects), went to offer his respects to the Adelantado on l\Iay 18, 1571, blami ng himself for what had happened the year before, Legaspi received him well a nd Soliman, declaring hi mself a subject of the King of Spain, kissed the hand of t he Spanish leader. Af te r t he f oundin g of Manila, June 24, 157l, Martin de Goit i led an expedition to Pampanga to subdue it. Soliman and Lacandola were to form part of the party, but the latter backed out, undoubtedly 26

because he thought it improper to wage war against his compatriots. Soliman for his part conducted himself with loyalty, doing his best for the success of the expedition. It must be noted that Soliman had previously shown himself hostile to Spanish domination, against which he resisted for a brief time. His change of attitude was brought about by the advice of his uncle, Rajah Matanda, upon whose death, he became the chieftain of Manila. His title included several towns along the banks of the Pasig River. It is not known when Soliman died, but until 1575 there wel1e records of his activities. When the Spaniards came to Manila the king was Rajah Matanda. This name used to be employed with great respect. He received the expeditionary force whi ch was headed by Goiti in 1570, with great cordiality. Not so his nephew, Rajah Soliman, as has been said . When Legaspi reached Cavite in 157l, Matanda, accompanied by Lacandola, went to call on him on board, offering peace and friendship and even the hospitality of his home. This the Adelantado gracefully declined. The Old Rajah had always conducted himself with great loyalty. Upon the establishment of the city of Manila June 24, 157l, on. the same site where Rajah Matanda

lived with his nobility, the latter moved to Ma!ate, Lacando;a took with him a number of his relat ives, leaving their former homesite to the Spaniards so that who were fit to figh t . When Lacandola died toward these could act with utmost freedom , When the Old the end of Lavezares' administration, the Spaniards Rajah was taken iII, he asked to lie baptized, which paid him a real tribute of respect and admiration. was done by Father Juan de Rivero. Rajah Matanda The casket was borne on th e shoulders by capi tanes died shortly after in that same year. His death was del campo, and after his burial preceded by solemn felt ~ith deep sorrow, especiaily by Legaspi who ex- Catholic rites, specia l masses were sung f or his soul pressed his grief in a letter dated August 11, 1572, . f or nine consecutive days. to the Viceroy of New Spain (Mexico). Undoubtedly the even t depi cted on this canvas Another Filipino figure who took direct part in was taken from the f ollowing passage of Morga's as the events leadi.n g to the occupation and conquest of translated fr om the version: these islands by the Spaniards was the. King of the "When the Adelan tado received news of ot her isbiggest community in the country in th t time. He was Lacandola of Tondo. Born in Borneo, he main- lands which were located around Cebu and aboun ded tained cordial relations with the Sultan of that is- in suppli es, he se11t some Spania rds to the natives land, with whom he also was related by family ties. there to bring them peace, also rice for planting and He did not oppose the new sovereignty, but he felt culti vation, and wi th this they supported themselves disgusted with the Spaniards as when the encomien- as best th ey could, until the t ime when, ha ving moved das were divided among the conquistadores he was to the island of P anay, he sent from ther e Martin de deprived of nearly all his slaves. Goiti, his maest re de cam po, and other captains, with However, upon the presumption of friendly rela- a number of men whom he considel'ed sufficient, to tions between the two sides, he formed part of the the island of Luzon, with a gui de named Maomat, a expedition which Juan de Salcedo led in March, 1575, principal native thereof, for the pur pose of subdui ng against the Chinese pirate, Limahong, who had. estab- and conque ring that island in the name of His Maj lished his quarters along the river in Pangasinan. esty. Upon arrival of t he expedit ion in the Bay of 27

Manila, the town was found located along the seashore, near a big r iver , in the possession of and fortified by a principal known as Rajah Mora (Soliman) ; and on the other bank, after entering the river, there was another big town called Tondo, which also was under a principal, Rajah Matanda-both towns having forts made of big trunks of palms and trees, properly filled in, with large quantities of bronze pieces and other big pieces of artillery. Martin de Goiti prev~ously

held parleys with the principals and their people, regarding peace and submission he was seeking, until he was forced to resort to arms against them. The Spaniards, by force of arms, gained land and won it, including the forts and artillery, on the day of Saint Potenciana, May 19, 1571, as a result of w,hich the natives and their leaders sought peace and offered submission. Others on the same island of Luzon did the same."

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A ssistant Director, National Lib1'ary One of the historical blood compacts ever

celebrated in the Philippines between the Spaniards and the Filipinos took place some three hundred and seventy-two yea rs ago. It was entered into between Dato Sikat una ' of Bohol and Captain General Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, the purpose of which was to insure the mainteEulogio B . Rodriguez nance of friendly relations between the Filipinos and the Spaniards. With his ships and about 380 men with him, Legaspi arrived at Bohol about the middle of March, 1565.

This compact between the Captain of the Spania,rds and the Chief of the F ilipinos arose from a situati on which was quite peculiar . The P ortug uese who had a rightful claim to t he Philippi nes as part of the hemisphere assigned to Port ugal, plan ted in the heart oÂŁ tbe natives a fee li ng of intense hat red against the Spaniards by secretly bu rning towns, kill ing about eight hundred of the inhabi tants and committing all sorts of abuses, and then making the natives believe that these outrages were the work of the Spaniards. As a result the Filipinos became very unfriendly to the Spaniards. Ver y for tunately Legaspi found in the island of Bohol two native chiefs who were inclined t o be fri endly when they were assured t hat the Spaniards came mer ely f or trade. One of these was Dato Sikatuna, the most inf luent ial chief of the island. He was befriended by Legaspi who asked hi m to help the Spaniards in winning back the sympathy and cooperation of the Filipinos. To gain his f ull confi dence Le-


gaspi entered into friendly alliance or treaty with him and he tactfully had it sealed in accordance with the nath'e custom of t he blood-compact. This was done by haYing a small cut made in one arm of each of the two chiefs. A few drops of blood was drawn from each and eparately placed in a cup with wine. Then each man drank the blood of the other in the presence of the followers of both. After th is ceremony or hi<!tOl'ic toast, Legaspi and Sikatuna became fast fri ends, each treating the other as if he were his own brothel' -his own flesh and blood so to speak. From the foregoing historical incident one can see that Legaspi realized it was very necessa y to ado J;lt a policy of attraction rather than one of conquest. He found that the Filipinos of old were relatively mor e easily attracted to Christianity a nd Christian civilization when allu red by treaties of f riendly allian ~ e, an d bound by blood compacts.

The Filipinos of old had a high regard for the blood ceremony. In keeping their word of honor to the full est measure more Filipino blood was spilled on the Philippine soil than Spanish. It should be remembered that Spanish fi ghting for the sovereignty in the islands had exacted but little toll of Spanish li,'es as compared to the number of Filipino lives lost in upholding their word of honor. To them the blood compact was as sacred as the blood that flows in one's veins is precious-it is like the word of honor among real gentleman-they would rather die than break it. In other words th e blood compact was a binding tie, the sanctity and duration of which could only be term!nated by death. Juan Luna immortalized, in Paris in 1886, this historical ceremony of blood covenant with his matchless canvas HEI Pacto de Sangre" which now hangs at Malacaiian.

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Rafael Enriquez The late Don Rafael Enriquez, the first dean , later on Director of the present School of Fine Arts, and mentor of he present days leading arti sts was born in 1848 in the town of lJ'abaco, Albay. He descended from Spanish lineage, but he himself a Filipino. He was sent to Manila to study in colRafael Enriquez lege. He first enrolled in the Ateneo de Manila and in the "Academia de Pintura y Disefios" under the same master that trained Luna, Hidalgo, Zaragoza-not to mention the rest. From the Ateneo, he took law in the University of Santo Tomas and continued it in the Ce~tral Uni-

versity of Madrid wher e he was sent un der the finan cial support of a r ich uncle. Law was not his rea l inclination, yet he studied t he course only to comply wi t h the desires of his aut hors. After fini shing his studi es in law, he en r olled in the Real Academia de Sa n F ernando, t he " Bea ux Arts" of the peninsula , which has its prizes corresponding to the Prix de Rome. Here he was prepared for fh路e years to take up later his profession in P aris. He r ecei ved \路arious prizes from t he Academia de Madrid. He loved to paint historic subj ects common at t.hat time. One of those com positions co nsidered to be one of his best is t he " Death of Anda" or the so-called "La Lealtad Filipina," a pain tin g of two titles. Leavi ng Paris, he proceeded to London taking an apartment in the South Kessington distri ct along the Thames. Here he was joined by Sergeant who took the room below him. Before Don Rafael returned to t hese Islands, he 31

married one Elvira Chacon, daughter of the Marques de Zela. He reached the Philippines before t he revolution with a daughter, but without her. She died at an old age without seeing each other. He, the leader, t he hero, and the mentor, triumphed over all the odds and adversaries of his art career but he could not escape t he tortures which beset him


once in a while; the tortures inflicted by a man he considered his sycophant servant, whom he later helped and given position and honor, and in return humiliated anonimously his benefactor, but the youth who work openly for a cause was misunderstood not to be forgotten till the man succumbed to the most inevitable. He died in Manila, May 5, 1927.

The Death of Don Simon de Anda (October 20, 1776) By HON . JAIME C. DE VEYRA

M emb er of the Spanish A cademy of the L anguage

I am aware that the character of Anda has bee'n, and still is, the subject of contradictory opinions, by his friends and by his enemies, by his sympathizers and by his critics. There is no doubt that he has a salient personality. Montero Vidal declares that, after Legaspi, he was the governor who managed, public affairs with most integrity and ability.

daring, r ecklessly returning to Manila for materi als which he brought to the provinces and converting them into imp!ements of war. This he cont inued unti l peace was declared between Spain and England. He returned to pain, a nd an a ppreciative government, in recognition of his great ser vice and abi li ty, commissioned him Governor of the Islands.

He came to the Philippines as a magistrate of the Real Audiencia. He turned soldier under the force of circumstances, and, with a mere five hundred pesos, and in the company of a faithful servant, he escaped from the Walled City (Manila was being besieged by the English). The exigencies of the time had made him Governor of the Islands and general of an army which did not exist. But he began to organize the forces of the country against the in vader. He extended his campaign through Bulacan and Pampanga, rousing the people by his own energy, courage and

His term of office was characterized by the exercise of a high intelligence and an unquestioned integrity, by a rigorous severity necessitated by t he condition of the times. This brought upon him the opposition of a number of people who resented the imposition of an authority which had hi ther to been lax due to the distance from the central government in Madrid. The union of Church and State was at this ti me a characteristic of Spanish government. Simon de Anda found his ideas often in con tr adiction to certain members of r eligious orders who had exe rcised a powerful 33

-I influence in the Islands. However, it is important to note, at this point in our narrative, that his policies in this respect coincided with those of the Archbis.hop Santa Justa y Rufina. But even a fighting nature such as his, could be worn down by this continuous conflict. Weary and broken in health, he retired to the country borne of the Recollect Fathers in Cavite. Here he died, on October 20, 1776, at the age of 66 . His death was the source of in iration for the Filipino artist, R. Enriquez, who repr sents the hero, for such he deserves to be called, expiring in the arms of his Filipino friends-friends who had accompanied him and supported him in his difficulties, who felt for

a justice which almost bordered on partiality. Was the artist's conception based On fact? Was the hero's death as depicted? Such, at least, was the sentiment of the Filipino people. Simon de Anda presents two sides of his character to history-there is Simon de Anda, the Spanish patri ot, who gave his heart and soul in preserving the Islands for Spain. The other is the friend of the Filipino, the enemy "a l'outrance" of all abuse, the upholder of right, the relentless guardian against all Disorder. This explains the absence, if such there was, of his countrymen, at his deathbeo. The men of his own race may have forgotten him in this last hour-not so the Filipinos!

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_(Il:xposed at the Philippine


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August 13- 0ccupation Day (August 13, 1898) By HON. TEODORO M. lCALAW

Dire.ctor·, National Libnwy and Mem.ber , Spanish Ac ademy of the Language August 13 is known in contemporaneous history of the Philippines as Occupation Day. There is a. reason behind that, and it is that on August 13 , 1898, the American forces with the assistance of the Filipino revolutionary army, compelled the Spanish garrison in Manila to capitulate. On this T eodoro M. Kalaw ground the Americans claimed the right to the occupation of the Philippines, which later was sanctioned by the Treaty of Paris. Of course, t he reason is not strong enough to call

t hat day O:cupation Day since Manila, although it is the capital of the P hilippines, is not t he entire arch ipelago. Moreover, the Fili pinos had a:ready risen in r evolt against Spai n, and the United States, according to the Filipino revoiutionists, did not come to occupy the Philippines but merely to fight the Spanish forces as a result of the war in Cuba. Another important fact is that not on ly the Philippi nes was not an enemy country but. the Filipin o revolutionists, who then represented t he people, accepted a sort of alliance with the Americans in order that jointly they could fight the common enemy. However, the occupation of Manila became necessary and subsequent events lent support to its significance, with the consequent protest of the Filipinos. The fo:lowing questions have b€en rai sed since that memorable event, and opinions on t hem by authorities on the subj ect appear to be at variance : 35


Whether or not the Americans since that date, ha I really wanted to occupy the Philippines. If so, what was the real object of the occupation, whether it was altru i tic or purely commercial, or whet her its purpose· was for territorial aggrandizement. Had President McKinley conceived the idea of occupation in sending Dewey's squadron to the Orient to look for and attack Montojo's? Or was the occupation of Manila a idea co nceived 'subsequently, as history says, after a pathetic divine inspiration? From statements made by different out tan ding persons of that period it is glea ned that there were those who supported the theory of altruism, there were those who claimed that the occupation had been motivated by commercial purposes, and then those who believed in the theory prem ised on territorial aggrandizement. But one thing is certain. Sixteen years after the occupation of Man ila, when the wounds caused by the

war had been healed and the fervor of patriotism which plunged the nations concerned into an armed conflict had cooled down, the Congress of t he United States had opportunity to revise its policy toward the Philippines and categorically defined such policy. It then was shown t hat the United States came to t he Philippines, not for pu r poses of exploitation or territorial aggrandizement, but to grant the P hi li ppines complete and absolute independence as soon as a stable government could be established therein. With this congressional declaration, which sheds a ew glory on the escutcheon of the great people of the United States, the Day of Occupation no longer will be given a sombre interpretation which for a t ime the F il ipinos attached to it. No longer will they view it as the bi r th of a new period of subjection and slavery, the symbol of another sovereignty that has co me to s upplant the other, and t he beginning of power imposed upon the popular will . On the contrary the Day of Occupation will be greeted as the promise of true li berty and total emancipation of the Phili ppines from the aegis of the United States.

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By Rnmon P el'ftita (Property of Dean Eulogio Benitez )

Fabian de la R osa Dir ecto r of t h e School of Fi ne Arts, University of the Philippines. One of the most talented a rtists yet produced by the Philippine Islands in theil' several hundred years of cult ural development, Mr, de la Rosa occupies a position of real distinction, both as a creature workman and ~s an instructor. EduFabian de lct Rosa cated in p r i vat e schools in Manila during the Spanish regime, he early displayed his artistic inclination and took up design. ing and painting; studying in the most famou s schools of Manila, Paris and Rom e.

Returning to Manila in 1900 he was appointed instructor in t he Government school of Fine Arts and was also professor of. fencing (French and Italian schools ) in the International Club of Manila from 1900 un til it closed. In 1915 t he Philippine Government appointed him its representative to the Fine Arts Exhibits Section of the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Framcisco. His own work won gold medals both the Saint Louis and San Francisco Expositions. He exhibited some of his work at the "Salon des Artistes Francais" in Paris in 1929 and was highly praised by the most eminent European critics, including A. Pascal-Le'vis, Raymond Selig and others. He has executed portraits of several notable personages, including the late Governor General Leonard Wood. At present, in addition to ser ving as Director of the School of Fi ne Arts, University of the Philippines, he also conducts his own private tudio. 37

The Death of General Lawton By LElo


Chief of th e Translation Division, Department of the Inte1'i01'

The action in which Major General Henry W. Lawton was killed was fough t neal' San Mateo in the present Province of Rizal, between byo battalions of the U. S. Vol. Infantry and two t roops of U, S. Vol. Cavalry, on one side, and a numerous force of Filipino Insurgents under General Licerio Geronimo on the other, L eo F i8che1' during the Philippine I nsurrection , on December 19, 1899. The operations wer e carri ed on durin g a heavy rain-storm, by troops whi ch had been marching all night long, through mud 38

and )'ain. At the time when General Lawton fell, he and members of his staff, consisting of his aids, Capt. King, Capt. Sewell, and Lieut. Breckinridge, and Major Rogers and Lt. Fuller, were standing on an eminence overlooking the San Mateo River, watching the cavalry crossing the rapidly rising stream while the infantry was firing at the intrenched Insurgents on the other side. The position was an exposed one and Licut. Breckinridge was seriously wounded. The following is an extract from the official report: The General, after getting Lieutenant Breckinridge fixed as comfortably as possible, said he must see how things were going and moved out into the open again. No troops were between him and the trenches. Suddenly he waved his hand before his face in a peculiar way and Captain King Eaid to him, "What's the matter, General?" to which he replied, "I'm ~hot." King asked, "Where?" and the General replied, "Through the lungs." His staff gathered

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THE DEATH OF GEN ERAL LAWTO N fly FalJian elc: Ii( ROtH' 01:1. re.a. _M; ln_'





endeavoring apparently to overcome his increasing around him, he standing with hi s teeth together and faintness, then he seemed to want to lie down, which he did, and turning his head to one side hlood gushed from his mouth. He said nothing more, but died in about thr ee minutes with his head on Lieutenant Fuller's knee. This was about 9 :30 a.m., Tuesday, December 19, 1899. Major Rogers then sent word to Colonel Lockett, Eleventh Cavalry, who during this time\ha d with great difficulty crossed the ri ver, that he (Lockett) was in command. The bullet which killed General Lawton e\(iden t ly carne from the Insurgent trenches, 400 yards distant across the river. The general, with his tall, com-

manding figure, was made a more con spicuous target by the yellow slicker which he wore. General Lawton rendered distinguished service during t he War between the States, from 1861 to 1865, during various campaigns against hostile Indians, and during t he operations against t he Spanish forces around Santiago de Cuba, in 1898. Kind-hearted, loyal and modest, he was well li~d by his men and held in hi gh esteem by the communities in which he lived. Born in Ohi o in 1843, he was close to 57 years of age at t he t ime of his death . T hroughout his long and eventful career as a soldier, he had always been kno n for t he reckless manner in which he exposed himself to danger but fo r t un e had favored him until hi s last fi ght, the skirmish which preceded the taking of the town of San Mateo.

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Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo y Padilla Is one of the finest painters t hat the Pmlippines has ever produced. He came intc the world on February 21, 1853, in Binondo, Man 路la. His parents were unusually ricl'! and were noted for their strong attitude to patronizing the works of a rti st s. The educat ion of F elix waS the traditional education for the sons of the wellto-do: private tutoring, a stay in the Ateneo de Manila and a Feli.-c Resurreccion Hie/a/go 11 li ttle college touch in Padilla t he University of Santo Tomas. Feeling the attraction for t he art, he gave up the study of law and studied dra win g und er F ather Sabater. Afterward s he enrolled in t he School of Fine Arts, supervised by the disti ng ui shed arti st -tel,lcher, Agustin

Saez. In his studies Felix showed an unusual control of his brush and evinced a fine imagination. In 1879, some of his works were sent to the Un iversal Exposition of Philadelphia. Because of the inheritance delicacy of the composition, and the freshness of the themes, they readily attracted considerable attraction. Resul'l'eccion Hidalgo took the wide acclaim wholeheartedly. He therefore decided to study more and paint better pictures. For this r eason he left Manila fO! Spain, where he studied in the Academia de San F ernando. In t he Exposicion de Bellas Artes in Madrid, in 1884, Hidalgo managed to have some of his canvases displayed . His "Virgenes Cristianas expuestas al Populacho" and "La Barca de Aqueronte," easily won for the young artist a gold prize. Resul'l'eccion Hi-dalgo had the unusual privilege to see his works appraised in the actual value w'hile still living, having personall y received the prize award given him in Madrid in 1884, in Paris in 1889 and in Chicago in 1892. The medal that he failed to receive was the one awarded in 1915 at the PanamaPacific Exposition . Resurreccion Hidalgo did not live an octagenarian life, he died in Barcelona, Spain, on March 13, 1913.




Across the Pacific By HON . JAIME C. DE VEYRA Member of the S panish A cademy of the Language Half a century before Dewey's fl eet made its appearance in Maniia Bay, a learn ed and in tr epid German travel er, J agor, wrote in his "Journeys Thr ough t he Philippines" :

1898 are able to testify to the fu ll realization of Jagor's ideas in the courses of the ti mes. Unlike the conquistadores of the Middlf' Ages, who ca me wi th the cross a nd the sword, America came to the Philippines with the axe a nd t he hoe .

•. As the na \-igat ion of the West Coast of America e,:t ends the influence of t he America n element over t he South Sea, the mag ical and captivating inf luence exercised by the great republic upon the SpaniSh colonies will not fail to make itself f elt in t he Philippine . The Americans are doubtless destined to bring to its f ull development the seed sown by the Spaniards. As modern conquerors representing the era of free citizens, in contraposition t o t he era of f eudalism, t hey go with t he hoe and the axe of the pioneer wher e the Sp an i ard ~ went wi t h tbe sw6rd and under the sig n of the cross."

It is no easy task to review, even r a pidly. all that the Uni ted States has done during nin eteen years of governmen t. I do not pretend to reduce t he labor of hat peri od to fig ures; but one ca n not overlook t heir splendid educational system, which is a excellent in the Philippi ne Is la nds as that of the States themsel ve , and the health service, perfect in Manila. and effi ci ent in t he provi nces. The Amer icans ha\'e reason to be proud of these two branches of their administration by whi ch t hey have rai sed the Islands in the opinion of th e foreign countrie . F or this reason, the savants a nd educators of the neighboring countries come to Ma ni la to study our educational system, a nd we need not envy a ny place in the Or ient so f ar as sanitation is concerned.

Most probably nobody ever spoke to McKinley and his associates of J agor's prediction. However , the prophecy came true to the letter, first, as r egards the the existence of the peril to Spain; secondly, with respect of the 'succession of the United States to Spain. We, who have been following the trend of even ts since


The labor of America in the P hilippines is best judged when examined f170m the political viewpoint . We remember that it has been said repeatedly that the Americans were not colonizing the Isla nds. In fact, the word "colony" is prescribed in their legislation. The responsib le men in power have always carefully avoided its use. "Our possessions," "The. insular government," "the American occupa ti on," these or similar phrases are used. It is but just to remember tha McKinJey himself said it was noi the intention to subju ate u. "Forcible annexation is criminal aggression ," these a r e his own words. From the beginning it was hilS desire that "the American flag, sy mbolical of r er I be not less beloved and re5pected in the fer tile plai ns of Luzon and the mountain fastnesses of Min danao th an

it is in America." And he frankly said, in his Inst ructions to the Taft Commission (in 1900), that the government they were establishing in the Philippine Islands was designed not for the satisfaction of the Americans, but for the welfare and atisfaction of the Filipinos. Whate ver the conflicting judgments of the present age may be, America can serenely await the final j udg ment of History. Her work is not yet finished. Her recel1t action brings her near the completion of her labor, and when the hour shall have arrived and it will be possible to judge and measure the finished w rk of th e new apostolate, of the dariJlg enterprise a d generous undertaking, its lines will stand forth clear , severe, and majestic and will win her general applause.

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... \: .s~:-;路

The Church of Saint Agu5tine A Brief Historical Sketch As one comes fr om Pier seven into t he Walled City, through Sain t Lucia gate, t he eyes of the tourist are suddenl y .at tracted by a most im posing, magnif icent and historical building, which Spall ish in telligence and effort lef t t o the posteri ty during t he t hree hundred and thirty three years of t he Spanish r egime la ted in these beautifu l Isla nds. This superb monum ent, so admired by the intelligent tourist, is no ot her tha n t he ChUl'ch of Sai nt Ag ustine. We are her e giving a br ief acc lint of t he main historical data of t he building, with no other purpose in mind, but to convey to t he r eadet路 the importance of t hi edifice, t ha t has been t he wit ness of a ll the important even ts t hat ha ppened and developed in Magella n's Archi pelago duri ng t he Spanish r egime as well as under t he American fl ag. Not to be wondered at, therefore, that legend had wr a pped t his magnificent building wi t h t hat im penetrable web so closely attached to ever ything t hat is gr eat a nd old. Historical Datu : One of t he f irst t hin gs done by Adelantado Legaspi, as soon as he took Manil a in behalf of the King of Spain, wa to outline and im-

pr ove the site in whi ch t he futur e Capi tal of t he P hili ppines was to be laid down. Likewi se, he assig ned t he Agustinian Fat her s, his f ell ow t r ave llers and pionee r mi ssiona ri es in t he Islands, 21,212 squar e meters of land in t he So uthwestern pa r t of t he city to be occupi ed by t heir church and con vent. On this land wer e built t he bamboo and nipa chu rch and convent, t he f ir st of its kind ever erected to t he true God in t he wh ole is lan d of L uzon. Sca rcely t hree years have passed , when t he Chinese pirat e Li mahong invaded Manila in 1574, the buildings wer e burnt. the Agustinians being boun d to r econstruct them to lumter. T his second bu ilding met t he a rne fate as the fo rmer one on Febr uary 28, 1583, due to the excessive number of candles that urrolln ded the cenotaph of Governor Gonzalo de Ronquillo du r ing the exequ ies fo r t he r epose of his soul held in thi s churc h. Again on March 30, 1606, anot her fire par t ly de troyed t he buildings tha t had r eplaced t hem. I n the fa ce of so man y t rials, it seem as the Divine Providence wanted to bind the Agu tini a n F athers to er ect a chu r ch worthy of t he Majesty of God an d in accordance with 43

the high sentiments and generosity of these religious, wonderfully pictured by Philip II of Spain, when he said of the Agustinians: "They were great in doing things, but hort in narrating them." Undoubtedly the Agu tin ian Fathers realized that, a nd on 1599, the corner tone of the present church was laid by bi hop Agurto, a Mexican Agustinia n and fi r st Bishop of Cebu. The first architect of t he church wa Juan Macias, who died shortly after the work pegun. He was succeeded by the Agustinian brother Antonio Herrera, son, accord ing to some historians, or nephew according to others, of the famous Herrera, ~he archi tect who built the SCllrial, (Spain). Although history has fa iled to do ju t ice to this devout and intelli gent Brother, who built, besides the Ch urch a nd con vent of Saint Agustine, the Guadalupe Monastery and the churc hes and convents of Lubao (Pa mpanga) a nd of our Lady of Grace in Macao (China), not so with the legend that has taken possession of his life and dea~h, in such a way, that some of its incidents have r eached our times. The church of Saint Agust ine with its stone vau lt, is the only one existing in the Philippines at the present time. as it is, as well, the only one t hat has en.0


dured the tel'l'ible earthquakes that have occurred in the Islands in the years 1645, 1754, 1852, 1863 and 1880. The main door of the church besides being so heavy, is very valuable for its fine wood carvings. On each si de of the entrance door and independent entirely of the wall, whose severity and monotony they break, there are two series of columns, the first of Doric and t he second of Corinthian reaching the highest part of the second story and ending in a gable urmounted by a beautiful cross. The attention of th~ tourist, is often attracted by the four Chinese IiOJ;lS, engr aved in granite stones, and resting on the basis of the first story's columns. It would be an unpardonable omission not to say somet hing about the antique cantorals or choir books, made in parchment and numbering about 30 in a ll . All of them a r e skilfully worked in parchment and scroll with vignettes and illustrations of a very art istic value. This marvelous work was performed by the AgLlstinian friars, having among them, some skillful designers of Filipino and Japanese nationality. Purposely we have not told the reader about a deed carried out by the British in this majestic tem-

pIe. History tells us that when the British took Manila in 1762, led by that lust for gold, so characteristic in the great "sea-dogs" of this period, they plundered everything and even dare profane the tombs of many Generals and prominent persons who were buried in the church. Among others, deserved to be mentioned, those of the Adelantado Legaspi, his grandson Salcedo, Governors-General: G. Lavezares, Gonzalo Ronquillo, Tello and many others o,e. The Agustin ian Fathers gathered with the greatest care those remains and took them to the Chapel C:\f Saint Agustine on the Gospel side and in order to commemorate this event, they erected a marble slab. It has been said, and not without reason, that the conquerors of the New World built for immortality, and we think that this statement is also true of the conquerors of the Philippine Islands: The Church

and Convent of Saint Agustine being the most eloquent testimony of its truthfulness. For over three hundred years, t he most dreadful earthquakes and most violent typhoons have swept over this building and have threatened it with destruction; but in spite of these great upheavals, it still stands as firm and as stable as it stood three hundred and thirty six years ago. The efforts of the Agustinian Fathers to begin, continue and put a glorious end to this superb structure\ had to be super-human. In order to appreciate these gigantic efforts, we have to bear in mind, that buildings of this kind were absolutely unknown in this country, the Agustinians, therefore, being bound to teach the natives to extract and polish the stone, prepare the lime and carve the wood.

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San Agustin Chm'ch

The Convent and Church of St. Dominic It was a gift of the Divine Providence the coming of the Spaniards to these Isles, at the very moment in which the Mohammedan invasion began to assau lt them. With the conquerors Miguel de Legaspi, Goiti and Salcedo, came the first Augustin ian Fathers who established a mi ssion in the Magell nic Ar chipelago. In 1577 was the coming of the Fl'a ciscan Fathers. In 1581 His Excellency Mons. Fl'. Domi'ltgo de Salazar, the first bishop of the Philippines, with Fathers Salvatierra, D.P., and two J esuit Fathers, al'l'ived at the capital of these Isles. At the arriva l of the first Dominican mission in 1587, His Excellency Mons. Fr. Domingo de Salazar, t he loving son of the Order, bought the lands where the Convent and Church of St. Dominic are located and gave 3,000 pesos for the building, in its light materials. The first constructed Church in 1588 was ruined in 1589. The illustrious Domini can architect, Father Alonso Jimen ez, built a concrete one which was devoured t he same as the Convent by the famous fi r e of 1603, which converted many buildings of t he Walled City into ashes and caused innumerable victims.

The t hird temp le of St. Dominic was built with pomp and gran deur of appeara nce ded icated with all magnificence to the worship. I n 1610, during t he f east day of St. An d rew t he Apostle, there was a strong earthquake that tu rn ed down even to its cements the s plendid constru ction of this beautifu l temple. Then foll owed the construct ion of the fou r t h temple f stone wi t h three naves wi t h the exception of the be kind considered in the coun try: it lasted long and surpa's sed t he other in s plendor and grandeur. It was later r ed uced to ruins by the d readfu l earthquake of 1863, in whi ch ma ny buildings were also destroyed; t he Cathedral. t he churches of tao Cr uz. Quiapo, Tondo, leaving t he churches of St. Franci s and the Recollects com pletely useless. The fifth temple of St. Domi nic is th e one that can be appreciated today by t he visitors and tourists clue in gr eat part to the plan of the ill ustri ous architect, Mr. Feli x Rojas, and with the inspiration wh ich he r eceived from the Fathers of the University, Treserra, Vigil and Gainza. The same fate happened to t he OI1\'ent of St.


Dominic following more or less the changes of the august temple where the venerated image of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary made by a Chinese through the order and expenses of Governor Luis Perez Dasmarinas who donated afterwards to the Dominican Corporation. The worship attributed to the Virgin vf the Holy Rosary is the most universal and extendeo thl'ough all the provinces of the Archipelago. Every Filipino house has its a lta r c nsecrated to this miraculous image, ihe Queen and Pa 'oness of all the inhabitants of thi Christian land of the Far East. The first image of the Holy Rosary brough t by the first Fathers is placed at the portal of he Church's tower. The searching influence of the Convent of St. Dominic as the most principal factor of the civilization of the Archipelago, can not be described in few words. Suffice it to mention the names t hat composed the galaxy of illustrious personages that had honored the Religi on and the Spanish Nation in this beautif ul Archipelago. The Reverend Father Domingo de Salazar, f irst bishop of these Isles, was the "Bartolome de las Casas" of the Philippines due to hi s efficient and positive action in defense of the natives. To him we owed 48

the abolition of slavery and the foundation of the House of Restitution, so that, the "encomenderos" and the "curiales" as they die will return their ill-gotten properties. The late Father Benavides, third Archbishop of Manila, thanks to his ability and tactics, r eceived the spontaneous fidelity and freedom of recogni tion of the submission to the crown of Spain on the part of the principal officials of Manila and the llearby provinces. Aside from sponsoring the recognition of the natives in their rights of land possession and personal liberty, which he arduously and efficiently defended in his popular writings to Philip II, the said Archbishop furthermore regulated, thanks to his action and intelligence, the equity of tribute of the Filipinos before the Council of the Prudent King, "leaving as a definite norm his wise dispositions." The King also protected with his authority and prudence the House of Restitution founded by Archbishop Salazar. The exquisite tact of Fr. Domingo de Soria is owed in great part as testified by Governor Luis Perez Dasmarifias, t he conquest and pacification of the whole valley of Cagayan. The extraordinary gifts of virtues and eminent sanctity of Father Bernardo Navarro de Sta. Catalina won the same effect of pacifica-

tion of the warlike and sanguinary natives of Pangasinan. The late Father Francisco Blancas de S. Jose was the founder of the Press in the Philippines, proper and original of his inspired talent. He was the Demosthenes of the Tagalog language, as so recognized by the three great Tagalog speakers that succeeded tne genius Father Blancas de S. Jose, Fathers Noceda, S.J., Gaspar de S. Agustin, O.S.A., y 1'otanes, O.S .F. The capital of the archipelago was also the flourishing school of eminent Dominican sinologues; the Fathers Juan Cobo, Domingo de Nieva, Benavides, Tomas Mayor, had reached the superior knowledge of the Chinese language, as their works so testified.

to the Japanese language, as published by one of the newspapers of Kobe (1 913) "that no stranger ha'd penetrated so profoundly the mor phology and structure of the Japanese language as that of Fr. Collado." In spite of being pr inted, for mor e t han 300 years, the Japanese grammar, dictionary, and other books of piety, were again compiled. .In Indo-China, t he illustr ious personages Juan de St a. Cruz, fath er an d fou nder of the Dominican Mis/510nS in the kin gdom of t he Annami tes, Lezoli, Sextri and HermosiIla were the noted cult ivators of the An-

r.amite language. In this Convent of St. Domi nic, t he white Dominican cossacks was worn by 240 Filipinos, Chine. e, mestizos and some of Spanish origin. Within th e They also lived here and from the Convent of St. walls of this glorious Convent passed and sanctified Dominic they passed to China the Fat hers Francisco with their vi r tues 39 mar tyr s, whose r emains are now Varo, Morales, Navarrete, Diaz, Coronado, etc., who deposited in the altars by ou r Holy Father Pius IX, became to be in the study of the Chinese alphabet, Leo XIII, and Pius X. the true gigantics of the Chinese language. The same . Praise and glory to such famous champions of the fame is also attributed to Father Collado with respect Religion and of th e Spa nish nation !

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T he S anto Domingo Chu ...h and the old Univ e!'8ily of SIO, Tontas Building,

The Franciscan Order in the Philippines The Franciscan Fathers were established in the Philippines a early as 1578. The first missionaries reached Mani la on July 1st, 1578, and eight years after was founded t he Province under the name of . t. Gregory the Great. The first convent and church, constructed of nipa and bamboo, were inaugurated on ugu t 2nd of the arne year, being the chapel dedicated to our Lady of the Angels; destroyed by fire in 158 , were built of wood, and again rebuilt of volcanic stuff in 1602. The present convent and churc h at the corner of Solana and t. Francis h路eets. where the former were located, were begun in 1739, laying the cornerstone of the church the General Governor of the Philippines Gaspar de la Torre on November 3. It is of the Tuscan sty le of architecture, with a chapel of a later date. For the past three hundred and forty eight years mOI'e than three thousand missionaries have labored in the Philippines with extrao rdin ary s uccess for the spiritual as well as tempora l welfare the native Fili52

pinos, for they were not contented with merely spreading the Gospel. The Franciscan missionaries built more than 230 cities and villages with churches and schools in the provinces of Manila, Laguna de Bay, Tayabas, Batangas, Bulacan, Isabela, Camarines, Nueva Ecija, etc., founded eight hospitals, among them San Juan de Dios hospital (1578) and San Lazaro Hospital for lepers (1580) the first of this kind in the Far East. They also opened scores of roads through primeval forests, erected more than one hundred bridges across rivers and streams, dug canals and constructed dams for agricultural purposes, taught t he natives the art of planting seeds and fruit trees, and even invented machinery to' obtain the hemp fiber. ThiS" Seraphic Province has given to the Church a goodly number of confessors and twenty seven (27) mal'tyrs, six (6) of whom were canonized in 1862 and eighteen (18) beatified in 1867 by Pope Pius IX, and to the Order many noble and self-sacrificing sons, twenty seven (27) Bishops, four (4) Archbishops, one (1) Cardinal, one (1) marda1'in, six (6) ambassa-

dors, and more than 240 have wri tten gr ammars, vocabularies, catechisms and other books on history, ethnography, philosophy, 'r eligion, etc., in different Filipino dial ects and in Spanish, Chin ese and Jap~­ nese languages. From the Phlli ppine Islands hundreds of these missionaries went to China, J apan, Indo-Chi na, Mo-. luccas and Celebes Islands, etc., to preach the Gospel and there also founded churches, s hools, and hospitals in Tung-kuan, Chao-cheu, Xe-lun, Sing-ching and Nan-gan (China ) , Meaco, Yedo, now Tekio, Nagasaki , Osaka, Fushimi, Wakayama, Asakusa (Japan) and. Ternate (Moluccas) . The ou tstanding missionari es a re, among others,

Fr. Juan de Plasencia, "Father of the settlements" in the Philippines; Fr. F ernando Moraga ; St. Peter Ba utista, missionary in the Philippines, ambassador to the J apanese Emperor, apostle and first martyr of J apan ; he also discovered the health-giving quality of the mineral sp rings of Los Banos, Laguna; t h ~ LayBrother Juan Clemente, founder of San Lazaro and San Jua n de Dios hospi ta ls; Fr. Marcos de Lisboa ; Fr. Bias de la Madre de Dios, t he auth or of book enti tled " Flora Filipina," the first of this kind written in the Phili ppi nes; Fr. Jeronimo Aguilar, the first to teach music to the F ilipinos; Fr. Tomas de Miranda, who introduced the wheat in the Phili ppines (1583) and was the first to sow it; etc . . . .

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Sa.. F,'aMisco Church

The Augustinian Recollect Fathers By F ATHER L. TELLECHEA The Aug ustinian Recollect fathers ca me to t he Philippines for the first time on May 10, 1606. As soon as they had settled here they spread out all over the islands, preaching not only the Holy Gospel but giving themselves to the study of \he local dial ects, the Tagalog principally, so as to facili tate t heir missionary work. Prior to their arrival, others like the Augustinian, Franciscan, Dominican and J esuit athers had already come so that the Recollect fathers had to take charge of the remote and rather dangerous regions for the conversion of the natives into Catholics and general preaching of the E vangel. The first town where they carried out their work was Mariveles, Bataan. Father Miguel de la M. de Dios was the f irst one of the order who, in the hazardous work of conversion and soul-sav ing, suffered untold hardships to the point that he was stoned by those on whom he would bestow the blessings of Heaven, dying in the performance of his sacred mission . His two com-

panions also succumbed two days later, burdened as they were by so much tor t ure and s uffer ing. Instead of feeling di smayed by the fate of t heir \:;rothers in Mari veles, severa l of the Recollec.t fat hers in Manila vol un teered to carry on the wor k in the same region. Father Rodri go de San Miguel, one of t he leading missionaries of the order , was among t hose who thus offe red themselves to go. T he sacrif ice made by the fir t three Recollect fa th ers had somewhat paved the way for the second expedition so that it did not take long for Father Rod rigo de San Miguel to bring t he natives of the place in to the fold of Christ. From Mariveles the mission proceeded to the province of Zambales, wh ich it cover ed from north to south with t he same ma r velous res ul t, which was attained only t hroug h hard work and sufferings. A young Recollect fath er joined F ather Rodrigo, distinguishing himself in preaching t he good news in Masinloc, same province. After Za mbales the order carried its work to


Mindanao, from which various mISSIOns sent by the other religious orders were forced to return on account of the ferocity of the natives. It was with the greatest sacrifice and utmost pri vations, not to mention the blood shed by emissaries of the order that the Recollect fathers gradually opened the way for the Gospel, thereby acheiving in Mindanao one of t he most glorious chapters in their missiona ry history. In the year 1622 five Recollect fath ers sailed for the Calamianes and Palawan islands, where no other order had previously worked in the p ~achi ng of the E\路angel. Since that time up to the present they have been the only ones preaching t here. Palawan, though sad it is to say, had been the tomb of many a missionary killed by malaria. The missionary sent to Palawan knew that unless aved by a miracle of t he Lord he would suffer from deadly fever which g radually sapped his \'itality until the end came. The lack of means of communication, the dangers of the sea and the shortage of the most essential th ings for the sustenance of life were other factors which contributed to making the life of a mi ssionary in Palawan one of real sacrifice. Three yea rs later, in 1625, the spiritual administration of Romblon was ass igned to the Recollect 56

order. There the Recollect fathers also left imprints of their zeal and industry in missionary work. From the year 1679 to the present the Recollect fathers have been in charge of Mindoro. They have visited all parts of the island. In 1685, upon request of the Bishop of Cebu they took over the religious administration of Masbate, Ticao and Burias islands, and in later years, of the missions of Bamban, Paniompsan, Capas and Mabalacat, which are located in the present provinces of Tarlac and Pampanga. In 1714 they received from the Augustinian fathers the ad~inistration of Cotcot and Nahalin, Cebu. In 1768 Bohol was turned over to them. The majority of the towns of Bohol had been organized by the Recollect order. At the time the order came to this island there were only nine municipalities as against 36 when Spanish sovereignty ceased over the Philippines. Finally, in 1848 the Recollect fathers were given spiritual supervision over the island of Negros. The work accomplished there is the greatest undertaken by the order in the Philippines. No one can gainsay that to the Recollect fathers is due the wonderful progress which the island enjoys at present. They organized groups of natives who were then dispersed in various parts of the island, formed them into localities

where schools alld chapels were established. It has been the aim of the Recoll ect misisonary to open a school alongside each church and at the same time help the inhabitants of the community in their spiritual and temporal needs and inculcate in them the ways of labor. The Recollect fathers continue working on the prosperous island of Negros, remaining in charge of a number of parishes. In speaking of the spiritual work of the Recollect fathers in the Philippines, it wiU not be amiss to set forth that they have contributeo much to the material prosperity of the Filipino people, especially in the formation of municipalities and construction of public improvements like forts, dams, bridges and roads. They have been particularly active along this line in the provinces of Bataan, Mindoro, Romblon, Palawan, Mindanao, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros and even the remote Marianas Islands. They aided the natives in repelling Mohammedan incursions and aggressions and did everything within their means to make communities peaceful, happy and prosperous. Besides propagating the Faith they f~unded the

following numbers of tow ns: fo ur in Bataan, three in Tarlac, 21 in Zam bales, 13 in Mindanao, 10 in P alawan, 10 in Romblon, 13 in Mindoro, three in Cebu, one on Camotes Island, four in Siquij or, 21 in Bohol, three in Cavite and 44 in Negros. They constructed the Playa Hon da fo rt in Zambales, and other forts in Tandag, Siargao, Surigao, Cagayan, Cuyo, Agutaya, Cakamianes, Linacapan, Romblon, Mindoro, Masbate, Cebu an d Bohol. I n public works they opened roads by cutting t hrough rocks, buil t dams to uti lize water from springs a nd ri vers fo r ir r igation purposes, thereby insu ring crops against drought. In Mindanao hundreds of kilometers of pub lic highways were constructed, in addition to bridges in several parts of the country. Thus the Recollect fathers have been active not only in establishin g the Catholic faith in the Phili ppines but also in insu ri ng the peace and prosperity of the people. Ther e are 109 Augustinian Recollect fathers in the Phili ppines at the pr esent time, the majority of them being in missions established in the provinces and in convents located in Ceb u and Manila.

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I 1


The Church of Notre Dame de Lourdes It is in the same streets as the San Agustin Church. One of the most modern in the city, this church i rich in ecclesiastical architecture, ancient and recent. The pre ent building was begun in September, 1897, at the instance of the Rev. Alfonso Maria de l\forentin, Superior of the Capucins in Manila. Plans were laid by the famed architect Dn Federico Sole and construction work super vised by . Jose Garcia Moron, Engineer-both refusing to ac<\ept any remuneration and ,vorking out of devotion to Mary. Its cost of P50,000 was paid for by thE: donatiOllS of devotees of our Blessed Lady. Dimen ions are 36 meters long and 15 meters wide and 9.80 meters from the floor to the cross above. At the same time that almost all Manila churches were being turned into military quarters, when the faithful were scouring the city for the images of Saints to whom they were wont to confide their sorrows, the C'apucin fathers were inaugurating their

new church, at the altar of which stands-a promise of peace and well-being-the enchanting image of the Virgin of Lourdes. It was at this chapel that thousands offer their prayers for the preservation of Manila from the bombardment of Admiral Dewey in 1898. The statue of the Virgin of Lourdes, venerated in this church, is a beautiful piece of sculpture. Thousands kiss the feet of this statue on festival days. The interior of the church, with its arrangements in the nave of a double row of arches and its traceryadorned curvature, is a contrast to modern severely plain churches. Made of native wood, the pulpit bears many beautiful carvings among which is the escutcheon of Saint Francis. This church too, possesses one of the most modern organs in the city; it is of German make and was installed in 1913. The whole edifice presents to the vi~itor a "Charme-in-time" which is most pleasant.

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The Lourdes Chw'ch

St. Vincent's Church (Calle Sa n Marcelino, Paco) Of renaissance style, soberly ornamented, but severe and elegant with its hig h and maj estic vault , it/; lofty towers and the cross betw een them, and in the lower part the Image of the Saviour of t he World over the magnificent portico with t hree gates to enter it, is St. Vincent's Church of Manila. Its history is modest a nd with n t hing of importance and almost of yesterday only. However , it is one of the most beautiful, most impr es:;ive a nd frequented churches in the Capital of th e Phili ppines. It is a product of t he Vi ncenti an Missiona ries, hard work in this country in t he last fifty yea r s, a generous acknowledgement of the nati ve clergy whose formation has been directly entrusted to them, an expression of gratitude of the faithf ul people wh o have thus paid the disinterested services of tbese F ather s for the material and spiritual welfare of God's children in these Islands. The Church i n its las t shape was erected within two years, 1911-1913, being consecr ated as a Sanctuary to the Divi ne Majesty on July 16, 1913. It is a ll conc rete and the first to have been built completely


with that kind of ma terial in Manila, now so commonly used. Its Patron Saint is St. Vincent de Paul, t he Great Apostle of Charity whose principal Feast Day is held on July 19. It is also the canonical Center of the Miraculous Medal Associations that celebrates a beautiful feast on November 27. The feast is preceded by a very solemn Novena and closes with one of the most pious a nd colorful Ma ri a n processions in the whole world. Lastly, it is the Center of the Archiconfraternity of the St. Agony of Our Lord, an association which is wel,1 organized as manifested by its monthly and yearly cults on the first Thursday of each month. This' day is observed with Holy Hour devotion. The Vincentian Fathers and Chaplains have spared no efforts nor co ts to improve the Church in order to make it worthy of its name and of the sacred functions to which it is dedicated. As a parish church, it attends to the spiritual needs of the Catholic population within the limits of the Pasig River and Estero de Paco and Oregon, Taft Avenue and P. Burgos.

Th _ San MarceUno Ch"rch

The Benedictine Order in the Philippines Histo ry sh ow that the Benedictine Order was the last relig iou order to come to t he Phili ppines during the t wili g ht of the pan ish regime, September 12th, 1 95. The fir t ex pedition composed of fourteen monk wa led by the Rt. Rev. Fr. Jose Deas y Villar, Abbot of l\lontsel'l'at, who in tailed them both in Manila and in Mindanao. Tempo rarily t he Jes uit Fathers of Ateneo played ho t to the Benedi ctine mi s iona ries by offering them lil"ing quarters in t heir rural proper ty t Santa Ana wh ere the Benedi ct ines dwelt many mon hs till April, 1896. Soo n after t heir arri val in the Philip pines four member s of t he expedi tion wer e ordered to Mindanao to administer some of t he pari shes offered to them by th e J es ui t l\lissiona l'i es. Our missionary field was limited to the pl'ol"ince of Surigao, Taganaan being the mother-parish church . The abnormal condi tions of the Philippines haras ed likewise our Benedictine missionaries d uring 1899. Both our Fathers and the Jes uit Missionaries of t he di strict were thrown into pri son by irregular leaders of the new political movement. Due, however, 64

to a counter-move, this situation did not last long; this fact coupled with the influence of some good frien ds rendered the missionaries' escape possible and easy. Heeding the requests of many of the faithful, two Benedictine Fathers were authorized to keep on t h e Surigao field another year in order to attend after t he spiritual needs of the entire Surigao province. A new dawn of peace and tranquility came over the Islands the year 1901 with the occupation of the archipelago by the Americans. Once more missionaries were able to resume their work in the sou th. This year in accord with the compromise with t he Spanish government, 1885, the Society of . Jesus ' transferred to the Benedictines a ll the parishes of the Surigao Province. But owing to a lack of missionaries that the "Colegio de Misioneros de Ultramar" could no longer provide as a result of the change in the political status of the islands, the Benedictines withdrew definitely from Mindanao, 1909, where they were replaced by the Dutch Missionaries of the Sacred Heart through

the negotiations of Mgr. Ambrosius Agius, O.S.B., then Papal Delegate in the Philippines. Praise a,nd honor to the Benedictines besprinkle many a commentary written by historians on the work, evangelical, social, educational, and otherwise, which the Surigao province still recalls. (Cf. "ECOS," "Apuntes y Documentos para la Historia de la Fu-ndaci6n Benedictina en Filipinas" where details abound and exhaustive information rules. Cf. Gregorio Zaide's historical essay "The Benedictin Orde in the P. I." Yd. "ECOS," yrs. 1931-1932 and the following). _ While a part of the first missionary expedition tried courageously in the wilds of Mindanao to be useful to the faithful, the rest of the Community lodged at Santa Ana made arrangements to secure a modest monastic residence at Calles Balmes-Tanduay, 1896. On August 14th, 1897, the Benedictine Chapel was thrown open to the public, thanks to the zewlous generosity of Rt. Rev. Abbot Deas and his. successor as superior here, Rev. Fr. Juan Sabater, supported with the alms and contributions of a few Philippine families and some Spanish businessmen. In this chapel was established the Confraternity of Our Lady of Montserrat and canonically installed on January 30,

1898. According to extant records this occasion ha d the touch of the most impressive solemn ities. Over two hundred members were inscr ibed in the Confraternity rolls. Here Our Lady of Montserrat was paid homage by the fa it hfu l Fili pinos, and here the Benedictine Communi ty unfolded day and night its traditional program of wor ship a nd wor k unti l 1926, when the old chapel was closed a nd the image taken to the abb.ey-chu rch in Mendiola. By June of 1901 the Benedi ctines at Calle Balmes conceived and la unched the plan of opening a school for children under the title of " Colegio de San Beda" wit "Primary an d Secondary Instruction" courses. The Rev. F r. Sil vestre Joffre, O.S.B., was appointed ' first rector of San Beda b y the local superior, Don Juan Sabater. Confirming the generous conf idence the cultured class had in the Benedictines a nd the well-tried efficiency and activity of the incipient school, the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas in January 24, 1906, and the Commissioner of Public Instruction, Mr. N. W. Gil ber t, 12th of March, 1910, granted the college of San Beda the right to confer titles of Bachelor of Arts and Certificates for Elementary and High School courses.


Considerable material improvements and enlargements were effected on the school buildings through these years; tandard laboratory equipment was ordered and secured from European and American firms. The foundation of "ECOS," the college organ, offered faculty, students and since 1916, a field for literary try-outs. With the arrival in Manila in 1921 of seven new members from New Norcia, W.A., and from America the thirty-year old Benedictine Priory of Manila fulfilled the requi site set down by the Benedictine Chapter in Spain, 1919, before granting it the status and rights of a Benedictine Abbey. A decree was thus issued in 1924 by which our priory of Manila assumed the title of abbey. The Rt. Rev. Raimundo alinas, O.S.B. , was elected February 3rd, 1925, first abbot. Very Rev. Fr. Luis Palacios presided over the election ceremonies. Whil~ the Rt. Rev. Abbot General, Benito Gariador, O.S.B., passed the canonical visit, March, 1925, the solemn benediction of the foundation stone of the new San Beda College in Mendiola took place. This same year (1925) the last Prior benemeritus, the very Rev. Fr. Agustin Costa, O.S.B., left the Philippines where the first abbot, Rt. Rev. Raimundo


Salinas arrived from an Australian mIssIon field, October 15, being blessed as an Abbot at the Manila Cathedral, November 29, by His Grace the Archbishop, Most Rev. Michael O' Doherty. Our Rt. Rev. Abbot was empowered by the Holy See to consecrate the new abbey church in honor of Our Lady of Montserrat. The consecration effected January 12, 1936, was the fulfilment of the ambitious dream the Benedictine Community had cherished for years. Such was the concourse of students since the inauguration of the new college buildings that the Benedictines had to secure elbow room with the construction of the new Abbey Residence (1929), attached to the College and Church of San Beda. From December 13th, 1930, until now two famed Benedictine Artists, the Rev. Fr. Lesmes LOpez and Rev. Bro. Salvador Albel;ich, have been pouring genius and strength over the walls and ceiling of our church Which they have transformed into a park of pleasure for the good Christian heart as well as for the most discriminating lover of art. In the sanctuary, besides the imposing cedar carvings that decorate the altar, eight life-size paintings on the childlife of Our Lord, and best of all, the stupendous devel-

opment of an "Apotheosis of the Name of Jesus" on posed of twenty fathers and twelve brothers. Its the absis, call up remembrances of Europe's best main work, "prayer," exacts many hours; action is churches. To the sixteen "allegories" on the vault, not neglected, howeve r, although a subordinate at all our artists have added a complete interpretation of . times to the former. Such has been the spirit of our Lord's "Way of the Cross," as rendered through the community since its landing on these shores in 1895 under the leadership of Rt. Rev. Abbot Deas, fourteen magnificent paintings. At present the Benedictine Community is com- O.S.B.

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The Sun Bedu Chu"ch and College (outside)

Catholic Cathedral of Manila (0,. the Cathedral of the hnmaculafc Conception)

Situated on the block bounded by Postigo, Gral. Luna, Cabildo and Beaterio Streets, Intramuros district. Hist01-Y

At the creation of the Manila Archdiocese, the largest church in the city was designated Cathedral and this was dedicated on December 21. 1581. A typhoon in 1582 damaged it, and the fini&.hing touches of destruction were given by the f ire in 1583. A second C'athedral built of stone, ]592, was partially destroyed by an earthquake occurring at midni ght, Dec. 31, 1600. Dec. 16. 1614. saw the third Cathedral finished and blessed but again this was brought to the ground by the San Andres ea r thquake of 1645. Again. building activities were begun in 1654 with the laying of the cornerstone of the fo urth Cathedral by Archbishop D. Miguel Millan de Poblete; and in 1671 a magnifi cent metropolitan chu t路ch arose from the ruins. This was ruined by the earthquake of June 3, 1863. Undaunted by past disasters, the Archbishop 70

ordered the construction of a fifth Cathedral in 1870. Completed in 1879, it was blessed by Archbishop Pedro Payo with fitting pomp and ceremonies which lasted through two days, Dec. 7-8. The architects were Luciano Oliver, Vicente Serrano Salaverria and Eduardo Lopez Navarro. Archbishop Harty restored the church to its present rich and harmonious conditions in 1915. DeSC1路iption The Cathedral stands on a high elevation of sto ne; steps lead to a spacious courtyard-and the whole ensemble produces an imposing effect. Its facade faces the Plaza McKinley where a statue of the Spanish king, Don Carlos de Borbon. stands sentinel-like. To the right is the Ayuntamiento, the seat of the city administration in Spanish times and the seat of insular administration in American times. To the left are the empty grounds of once the royal palace, and beyond,-the old walls. The dome of the Cathedral is the first thing and the last the traveller sees at sea; the center of the cross

of the dome is the reference point of all astronom ical longitudes of the Archipelago. The Architecture is composite with a dash of Byzantine. Beside the rich arabesques of doorways, four statues of heroic size of the four Evangelists stands above, by the rose window are statues of Peter and Paul, and still higher, holding the cross, are two angels. Within the church is well-lighted, airy and lofty. There are several chapels along the sides, more notable of which are: the chapel occupied by Nuestra Senora de Guia, previous to its final transfer to the Ermita church; the chapel "de los Dolores" where offices of the dead are sometimes performed and where in a niche, to the right of the altar the remaills of Mgr. .Guidi, Nuncio in the early years of the American occupation, lie buried. Massive native vestments chest feature the Sac-

risty. The side walls are flankued with wardrobes and reliquaries resting upon consoles about a fine Crucifix. Here also are choi r books of enormous dimensions whose antiquity and long period and use are testified to by their worm-eaten bindings. The nave of the church is maj estic in proportion; its clustered pillars have gilded capitals. The cupuls ri ses to an immense height and has an inside balcony. The dome bears a f resco of the four Evangelists. A beautiful sky with angel heads on wh ich stands the "Immaculada" is just above the high altar. In this church most of the important religious ceremonies of the XXXIII International Eucharistic Congress will be held . In times past, it has witnessed sllch ceremonies a the requi em Mass for Pope Pius X, the Te Deum for the safe arrival of the Spanish aviators who first flew from Spain to Manila, and the Te Deum and Mass for the new Philippine Commonwealth.

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The MaTtila GatheeLml









Wnllncc Field . M O'll lln



MESS RS. BERRARA • REY ES Grnom.i eoun.chl

MR. M . P . D E VEYRA A ..sist.4nt ( 0 til-(! Di rt'dor-GanC'tol and Acti""

M R. E . C...... ALAG1'AS SUIJcrintmtd~mt 0/ Field Elllplovcc..

MR. GA BRIEL A. D.'\ ZA Electrical 8f1qiJl(Il'T


MR. F. E . JAYME Agln'atont TrcaKltr(lr

Art.illO 1'rl'tUtl(rcr




Scc(md ViC fJ"'PreBidcnt






H ON. V. SlN.GSON ENCAR NACION Firllt Vice- Presiden t


Boord 0/ Director•




f/onoroTII Vicc-Prcllidcnts


flonora.rv Pr{Jai.dcnts



;M nnila, P . I.

Philippine Exposition, Inc .

FOREWORD Another Exposit ion season is with us. With it, happy days ha\'e come again to gladden our hearts and inspire new hopes and optimism in us to face the future. For 16 days and nights, the city of multicolored lights will again swing its doors wide open to welcome thousands upon thousand of vjsitor from a ll over the Islands an d from abroad. We expect to have an extraordinary attendance not only because our Exposition will offer new and educational features but also because our celebr ation will coincide with that of the XXXIII International Eucharistic Congre~s, the first to be held in this country. The Exposition management has taken special pains to make th is comi ng sixteen days' Mardigras surpass all past celebrations. The Industria l and Commercial Exposition will be the principal attract ion of t his year 's show. To popularize the proposed industri alization program of the government much attenti on has been devoted to making this feature a com plete a nd t ruly representati ve pi cture of the country's economi c r esources and the ma ny articles that ca n be ma nufact ured from t hem. In short, the 1937


Exposition will be the largest and grandest exhibi• tion ever staged here. In pursuance of our purpose to boost the coming Exposition, this Commercial and Industrial Handbook is again issued and its contents made up-to-date. With the unfailing assistance and cooperation of the Bureau of Commerce, which is hereby gratefuLy acknowledged, we have put into the narrow confines of this handbook valuable facts about the Philippines, and a directory of exporters, importers, industrial esta blishments, shipping companies, etc., which we hope will be of value to businessmen here and abroad. Let us forget the blues! Let us again have the happy spirit! A sunny disposition is a tonic. Let us, therefore, be happy and gay and thereby lengthen the span of life. In the Exposition of 1937, we shall find plenty of invigorating influences that can help us put ourselves in trim for another year of keen struggle for existence. The beautiful, enchanted city once more rises. When January swings into its perfumed place among the months, pulses quicken, eyes brighten, cheeks flush with color, smiles lighten up, laughter fills the air-

for it is again exposition time. The whole nation for two brief blissful weeks pauses from its labors. Far and wide the fame of its excellence has spread so that not only people of these Islands but also those from neighboring countries come to Manila to sip of its sweetness. The above chart shows the large number of people who have sampled the foaming, mo:tengold contents of the magic goblet. Starting with 97,000 travellers and joy seekers th attendance has increased five fold and in recent yea,s the number

of people annually entering the Manila Exposition has not dropped below the 450,000 mark. Even the past severe depression could not dampen the enthusiasm of joy-seekers who swarmed in ever increasing number to its doors. As an institution the Manila Exposition has become part and parcel of Philippine life. Since its organization up to the present more than 8,900,000 persons have passed t hrough its portals to escape for a moment the humdrum, prosaic realities of day-to-day existence.

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The general tren d of business during the first six montbs of 1936 points to a prosperous yea r for t he Philippines. A general feeling of return ed prosperity prevails throughout the country. Based upon steadily improving condition a mor pronounced atmosphere of confidence in the future, exists. This confidence is engendered by reports of leading commercial companies showing substantial gains for the first time in recent years, with but a few serious deficits. General business conditions during the first half of the year were considerably better than those during the corresponding period of last year. Practically all major business indices showed upward trends. Among the encou r aging developments are a substantia l foreign trade, the best in the last five year s ; greate r monetary circulation; brisker retai l trade, better prices for staple products like suga r, tobacco, and copra; improved government collections; heavier pas!lenger traffic and freight movement; greater build76

ing construction activity; and easier credits as well as speedier collections. The staple products market was spotty thought it showed general improvement over last year. Sugar suffered a setback at the beginning of the year by the invalidation of the AAA by the U. S. Supreme Court. Prices receded though only slightly. A few months latEjr however the tone improved especially in the increase in the quota of the Philippines by 69,947 in April. Since then the trade quoted down, but even so, at a higher level than last year's. The hemp market was generally quiet with meager offerings abroad. Copra experienced a buyer's market, with Europe trading high. Sellers help up and in some cases provincial prices were above Manila parity. Oil followed copra during the first months but quieted down towards the end of the period, with narrow demand. Rice started strong with big demand from the South. Upon the organization of the National Rice and Corn Corporation, the trade

weakened, although prices continued to soar up in view of the decreasing supply. Tobacco was moderately active with a higher volume of sales, Mining I ndustry

Another factor, contributing to the upward S,wing of business is the boom in t he local gold mining industry. Gold output during the first half of 1936 reached 1'17,655,589 which is the best figure since the establishment of the mining industry in the Philippines. It represents an increase of f>4\941,185 over that of the corresponding period of last year.

dustries and the textile industry in the Ilocos r egion; salt making and the making of bamboo hats in P angasinan; the desicated cocOliut industry in Laguna and Tayabas; mining and lu mbering industri es in the Bicol regions; fishing in Capiz and Northern Mindanao; and t he household industries in Cebu, Bohol and Negros-all showed considerable activity during the period. Unemployment was thereby greatly reduced everywhere except in certain localities. In Nueva Ecija, the labor sit uation was reported tense in view of controversies as to t he land owner shi p and unjust division of products. In general, labor is quite satisfactory.

D omestic Tmd e

A g1-icztltural P1'odu ction

Business in the provinces was no less encouraging, with the exception of the Cagayan Valley and some spots here and there. Trading was generally on a higher level than last year. Retailers reported good sales and prices of staple commodities made slight advances, As a general rule, freIght movement was much higher than last year.

Crops were generally fair in all provinces with the exception of the Cagayan Valley where the acreage planted to tobacco decrea ed due to destr uction of tobacco seedlings and typhoons foll owed by a long drought which affected the standing crops. Standing rice in all provinces is satisfactory.

Industrial Production

Industries had a more satisfactory business during the period, The furniture, leather and blacksmith in-

Gross Sales Retail tr ade improved substantially du ring the period under review with the sales t urnover f illing expectations, During the first six months of 1936 77

monthly gross sales averaged 1'65,497,000 as against 1'50.615,000 during the same period of the preceding year. BlIilding Constructions New con truction activi t ies have added to t he impro\'ement during the past six months. The average monthly value of construction from Janua ry to J une thi s year is P583,675 while that of last year, for the same period, was 1'272,825, 01' an average incr ease of P310,850. Wholesale P"ice Wholesa le prices, showed s ubstan t~al improvements. The combined monthly index of wholesale prices dUl'ing the first half of 1936 averaged 16.5 per cent o\'er the corresponding period of the previous year. Banks and Banking Banking business during t he first half of the present year contributed much to t he strength of local fil1ancia l institutions. As compared with the sam e period a year ago, total banks' reso urces increased by more than 33.6 IT'illion pesos; due from banks 19.5 million pesos; investments 3.8 million pesos; cash 7.8 million pesos; total deposits 35 million pesos; and 78

indi vi dual debit accounts 6.4 million pesos. This improvement in the consolidated financial statement of our local bank indicates not only "liquidity" in their assets but also "improvements" in the country's commercia l and industrial activities. The "up-turn" in general business, especially in foreign trade, is reflected by marked increases in exchange bought and sold during the six-month period under review.

M onetal'Y Circulation The monetary circulation during the first half of the present year compared with that for the same p~riod of last year showed steadier and healthier business. An average of 1'122,323,723 were in circulation monthly during the last 6 months, compared with ):>105,313,968, the average amount in circu lation monthly during the corresponding period of last year. Secu1'ity M UTket

Trading in mining securities during the first half of 1936 was unusually brisk. A total of approximately 255,807,000 mining stock shares va lued grossly at P86,756,000 passed hands from January to June, whi le a total of 186,617,000 shares valued grossly at

1'31,557,000 changed hands during the corresponding period of 1935. F01'eign Tmd e

Foreign trade from the first half of 1936 was considerably ahead of that of the corresponding period of 1935, continuing the tendency begun in the latter

part of last year. The value of imports amoun ted to 1'97,871,200, an increase of 25.36 per cent compared with the same peri od of last year, while total exports were valued at 1"162,619,561, an increase of 85.47 per cent. Thus th e merchandise trade balance for the f irst six months of 1936 was 1'64,748,361 in contrast to P9,611,674 for the fi rst half of 1935.

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Shows and Amusements TAIT SHOWS

The Tait hows with principal office of business in Manila are one of the largest purveyors of outdoor amu ements in the world. The Tait Shows have brought to the Orient no less than t hirty-two riding devices since they have been in business and at the present time own and control eighteen rides that they use on their circuits to the Dutch Ea t Indies, India, t he Federated Malay States, the Philippi'nes and China. This year at the Philippine Exposi 'on, the Tai ~ Shows, believing that the public has money and will spend for anything worthwhile, will install fourteen rides on the Philippine Exposition midway, an all time record for nu mber s. Besides the Loop-a-Pla ne, the latest word in up to date amusement, t he Tait Shows will install two Dodgems, a Mix Up, Tilt-a-Whirl, Caterpillar, Three Ferris Wheels, Whip, two Merry-Go-Rounds, and Leaping Lena. THE LOOP路O路PLANE

The Tait Shows take great pride in presenting another new and novel ride to patrons at the Philippine E xposition this year.


Imagine yo urself placed in a small car and whirled with lightning rapidity over a forty-five foot circle. In this operation the rider makes complete revolutions and it is said without fear of contradiction that it is the greatest thrill yet obtained in the many amusement devices that have been seen throughout the world. The sensation is similar but even more thrilling than the strai ght way dive on the large scenic railway, or the looping of an airplane in mid air, yet the action is smooth and does rough or shake up the passenger or leave any ill effects that has been noticed on several sensational rides that have automatically gone out of business for this very reason. The ride, a brand new invention of this season, has had remarkable financial success, and whenever this device is in operation, crowds of spectators stand many tears deep to view the ship and the thrilling whirl of the rider. Strange to say even nervous spectators soon gather courage and take a ride. MERRY路DO路ROUND

This popular ride has proved an attraction at every carnival for the past ten years and this year it

will be found again on the line-up of Philippine Exposition rides and shows. Last year thousands of people rode the ever popular Merry-Go-Round and even with the installation of two rides there were times when it was difficult to handle t he large crowd of merry-makers all clamoring for the jumping horses and the thrill and delight of the pleasure of youth again. The Merry-Go-Round is the oldest ride known to the amusement world and has been in existence for hundreds of years although the modern machine with the jumping horses is of comparative recent date and ' goes back only forty years. LEAPING LENA

This r ide, one of the latest thrillers that has been added to the many attractions of the modern midway, has proved a great attraction in the Far East whenever and wherever it has been shown. Carnival goers at the Manila Fair are already familiar with the little automobiles that make up the ride by the eccentric manner in which the cars behave. Twenty-four cars chained in a circle equipped with eccentric back wheels cause the crazy gyrations that are the kick of the ride. The operator can steer the cars either up or down the inclined platform as fast

or as slow as he desires, bu t he cann ot c路ontr ol the kicking, jumping, bucking movement that ca uses t he riders to laugh an d shout until their yells are heard over the Exposition ground. MERRY MIX UP

The Merry Mix Up is a circula r ride with suspended chair路s t hat whi r l arou nd in space, gradually ri sing with the momentum of the swing. Some of the more daring riders will playfull y push the neighbor nearest to them resulting in a tan gle or mix up and this situation is what gives the r ide its name. The Mix Up is as safe f or kiddies as it is for grown-ups and whil e it appea rs to be a rough and tumb le means of entertainment the fact is that the glide is so gradual and smooth that the smallest child can ride without dan ger of being sick and with absolutely no danger from harm. THREE BIG WHEELS

The Tait Shows take great pr ide in saying t hat it was the first organizati on t hat ever erected Ferris Wheels in tandem, a procedure that has been copied many ti mes since in the Uni ted State . The Tait Shows will erect Three Big Wheels in tandem on the Phili ppi ne Exposition Midway Plasance and photo81

graphs of these ri des will be sent to the big shows in the United States as a mark to shoot against. The Ferris Wheel is wi thout doubt one of the most popular rides that has ever been invented a nd hundreds of these units are installed in all the large amusement parks in the United States as well as with every travell ing show of any size. CATERPILLAR

This riding dev ice installed at the Manila Carnival each year is a great favo ri te with all. This year the Caterpillar will be located directly in fron t of the Exposition's eight palaces of Philippi e industries which is considered the finest site on th Ex position ground. The Caterpillar has catered to thousands upon thousands of people each year and is as popular today as when it was first installed. The Caterpilla r is one of the largest of the portable rides and consists of twenty-foul' cha ri ots movi ng as a hill and dell ride operating in a circu la r motion. THE DODGEM

The Dodgem is said to be the most consistent reven ue producer t ha t has ever been invented, and it is one ride whose patrons have constantly increased since t he day it was invented.


The Dodgem consists of twenty cars each with an individual electric motor and with large rubber bumpers around the car to take up the shock from the collisions that result from the inexperienced driving of many of the operators. TILT路A路WHIRL

The Tilt-a-Whirl. This rip-roaring, side-splitting, twisting, turning ride is a thrill from the moment the cars start moving. In fact, it is not recommended for those with high blood pressure as it furnishes a scare every minute and is not patronized by the very old or very young. The Tilt-a-Whirl has nine cars each with accommodations for four people. These cars revolve around a sixty-foot circle and the momentum of the ride cause the cars to twist in complete circles and each turn is a decided thrill. THE WHIP

The Whip, a flat ride, that has proved so popular throughout the East, will again grace the Exposition midway with all its old time glory. Patrons sitting in the five-foot tubs equipped with wheels are whipped around a one hundred-foot platform at a terrific pace which necessarily furnishes a real thrill to the rider. The Whip operated with a 20-horse power engine

has perhaps furnished more laughs and thrills to carnival patrons than any other ride. MICKEY MOUSE

Mickey Mouse and Mfnnie Mouse are coming to the Exposition again for the Tait Shows with their electrical Mickey Mouse concession. Last year this amusement invented and patented by Mr. Alvin Flint was one of the biggest attz-actions 011 t he Midway and hundreds were deprived of the chance of playing this device by reason of the crowds that were turned away each ni ght for lack of accommodations. Mickey Mouse promises to have thousands of prizes on hand when the Exposition opens consisting of Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Barnice Bill and other popular toys that will delight the hearts of all. TARZAN

The Snake Charmer from Mexico will give a demonstration of just how to handle a snake and the lecture on reptiles that is interesting as well as educational as Tarzan is acknowledged to be one of the most famed experts on all types of reptile life. Tarzan commenced to handle snakes on the deserts of Mexico when he was three years old and he has made snake and reptiles a lifetime study and handled them constantly for many years.

Tarzan on a recent tour to Siam was able to obtain several large pythons which are now a part of his act and it is claimed that one of these reptiles is actually hypnotized by the performer and made to swi ng to and fro on a rope at Tarzan's command. BIG BEN

Big Ben, a giant python, over thirty feet long, with strength enough to crush a horse is the largest reptile that science has any record of. Big Ben, weighing 400 pounds may not Be worth his weight in gold but he is a valuable possession of the Tait Shows having been in captivity for more than ten years and showing in every large city in the East. Hundreds of thousands of people have seen Big Ben and his popularity at the Manila Carnival has 110t diminished in the many years that he has been exhibited there. CAPTAIN TOM'S CIRCUS ON TABLE TOP, THE WORLD'S SMALLEST PERFORMERS

The smallest circus in the world is at present in Mani la. The arena is just a table top, lit by the glare of a powerful electric light lung overhead. No fanfare of trumpets heralds the introduction of an act, no drum s roll out their ominous rattle when stupendous feats are performed, but it is a show complete 83

in all respects. There is dancing and jumping and colos al feats of stl'ength-even a football game. The performers are fleas. They jump many hundreds of times their own length and clear great heights in a single leap. These tamed captives are lifted lovingly from their beds of cotton wool and placed upon' t he table. They obey commands. They jump when ordered to do so, dance, and turn a wheel weighing 5,000 ti es the weigJ'it of the biggest flea. Suspended from its neck, one littfe creature lifts a solid sphere hundreds of times heavie' than itself, spins it round and tosses it a relati vely incredible distance. There are dozens of trkks, all of them equally interesting. SAND FLEAS Captain Tom who owns these fleas, is justly proud of them. "I feed them on my own blood," he says, "and they feed me." It is no new art, this business of training fleas. It was known in Europe a long time ago, and Captain Tom claims to be the first Englishman to have made a success of teaching them more than fifty tricks. His are sand fleas, chosen for their muscular energy and their longevity. They are not Malayan f leas, they come f r om the Philippine Islands .

• 84

"I speak Malay to my Malayan fleas and will have to learn TIlgalog for the ones I use in the Philippines," Captain Tom said. In order to impress one with the wonderful characteristics of these little creatures Captain Tom quotes authorities. "They have in's pired poets," he says. "IVe learn from Chambers Encyclopedia that the muscular energy of these pests has been utilized in fleaexhibitions in which tamed captives drag miniature ca rriages and perform similar exercises," and Kirby and Spence have written that "Aristopinanes, in order to make the great and good Athenian philosopher, Soc 'ates, appeal' ridiculous, represents him as having measured the leap of a flea." Scientists have done that for us today but while it is said on authority that a flea can jump 200 times its own length, Captain Tom believes that is a very conservative estimate. He puts it at something like fo ur or five hundred times its length. THE CRAWL "A flea is a creature which jumps," said Captain Tom, explaining how he trains his collection. "It is a job which requires great patience. First of all I have to teach the fleas not to jump but to crawl along the ground."

A strip of wire, hair-like in its thickness, is attached to t he neck of the flea-an operation which takes 20 minutes to perform, and by th is means it is not only secured but may be conveniently handled. For hours each day the flea is fastened to "massive" chain. When it jumps the chain is lifted. Fleas like other creatUl'es tire of monotony, so eventually it gives up jumping and is content to crawl. Believe it or not these f leas can h,ea r. According to Captain Tom they can even think out things for themselves. They understand his words of command so they must be able to heal'. To teach em to kick a ball he gives them the ball and at a word oli command the ball is jerked away from the hairy little legs that clasp it. The flea at length tires of this little game and when he hears the word of command he kicks the ball away. LARRY BENNER'S PUNCH AND JUDY SHAW

Larry Benner, a versatile performer from the E ast coast of the United States is coming all the way to Manila to entertain the kids and the grown people as well with one of the oldest types of entertainment t hat millions of people have laughed at and enjoyed for scores of years. Yes, folks, it is the old fashioned

Punch and Judy show and strange to say it is the first time that this sort of amusement has come to the Far East. One reason that the kiddies here have been deprived of this popular form of amusement is the fact that there are not over one hundred first class shows of this kind in the United States and operators do pretty well at home, however , Larry Benner who has been to South and Ce ntral America, the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands is now tied up to a tour of the hilippi nes and Java with the Tait Shows, and Larry promises to give the children here a treat that they will long enjoy. Larry Benner ha ndles and speaks for twenty different characters with his show wltich is an a ll time record and each figure speaks in a different key, all speech obtained from the remarkable vocal pipes of this charming entertainer. Mr. Benner is a ventriloquist par excellence and has appeared in many of the largest vod-a-vil houses in the United States, and it is possible that he will also work the larger figures that he uses in this act in public appearances in the Pltilippi nes.



Thi part attempts to portray t he condition of the Filipinos before the infiltration of Spanish influence. The scene is Panay i land in pre-Spanish days. Marikudo, chief of the Aetas, prepare for the reception of the Ma lay datus and their families from BOl·nea; as the kala tong is so unded, di verse groups of Aetas appear-women, carriers of provisions, fishermen, hunters, and the train of Maniwantiwan, wife of Marikudo. A fire dance follows: then the coming of the Borneans is announced. Presently the newcomers enter in impressive order-the chiefs leading their wives-and the great banquet begi ns. There is singing by Aetas and Malays. With appropriate dances, the Borneans pre ent a Gold Sadok, the pri ce of the land they wish to buy, to Ma rikudo and a gold necklace Lo his wife. The concluding ceremony is a great dance, after which the Aetas retire and the Malays remain as new owners of the land. (To be continued on February 9th)



The purpose of this part is to give a picture of conditions after over two hundred years of Spanish rule. The time is 1813 and the scene is the plaza of a provincial capital near Manila. A " ban do" serves to explain the celebration; presently a great concourse of people gathers on the plaza. The central figures are the town principalia, the alcalde mayO?· and his pa~·ty, and the Governor-General and dignitaries. The great ceremony is t he taking of the new oath of allegiance, accompanied by a fitting ceremonial dance of important people. The celebrations end with the playing of the Spanish anthem and a salve of vivas. PART III. THE COMMONWEALTH

This part r eveals the country's economic and political progress in recent years, culminating in the establishment of the Commonwealth. The beginning s hows the Altar of Freedom. Then the KatiTJUne?·os appear. They are fo llowed by the GUM·diu Civil who rout them. They reappear better

equipped and led. The revolution is on, and the Spaniards are defeated. Scenes of desolation llnd a dance of desolation are shown . FILIPINAS mourns and prays for peace. At the sound of trumpet, Columbia appears to console FILIPIN AS. Peace is restored and FILIPINAS is enthroned with Columbia at the Altar. Two pageants are now presented: one representing prosperity followed by a prosperity dance, and another, political progress, followed by a flag ceremony. The finale is a great song to Freedom. (The pageant is arranged by D'. Leandro H. Fernandez, assisted by Prof. Nicolas Zafra, and directed by Prof. Candido Bartolome.) United States Army participation in the Philippine Exposition, 1937, will differ materially from that of the past two years. The fixed Exhibits of the va-

rious branches of the service wi ll not be shown, and actual Troop participation will be increased. Troop "F," 26th Cavalry, from Fort Stotsenbul'g, reinforced by selected American personnel who have had rodeo and circus experience will put on a nightly Wi ld West Show and Rodeo at popular prices. Receipts from this show will acrue to the Army Relief Societ)r. In additi on it is planned to stage an episode from the Crusades, depicting an attack on a Saracen stronghold by the Crusaders. Other military participation will be on exhibitions by (!;ompanies of the 45th and 57th Infantry f rom Fort William McK inley and special demonstrations by the 31st Infantry.

- - -ÂŤXÂť- - -



The Monument to Charles IV Dates a1ul obser'vations 1~pon the introduction of the t'accine in the Philippines By LEONCIO GONZALES LIGUETE Mem ber of the Spanish Acade11ty of the Language To King Charles IV of Spain belongs thE) credit of having introduced vaccination against maIJpox in the Philippines. FOI' t hi philanthro ic act not onl i he considered a benefactor of the ilipino people but a monument has been erected on Plaza McKinley, where the atholic Cathedral stands, t perpetuate his generous deed. Vaccination wa introduced into the Phili ppine during his reign. The event marked a milestone in Spain's colonial hi tory. It wa of great significance. Many nations and peoples which in that period were part and parcel of the great Spanish empire were benefited by it and owe to it the hastening of their development and progress which have since culminated in their formation as free and independent cou ntries. The monument was erected on what formerly was called Plaza de Palacio, now Plaza McKinley. The


following inscription in Spanish appears on it: "To King Charles IV of Borbon in gratitude for the beneficent gift of the vaccine. The inhabitants of t he Philippines." "The inhabitants of the Philippines erected this sta ue in the year MDCCCXXIV. The Ayuntamiento of Manila constructed this fountain in the year MDCCGLXXXVI." Dr. Jose P . Bantug, chief publicity officer of the bureau of health, explains why and how this lasting token of a people's gratitude to a benefactor of humanity has been erected. He writes: "The year 1796 ma rks a milestone in the annals of medical science for it was then that Jenner discovered vaccination and made it known to the ailing humanity. The history of the introduction of vaccine in the Philippines rings like an epic worthy of the most glorious pages of Spain's history when the

crown of Castille held sway over a vast imperial colony on which, as was said with great truth, the sun never set. While Europe still doubted the merits of the new discovery, King Charles IV, using his prudence and foresight, extended the unlimited benefits of it to his subjects overseas. Under the direction of Dr. Francisco Javier de Balmis, an expedition was organized to introduce vaccination in the Americas. Don Pedro de Repide describes the expedition th us: "' The ship Maria Pita, with Lie tenant Don Pedro del Basco in command, sailed from the port of Corunna on November 30, 1803, carrying aboard her ten physicians under Balmis' direction, ~nd some 2 children with their mothers and nurses, for the inoculatioll of the serum while the voyage lasted, and also to permit it to r each their destination in excellent form of conseuvation. Each and everyone of those children and others who were ut ilized for the purpose were adopted by Charles IV as special children of the motherland, the government taking charge of their maintenance and education, until they should .become of age. With this generous mission Balmis and his companions reached Manila two years afterwards. Balmis found glory in depositing in t hese I slands this inexhaustible mine of health, prosperity and increase of population.' Jt

"When the Americans took possession 'of these Islands," Dr. Bantug adds, "there was an Institute of

Vaccination in this countt-y, with the following personnel: one director, one ast istant director, one physician and three student physicians, with general vaccinators and chief vaccinators in each provincial capital, all totallin g 122 in 1897, besides deputy vaccinators assigned to each municipality. However, a general systematic vaccination was never undertaken until the year 1906, under American regime." Certainly Spain was neithec iudifferent nor unwilling with regard to the application of Jenner's vaccine against smallpox. By Royal Decree issued August 14, 1815, the authorities were urged not to permi t enrollment of chi ldren in school, who had no certificates showing that they had been vaccinated. Since then instr uctions and laws directed toward the di ffusion of ,accination were enforced, it being provided that all chi ldren should be vaccinated, the poor to get it free, and also all civil fun ctionaries and employees and all the personnel of the cidl government and the army and navy departments. It cannot be deni ed that Spanish legislation on this subject is voluminous and comprehensive. Dr. Victor G. Heiser, in his latest work, says the following: "Spain, often considered an unprogressive coun89

try. has been a leader in introducing yaccination into her colonial empire. In 1803 a ship sailed down the Guadalquivir with twenty-two children on board. During the voyage they were vaccinated by pa sing the coutents of thE.' vesi cles fl'o m arm to arm so that it could be presen' ed until they reached Manila. Three year later that city had a bureau of vaccinat ion , and in 1850 an institute for the man ufacture of virus. Systematic vaccination WaS inaugurated in many of the pro,-inces, but at best th,e work was sporadi c a nd often interrupted by lack 0 f un d&." The Encyclopedia Britannica gives the AngloSaxon view on the subject in the following wo~ds: "A few of the incidents connected 'yith the ex-

tension of vaccination may be mentiolled. Perhaps the most str-iking is the expedition which was sent out by the court of Spain in 1803, for the purpose of diffusing cow-pox through all the Spanish possessions in the Old and New Worlds, and which returned in three years, having circumnavigated the globe, and succeeded beyond its utmost expectations." Before closing this brief review of the introduction of vaccination in the Philippines, it is well to note, for the sake of historical impartiality, that to Don Manuel Godoy, severely criticized by his contemporaries and historians, exclusively belongs the ini 'ative of sending out the expedition from the Spanish court.




The University of the Philippines An important educational institution developed on most modern lines and covering a wide field of activity. It is the state university. Opposite the Observatory are the Colleges of Liberal Arts, Law and

Engineering. Medicine, Agriculture, Pharmacy and Music are the other courses offered to seekers of knowledge.


The Unive,'sity of the Philippines

The Con,c"vuto,'Y of Mu.ic, Universit y of tlte Philippines

The University of Santo Tomas To the rear of the Ayuntamiento. n outgrowth of the educational work of the first Dominican missionarie , it wa founded in 1605, the present bui lding dating from 1611. In 1645 it was declared a university. It is considered the oldest university under the American flag. At present the building is used only by the law students. The other courses like


Pharmacy, Philosophy, Architecture, Commerce, Medicine, Education, etc., are being held in the modern 4-story edifice in Sampaloc district. A statue of Miguel de Benavides, the third Archbishop of Manila and through whose bequests this institution was founded, stands on the Plaza on which the building fronts.

The Sa.nto T01luUl Univer8ity

San Juan de Letran

.4. Royal Center of Education in the Philippines

of yesterday Th e Founder.-The most worthy center of secondary education in the history of the Philippines, was started by a retired captain of the Spanish Army, named Don Juan Alonso Guerrero. Since the government of Morga he had been li ving in a magnificent building situated on Calle Real, at the left side to the entrance to the Parian Gate, and here, neither envied nor envious, dressed as a her it, he had a penitent and religious life, almost unnoticed by his fellow citizens. Once he had been very wealthy, but by the year 1620 we find him, though nearly empoverished, dividing his moderate government annu ity with paupers. He had no wife, no children, no relatives in the Islands; but his pious and charitable heart made him see a brother in every Manilan, and a son in every little one. The Beginning.-Alone, then, an altruist at heart, Don Juan determined by the end of that very same year to change his contemplative life for one more active and beneficial to society. He decided to as98

sume the heroi c work of gathering together the poor and abandoned orphan ch ildren, and to instruct them, and feed them. And so was laid t he corner-stone of this benefit institution, called by the founder, Colegio de San Juan, after his P atron Saint to which he added the appellation of the Roman basilica erected over the palace of the noble family Laterani or Letran. Endowment Sought.-For the endowment of t he college, besides the alms collected from the opulent and charitable citizens, he obtained from GovernorGeneral Don Alonso Fajardo protection and assistance, and in 1623 a royal decree was despatched from Madrid rendering protection and patronage to said college. The Fusion.-For some t ime things went on in accordance with this arrangement, but in 1639, the Governor-General, hearing of what had been done, begged Prior Fr. Sebastian de Orquendo to take full charge of the Don Juan institution, in the name of the king. Fr. Sebastian still refused to do so for fear that the Royal College might tergiversate the

principal purpose of the lay-brother's seminary. But upon continuous requests from Governor Corcuera, from Archbishop Hernando, and from many pious and noble families of the city, the Dominican Prior promised to accept it in p e?·p etuurI!. The juridical and iegal form of this transfer, was ultimated on May, 1640. On the following month the founder of Lett'an died at Sto. Domingo af.ter having given his reli gious profession in the hands of the Dominican Prior. Since the year of 1865, in which Lehran was declared a College of the first class, the nu bel' of f amous Letranists are better known. Practically all the heroes of the last century (including Dr. Rizal, though

for a short period) passed through our college. Not to mention the hundreds of t hem, we sha ll name: Father Gomez, Avancena, Mons. Verzosa and H acbang, del Pan, P aredes, Kalaw, De Ver a, Vera, Osmen a, Unson, Aglipay, Aguinaldo a nd Quezon. This college still exist w it h t he same endeavour of imparting to the Filipino yo ut h a Ch ristian Education with no ex penses at all on t he part of the Government; but if it had ceased one cent ury ago, still it would be worthy of our grati t ude and admiration for its copious contr ibution t o t he poli tical, religious, economical, socia l and moral aggra nd izement of t he Philippines.

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S am. JUOJn de Lctl'un College

A teneo de Manila A Jesuit educational institution in the arne building as the Observatory 011 calle Padre Faura. Founded in 1865 by the Jesuit Order it has been responsible for the many illustrious men both in the government and private practices who have learned the foundation of their education in the Jesuit School. The Fil-

Ipmo national hel'o, Dr. Jose Ri zal, was ra ised and taught under t he paternal care of the J esuits in the Ateneo de Ma ni la. Until Au gust 13, 1932, the institution had its bui lding in the walled city. But a great conflagration has destroyed its historic corridors and classrooms and museum.


Ate1Ulo de Malli=la =--= Coll~e{/6,----_

_ __ _ _ __

Th e L egiBIÂŤtive Building

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