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PtjOld II. OTLEY BEYER ~ 1)1·0f. JAIM~ ~. Ue 'VEYRA BLISHED BY THE Manila, Phili .




'_.;,'''''' pplnes _ 1947 Th. Evening Now.



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plements, know n as microlit.hs, some of wh1ch \\iere used as points for their anows and darts. and for scraping and cutting bamboo and VJood. They h ad learned to build very crude shelters of tree branches and leaves, and probably \\'ore primitive clotlung and ornaments made of bark and leaves, The descendants of the Austl aloid-Sal:ai type constitute about V2 per cent of our present popula tion. while the pr oto-Malay descendan ts form about 9 %%. Tnirdly, a very different gJ'oup of people, our . first seafarers, crossed the horizon of Philippine history 'rom the north some 5.000 to 6.000 years ago. They had lea.rned to make and ~ail wellmade plank-built boats., They were the people of t he Early New Stone Age. who had ground 01' polished stone axes. adzes, chisels and other tools, round or oval in cross-section, wbich tell arcbaeologically of a much advanced culture and craftsmanship. They lived in grass-covered houses with wooden frames, having rounded roofs much like a modern Quonset hut, built directly on the ground or over a pit dug a meter or ~ore in the ground. They constructed some roughly-built stone walls around their homes, practiced dry agriculture. growing chiefly millet and Yams. Thlllr ciothing Tw~nty-five years ago, our prehistoric past was was probably still unclecorated skins and bark . alrnQst a ,c omplete blllnk. Now. hf)wever-thanks Their culture is nowadays classified as Early Neoto much patient .archaeological in vestigation-we lit hic, or "Indonesian A". These tall. slender mican accurately . fiiJ,.in considerable sections of it. gran ts len their blood and heritage to the PhilipOur back\\'ard birl:los-ey~ view of Philippine pre- pmes, and their descendants constitute about 12 history show~ six ,distinct cultural "horizons" clear- per cen t of our population today. J Iy sb.nding out. Fourth in the great waves of immigntion came First, there is the primitive human type simimr about 1500 B. C., and continued for approximately to the Java Man of 250:0QO years ago. His ear- a ·mlllenium. These latter visitors were also sea. liest stone implements and fossil remains have learln g, coming from the Indo-China and south been foun d \ in Rizal. "ulacan and Batan gas provChina coast to Luzon and F\lrmosa in good-sized inces, recording a cultur e he brought to the ishnds dug-out boats. Their distinguishing cultural conby slow overland migrations more than a quarter tribu tions were houses with pyramidal roofs raised of a million years ago. This primitive man was above the ground on four posts, advanced smaD a ccompani~d by such huge mammals a. the Stegewoodworking tools, made of very hard stones such don elephant and the rhinoceros. Our earliest as nephrite or an'cient jade. which IVere rectangular Man-of-the-Philippines wore little or no clothing. or trapezuldal in cross-section . They practiced exand lived only in the caves or rock shelters pro- tensive dry agriculture. and introduced upland rice. vided by nature. He subsisted on such raw food taro (gabe) . new varieties of cultivated yams and as he was a ble to wrest from his surroundings by other valuable food crops. Their olothing was means of the primitive stone tools which were his beaten ba rk cloth. often intricately decorated with only artificial possessions. It seems probable tnat fine designs. printed in colors with stone or woodthis Earli~st Man disappeared or became extinct en blocks. Many stone bark-cloth beaters and about the time of the last glaCial period, along with printers have been found among the reMains of the large land mammals of his time. Apparently t heir ancient villages. This fourth migratiun is no living descendants of this primitive haman sur- known as the "Indonesian B" or Late Neolithic, 'live in these islands today. a nd descendants of these doughty seafarers numSecondly, the historical curtain rises much later. ber 18 per cent of the present population . about 25.000 to 30,000 years ago, when the ancestors Fifth in the chain of incursions was probably a of our living pygmy peoples began to percolate continuation of the fourth, but was marked by a slowly into the Philippines from lhe south over lhe distinctly improved and advanced culture, featured various land bridges then in existence. The Ne- by the first use of metal::. This fifth grOUP began gritos and other primitive Australoid-Sakai types arriving between 800 and 500 B. C.. and brought of human being that still inhabit remote Philipwith t hem copper and bronze tools and orn amen ts. pine forest regions constitute a. slowly-disappear- This group also retained the green jade ornaments ing remnant of this probabiy once extensive migra- and small tools of their immediate predeoessors. tIOn . The last wave of this migration of Little It seems probable that this advanced group inPeople was probably t he short, round-headed type troduced irrigated rice culture. and built the first cl?ssified .~ proto-Malay. The evidence indicates rice terraces. They a~~o introduced Cent ral Asian they came into Luzon over a Jand bridge from methods of copper mining and smeiting. and used Domeo, via Palawan and Mindoro, some 12.000 tbe forge and beiJows. This culture is usually to 15,000 years ago. Another grOUP trekked over known &.S the Copper-Bronze culture. although it the Sulu :and bridge into Mindanao about the same migbt w~l1 be called the Terrace Culture. Despite time. These people already had the blowgun and their great contributions to advanced fashionin;! of bow and arrow for weapons, and probably pracimplements and better agricultural techniques, the ticed a crude kind of dry agriculture in forest clearCopper-Bronze people were not numerically large, ings. They made and used many small stone im- and their descendants probably de not compose

HIS is the story of t he Philippines. and t he men and women who peopled it since the remote dawn of Time. The essentiaJ data on which the "storY of our ancestors is based come from many sources. and the historical era covered falls into :these tIvee broad periods: l: The Prehistoric Philippines: This era covers ;tile period from the unrecorded beginnings to a ~int in time roughly coinciding "(.lih the begin)Dings of the Christian Era. and w~' must rely for knowledge of it entirely upon the scientific findmgs of geologists and archaeoloJPsts. II. The Pr9tohistoric Period: 1'his span of n;me ,.r,€achfs from the beginnings of the Christian Era ~~o ,tfle . time of Magellan's landing in Lhe Philip:'!j)in<\$; 'and . our knowledge of it comes from some '~tt,.,red historical records, supplemented by great qua ntities of data suppiled .py Historic Archaeology. as dif!.erentiatea from " Prehistoric ArchaeolollY. l/ III, The Histori!, ~er iod: These four-plus centuries from Magelh/rl's landing to our present day are amply documented by printed records and ma nuscript lite.ature. additionally supported by pictures of actual events.


Edito:-ial Assistar.ts

more than three per cent of the population. 'Sr"th and last of t he prehistoric migrations. occuring between 300 and 200 B. C.. brought from the south our most numerous and advanced prehistoric people-the Iron Age group usually known as Malays. They filtered in fleets of dugout boats. up from the west Coast of Borneo into Luzon via Palawan and Mindoro. and in another ocean pathway through the Celebes Strait to Mindanao and the Visayas. In addition to advanced, irrigated agriculture. these migrants brought four new industries: (ll t he smelt!l!g, forging and manufacture of tools, weapons,f.·utensils and ornaments of l1:on and other metals : (2) the manufacture of a great variety of turned and decorated pottery; (3) the art of w..",ving cloth on a hand loom; and (4) the manufacture of beads. bracelets and other ornaments of green and blue glass. These crafts seem to have originated in India. and to have spread from there to Indo-China and Southern Ma laysia. finally reachin l\ the Philippines by way of Borneo and Celebes. This culture eventually was r9.rried on north into Formosa, southern Japan, Korea and centra l Manchuria, where it finally disappears. These Iron Age folk bullt bamboo and wooden houses on elevated platforms raised h igh above t he water 0 1' the earth . They introduced t he horse and the carabao or water buffalo as riding and work animals, a nd several cloths and garments of woven faprics, and decorated their bodies with ela borately tattooed designs. as well as with intricate and artt:;tlc orna'llents of beads. shell. bone. horn and m~tal. In later times, many of the tattooed designs were copied in designs embroidered on fabric. They also made a great variety of decorated baskets and mats. They used a la rge number of sea-food products, and cultivated or utilized many fruit trees and fiber plants. ae \\'ell as ornamental plants, spices. medicina l plants and other agricultural products bespeaking of an advanced civilization, They had wbat we can call a true civilization-at least as it existed prior to the recent illdustrial age .. Unfortunately. many of the most interesting arts and crafts of this highly developed culture were unable to resist the competition of modern manufactured goods. and Lhey gradually died out when the era of extensive trade and commerce began. These Early Iron Age folk were the ancestors of 37 per cent of our present population. The remaining 20 per cent of the population are descended from forebears ,Vho came into the islands during the Christian Era, to the present Lim~. 01 this grouP. the Hindu~ contributed fi'le per cent ot the present population. the A!'ab-Persian stocks two per cent, the Chinese and other East Asians ten per cent, and t be European and American. three per cent. So, it can be seen readily tbat the welding and fu sion of successive cultures and the mingling of the blood of wave upon . wave of mIgrants, have produced a distinct ana true "Filipino Blend" type of man di~tinctly peculiar to these islands at the crossroads of 'he Pacific. In many Individuals, t he originaJ types are still clearly distinguIshable. but the true "Filipino Blend" type is constantly Increasing and, doubtless, will ultimately come to include the majority of the population. In this blend, the Original racial components do not stand out clearly, and the end 'Product of 30.000 y:ars of commingling of the Pre>ttstotic, Protohlstoric and Historic peoples Is a new racial type with Its own particular characteristics.

Contributing Artists




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LOJ\g' a go. in thela $1 gtaei::d pcriutl (Ple is t.ocene ) the waters of t he oceans s urroull(ling the Philippines clroppt:cl n.t Jeast 156 feet below prescnt Jcvcl~, Ulld vast !Jouies of Ja nd now under wa ter were exposed. connecting the ishlnds with th e m a.inland of Southeast A:.;ia. 'rhese land brid ges beca me the " hi ghwa y of 'i'istory" as the m en of that fa.r-away time. questing then :-l S now for a heitpr life, foll o wed th e la nd brf.lgf's to Lhe PhiliPl.ines. 'l 'he sh aded area:; s hown on the m a p wert:" dry Ja nd in tlutt perioll of m a n's migr ation. 1' his we know fro m sub .. marine so undin gs. Gradually the wuters gained as the ice melted over the world, and eventually the land br jdges w~re subm er g-ed, but not beforr r('sth' ~ s lUa u, in the (lawn of time, had found his way to the l)hilippines,


2 " 'lid aninlnls followed the rou~s over the land

hrid gcs to th e Philippines, too, TIH~ Dawn lUa.n, s imilar to t.he Java mau rcc'e ntly unearth ed by al'chf!ologtsts. saw elephants and the ponderous rhinoceros in his Ol'er10lUd tr!l\'el!" to the Philippines, These gI'cn t beasts survived until compar,-Uvely recent times in our archipelago. Powerfully-muse-If"d, ht"a\'y-,iawed a.nd hair:\', the illan of tha.t tinw worf" ft'w c:loth~s. was¡ just 10 shape nalll .... 10 hi' bicldinll: ,.nd to rnak. cruel. tool â&#x20AC;˘. PAGE 3

b elon ~e d

primitiv(' migrants to the Philippines 3 Thes(' most a ny other living thing tbey catch and kill.

to the Stone AJH'.

'rhey ki1lC'{l fish with sha.l'pened ston('s. nte , nails. ('rahs a nrl al-


4 TWs

second wa ve of home-see~ers was composed of two ty pes, (al tbe short, r ound-headed, curly-haired Australoid- ' egrito and (bl the AustraioidSa kai t ype, remnants of wWch still inhabit the Philippine rain forests.

5 These prehistoric " taos" Uved in natural caves, a.nd their only possessions were primitive stone tools. Only rarely were they able to capture larger animals, during which occasion they held tribal teasts.

6 The

second wave of immigrants across the land bridges came about 25,1)00 to 30,000 years ago, the ancestors ot the pygmy remnants still living in remote corners of the Philippines. They were great hunters, and their tools were very much better than the weapons of the hulking First Man who came here. The Little Peopie used many small stone implements, tipping their arrows and darts with well-made arrowheads. In addition, they traded more or less with their neighbors, exchanging torest pro.luets such as rattan and beeswax tor cloth and ornaments.


7 The Little People did not depend on caves for shelter. At lirst, they built crude Jean-to sbelters, of palm or banana leaves fastened to a frame, which kept them out of the rain.

8 The Liltle

People had learned the secret of making fire, one <>f the giant strides In culture. They rubbed two sticks together until friction Ignited the tinder or dry cogon grass fed In'o the friction area.

on, the lean-to "as developcd into a family-sized 9 Later l' eople advanced and improved their knGwledge. .

shelter, as the Little

10 Relics of tbe carly Stone Age: stone tools, implements and wea pons, all crude but of solid workmanship.

(All found in Luzon sites.)


Out of the n orth cam e a third wave of migl'ation to noe Philippinps some S.OOO to G.ono yrnrs 01:'(1. ::.0011 t" ~,1l00 were under water.. hut tjlese venturesome rolk braved the gr~nt ~ens to l'e!lch thp inla nds.



The land bridges

12 These people were tan and slim. the aneestors of the Indonesian A" type. Their high noses are scarcely paralleied a mong other Mongoloid. II

13 They

came in sturdy, plank-built boats. which showed a g-reat advance in craftsmanship. Wooden pegs and rattan lashings helt! tll" parts of the boats together. On the larger war vesEels, 'a platform raised above the middle length of the hull served the fighters; and they in turn were protected by an awning of

mats. ....JLIPI'.DIE SIlOA

Some of the hons('s were l)Ui1t on posts. to ra isp t.he floor abov(' thf" g round which . h ~'i jd cs 1iiL The T:..I1 PrOl)le thou g ht thing:.. and'd thpir wfly ", of Jif(l to ('(Hldili nn .... flU! .

hcing rla m p. was inr~ste n with cra.wling th ing'$.


17 !\lore implements of the Early Ages:



(1) Stone adzes of the third migration period; (2) Stone fightingJ axe of the third'migratlon period; (3) Rid\:ed "Luzon" adzes of the tourth migra tio. n period; and (4) stone barkdoth fourth m!l!:ration peri!,!!, _ _ __ _ . P,\GE 1

18 Other ;'retreat" h.ouses were set up in the forked branches of tall trees, for protection from night attacks by human enemies. During .daytlme. these people used house. built directly on the ground. The struetures wer~ put together without nails. They used lasbing;s of rattan, or 'at most a little mortising. Where storms threatened, houses were often anchored to trees or the ground by Jines of rattan. The houses of the wealthy and even of the chlefs did not differ from those of the common men except for being larger and better built.

practiced dry agricultt. -e. The chief products were root 19 They crops. P lanting occupied their life-long attention.


20 The blowpipe. rega rded as typically MalaYllan. was used by

this group. The weapon was offen Uled with poisoned 4 .. rts, the points beine dipped in poison from the "ipo" o'r " upal" tree. PIDLlft'Il\;E SAGt\




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.~ ..J


The Influx of mlcratlnc peoples contlnu"" all and on. Then about 1500 ac. down to 500 B. C. the four.h and filth types of people came over from Indo-ChIna. direct to Luzon. The fourlh type were the last alld most advanced of tbe Stone Age Peoples to reacb the Pbllippln~nd some of them went on from bere tar out Into the eaotem Pacilio Islands. The fIItb type were the Bro".e Age folk ",La broua-bt the first metal-workIng art to tbe Pbllippln.... Tbere Is the h1atcrloal posslbWty tbat the DalD8 LIDO'" whlclb "fers' to II neater portion rf the PhUlpplr.e Arohlpelqo "'... derived fronl Chin_.


Th""e people had .. ot yet learned the co-nplleated art of weaving, but had developed the making of bark cloth to a high decree. Their clcthlnc was cleverly decorated wllh designs printed rroID stone or wooden blocks. Arohaeologtsts have found these bark-cloth beaten and priotinc devices at the slles of their ancient .. iliac.... The deslcno were prlmllI.. e and crude but they showed artbtry and beauty In their 0"' 0 bnrbarlc ways. Roots and saps of fruits wCI'1; used to color. Tbls faot lpeaks well of our early anoeaton. WhUe the other early peoples In lome patts of th. world probably .tuck 10 wcarlnr clolhlnr for protectl..e ...... .ona, onl,. tbe early FWpIllOi alread,. boast of an artlab7 III dlatillrulablnr oolor•. ill:VENlNG NBWS


23 Thls group of Mrly FilipinOs used good-sized durout boats. made 1;1 ' hoilowlbt out Jaree tree-trunks with stone stools mounted 1n woode1! handIeI. Their boats were sleek. streamlined era-ft. Indlcatlng a high degree of In\elllgeni workmallBhiP-lUld they were brave alld hardy ADora.

24 Thb is our Ukanunununuan"

or crea t-creat-creat rrandfather. the type of man whose descendantâ&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ tlll people the PhilIppines. The late NeoDthlc Man. as the scientists. name him. brourht the so-called Indonesian "11" culture to the archIpelago.

25 These people lived In houses with pyramidal roofs. raised above the cround on four posts. Windows are more frequent at present than In early times. The entranc" Is by a ladder of bamboo. The people then did not know much of ventilation but tbey certainly were learnlnr much of securit y by boUdlng houses which were m" cb above the cround. PAGE 10

26 As a

conlu.uatlon of the Indonesian "B" culture. the fifth stream or people came between 800 and 500 B. C. This latter wave introduced Into Northern LUlon ~he Central Asian methods of copper smeltlnll'. and the use of bellows and forll'es. forerunnen of the modem smith shops.

27 At this siall'e the Irrlption system of plantlnll' rice was also introduced. The splendid Irrlll'ation system of the Bontok. Nabalol and adjacent &"rOUps. culmlnatlnll' In the works of the Ifugao. have never faUed to ell"'t the admiration and wonder of observers from aU Darts of the world.






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28 TheIl afolDl4 Ule ,ear 300·* B. C. th6 last of Ulr IIrehlatorlc peoples -alread, protohlstorio In some area~ to enter the PWIIppines from

Ule IOIdh, eomIDC In ~ ah'eaml. The .Inh alream of lmmlsrants ~ learned to use h16h1J·developed tools, weaPOIIS, utellllla IIIId OrDa14enw.




people, known as t he Mala)' or Iroll Ate 'olk, had a still more advanced culture. In addition to bringing' f"ur ne. industries, they were the 29 These first to buDd bamboo aD~ wooden h;:ases elevated platforms, ra.lsed above the water. CuUure thM "'lOS s&ead1lJ rlslDr to its proper height. OD



30 This wave 01 settlers brought the art of spln.Jlng and weavln .. to

the Phlll""1n.... The lashlonlng 01 woven cloth makes an advance In culture comparable to the use 01 lire. Tenlle wâ&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ well ahead. PAGE


Then_s now In many remote Bectlonl of the "land_their hand 100m. ~re .Imllle but effective contrivances. The warp WIt. ulualh, attached to a post by the outer elld, and the op_lte end wal held "round the weaver's waist. This resulted In a Ion ... nanow bolt of f1nl.hed eloth. similar to thr "noeano .loth" Dnd "Bal(ll1o cloth" tumed out neeDtI,.. PHILI J: SAGA




Be"lnnfn~ In

the Bronze Ale aod culmIna tin" In the Iro'n A"e. per~or.a.1 adornment made creat strIdes. The nephrite beads were replaced by carnelt[\n. a~a.te. rock crystal, and tbe green and blue glass made by skilled artisans.

Iron Age people labo>33 T).e riously learned. the art ot poUety-n'Il,klng. AI this stage of their de~eloPm"Dt, the etay was finally ~haped , with a ttowel-like paddle while â&#x20AC;˘ smooth stone was held inside the Pllt beioc formeii. Th" ni~nsUs were bH.ked In ltO open lire IIf dung, plne-b!trk or ' wood, wlibollt benefit at a kilo, which was .. Iatcr develo\>ment,

34 Poller's

products In this period were utilitarIan, but tbelr art commanded wide respect. Some Jars were carefully preserved as ricewIne eontalners In ,reat trIbal religious rite!, and were hIghly revered. Tbe tribes onl), parted wltb tbem for the most Important blood feud ..,tUemeo&a or In r.larnalre EVENING !'lEWS

35 In describing Tagalog,, Panga~lnan and lIocanr jars, Morga wrote in 1609 that "certain earihenware jars Jue found a.mong the natives. They are very old. of a brownish color." (These three are "Manila .. ware" jars of 16th and 17th century-all found In old houses in Bulacan Province.) PAGE 13

36 B ur ial In ja rs was a solemn ritual Introduced Into tbe PhulpplneS by the

"jar-burlal folk" descended front the Haith trlbls ot ~uklen province, who carried their a ncestors' bones with them when they mlll'rated to new homes. Archaeolop.ts have found these "rolden urns" In various parts of t he Philippines. And these " Il'olden urns" have been the very key which has enabled us to pike torether sonle loos â&#x20AC;˘. broken &Idblts of hbtomal facts.


History has made another gain In the unearthing ot the cross-section ot a Babuyan Islands burial mound. Archaeological flndln{S have not only determined the position of the burial jar. but also discovered the frequent use of another Inver~ed jar as a cover for those burial jars.


These burlal jars. known as ukunukun," were inclosed in earthen mounds, over which stone cairns were built (as especially noted in the Batanes and Babuyan Islandsl. The Idea was to keep the a.ncestral bones safe trom desecration. No wonder the jars were kept Intact.

39 The ja r-buria l folk spread down into eas tern Luzon in the early centuries or t he Ch rl. tlan Era, coming thro ull'h the Ba t . n e. a nd Babuyan Islands. They moved southward fr om Fuklen P rovi n ce and s pread out. PAGE U

TALE OF THE "GOLDEN URN."-The "Jar-burial" called "Golden Urn" burial, was originated by the "Hakkas," people who lived In the interior ot Fuklen and other provinces In South China. Because they could not bring their ancestral graves with them In their migrations Into new places, they carried their ancestors' bones In Jars Instead. The practice was ' handed down throughout the ages, so their own remain. could e"slly be carried along whenever their descendants moved Into ncw homelands. Where the jar-burialS are stili prevalent among some people In the PhilIppines, It Is probable that the custom has been adopted trom contact with the Hakka people when they first came here. An Interesting fact Is that the Jar- burial custom originated before the development of true porcelain wares, and that the burial-jars as found In old grave sites were made only of hard earthenware or of some soft stoneware. The Philippine sites where such burial jars are tound lie mostly In the Batanes-Babuyan Islands (between Formosa and Luzonl, Sorsogon. and some provinces In SuJu and Mindanao. They are also found occaslollAlly In Borneo. In the north, the Burial jars were usually covered with a calm: hut as the .nlgratlon proceeded southward. the custom changed. And the calms were first superseded by an earthen mound, and later by direct burial ot the jars themselves In the ground. It Is probable that this ancient Jar-burial migration added an Interesting element to the population of the ea.tern and c ~ntr81 Philippines durin&" the n",t third of the Christian Era. They were .. plain and simple people, of middle "Iron Are" culture. But theIr culture seems to have died out prior ~ the 8th Century A. D .. or perhaps the)' wrre merely bleruJed with Ul. Ia&er _ _ ., torlc orl&"ln.-#


40 Belw':>in 900 and 1200 A. D .â&#x20AC;˘ a

new ",oup of Immi",ants enlered lhe historical arena of the Philippines. They came from whal Is now southern Annam. and were known as Oran g Dampuans--or "Men of Champa." They succumbed. like sO many Ialer \'Isltors. to the wild. exotic charms of the SuIu region . and lhere established tbeir lrading posts. A lush 'rade ",ew up belween the Sulu natives and the Dampuan homeland. An ancient SuJu manus cript recounts lhat in the century before the SpaNarlb came. some four to five hundred junks arrived annually Crom Ca mbodia, Champa and China. The Orang Damptlan. were the first civilIzed (orellfners to establish a settlement In Sulu. according to lhe most reliable of pre-Moham medan hlstorl.". They brought with them a hlrh culture. The "l\l en of Champo." "'cre not selfish. They shared wit" the natives the lUany blessInr. of a culture destined to leave marks of in fluence In tha t parl of the archipelago. The nBUvPs. at first wary. rcco~ized the superlorlly of lhe way, of living of the newcomers. They soon realized that those way." of lhe foreigners could be made of good use In their everyday lives.


The Orang Da mpuans had a higher culture than their nelrhbors. Their homes were bdter. They were shrewder In trade. This aroused jealou.y. jud as it does now. and this envy finally touched orr the massacre of a nUIn ber of Champa traders. The slaying spread. Peaee belween lhe foreigners Bnd the local resIdenta ended. It could h a ve been a verted but lhe fires of JealoulY 'lamed Into a conflagration that devoured th o! pride of the na t ives. Tbolr weapODS 01 war were crude and the)" were no matcb lor t he advenlurous Orang Dam p ua ns. bul even then lhey four hl It out to lhe end.




42 T he

Oran g Da m puans. backed by their rulers at borne. massed their superior a.rmaments for terribt.! retaliation against the slay..s. S ululand r:.n r ed witb blood as the vengeful Dampua n s s truck swiftly and bard. Tbe native. had to cope with the worst situation they had ever encounterea in tbeir lives. The Sulu Cihiet had nO' alternative but to plunge hio loya l braves beadlong into the gory ba ttletleld. T b ey bad provoked the Ire of the foreigners. It had been a war precipitated by the odd mixture of keen commercial rivalry and of an Inborn sen se of protecting the native rights which Sulua ns cherisbed.


Tbe Orang Dampuans knifed through the Sulu towns and vll,""es Irrp.<tsttbly. killing tbe inhabitants who did not tlee. and destroying tbe blood-soaked towns. Many a native was sacrificed by the ('onsuming fir~ of hatred and jealousy. But the stout-hearted natives feU with dignity in tbeir chosen stand against tbe Orang Da mpuans. who became meroU ... s in their rampal:'e of vengeance. Tho Orang Dampuans saUed away from the smok¡ ing ruins of tbe village which they burned. after they had comDleted their revenge. Tbelr actions were proof that tbey did not seek poIIttcal domination. but only wanted to trade peacefully. It was not until the time of the Shri-Vishayan incursion that political domination came about. and tbe Orang Dampuan., came back again in tbelr shlP!l. to trade In peaceful ports. when the Shrl-Visbaya rulr... had reestabllsbed a reign of peace and order.




page. of PhU!pp!ne hl.sto'"J' teem with h:gb romance borne on tbe mighty rIver of a grea t culture at full tlde :n the period from 700 1"000 44 The A.D .. whloh was the high-water m .. rk of Srl-Vishayan Influence the islands. In Farther India, the Sri-ViBhayan expansionist movement began ~o


to bur&eon a. cultural an~ polltbal aptitudes developed. jl-/entuaUy the outer1rtngs of this expansion were to enclose a great portion of the Philippines. a nd leave a va.t and Important mark on our cultural and racial inheritance. It was, wandertng colonists of the Sri-Vishayan tide who tmplanted the distinctive r.ponal name Visayas on a &r""t gcographical section of t h e Philit>pines, and everywhere eise their Influence survives.







, N D' A


45 Before the end of the El&hth Century, tbe power and domln;'nce of the Srl-Vishayan empire were fhmJy fixed,

It extended over aU of the MAla,. penlnsala, Included lar&e portions of Sumatra and part of Slam and extended eastward as fa r as central J a va. Tbe exact number of snb-states Is 1lIlkno..... but four roae to POIIIt\Ons of &reat tmportance: Bandjarmastn, Sukadana, tbe southern Sarawak region .and Brunet. BandJarmasln and: Bnmel leD! offshoola Into tbe Philippines that readUy commtngled- wttb "ur enterprisln& forefatbers. and lent new 0010. to our vivid national acene.

PAGE 111 j

46 Pearls from

the fatiled Sulu beds were tho. ma&'llet that drew the stalwart colonizers from Bandjarmasin, pearls destined for the crowns of Sri-Vishayan potentates. The Bandjarmasin tmmigrants settled in Sulu. From Brunei, other treasure hunters and traders swarmed into the west-central Phllippines. Chinese and Champa traders had carried t he word of Philippine treasure to the far reaches of the empire.

47 The Men of Bandjar (Orang Bandjar) began regular trade with Sulu, rf'sulting In the founding of a colony. The natives, called Buranon, eyed the colonizers with scarcely veiled hostility. The Interest of the exploiters and exploited clashed, and affairs approached a crisis, precisely as when the Orang Dampuan moved Into the area, and for the same reason of confiletlng interests. But the O'ang Bandjar were better strategists.

48 The Orang Bandjar were wiser than the men

of Dampuan. and they knew the transcendental power of a beantlful woman. They brought a " pearl" of their own, a Bandjarmasln princess of blinding beauty, and ottered her In marriage to the prlndoal Buranon rhlcf. (lnMr the thrall of the princess, the Bnranon ruler signed a marriage contract maklnlr Suln a tributary of Bandjarmasln. or probably a. trlbutllry cof Ihr Srl-VI,lIayan .mpire through Bandjarmasln. Thns the colonists secured, through a state marriage. a permanent foothold lor pearerul trade and expanKion In Suln.



As trade burgeoned. mOa'e and more fortune-bunters swarmed. into the "boom" towns of the Sulu coast. It was a racial melting pot, ~ith adveD:- . turers from Borneo. Celebes. Mindanao-and possibly Sumatra; Java. tbe Molucc,.. and Indo-China disputing the cains. Tbe natives were er ow~' out by tbe more advanced 8trangers~and lought refuge!n the bll\s 'of the interior. The foreigners controlled the coasts. the wbole length of then>







Sulu beeame the tradlnlr eross-reads of the SCluthern Seas. a port of romance and wealth. Great shl~ from Chin ... Cambodia. Sumatra and Java anchored in the Sulu roadstead. and there were occasional tradlnlr vessels from faraway India and Arabia. in Sulu's harbor. Sulu became a word ot the world. aJbon:rmous with p-eat 'riches and beautiful luminoUs Pearls. The •.a11 ot tabu IOn" treasure in Sulu beckonect · many adventurers. PAGE 19



From the union of the Bandjarmasln princess and her Buranon chieftain came the line of Sulu rulers, the rajahs who owed tribute to the blood of their mothers, and remained wIder the cultuml influence "f Bandjartliasin for many generations. Such _s the product of strategy!

52 From Borneo other adventurers set out, among them Datu Putl who

saUed with ten small vessels to Palawan, thence to Panay, where he settled not tar from present-day DoUo. The reCords show that the pllot was acquainted with the route, which is evidence of previous Bornean . pe~etratlon of the Vlsay"s. .


53 The settlers from Borneo were just a8 enugetlc and peopled a vast area

In the PhUlppine8. From positive recorda we know that they had colonie. In Panay, Palaw"n, MIndoro and Southern Luzon. Their colonial empire may bave been of muoh &Teater el<tent. There are ancient manWlCrl t recorlU from Panay stID el<Isting wblch give an account of the settlement of that uland by Brt&nel Imml .....Dte, several centurle. before MaleUa~ .




When Datu Put! landed In Panay. he found the place peopled by a set of short and swarthy natiVe3 who were called "Atls." The Borneans entered the village, ,,'hieh was not far from the present city of Doilo. and they were met by the petty king or "I,angu!o," Marikudo. The n atives' gestures of hospitality were 'w arm and sincere~ the foreigners were pleased. AU around them, they saw houses standing, domes~ tic animals quietly roaming by. and the crude but nevertheless effective dry farming pracUced by Marlkudo's men. Datu Puti knew then and there that it was the ri~ht p!ace for him and bis men.

S5 The Datu thought the tlm_ and signs opportune for nt!gotiating a treaty of settlement. Would the "AU" overlord b~ pleased to bargain for rights to establish a Borncan colony" For answer, Marikudo bJew his horn to a,sembl. his tribal followers. and advise them of the proposal. A creat feast was held. there was daneln,. and music, and the negolIa tlon. were concluded In creat rood friendship. Datu Putl was IrIver. his choice a site on the beach or In the m~unlalns. ne the ..ashore. Ilk. the se. rover he was. In payment, Marikudo requested a hat of gold. whlcb he rot. The "AU" tribesmen retired In peace to a new set- I Ilement In the hUls. Datu PuU burned their old !leach for • .,nltary reasons, and his group established a new town on the site. Thus a new Rornean colony was firmly established peacefully.


56 But the

ways of wanderl1l51 were .tronr In the explorlnll Datu who unwittlnr" broucht a new culture to tbe Pbtllpplnes.\ He ,,"slmed seven datu. and their families at the new townsite. with responsibility for ' looklnc after their emplre's Interests. and with the remalnln r two datos of the oriJinal party. set sa\l again. They Q=,pear to bave penetrated as , far as Lake T""I In southem Luzon, spendlnC' a month on the journey. Two of the da tus. their families and a1aves. settled on Taal. the f'"t of mnny .ucceedlnr reneratlons to succumb to the rharm of the Lake 10 close to the ..... Datu Put! retllnled to Borneo by way of the Mindoro and P"b,w:.n Islands. The activities of the settlers In Datu Putl's croup were nnt .0Iely ·•....,f1ned to the Luzon area. which re!lulted In .cattered ID(luences In the south6ft 151es. notab" III the V!saya....


•••••• •

57 The ancient man uscript f ound In Panay make:l no further mention of Datu PutL His job was done. A great colonizer and explorer, the Philippines owes this man of remote times a great debt for the heritage he brought. The rema inder of the manuscript Is a detailed history of the colony after Datu Putl had left.


58 Regarding tbe Taal settlers. the .manuscript merely states that some of .heir descendants lilter removed to the land of Blkol and five other places-two of which have now been identified as being on the south aud east shores of Laguna de Bay. Doubtless some of theIr offspring stili Jive in these regions.


The manuscript throws some light a lso on the worshipping rites of the "Atls" whom t h e Borueans f ound in Panay. The fundamental Idea behind the religious practices t hen was the worship of a class of supernatural beings caUed llan itos." W'hUe the concept of the "ani to" varied from tribe to tribe, everything could be traceable to a sort of ancestor worship tben prevailing. Some believed the "anitos" were gods and spirits ; others, that tbe "a n ltos" were the souls of th~ir dead an· cestors keeping vigU over them.

feature of the P ..... 60 Another nay manuscript, now called

the "Maragtas," is tbe ancient writing In wbich it was originally Inscribed. T be Bornean Visayans used a form of syllabic writing, wbich tbey introduced wherever they spread. In tbls syllabary, the vowels were written only when they stood alone or at the beginning of words. Each consonan t sIgn stood for tbe consonant followed by the sound "a". The cbar ~ acters were Incised on bamboos or written on bark with cuttlefish ink. It also appears that they had some rudfments of astron om y and oth er branches of knowledge; but their Ideas are much mixed with m ythology and a lore th at had its beginnings in distant India.





Our nrly ancestors had their 0\'0\ n-rU-deveJoped wejgbt.'i and measurt:S. The manuscript bears this oot, too. A. reprds the mathematical ablllUe!< of the people. Wf' Rre unfortunately lttUe informed. 'fhey. bowevrT. added and sobtracted nombers con.Idembl~ Iar"er than those "'blob most unel\'Ubf!d people were nccustomed to deal with and while It Is doubtful whether they possessed any system of mult.lplica Uon a. such, tbey followed It In effÂŤt in their schemes of ~:Ltues.

62 l\leantime

in Java ambition and intrigue were shaping a fresh new power destined to grow up and swallow the great SriVisbaya itself. In 1275 Kartanagara, fifth and last of tbe Javanese kings of Singosari, gathered the pick of his troops and senl them on a great expedition which penetrated as far "" 1I1enan/1kabau. and then beyond the reach of communicat\.DlIlS. For twenty this army was not heard from.

63 Theil the wUy Djayakatwanl:", the tributary kinc of Kedlrl In east-central, took advaDtJ"ge of the absencp of Kartanapra's best troops. treacherously rebelled against h.... overlord. and In 1'-92 ~wod the throne 01 . Slnl:"osart. The .mall home army defendin;:- the throne of Singosart rr.1I ..asy prey to the .udden. unexpected on.. lauj:ht., of the traitors. Klnc Kartan"", ... tried hi. best to gl\ther his troups and m"ke 8 counter-at.tack. But tbey were greatly outnumbered. Thr. few hom~ def.-.nders, loyal to the v..ry last to their king. perished the invaders carried a relentless campaign of vandalism and looting. Kartanagara was immediately kiUed, together with some of his ministers and personnl followers. Bnt the former prime minister, Wiraradja, had escaped to the island of MadtUa.




t be commander of , he small home army wbicb Djaya katwang 64 Now, bested was Raden Widjaya, Kartanagara's son-in-law. Wbe.. tbe royal city capitulated, Raden was in the outskirts. Consequently, he had time to escape to tbe of Madura, where the wily prime-minister Winlradja a nd a number of loyal troops a waited him. Later. they moved to Madjapahit, In the wild unsettled country southeast of Sinll'osari.

66 Unknown to Raden Wldjaya, the mission of Knblai Khan's expedition

65 After organizing a sizable army

at Madjapahlt, they held a council of war. Wiraradj .. advised an appeal to Kublai Khan'. Chinese generals who had already landed a bi!: army on the north coast at Surabaya. Raden Wldjaya d id so, and In!:eniously offered them the pick of the SingosarJ princesses as a reward.

was to subdue Kartana_ who In ute haCl mused to paJ' Vibllte to the E _ o r of China. When the Chinese expedition landed In Java and "found that Kartanapra was dead, the), PUlIIUed the ~ coune of Jo\n\na forees with Raden Widjaye oust tbe usurper Djayakatwa n,. Tbus they ~ .. uld at least follow UteraUy their instructions to punbh the kine of 8lD&'ourL PAGE 24


67 Imperialistic

opportunism made common cause with dynastic vengeance acalnst the usurp~r. whose army was annihilated by the combined forces of the Chinese generals and Raden Wldjaya. Djayaka.twang was killed at Singosarl together with his son and his possessions were seized. Most of the prisoners and booty were taken by the Chinese.

68 When the last

echo of battle faded away In the middle of May, 1292, t he Chinese I"en"Dowed Raden Wldjay" t o return to J\>IadjapahU. Raden, who had by this time become suspicious and wary of the motives behind the help rendered him b~' the {!hlnese. aDeged that his purpose In I"olnl" to IIladjapahU was to prepare the princesse.! and other presents promised by him to the Chinese Emperor. Kublsl Khan.


69 In

order not to arouse the 5u<plclon of the Chinese , ¡cnera" ltaden 'VldjaYI a.ked th:.t escort. arcom .... ny him to obtain the presentl. How..!\'er. wben hr: found hhlUleU ma.ler of the land and lurrounded by a rood-.IRd army. Raden Wld,laya de~lded' to drive the ChInese out of Java. Ife beran by IdlIInr the ,""corta. Then he attacked the Chlneoe I"enerals who had remained with a smaD foree In Daha. tbe capital of KodlrL The 1101'0 11'&$ ~.cessrul. PAGE 25

70 The Chinese army was taken by surprise, as they had not expected Raden Wldyaya to attack them. Their rear guard was wiped out. Intense fighting tOilk place near the coast, where the Chinese had retained a foothold. There they reunited the whole expedition and embarked on their ships. The commanders decided to return to China without attempting any reprisals, as tbe main purpose of their expedition had been already achieved.


The victoriouS Kaden Wldjaya never attempted to rebuild Slngosarl, which had become a symbol of Ignominy and defeat. Instead he had himself crowned king of Madjapahlt, the fateful place where he had found refuge and regained strength for his victorious campaigns. Upon ascension to the throne of Madjapahlt he assumed the name of Kartaradjasa Djaya.-warddhana.

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became klnr In let about coDHIIdatln6 his nst klnrdom and buDdlnr lhe - .-.- .- "?v->;.;. ___ .___ . _._ ._.~ , -~ - '~' ....'\::)0 ~o mat clt1 of MadJapahlt. The power of I\ladjapahlt was wldel)' and rapldl)' estended o throurhoat aU the Islands I),lnr oetween Java and the PhlUpp1nes, a. can be ucel1&lnecl In the accompaD7inc map. The list of trIbatar')' .tates In 1385 Included elllhteen In Borneo. . . •. • .Ix each In the Mola_ and Celebes. one In . \ I .... I \ . \ I . I .\ the Tataud Isla.nds to the lOuth or Mlnd&ll&O. and three within our own archlpelaro,





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73 Tbe Madjapahlt ruler took a keen interest In bls possessions overseas. devislng ways and means of wielding his power by remote control. AoU Madjapahlt colonies were ruled by I'overnors wbo usoally lived at favorable

spots on the coast. and were commissioned wltb the title "sea-lord." Madjapahlt sea-lords had botb troops and ships under tbeir command, for the purpose of resisting foreign invasions and of putting down local insurrections whlcb flared up now and then. However, their most Important function was supervision of the export (rade, and aU other duties were subordinated to tbis.


To inlw-e financial Itabillty for an Madjapahlt _ I o n s ta"eo . were Im .....ed and collected from the Inland population. This important function ..... placed under tbe supervision of a mantri, or minister' for the Interior. Tbe ",,-conceto" aaaiped were ofteu prlesta or mon .... EVÂŁN1IIfO !\IEWll

75 Tbe ruler of I\ladjapahlt knew tbat prlesta

w~re the most qualified for ta,,-collectlon duties because of their tact In dealing with people, But they were forbIdden to Interfere with the nlltive relllrion. bellel'â&#x20AC;˘. Only tbe Sivaite monks were permitted to Pl'C"oI.Ch BrahmaDlatlc doctrin.....

PAGE 217

76 SllIu,

77 When teanng down some anCIent wa.lts near CordoDa

78 In 1917. a strong flood tearing-away the banks of the Wawa River,

79 Also in the

~own. on lllactan Island, eebu, a small bronze image of the Hindu God Siva was uncovered in 11:43. It Is ·believed to date from the Madjapahit period.

the re!;ion of Lake Lanao In Mindanao, and the "Iclnlty of 1Ilanlla Bny In J.uzon, were the three localities In the PhlUpplnes which are definitely known to !iave been controlled by 1Iladjapahlt.

same Madan site where the Siva image was found, a copper figure of the Hindu God Ganesha was unearthed-but It was destroyed when the Ateneo museum burned. The above stone image of Ganesha was excavated on the site of Madjapahlt Itself. Ganesha, the "elephant god" was the patron saint of Gadja Mada the 'lTeat prime ruinister who extended the power of Madjapahlt over all Malaysia.

near Espera nza in Agusan ProviDce, exposed a heavy gold image of a type definitely belon!;ing to the Madjapahlt period. It seems to be of local workma nship, and It ma.y have been made by an artist accompanying t h e Java n ese miners who are known to have developed certain gold deposits In tha t · re!;ion. '

80 Amo..,. the many-faceted cllltDr... tha t lent color to the Pblllppine national scene. the Indian Influence was among thoae that manlfeated Itself with a virility tllat came down throughout the agea. The Indian eWture made Itself ' felt strongly In the political.•octaL ""Udous and aeathetlc life of the population amonl' whom It s"read. Economic Influencea seem to have been relatively leas important, thoul'h modea of dr ..... and personal ornamentation ... er. aloe I'featly affected. The Infiuence on Filipino dress can stili be pereelved. PAGE 28





Early Chinese Relations with Malay Lands.-About the third or fourth centW'Y, A. D., another lnIl.'ortant movement in the East began: this was the southward flow of the cultured Chinese tnto l\lalay lands. Tpe earllest route followed the coast of Southeast Asia to Sumatra. and Java. Later route.!, beginning about the ntnth century, came southward through the Philippines and on to through the Makassar Strait between Borneo a.nd Celebes. Return trips to ChIna. usually followed the ea.stern border of the Ohtna Sea. r---------------------------------------~



82 The types of ships used by the Chtnese were the largest and ftnest tn use on lbe Indian and China seas tn pre-European times. were lbe heavy square stable Junks stU! seen today.



83 The

credit for bringing Brune! and the Philippines to the official notice of China was due to one Abu Ali and t,,"O others who went to

the Chinese oourt as envoys from the king of Brunei. in A. D. 97'7. PAGE 29

he first actual mention of the Philippines made in the ten t h 84 Tcentury-when certain traders from ''Ma-i,'' the present Mindoro, brought valua ble merchandise to Canton for sale. in the year 982. The cap¡ tain of the s h ip was also named Abu Ali.

85 A description of "Ma-i" is . given in the account of Chau

Ju-Kua. .written about 1225: ' 'When tradlng ships en ter the anchorage. they stop in front of the place of the mandarin (official's place). After a ship has been boarded. the natives mix freely with the shlp's folk.

86 The custom was for the native traders to a ssemble In crowds and carry the

~ooda away; and even If one could not d\atln~h them oae from the other, th ey a lways. came back to repay the traders. As a rule it took them as loa~ as eight or nine montha before they returned_ad for thlI r eallon t he ships trading to "Ma-'" were usually the last to return to China.

PAG E 30



87 From a

book of 13~9 we read the followln&, interestin&' particulars: "In their customs they are &,ood and chaste. When a husband dies. hi, wile shaves her head and fasts for seven days. There a~e some who. to make manifest their wifely devotion. on the day when Ithe body of their dead husband Is burned. throw themselves into the fire." This refers to the custom of "suttee", introduced into Mindoro from MadJapahlt in the 14th. century.

merchant ships a lso made frequent trips to "San-hsu" (the 88 Chinese "Three Islands") , which seem to have been the Central Visayas; and also to "P'u-U-lu" and "Tung Liu-sin", which places are n ow known t o be Polillo Island and Eastern Luzon. In r efering to Polillo; the Chin ese a uthor says: "To ¡the south lies the land of Gold"; and this must r efer t o t h e Paracale District, where the Chinese trades goods for raw gold as ear ly a s the 12th or 13th century.

89 The flnt extensive acconnt of Luson appears in Chapter 323 of the

''Ming Annals," where It Is referred to as Llu-sung. Embassies f rom this connt17 .....ved In China In 1312 and alraln In 1408. Amonlr other presents they are said to have brought gifts of horses "small but very strong". The Emperor reGlprocated the dUs with presents of silks, strlnp of copper cash, and many other thin&,s. Chinese merchants also brought presents to ~e flB..1q of Luson".


P ,\GE 31

90 ·A Chinese writer in 1349 wrote: for

"SuJu pearls are ,whiter and rounder than those of India. Their price is very high. T he Chinese used tbem bead ornaments."


The C'eneral character of Chinese Influence was and is economic. The ja..::ket with steeves. the loose trousers wot'n by '!\foro women, glass bead., and many types' of bats. raincoats., footgenr, et c.. are also certainly Chinese.



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92 At least ten ancient syllabaries were in use in different part. of the

PblJipplnes In pre-Spanish tlmes-of which copies of only seven stm survive. Tbe Blkol syllabary seems to 'I.e completely lost; whUe tbose of SuJu and Maaindanao were replaced by the Arabic alphabet before the Spanboh arrivaL Tbe above table shows tbe known Philippine syUabarle. In comparison wltb related forms from Malaysia and India-and also wUh Arabic and Hebrew to which tbey are not directly related. PAGE 32



FILIPINO ART AND CULTURE IN PRE-SPAN ISH TIMES WhIle the full history of Phlllppine art and culture before the time of Magellan cannot yet be written , the archaeological findings of the past 25 years have brought out many examples of ancient artistic productions that are worthy of being placed on permanent record. And from them we may to some degree reconstruct the course of artistic advancement through the various culture stages of the Philippines' past. Most Early Stone Age men were too busy getting a living to think of anything not strictly utUltarian, and spent little tlme, ln shaping the crude stone artifacts that were theJr Ilrincipal weapons and tools. However, the artistic nature existed even then, and some few individuals, observing the beautiful natw'al lines in leaves and flower-petals, began to try shapIng theJr tools and weapons in similar forms. With the advent of the early New Stone Age artistic appreciation Wa3 greatly increased and a much larger percentage of the population demanded not only good lines in the shaping of their weapons and tools but also a polished sudace. It is obvious that this desire was not all utilitarian, since a polished stone axe or chisel L, harder to hold filmly than the rough surfaced ones of earlier times. People demanded the polished implement not because ' It was more useful but because of a newborn sense of the artistic In Nature, and a desire to Improve It still further if possible. As the New Stone Age adv:tnced we note a rapid increase in the number and kinds of artistic objects and soon Jewelry and body ornaments began to appear. In the late New Stoce Age not only were beads, amulets, earrings, braceiets nn11 suchlike ornaments made of beautiful green Jade, red carnelian, and other attractive stones, but also the barkcloth then worn began be dyed and ornamented with printed designs In simple but attractive colors. Many of the deSigns probably had magic or religiou., significance and served a double duty, utilitarian and artistic. The Copper-Bronze Age ,aw still further increase in expression of the artistic sense. Not only are the Bronze-Age axes, ~pearl1 ea ds, and ornaments well formed. but the presence of bronze m'ums, gongs and bells indicates a considerable de velopment of the social arts of music and dancing. But it was with the coming of the Malays in the Early Iron Age that artistic diversity reached Its z!'Jlith in pre-Spanish times. A multitude of new forms of ornaments appeared all at once. The body was covered with complicated tattoo designs, and decorated with strings of beads, bracelets,


rmgs, headbands, neck ornaments, etc.. including new materials sucb a. metal ana glass. With the coming of the hand loom, woven textiles began to multiply and clothing became both more diversified and of intricate and colorful designs. Artistic productiOns in it'on and steel replaced tbe simpler weapons and tools of older times ; daggers, spears, slender longbladed swords, fighting bolos, and knives became essential equipment for p.ll warriors-as well as decorated sbields and other defensive armor. Pottery came into use and was soon covered with incised designs varying from the simple to tbe elaborate. Images carved from potsherds, or from wood, hom, bone, or Ivory, came to be used not only in life but were also buried with tbe dead. Some early Iron Age graves in Luzon have been found to contain a man's complete array of personal possessiOnsclothing, weapons, ornaments, tools, and utensils, as well as a POt originally filled with food and a vessel of water or wine. In the protohistoric period, still finer vessels of stoneware and porcelain (imported from China, Cambodia, or Siam) replaced the native wares in gra ves-and imported beads and jewelry from far-off Greece, Rome, Asia Minor, and India appear side by side with native ornaments. Of course the finer textiles, wood-carvings, and suchlike destructible possessions h ave long since disappeared from our burial sites-but some of their designs bave been preserved through impressions in pottery and in tbe rust-cakes on Jron weapons Rnd tools. In a few rare instances, embroidered fabrics have been completely fossilized in the rust-cake of an iron dagger or bolo blade around which they were wrapped. Gradually, as clothing increased, tattooing gave way to embroidered jackets and other garments-and many of their styles and deSigns we can still see among the advanced pagan peoples of eastern Mindanao and northern Luzon, where Mobammedan and Christian influences have only penetrated recently or in some areas not at all. We should be glad of the fact that the strong "culture resistance" of some of these isolated peoples of our hills and mountains has preserved so much of their ancient culture and arts down to the present day-when, if we will, we can still recover and revive much of the best that is purely Pbillppine. The changes that occurred with the introduction of Spanish and Christian culture in the north, and Mohammedan arts in tbe south, will be considered in a later chapter to be entitled "Filipino Art and Culture during tbe Spanish Period".- (8.0.8.)


'5 rolishell stone goure of . the late middle New Stone Age. made of dark (feen altered rhyolite; from Davao Province Mindanao. (Date. about 1500 B. 0.)


Leaf-shaped arrowhead of the Middle Stone Are; from Rual Province. (Front and back view•. )


94 Necllthlc polished spear-

head of nephrite (aDclent jade); from Batanga. Province. Date, about 1200 B.C.

97 F'our Jrl'een jade beads of the late Neolithic;

nca· vated in Batangss Province. (Date, about 600 10 800 B. C.)

96 Two pollahed Jade adses of tho late Ne;" Stone Ace (front and back 910_); excanted In Pul&'. lUsal Pr09ince. (Date. about laO. 10 lZOO. B. C,)


.98 Green jade ear-pendant. dated 800 B. C•• trom Ba.

tangas Province; with Hugao sliver ear-rillr. showInr 19th century survival of the ancient symboL I'AGE 33



99 Bronze

spearhead, and three bronze celts (ndzes or chisels); all excavated in Batangas Province. Date, about 500 to 800 B. C.

o 101

100 Bronze

Twelve bronze ear-pendants, amulets, and rings (one bronze pendant covered with gold-leaf, next to copper rin&") ; f~om Rlzal and Batangas Provinces. ('Date. around 500 B. C. lma&"e on amulet shows possible early Greek or Western Influence.)

grips trom dagger and lmlte handles; from Rizal Province. Image shows,Indo-China influence. (Date, about 500,

B. C.)




Oldest known portraits ot Filipinos (man's head about 11;0 B. C., and woman's head about 200 A. D.); trom Early and Mlddie Iron Age &"raves at Novallches, Rizal. Underneath are the male and temale s1mbois, or "chastity-pards," found in the same ,raves with the portraits. (All carved from potsherds.)

.. AGE 34


An,le POt with interestlnt incised decora~lon; datln, from about 200 B. C. (From a f: arlY Iron A,e burial In a ,uano cave, near Escalante in norther ~e&"roe.)





104 Iron

Are ... e..pons and tools, dILtlnl" from ILbout Ibe lit to 3rd centuries, A. D. (Dae-ger., knives, axe'l, Rnd "pearbol!ads are IhoWD; aU from NovaUches &"laves.)

105 Iron Are jewelry; bead. of carnellan, ILe-ate, rock-

crystal, amethyst, green and blue glass, and of red, onn,e, and yeUow glassy pastes. (All from Novalfches craves datln&' 150 B. C. t o 1st century A. D.)

107 tiflolal Green bncelel of argla55. made In


Borse'. head, carved from n p otsherd about 300 A. D., proving thILt the hors. n:l&ted In Luzon more than 1600 year. aco. (From .. NovaUches crave.)

Rkal Province about B . C.


The larnr specimen Is IL pure cold ar-rlnc from IL 150 B. C. Novaliches gr..~; the smaUer one an Uupo 19th century survival of s1mUar type.




() 'a:::c

.... ....

I 110

Bncelet of dark r ed laquerIlke paste, from a Bohol a t h century Vlsa:yan burial-cave.


Porcelain imaps (ee1adon) found In BIIIII PrOTInee 11th and. lZth .iur7 aI&eL

112 Solid rold ornament of un109 Bea..,. I"old beads aled lenrthwlse), fro';' 11th (perlOl'-

or 12tb century rraYH In Samar . and Camarines Nolie.

usual type, found ...Ith a lZth cmtury hurlal near Ormoc,


113"Two --97 cIII4 r\np, _yaW In . San .~elIpe NerI, Blsal; _tine fruJn abvat ·the 12th CleDta.Joy. PAGE 35




Ancient 1I0ko ear-rings of pure gold filagrec. dating from the 14th or 15th century ; found in Docos Norte. (Similar designs in silver are slllJ worn by some pagan Apayaos.)

114 Engraved silver disk found in an East Mindanao

15th century I:!'ave; but of a t.ype still worn amol\&' the pagan Mandayas.

116 Six old Hugao wool1en spoons. some of which at'e

two or t hree centuries old. (Similar designs are known to h ave been in use prior to the 16th century.)

117 Carved Mandaya comb. with tlesigns dating from pre-Spanish times. (From East MIndanao.)


Embroidered Bilaan abaca t r ousers, with designs derlvP.d from pre-Spanish tatooing. (From eastern Cotabato.)

Pre-Spanish Art in Previous ·Chapters of the "Saga" Other examples 01 Philippine pre-Spanish art have already appeared In the previous seven chapters of the "Su·a" . See especially the pictures nllmbered as follows: Images and sculptures: Nos. 17, 59. 77, 78. Painted, Incised, and embroidered designs on clothing, boats, weapons, etc .. Nos. 13. 22, 35, 48, 51, 61, 80.


Beads, other jewelry. and body adornments: No•. 30. 31. 32. 46. 47. 48. 51, 54. . Artistic lines in artificial creations: No•• 6, 13. 14. 15. 16, 17, 27. 29. 36. 37, 52, 56. Architecture: Nos. 13. 14. IS, 16. 18. 25, 26. 27. 29. 37. 38, 40. 41. 42, 52. 56, 73, 75. Cerami, Art: Nos. 33. 34. 35, 36. 37. 59, 83. 86, 88. Literary Art: Nos. 57, 60, 92. t'J\ GE 36


Mandayo. girl with full array of penonel adornments and decorated abaca clothln,; from eastern Davao. (All of pre-Spanish deslcns.)






PROF. JAIME C. DE VEYRA PhIlIppine Sap: Such Is the title of this 11Justrated historical series. Whlle I do not claim any credJt for Its choice, I believe I can take the liberty of qualilying It. For It Is modest, yet It could be over-ambitious' were we to attempt to give full scope to the original concept from which It was derived. As far as I am concerned, however, the most acceptable criterion should be to JJmJt ourselves strictly to the documented historical truths, without passion or exaggeration, and with the optimism inherent In human nature, permitting the imagination and patriotic enthusiasm to wrap the rest In the penumbra of the primitive "sagas," on the basis of what Is known In analogous perIods of history, here and abroad. Moreover we wish to state at the outset that the work under discussion has not been written as the majoritY of histories of the Philippines, from the European or "foreign" point of view, as has been the case with most of our past religious historIans. Even Montero Y Vidal, the most conspicuous lay authorIty whose works are frequently quoted In discussions of an historical . nature, Is no exception to this rule. We profess as Just and right, that the " Filipino" element be the subject of our history. On this point our Ideal Is Rizal as exemplified In his annotations to Morga, and In similar studies by Paterno and Isabelo de ros Reyes. We are attempting now as In the past, when we wrote Efemerldes fWptna. In collaboration with M. Ponce, to expound the same FilIpino flUplnlsm of the forerunners and participants of our glorious Revolution, among them the unforgettab:, figures of Zulueta and Calderon. Hence our purpose Is to write a history of the "Filipino" rather than the "Ji>hUIpplnes".

Our task In this series Is, properly speaking, not detaUed exposition, but, rather graphic suggestion, Inasmuch as we are not offering a textual account of events but are limiting ourselves to an outline of their course, taking only those hlghllght.~ of history which lend themselves to illustration by the artl::;t. It Is 'the latter who has In his hands the execution of the work; our own role Is merely to SUggest, to indicate the Idea, to point out the background, leaving to the painter the interpretation, and to the reader or spectator the admhation and appreciation of events. ThIs procedure Is distinct from that of our colleague, Prof. Beyer, whose work has b~en more Intenslve--Investlgatlng, unearthing fossils, makIng excavations, endeavoring to reconstruct almost always. Our oWn task Is rather that of mere selection, evaluation, collation, etc., which can be plain and easy, or difficult, depending on how one carries It out, As Prof, Beyer has already noted, the post-Magellanlc period, our history from the arrival of the Spaniards up to the present, Is "amply documented by prlnte'; records and :nanuscrlpt literature, additionally supported by pictures of actual events." We want to repeat that we consider It essential , In this work to emphasize significance rather ihan detall; thus, In tracing the development

of our people, we offer that "trait" or "traits" which best characterize them rather th~ a fullscale portrait. Hence our devotion to Kalaw's Cinco Regia. de Nu""tra Moral Antigua., which the soclologtst has Identified as Bravery, Honesty, CourtesY, Self-Control, and Family Unity. From ~hIs pentagon of Ideals a clearer concept of Filipino personality may be derived than from any actual Filipino one may encounter, however perfect and outstanding he may be In real life. Purthermore there are characteristics that are worth encouraging: for example, the love of home. Typlca.Jly, while the Boholano thinks always of retumlng to his home-town after a trading trip, the nokano Is, In contrast, urged on by the spirit of adventure, having merited from the historian Dr. Barrows the appellative ''00mad" (In the good sense). There Is much that Is gradually being lost In those traditions and folkloric tales. Lexicography wlll undoubtlldly help to disinter the meanIng of words which are getting out at use or which have lost their original worth In the spoken language, finally ending up as native patronymics or as place-names. Thus it may be easier to trace those currents of migration which came to establish different ethnic groups accordIng to languages and regions. Without attempting to delve deep Into this, certain problems could be pOinted out, for example: (a) Between the Tagalog and Pampango dialects, there are such great differences that In the neighboring towns of Calumpit (Bul., tag.) and Apallt (Pamp.l which are separated only by a river, the Inhabitants speak entirely distinct dialects. (b) The little island of Kapul, almost attached to the northwestern part of Samar, speaks a language which Is not the Bisaya common to Samar and Leyte. (c) The letter r Is not inherent In the Philippine languages, and does not even appear In our ancient alphabet; it Is recorded only as a phonetic variant of d or J. Iiow Is it that the letter Is so common In the Bisaya lelte-samarefio and m nokano, so distant from one another, In point ot geographic location? (d ) The same occurs with the pecullar pron:mclatlon of tpe e (the peppel e, of the JInculsts), In the Bisaya of Aklan and In Pangaslnan <almost liquid 1 or palatal-guttural e.l , The region of Ak!an (Panay) Is also far from Pangaslnan (Luzon), while In the intervening Islands the pronunciation of the peppet e Is unknown. How Is this possible? (e) The modulr.tlon of the letter f Is still more remarkable; it Is not found In any of our common languages but may be noted In the Tlmray (south of MIndanao) and the Ibanag (extreme north of Luzon). Why this similarity In pronunciation, so unllke the rest? These are phenomena that should give subJect-anfl Jabo:.ll'-to hlstorical-IlnguJstlc researches and ethnic-psychic inqUiries. Perhaps they hold the k~y. to the inter-relation and direction of the extensive migrations undertaken by the ethnic-adventurous or merely ambitious groups of the Matljapahlt and SrI-Vlshaya, described In previous portions of this series.


And so we enter the " period of Magellan," the¡ main subject of our task. In today's series at scenes, the {Iortlst has taken for his starting point the _anality of the Portuguese nd.vigator and explorer. Why did Magellan go ove'-'to the Spaniards? What was his project? What were his dreams? We are In what historians usually term "the period of discoveries". The imagination of Europe has been Inflamed with projects of exploration and adventure by the tales of Marco Polo on the novelties and splendors of the Orient. The Portuguese soon outbid the Venetians, with their discoveries of the Ca pe of Good Hope, the southern plirt of Africa, the coasts of Asia, and above all the Spice Islands: there Magellan explores and fights In the service of his king, the monarch of Portugal. At the end of eight or ten years, he returns to his native land, with his head full of proJects; he Is, however, be~eged by enemies, rivals or mere imitators. Disappointments embitter his heart; the fickleness, perhaps the envy, of the courtiers decide him to leave his native land and go to the neighboring, almost sister, nation, Spain, where a man fated to be the most powerful In the world has ascended the throne as Charles V. To this monarch Magellan submits his proposals, forming a partnership with his countryman Ruy Falero, whom he considers one of the most able technicians, What are his plans? , To go to the Spice islands, by a way dliferent from that taken by the Portuguese-almost by the opposite rou te--and discover lands, more extensive and more rich than any yet known. Charles V does not need to know more. Eager for more power, and despite serious opposition, he signs agreements with MagelJan and Falero, binding himself to fumlsh five Ships, 265 Illen and provisions for two years. The preparations last eighteen months, but at last the small fleet is ready to weigh anchor on September 20, 1519,

120 The voyage of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese sanor driven from


his native country by the injustices of the court whose power he had helped establish In India, was started In an era of great geographical discoveries. Heln&" a Portuguese, Magellan'S entry Into the .emoo 01 Spain was opposed vigorously by Spanish courtiers. But the Spanish monarch Charles V, most powerful In th" Western World, kept his own counseL

Charles wanted to put an end to the activities of the Portuguese In the Moluccas which he believed to be within the jurisdiction of Spain as determined by the Treaty of Tordesillas In 1494. He commissioned Ma~ gellan to head the Spanish seal'llh for a new passage to the Indies beyond Portuguese control because of the latter's ""perience In the Moluccas as a member of the "orluguese force under Antonio de Abreu In 1511. Another Portuguese seaman, MageUan's friend and pa!'tner, Bu)' Falero, was named chief mate.


123' On the 29th of November, 1519, Ma,ellan's five .hips reached the

Magellan's neet of flve ' ships namely, the Trinidad, the Victoria, the San Antonio, the Concepcion and the Santiago sailed from Sanlucar de Barrameda, a seaport of Seville. They carried provisions good for two years. The whole expedition was composed of 265 men. Magellan was very confident. HIs men were In hl&'h spirits. They set saU to the tune of ''La P? rtlda."

coast of BrazU. Searching for the new passage to the Indies they esplored every likely break in the American land-mass, saUlDg southward steadily. In Febcu:lry 1520 they thought they had found it In the hu,e mouth of the Rio de 10. Plata. Winter caught u., with them In San Julian Ilay. Lack of food in cold weather caused mutiny. Ma(;'elJan and his constable Espinosa, acted swiftly to quell the consplraton:.

an old IM'lntlh1l:l by E. BrIerl,.

124 The

chief conspirator was stabbed by Espinosa. The rest of tlie pl'!tters were capt:tred and chain"" In the mutlnuous veasel, Santiago. Magellan Impressed the men with his firmness and determination to find the passage to the E""t Indies and his faith was rewarded even when on November I, 1520, he entered the long and torluoua .tralt that now beara his name.


125 For twenty-el

daYI the lhipaltru"led with current and IhlfUn, winds. South them were black blando, cold and desolate. The Islands were In blted by Indians, who lived on flob and muaael.a. .'ls those Indians naked at all times, they carry with them In their boats coal of fire. So Magellan named their blando "Tierra del Fne,o."


1'1111 fPPINE 8"G/\


Wh~n they ftoaUy emer"ed from the Strait of Ma"ellan toto .the vast Pacific, they fonnd not the fabulous Indies but two smaU Islands wblch were untnbablted and without water or food. With bittern.... to his heart, Macellan named them the Unlortnnate Islands. The reUef of the voya"ers must have been toespresslble when tbey reaebed the Ladron ... on Marcb " 1521, wbere tbey fonnd yams, coconuts and rice. AnnOY toe tbefts led the sanors to name tbe islands Los J.adrones.

128 Elcht days

later, on Marcb 25, I\fa&,ellan ...Ued to Limasawa, a Iman bland south of Leyte. Natives were found cultivating rice and bread fruit. Tbey bad coconuts, oran&'.... bananas, as well a9 citron aud ctncer. Tbe Spaniards traded with them. In eschan&'e for the native foods, tbe Spuliarda cave out red caPI, ,lau beads, mirrors, combs and bells.


One of the friendly cblets accompanied Magellan to Cebn, .. wellfortified town ruled by RaJab Bumabon who tried to make MacelIan pay tribute. Ma,ellan refused. Thronch tbe medIation of the cblet. rulde, Humabon became friendly wltb tbe newcomers and esch'ln&,ed preRnts with them. Ma&,ellan ordered mass celebrated. Bumabon and hb queen. with lome elcM hundred fonowers. embraced tbe new faith wblch plealed them.


It was also to tbe La.drones that tbe Spaniards first saw tbe "prau." with Its l1gbt outtiner and pctoted sails. After satlsfytog tbelr needs, Magellan sailed on westward still looking for tbe Moluccas. They sl"hted tbe eastern coast of Samar on March 16. 1521. On the followtng day, Marcb 17 (Sunday of SI. Lazarus), the sea-worn expedition landed to Homonhon or Humunu, south of Zamal (Samarl. Magellan named Bomonhon and the rest of the Islands Archipelago .of Selnt Lazarus. Two tents were set up for the sick men and a sow was killed for feasttog.

129 Two FIllptoo cbler. ftom Mtndanao, RaJab Kolambn and Rajah Slap, were encountered to Llmasawa,Masawa or Masaba by Magellan. T bey were very friendly. Tbey feasted and eschanged gilts wltb tbe ~pan1ards. Magellan celebrated the first Mass on Limasawa, wbere be erected a cross and took pcsaesslon of the land for the kine Of Spato on March 31, 1521.


A small Island called Mactan and its rebellious chleftato became the nemesis of Ma&'eUan who would have everyone reco&'Dize the kin" of Spato as supreme rnier. A friendly cblef named Zula sent Magellan two coats as gift-to return for which the native chief asked help from tbe Spantsrds to punish Lapulapu, the cblef of another vIlla"e on the same Island.




.. i


C'l !'l





SO 'lItT







!: "II .."

;. !'!

'"Cl ~















UP to the day Bumabon, king of Cebu, bowed down to reeeive a S panish name In 1"2 ~ baptism, Magellan had conquered co urlly intrigues, scepticism, r oyal parsimony,



mutiny. huneer, the terrible caprices of sea and wind, the despair of his crews. the doubts In his own heart. But never before had he been challenged by the spirit of liberty. Now a~ last he faced It In Lapulapu, chieftain of M actan. It is to the glory of our race that the tirst to defy Magellan and his Spa'nlsh expedition was a Filipino. Mag'ellan was quick to realize the significance of his refusal to pay homage to the king of Spain. He would make an example of this arrogant prlncelet. The request of Zula for aid In punishing' Laputapu was ~anted. Strapping on his corselet, Magellan pledged the power and prestige of the western world to the reduction of this bo Id challenger of the Indies.

1~br('e boatloads of Spaniards and twenty boatloads of Ccbuanos made up Magellan's force. They sailed for Martan late in the nhrht. At dawn the following morning the Spanish soldiers waded through thc surf of the historic islet. confident of victory. The dreaded Spanish . infantry bad never met Its equal on any battlefield or Europe; how could tbese primitive warriors on a nameless beach wlthsland tbem?


134 Hoping to distraH and demoralize the defenders of l\1actan. l\Iagd-

Ian committed a mistake others were to nlake lilany centuries !lfler~ ward. He ordered some of his soldiers to steal around the flanks of Lapu¡ lapu's IOfel's and burn thr homes of the men of 1tlactan. Some twenty or thirty houses were set. ablaze: two Spaniards P:I:.U with their lives. PAGE 41

lhe sight of their burning homes only fed the flame of battle In the breasts ot Lapulapu and hts men. Armed only with sclmltar-Uke 135 But spears, bows and arrows, and wooden shields, they held the sl eel-clad musketeers of Spain &t bay on the shores of their historic




Wounded In the right leg by a poisoned arrow, realizing too la te the formidable quality 01 his foes, Ma,elian commanded his men to tall back to their ·boats. A tew loyal soldiers remained by his ,Ide. They could no~ save Marellan who, wounded araln In the arm by a bamboo spear, was tlnan,. cut down In the bloody surt • •' AGE 42



137 1'bu5 !\{agellan died and bis

ganan~ foc.s were ~o imprc5sc :l by his bravery tbat they wou.ld not give U)I the body of one who had fouC'ht so wen. Aboard his ships the Spani ards and thf" Chrlo,;tian kin e-, I'umabon, mourned the fulleD captain but could only bargain \veaiUy tor hi:, body.

138 A monument now marks the spot where )lagellan fell. DUE'ir.g the Commonwealth a stRtue lVas abo raised i n bebted h omage til the explorer's conqueror Lapulapu, fir~t of the Filipino tighters for freedom. Their duel to the death was the beginning of an age-long struggle for independence.

140 The

139 The expedition had now lost so many men tha 1. "ue survh1ors, one hundred and fUteen In all. were compelled to h.urn the "Concepcior./' for Inek of hands to sail her. In the '''Trinidad'' and the "Victoria" they then determined to continue their search for the tabulous Spice Islands ander the leadershIp of Doarte Barbosa and Juan Serrano. Something of Ma~ellan's Indomitable spirit still sUrred within them.


are now ¡ were, however. definitely unsafe for adventurers and invaders from across the seas. Once more the Spaniards staggered under a heavy blow. A Malay who had acted as Magellan's interpreter decided to avenge himself for the harsh treatment he had received from Barbosa. He whispered a scheme into the ear of the chiefs of Cebu and from a farewell banquet attended by twenty-rour Spaniards including the astrologer San Martin de Sivilla, only two return~. Barbosa was ki11ed while the other commander, Serrano, was captured. Demoralized a~d panic-stricken, the survivors elected Juan Sebastian del Cano their leader and hastened away from these indomitable islant!s. PAGE ' 43

The First Circumnavigation of thp Glohc.-The voyage of Magellan completed the epochal circumnavigation of the globe in two years, eleven months and sixteen days. The "Victoria" reached San Lucar. Spain on tbe 6th of September. 15:2; and two days later. Juan Sebas tian de) eano and seventeen other survivors including the historian Pigaffetia, were hailed as heroes in Seville. even as they dragg~d their exhausted selves to the altar of a church and offered Ibeir thanks to the Almigbty. Juan Sebastian del Cano. an ex-mutineer I reaped the glory of being the comrnande. of the first ship that drcumnavigated the globe.


Juan Sebastian del (From a statue in the Ayuntamiento. Mania) Pen and Ink by Fernando Amorsolo.

The V je/oria, the first ship to sail around the world (From an old print)

tions to the M oluc14. 1 Expedi cas.-Still seekin g t he S pice

hlands. the rem n ants of Magel- lan's exped iti on groped throug h Mindanao an ll Borneo and fin a Uy reached Tidore on No vember 8. 1521. But they could not do more than establish a provision a l tra d ing center. To increase th e,r chances of reportin g to tbe court of Spain. the two ships sepa rated. The If Trinidad " sail(';d (or Mexico but ff'1I into Portu~uese b ands. The "Victoria," under Juan Sebas tian dc') ('ano, crossed th e I nd ia n (kc ,;,tl1 . roundNl th(' Cape of G oo d UUItC'. an d n'achNl Sa nluca r d e lSanam('da 011 Sept.ember 6. 1522 in the first drcumna vigation o f th e glou •. Both Spain and Portngr.1 claimed the Moluccas. Bu t geographil:al knowledge then was not r«ccise enough t o establish t he fad tbat th e I\loluccas. and tbe Pbilippine, as well. were both on Po,rt."","e,;. s ide of t h e Line 01


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, I I TrFl'"/." bfrJu.t;...... ,J.,,.( j'(~.m ...~·fI"W,.'. 1':",.1i. Ji.rt:u\r,rJ "",,,,,.. '/ ~ ... Jt'1U't'I, ewl ,

,lio"' "I' '' 1.;::1

Demarcation drawn in tbe Treaty of Tordesillas In 1494. So the king of S pain sent a notber ex pedition in 1522. und er Ga rda Jofre de Loaisa, who was capta in -general of the fleet a nd governor-nominate of th e Moluccas. Loa isa took with bim Juan Sebas tia n d el Cano a nd Andres de U rd a n et a; th e first two were to lo~e their lives. The expedition touch ed Cebu a nd l\findanao but , havin g reached the Moluccas. it was captured by th e Portuguese in 1526. Still a n other ex pedition set out in 1527 und er Alva ro de Saavedra but h e too had to surrender t o the P ortu guese. F ina lly. a fter e ig ht years. S pa in s igned the T r eat y of Zaragoza in 1529. Tbe n ew l .inc of Dcm arca tion was definit ell fi xed at t w o hundred a nd ninety-seven and one-ha lf leagues eas t of th e Moluccas. For three hundred a nd fifty thousand (old tlu ca t s th e king of Spain tbus sold a way Magellan's dream.

1.110 2"


142 On November 21. 1542 Ruy Lopez de VUJalobos undertook the dis-

covery. conquest and colonization of islands in the southern sea tow<U'd the west. He was illstructed to avoid the Moluccas. The Villalobos expedition consisted of 200 men on six ships-the Santlag-o, San Jorge, San Antonio. San Juan de Letran, and two smaller vessels. Piloted by the Portu~ese mariner, Juan de Gaeta no, the voyag-ers first tried to land at Saranganl, ~flndanao. on February 2, 1543.

144 Captain de la Torre had an

143 The war-like natives of Sarang-anl resisted

them. However, Villalobos was badly In need of provisions. He took the village by assault and combed the area for food . But even then starvation faced the Spaniards. As a last recourse, VUJalobos dlspatehed Ca ptain de Ia Torre to forage in Tandaya (Samar), the name of which was later changed by Villalobos' men to Fellplna in honor of the heir to t he Spa nish throne, Don Felipe.


weii adventur~

on tbls b:lund. wbost! was to become our coun~ryls. that is not withuut its own Jlrophetic Implications. The lovely and rraceful daug-hter of Macandala, the local chieftain, only heiress of his wealth and &'feat estate, fell in love with tile white .tran~r. At â&#x20AC;˘ fe .. t In his honor, Maeandala and his wife and the other chiefs and their ladles formally asked him to marry the lovelorn princess. There was reJotelnr when the Spaniard consented. or ." the chronicler writes. but he has nothing- to say about the shoddy epilog-ue when the strang-er left his brld" ""hind tu reloln bls comrad ... -In-arm â&#x20AC;˘. Vilialubos blmself was eventually drl ven to the Moluccas, where he died in the arms of SI. Francl. Xavier.



After VWalobos came Mlpel 1.0_ oe L egazpl. Fray Andr... de Urdaneta, the greatest navl&'ator of hi. tim", was invited to join the new ellpedltlon a s cble' pilot and spiritual leader. But It was known thai he objected to the conquest of the Philippines because he believed thesr Islands fell on the Portupese side of the Demarcation Line and ,u the Royal Audlencla of Medco tbouCht It prudent to ctve Leg-alPi and Ur · daneta sealed orders. Tbe ellpedltlon ","lied from Navlda d in ~l u ico un November 21, 1564 and reached Cebu on February 13. 1565. whet. Legazp! was later to establlsb bls first settlement.


146 But the FillplJlos

were as hostUe as ever in Cebu, Leyte, Mazagua. a nd Camlculn. Lcga.pi decided to try Mindanao hut, on account ot bad weath· ~ r, he {ot no farther tban Bohol, where he entered into a. blood compact of brotherhood with Slkatuna. a local chiel. However. Legazpl and his officers. over · rldin{ Urdaneta's protests, voted In council to establish themselves In Cebu. They took the town by force on April 27. 1565. and on Its ashes raised a trianrular stronghold, named first for San Mlcuel. patron saint of the Spanlsb leader. a nd tben with the Holy Name of Jesus bf,ca.use a Spanlsb soldier had found an lmace of the child J esu s In tbe debris of hattie. Later.', polley of attracllon encouraeed collaboration. Those wbo bad fled to tbe h Ula retur n ed . The autborlty of the Kine of S pain was aclmowledlred. tribute was paid. a nd Leg,zlIi was able to olen a treaty of vlrtwU alliance with Tupa... Kine of Cebu. PHILIPPINE


bUI cruelty and ,r.ed or the common soldiers belled the fine promises ot their leader. Drunken soldiers desecrated the ,,"aves ot Cebu. loollne 147 the Jewel. and ornaments ot the dead. The fierce resentment o( Ihe inhabitants. coupled with a sharp Portugllese attack on Ibe new Spanish sel ',ement.. lnduced Legazpl 10 move to Panay where he coul~ be surer of' a sale a.venue 01 escape into the interior in case of another P Ol'tuguese raid.

148 The

tension was relleved wllh the arrival o( Captain de la Isla with three ships and reenforcements from Mateo In June. 1569. De la Isla also brought a. tetter from the Kine namine Lt¡ I'uzpi his "adelanlado" and commanding him 10 take possession of Ihe Phlllppln ... LegR~pl returned to Cthu soon afterward. orpn'zed iL dty government. appointed Guido de I ..a vezares I'overnor. and p-ant.d 13r~e feudal estates called "enromlenda.,s" to hls officers and men. The Spaniards quickly exploited their foothold In the Vlsa~' "s and established other seUlemen~.. Then heard of a prosperous slronchoid Inside the creal bay of Luzon. He ordered l\lartln de GolIl. his field marshall, to mOllnt an upedltlon acalnst It torether ,,¡lth his dashlnl!' p-andIon Juan de Salcedo. Whllo Goltl " 'as nehtlne Chinese traders on Jllindoro. Salcedo explored Batan,as, ~Ulnr alone the Pansiplt river " 'here he was "ttacked by Datu of Batayan. The "adelantado's" fh.nd~on was wounded In tho le& but this did not stop him (rom making his rendenou. with d. Goltl OJ' the .h...... 01 Manila Ba7.




I'AGE 47

~.-: V

' -- - - -1




149 'l'he S panish expeditionary for ct:s a nchored a t Cav il~. Manila. f .... ,·rti them as .. heavy palisade on tbe southern bank of th e Pas lg'. malln ..d hJ warrior ... under the Rajah Soliman. The Spaniard s tried diplomacy first . In ~HIMH!r lo a message from them, Soliman agTeed to m eet them U11 a rlt:utral shure. Decla ring- that h e wished to be a friend of the strangers but that Ih.~ should nol a bUse his people. the rajah embr«ced the field m~r ­ shall in a ~estun: of peace.

150 Bu' I,.

friendsblp, the Spaniards understood recocnltion of their klng's sovereicnlY and tbe payment uf tribute. Tbls the Filipinos did not wallt to give. The situation grew tense amid mutual suspicion and dis trust, On. morning' In June, 1570, Golti ordered the rlrlng of a cannon In the direction of the ManUa fort. to recall a prau wbich he bad sent on :til errand to Sollman. ,The Flllpirlo cbieftain misinterpreted It as the b~lrin nln lr of a Spanlsb atlack- and fighting hroke out.


ThO' . ' illpln<.. I""rued then. a. they were to learn otten afterward on their history, that gallantn &nd courlll'e are no match for superior armamenlo. Manila 'ell Ilnd about a hundred F ilipinos were killed and elll'hiy Iaken prisoner. Arnone the dead was found a Portu",e.e artillery-man, SoU ..... n however "".. ped. HI. victorious antagonists toolo p~s.e•• lon or the fallen city In the name or the KIn&' or Spain .. PAGE 48



Goltl was uneasy in tbis newly found kingdom. In the 152 first place he knew that the brave Rajah Sollman who escaped the clutches of his indomitable soldiers was bound to return and avenge his defeat. Then he also thought It best to avoid the coming of the rains. Without giving a chance to his adversary to even their score he abandoned Manila and saUed back to Panay.

154 Sollman did

153 Immediately after Goitlleft Manila, Sollman and his men returned to their kingdom. Once more he reigned supreme. From the ashes of their burned houses be tried to rebuild their once prosperous village. Defeated but never daunted, Soliman Inspired his men to wor k for the greater glory of their kingdom, to watch and defend it against the invaders should they come encroaching upon their land a!raln.

not enjoy his return to ManUa for long. On or about the beginning of Mav.1571.Sollman saw the Spanish flotilla, consisting of 27 boats, 280 Spaniards and sev_ral hundred VI.Avan.. aopear in II-lanlla Bay. He Knew that he was not strong enough to meet the Invaders so he declldecl to set fire to his VJUHS'e and fled to Tondo. It was a verllable scorched earth Iactics.


the deck of the Spanish flagship, Legazpi himself who was In 155 aFrom nd hard at the burning city. Being a brave and just man, he could

command of the expedition when it left Panay on AprO IS, 1571, gazed long well surmise the attitude of the lion-hearted Sollman who preferred to

reduce his kiqgdom to ashes rather than give it up to the conquerors.


Legazpl, however, was pleased to meet a man of tact and diplomacy exempliflecl by Rajah Lakandula of Tondo, the sagacloDS uncle of the fiery Soliman. T he aged Rajah, realizing the futility of resisting the su perior Spanish arms, went out of his way and welcomed Legazpl to Manila. Legazpl was only too willing to accept Lakandula' s offer of peace and frle" dsh lp, and for such noble gesture he also forgave Soliman's animosity. PAGE 50

But Sollman could not give' easily. A man of action and 157 'courage like his predecessor Lapulapu, he painstakingly gathered a UP 80

fleet of 40 war boats and a large force of fighting men with the help of the ¡ datus of Bagonoy, Macabebe and other baranrays of Bulacan and Pampanra. IDs plea for aid was such that other ohleftalns cast their fate with him against the Invaders.


58 Sollman'. fraU boats were locked In combat with Golti's sturdy flotilla at Bankusay channel, Manila Bay, on June 3, 1571. It was one of the most bitterly fought battles on that historic bay. But the Spaniards were superior in number as well as in arms-a. fa ctol'wirlchWlI:$Wd victory from the courage of Sollman and hi. men.

59 Sollman feU-happy in the thought that he fought for his heritage.

He was the iast Fillptno king of Mantia. His death meant the 'early e"tinction of Malay independence which he cherished most In his Ume. By sacrificing his llfe on the altar of freedom Sollman achieved Immortal dlstincUon one of the moot courapgllA Fillptno heroes. NEWS

the other hand. Rajah 160 On Lakandula. last king of Tondo and uncle of Rajah Soliman, became a steadfa.t friend of the Spaniards. He refused to sanction the la.t stand of his nephew against tho! Spanluds. knowing Its futility. He aided Legazpl in rebuilding Manila and he assisted Golt! in the latter's campaign. in central Luzon.


Over the ruins of Mohammedan Manila. Legazpl founded a new Christian oity on l\fay 19, 1571. He proclaimed St. .t'OlenClana as its patron saint belog the feast of the day of occupation. Then he made It the capital of the Archipelago. He also laid out new streets whose names and locations were preserved up to the outbreak of World War D. He built a palace for himself and 150 houses for the other Spaniards.

162 Aside from rebuilding Ma-

nila. Legazpl also extended his power over most of central Lqzon. Rajah Lakandula assisted Goiti 1100n wnose Shoulder Lega'Z]Ji cntrus'Lea "ue taSK of conquering the regions n orth of Manila. It was also the t imely In terveotion of Rajah Lakanduia that averted another armed clash between Filipinos a nd Spa n iards when King Kasikl of Pan gasln an first decided to I'esist the bivaders.

I'I\OE 52

W"h the threat or Sollman removed, Lerazpl felt free to expand the Spanish beach-head on LU2on. In 1571 he sent two of his ablest captains on expeditions of conquest: Golti, to the region north of Manila, and .Salcedo, to the south. The "adelantado's" bold grandson won some 26,000 Taplo!r subjects for tbe Spanish crown. Tben be crossed the mountain barrier to tbe Bicol peninsula and tbe first Spaniard to find In the. Philippines wbat tbe explorers and conquerors of the age sougbt wherever they salled:~ gold. Tbe placer mines tbat Salcedo saw at Paracale are still ricb



and famous.

164 Salcedo's success In tbe south earned him another important assignment: the conquest of nortbern Luzon. He undertook tbe campaIgn In 1572 wltb only 45 men. Working up tbe western coast from Manila, he subdued tbe littoral of Zambales and Pangaslnan and then fought the I1oeanos In tbe Sam tOY regIons. During the campaign, ·the present capital of Ilocos Sur received the name of Villa Fernandina. lD honor of Fernando. first-born son of Philip D.1t lasted a year and Salcedo was not to see bls beloved gra •• -:"ther again. .

166 was luoceeded by Guido de Lav........, whose appointment

came from Mexico In 1572. The new "adelantado" continued to make !rood lUe of Salcedo's mUitary prowess. EVENING Ni:WS


In Manila Legazpi died of a heart-attack on August 20, 1572. The "adclant ado" had served his king well. After the rep eated fa.ilures of his' predecessors he had first establlsbed the power of In tbe western isles. He had driven off tbe raids of tbe Spaniard's perennial competitors, the Portuguese. Be had survived the rigors of nature and the fierce resistance of the FilIpinos. Legazpi took away the freedom of our forefathers but at- least be was prudent enough to make the process a s palatable as possible.

167 Sent once more to the Bicol peninsula. Salcedo left Manila in July. 1573. with 120 men, pacified Camarlnes and Albay, and destroyed a pirate stronghold in Catanduanes. I

I'AGE 5:t

168 Salcedo's military career, whioh began when he joined his grand-

father's forces a t Cebu in 1567, was now approaching its climax. In Vlgan in 1574 Salcedo learned from a Spanish sergeant of a vast in_sion fleet that threatened the Spanish dominion of the Philippines.

169 The

invasion was commanded b,- Limahong, a Chinese outlaw proscribed by his emperor, who sought to carve out a kingdom of his own. He entered ManUa bay on November 29, 1574, with a fleet of 62 war-junks carrying 2,000 soldiers, 2,000 seamen, 1,500 women, many artisans and farmers, and enormous quantities of supplies.


The opening attack on the Spanish city of Manlia was led by Sioco, Llmahong's Japanese lieutenant. The pirate chief himself remained In the background, co~fident of victory. Sioco, at the head or 600 men, reduced Paraftaque and, on the morning of November 30, S1. Andrew'. day. marched against ManU&. i'.\GE 54 '


ISIOCO was met at Ba&1lmbayan by Golti, who fought a delaying action against heavy odds. The veteran of the Ll120n conquest was finally 171 cut down. His wtfe was wounded, his house burned. But he gained precious time for the defenders of ManUa.

172 Under the direction of Laveures, a long breastwork of barrels and boses fWed with sand had been franUcally constructed to reenforce Ute wooden paUaade protecting the city.



When 81000 finally shook off Golti and attacked, he was met with . withering &1IDflre from well-prepared positions. He was hurled back and as a result received the scorn and anger of Llmahong. J'i\G}: 5S




A.~ Wood .... For~

a ~ Roliaade bui~ c!";"S allaek by Lmahon~ D a".jE~C4Y.I_rs b.,;t~ by &oy. Sande


This map was made in 1577 which was six or seven yeal'S after Legazpi founded Manila. It is considered the map made of the Old Manila. Note the streets whose layout bears a general similarity to their present arrangement, as if the lapse of more than three and half centuries has not made very much difference.

17 5 Meantime Salcedo had arrived in Manila after lorcetl marches ,rom

Vlgan. He assumed command 01 the beleaguered carrlson and thul his milit ary genius came I~ce to lace with Its most crucial test, for Lima hong had deelded ~ lead his men In person. On December 3, alter a two~ay rest, the Chinese Invader landed 1 ,500 men and mounted a three-pronged attack Irom Malate. U wasthls decisive battle between Ea.t amI West which ~eUled the character 01 PhilippIne cIvilization for centuries. Not UJlW Ba taan would a similar batlle be fought again. It Is Interesting to 1I0te that, ... In Bataan, the Filipinos fought on the Western sloe and that, as In the recent war, the Asian Invasion was turnea oack.

P,\GE 56



had known how to .. t!.ract the Filipinos, he might 176 IfhaveLlmahong had better luck. For, .esentful of the maltreatment of hi. countrymen by the Spaniards, Lakan,dula had led a revolt in 1574, simultaneously with tho Chinese invasion. Ouly the timely intervention of Salcedo. who promised reforms and concessions, preserved Filipino loya.lty.

177 Leading a

Filipino army recruited from Laka.ndula's dominions, ' Ca:marines. Cebu, the Docos, Pampanga, and other regions, Salcedo followed Llmahong to Pangasinan, where the pirate had settled after his defeat. First Salcedo destroyed the invasion fleet; tben .,.Uer a four-months siege, he reduced the Chinese strongh"o ld. Limahong himself escaped.

178 In his own way Llmahonc had helped to estabUsh fonna! relations between the ChInese government and the Spanish colony in the Philippines. In 1575 the Viceroy of FakIen had petitioned the Manila authorities for the delivery- of the outlaw. Governor Laveza.res was unable to comply with the request, 1nBtea4 he sent & mlsAon to China inviting friendship a.nd trade. The Spanish envoys were Fr. Mertin de Rada, Fr. Geronimo Ma.rin, Cap," lIIIpe1 de L - . a.nd C&p," Pedro Sarmiento,


I'AGE 57

'179 T he ",lla nt Salcedo died on March 11, 1576. An era ended with him. More than any other man,

this bold young military genius had established Spanish dominion in the Philippines. He had mar ched aimost the length and b'readth of Luzon and its outlying islands, from the Docos to the Bicols, {rom Mindoro to Polillo. H e had crus hed the m ightiest threat to the new colony with skill and bra very. His mission accomplished while stili in the flower of his m anhOod, he had retired to Vigan as a peaceful 'encomendero: 'rhere, like many another warrior, he died. in bed.

180 The crowh of Spatn was fortunate tn havtn&' a. Its servants in those decisive days the brains of Legaspi and the stron&, arm of Salcedo. To&,ether, grandfather and grandson impJa.nted Spanish sovereignty in praetlcaUy the whole of Luzon, except the mountain provinces and the eastern coad, and most of the Visayas, except the tntenor of Panay, Cebu and Samar. l'AGE 58


With their Internal position more or less secure, the Spaniards In the Philippines had more time for foreign relations. Soon after t h e arrival of a 181 Chinese embassy In Manila In 1576, .. commercial treaty was concluded. Ohlnese immigration was encouraged to provide cheap skilled labor.

,. . ,..

,.. 1111


... 1- h .




. ,. ,. '. -

' ,.

Jo~ .~'








At flnt the Chinese were allowed, to settle freely. In 1581, however, they were segregated outside the city near San Gabriel Cha.pcl, In what was ""lied the Alcalcer\a, or Parian. The or\glnal Parlan having been destroyed by fire, the immigrants were given another site where the Botanical Ganl_ of Manila were to he located centuries later.

ltVENlNO. """Wit PAGE 59 __ ______ _____-------------------------__________________________________________________




economic problem raised by Spanish policy stUlJlersists; .In 183 The their day however the Spaniards were more concerned with what they believed to be a military problem. The Chinese immigrants became so ntlmerous that memories of Limahong"s terrible lnvasion began to stir uneasily.

184 When three mandarins arrived in Manila on May 23. 1603. looking

tor a Umountain of gold" in Cavite, suspicions mounted. Upon their <Ieparture Governor Bravo de Acnfia instituted precautionary measures whose severity in turn aroused Chinese fears that they would be exterminated.

185 Determined to strike the first blow, the Chinese rebelled under the leadership

of Ene-kang, whose Christian name was Juan Bautista de Vera. Hurled back from the Walled City the Chtnese took to the mountains of Laguna and Batangas, where they were crushed by a mixed force of FUIpinos. Spaniards, and Japanese. About 23,000 Chinese were slain In the first Chinese uprlslne of 1603. But their numbers were 80 STeat. their lmml&Tation so persistent. that in 1639 they were In a position to revolt once more In Calamba. The fighting spread rapidly and about 22 towns were plundered and burned by the rebels. PAGE 60



186 The

Jast serious threat of Chinese invasion eame from another plrat~ , Koxingu., who had already conquered Formosa. Early ill 1662 Koxlnga sent an .emlssary to Manila demanding tribute. Be secured nothing more than new restrictive measures against t!le Chinese.

But the new laws failed to stoP the Inflow of good and ba d Chinese. 187 One of the latter was an ex. convict named Tingco who plotted to klll the Spaniards In August 1686. Bis torces were put t o rout and TingeD hlJDSelf paid tor his crimes on the scaffold.

188 The Chinese problem remained unsolved In spJte of terrible massacres and mass expUlsion. As early as 1578 Governor Arandla had tried to sup. plant the Chinese traders with Spanlard. and mestlsoo. These ambitious plans failed as many others In succeeding centuries were to fall. Patient, Indunrloua, thrlfty, â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘hooled by the o.,.el otruggle for survival In their native C"ountry to sacrifices which seemed unnecessary il' gentler climes and more lavtab lands, the Chinese overcame all the handicaps of nature and government.. They Inter-married easily and gave their best characteristics to the Dew developing FWpino nation. So many of them came and stayed that toward the end of the Spanish regime they numbered 100,000.







. ........ -,~-. f .





i \


\ \








Meantime. another Oriental people made Its lnIluence telt. Like the Chines., the Japanese had maintained rdatioDS with the Filipinos lone betore the comlne of the Spaniards. There were several hundreds established In D1iao (Paco, Manila) and the Spaniards found other Japanese settlements In San Miguel, Bulacan, and In Agoo, La Union, which was known 3S the "Puerto del Japon" because . of Its active trade with that country.


The Japanese did not accept the Spanish conquest meekly. Feared throuehout the Asian littoral for their plraUcal raids, they foul'M bitterly aralnst the newcomers. In 1572 Salcedo cla.hed with them oft the coa.t of Paneaslnan and In 1583 Captain Juan ·Pablo Carrion encal'ed Japanese pirates In batUe at the mouth of the Ca.cayan river. Two of the Japanese .hI.... were lunk; the rest fled. :PAGE 62



Even then, the Japanese f;rI.ed to \1tlllze FIlipino nationalism for th elr own purposes. The leaders of the Tondo revolt of 1588 among whom were Acustin de Legazpl. Martin Panga and Magat Salamat. sought the aid or Japan and a Japanese known as Captain Joan Gayo smuggled arms to the Filipino Insurgent.;. .The rebellion failed and all the leaders. in eluding a. GhristJan Japanese, were executed. It was noteworthy, nevertheless, because it was the first orpnlzed Filipino i-es!stance a.rainst foreign domination.

192 The first open challenge to

Spanish sovereignty was delivered soon afterward by Hldeyoshl, a dwarfish groom whose military genius had raised him to the dictatorsblp of Japan under the nominal authority of the emperors. Hldeyoshl demanded homage and tribute in 1591. The SpanIards, rea.llzing the weakness of their position at the time. hastUy desPl'tched emissaries with gift.; a"d temporizing messa!:es. Hideyoshl's Ill-starred camjlaijfD6 in Korea and his death prevented a Japanese invasion of the Philippines.

193 Alarmed

by Hideyoshl's threats, the Spaniards started to deport the Japanese from the Phlllppines as a precautionary measure. The latter at first resisted and were reconcUed to the !Dove only by the timely interven.tion of the friars.




The deportation plan was well under way when a forced-labor measure caused the remaining J a panese to rise In open revolt. By t his time they were no match for t he government forces who razed t he DlIao colony to the ground.


In Japan ItseU, however, a change In pelley relieved the Philippines from the danger of Japanese invasion tor the next three centuries. A new Japanese dictator, Iyeyasu Tokugawa, alarmed by the boast 0: a Spanish captain from the PhUlpplnes that the Spaniards conquered countries by Ohrlstlanlzlng them first, decided to close the Island empire to the outside world. Christianity was proscribed and all Christians persecuted by him and his successors. Those who escaped massacre were exiled, amonl" them some noble lords led by Takayama Ukon who were given asylum by the Sp .. nlards In Manila. No Japanese ever came into the Philippines arter them until modern times.

PI\GE 64


196 In

their first precut iOllS cc nLur~ in the Phjlipvi,lCS: the Spnllish colo nis ts hall to ('o pc not onl y with the dan gerous ri val ry of Chinese and Jal>a~ ncse seLtlt¡ t¡~ but a lso with scu ~raids by the Portuguese. the Butch and the southern Filipinos whom, beca use of their religion. they called the i'loro~. While thc ~e raid s "ere bloody and destructiv e, "hey never seriously threa t en ed Spanish sovereignty. The Portuguese, an d la t cr the Dutch, atta.cked the panlnrds in the course of their g.eneral conflicts in Europe and the Oricnt. without any serious intention of disputing possession of th e ]'hilippincs. The l'H oros. for their part, a.lthough they ha.d attempted to rule the entire a rchipelago before the coming of the S paniards with such s uccess {hIL t I\tnnUa hall bCl'n a Mohamlnedan s tron gho ld, were later movcd more by des ire for re\'cnge and by the need o f defending their own freedom. Of. fellst: wu s thc Moro ~' be~t defensc. a nd such a good OIl C ll l::tt the Spanial'd~ Jlc\'er conqu~re d t.hem.

197 'J h"

lasl of lhe free Filipinos enlered lhelr long solitary war againsl lh. Spaniards as early as 1578 when lhe Spaniards allacked Jolo in lhe tours. of their over-all campaign of conquest in the Philippines. A Spanish neet under Captain Rodriguez d. Figueroa defeated the forces of Sultan Pangulan. Oller the ruins of Jolo the Sultan and his. followers swore revenge on the Spaniards and the Christian Filipinos who had helped them.




The first blow was not Long in coming. Two daring l\Ioro chieftains. Sali a nd Silonga. massed a fleet of 50 boa ts in July 1599 a nd raided the coas tal towns of Panay. Negros. a nd Cebu, burning houses and churches and ta king s laves. T he next year Sali and Silonga a ttacked Areva lo on Panal' but they were repu lsed by the loca l population.


.-\ 5 a count er-measure aga ins t s uch raids, punitive exped it.ions we"t" sent to Jolo and Mindanao in 1602. When these faiJ ed to achicvo permanent results. a milita ry base was es ta blished a t Zamboanga in 1635 by Governor Jun n Cerezo de Salamanca. Fort Pilar wa.s erected there under the diloec tiotl of a Jesuit, engineer.


llis back protected by this n ew base at the frontier of Morola nd, a nother !:,ove.-nor, the dou!:'hty Coreuera. headed a full-scale expedition agains t th e Moros In February 1637. His s trong force of 760 S pa n iards and thou.n nds of Christian Ffllplnos redu ced Ihe Lanao s (ronlChold of Sultan Corra la t a nd. on the following year. took Jolo after a protracted s iege of Ihree and a half months. Coreuera WllS hailed as a conqueror upon his return to Manila in May 1638 a nd believed perha ps tha t he had broken the Mos lem power. PAGE 66



202 Meantime the another race of

D ute h â&#x20AC;˘ sea¡rovers, h a d been making attacks of their own, the result of their s trtlg-gll" for indep e ndence from Spain in Europe and their subsequ ent colonial competition in the Orient. As in th e case of the Mo1'05, reli g ion too played a deci s i\'c rul e for the Dutch were a Prote~tant power. Their first recorded J'aiel was m ade in 1600 by Admiral Oliver V UH NO Ol' t. Th eir stron ges t IJlow was given on April 13. 1617 . when a formidaule fl ee t tried to d~\ring

enter l\'IaniJa bay but was repulsed

and driven off by Spa niards and Filipinos under Don J Uln Ronquillo.

203 Severa l other naval

ments took pbce, a lways w ith disastrous results for the Dutch. The Filipinos were scarcely affected by these battles at sea until in 1647 the Dutch took Corregidor and plundered the coastal towns of Batann. In Abucay they massact'ed 400 Filipinos-to their subsequent discomfitUl'c ancl r er.ret.

ilipino soldiers. embittered by the Abucay slaug"hler. foug ht sa vagely under Ca ptain Juan de Oh a ves a nu drov e away 204 Fweakened by a n epidemic. In s ubsequent yea r s other s poradic raids were made by the Dutch uut th ey n ever aga in

th e Dutch , who h :H l seriollsly t:lldang'cl'ed

Spa ni a rds in the Philippines.

20S 1 0w,l."d

the end of th e firs t century of S pa nish ' coloniza.tion, however, Manila suffered a blow more disastrous t.ha n any lnflieted by foe'ar" foe or rebel. A gigantic earthqu a ke. the s tron ges t vet recorded in our history. leveled Manila to the ground on November 30. 1645. Its ruIn' were s till to he secn flea r the Cat.hedral even in our own day, P A';f





From th e fir!)" day~ the Spaniards rabed here the white standard with the r ed cross or, in the terms of political symbolism. the cross and the guord aga.inst Lhe crescent and the kampiJan. For while other nations from

an c)..panding E urope so ught spices. gold. and trade, Spain sent her missionaries side by ~ idc with h er soldiers. when not ahead of them , in a par tncn.hip so intimate that it is impossible to conceive th a t.. either had the primacy or preferen ce even as early as the time of the famed Demarea tion Line which defin ed the till e t o discove red lands.

For if in modern times th e \Vil so n do c trine justifies the domination (If weaker r ares by th e s tron ge r only when it is for the protection of the

lormer and for th eir uwn g'ood. without thou;:,ht of ex ploitation. in th e l\1agcl1anic period C'hristianizatiun was the best justification although only \\ hen the prople t o he evangelized did not show opposition or seek reven ge as in China a nd .J:. pan . wlt-ieh ind('(~ d were never co nqnered .

The parilmnunf imuurtanrc whi,' h Snail) !fave tn hf'T ( 'hr i s fj ~ ni 7 in ~ co upJed with the vag uen ess of any division of a uthority. led ho w-


to m:lI1 Y nnfo r tun a te di s put c~ between ChUrch a nd S t¡a le. especially during' the first century of Spa ni:;h dominion. In th e beginning lhe contlict arose from the \' i ~orous defense m ade by the friars of the rights of th e Filipinos. As (,Rrh as 1574 Fr. Marlin de Rada d enoun ced to La vezares. LeJ:azpj's s u c('e~~or . the a buses of the milita ry whom h e acc used of making unju&t wars a nti I(' \'yin g- ex('c5bivc tribut es. In 1583. the Dominican Do mingo d e Sala za r . first bishop of l\lanila. carried the f ight, to th e foot of thc thront'. prot cs tin g in person to the .j{ing against the cruel treat ment t o the Filipino!'. It was of such courag'"cous ch a mpionship of our n a tural rig hts that lhe vex ing- problem of Church a nd St.a,te was born in th e Philippines. (" fer

"J. C. de V."

Fr, Andres de UrdaMta

206 Before ""rltinC' to PbUip in l\fadrid Bis hop Salazar had called the first. C"nciiiar Council

in 1\1anila the year before at wbich he h a d secured the approval of a memorial which might well have served the Filipinos then as a Magna Charta. Among other trenchant expositions of principle the Cat.hollc prelates declared t.hat the government, dominion. and administration of justice in these islands " by natural right belong to the Indios and neUher the King nor the Pope can take it away from thcm ... The Indios are as fre~ in theil' lands as th e Spaniards a r e ill theirs, a nd this liberty Is not taken away by the King or by Ihe Gnspel ,"




S tri king back at t he clergy's charges aga inst the civil a uthorities, Govel'nor Perez Dasm a ri fias in turn den oun ced th e fr ia r s' own a buses in a noth er letter to the k ing in 1592. He claimed th a t t h e fria rs themse lves compelJed th e Filipinos to work tor t h em without pay.


T h e conflict passed the leU el' -writing s tage w hen H ern a nd o G uer r ero was a r chbis h o p a nd Hurta d o de Corcuera g overnor. A S pa nis il soldier . fa iling t o get back a s la ve girl. kille d h er a nd the n took r efu ge in St. Augus t in e church in a ccorda nce with th e ¡'righ t of sa n ctua r y."




209 \Vhen Guerrero uphe ld th e in v iolability of sacred edifices. Corcucra sent his s oldi ers a n yway to seiz.e the culprit. Gu ~rrero excommunicated Cor cue ra but th e latter threw him into Fort Sa ntia.go. The tables we r e turned when the governor 's su ccessor impriJ<:o ned Corcuera lIi m sclf. G uerrero's vindi cation and victory c~t.."l.bllshed a prer edent that â&#x20AC;˘ is enemies sho uld have remembered . , AGE 70




~ '~~).,:"~.




210 In the next clash the Church wa") again triunl phant. After a quarrel over paris h ju r isdiction, Governor JU3n de Vargas exiled t\rchbis hop Felipe Pardo to Lingayen. But o nce again the g-ovcr n or '& s uccessor upheld the cler gy. Excommunicated. Vargas was sentenced to do penance by standing dally in the habit of a penitent with a ro pe abo u t his n..., k and a lighted t.a.per in his hand, a.t the doors of t he calhedra J and t h e other churches . I'HI UPP INR SAGA


The conflict reached a sanguinar~' climax when Governor Bustamante ;.lrrested Archbishop Cuesta in a dis pute over the old problem of the ri ght of sanctuan', which had been extended to Bustamante's politit'ul en e mies. The governor had m a de himself unpopular a nd it was en .. y to call up a mob against him.

213 l\leantlme

the long campaign against the Mohammedan Filipinos In the south took a new turn short1~' before the British invasion when the learned law-giver. Allmud Din I. ascended the t.hrone of Jolo. A tolerant ruler. he granted Spanisb missionaries the right to among his people and even to build a church and a rort.



Bustamante a. nd his son WCI'C killed but the conflict bet.ween Church a nd S ta tc was to sun 'h'e and plague the Spanis h regime throu g hout its duratio n . Indeed the division of a.uthority was to cripple Spanish resist a.nce t o the coming Britis h invasion.


For a while it looked as if the Spaniards h ad finally solved their toughes t problem. But the sultan's brother Bantilan overthrew him in 1749 and ¡Alimud Din had to seek r efuge In Zamboanga and then in Manila. He and his two chfldren were converted to Christianity. the sulb.n taking the name of Don Fernando. PAGE 71

215 The S paniards


promptly sent out a n t:xpedition which defeated Bantilan. They Wel'e about to restore ¡'.t he CatlloJic s ultan tv hi!'! thl'one when the Spanish g'overnor of Zamboanga announced that. he had 'intercepted a treasonable letter from Alimud 01n to the sultan of l\iindanao, Alimud Din was sent back to Manila. where he was thrown into Fort Santiago. Subsequently however h e persuaded the Spaniards to allow his d ,LUghtel' to negotiate a peace with Bantilan. The princess was successful and a treaty was signed with thcl\1,ohalnmedan chiefs whi('h promised the r eturn of all Christian ,Jrisoners, religious objects, a nd Spanish arm."i, captured in the various rnids.

216 T h e treaty however ,,,,ned

\,0 bring perma nent )Jcaee. With the fa ll 01 SJ"mis h ,.owe,¡ a nd presLige upon the British invasion. the Moro raids were to reach a high tide when the Mo hamm edan warriors would ca pture an average of five hundred slaves a vear ond rost the !i\potniards one and tl hall million IH'SOS it, nt- military expense" of 20 years and un tolel nlUlons m ore in lo ~ t anfl ruin ed property ,

lAGE 72



217 The flrsl,

like Ihe lasl, Filipino revoU agalnsl the Spaniards was belrayed by a woman, who polnled out Ihe memlJen or a Pam· panro conspiracy In 1585. But the causes for discontent were so numerous. so varied, and so persistent that rebellion became only the logical C81l· tinuatlon of the original Filipino resistance to the Spanish conquest,

218 A natural

reason for early uprisings wa s the am bitioft at the de · throned and dispossessed chiefs, Thus in 1588 t h e chiefs of T ondo allied themselves with the chiefs of Misilo, Poio, and Taes .. nd s ought the heip of the chiefs of Cuyo and Borneo and even the d ictator of J a pa n '" regain their power. But their plans were discovered a nd th.....ned.

219 In 1596, durln&

the term oC Governor Francisco TeUo, Cagayan rose under two brothers, one of whom, Magaiat, was 100 strong to be defeated In OpeD battle. He led two revolls with the help of other chieCs from the north. Where Spanish steel failed, however. SpanJsh gold succeeded. Hired ......In. pu& an end to Ma.,.alat's career, murdering hJm in his own house.


PAGt,; 73

220 Given

the eva ngelical objective of the Spanish ~onquest, It was to be expected that anotber cause for r~volt would be religious. FroID the beginning the Igorot. of nortbern Luzon had r esisted a ll attempts to convert them, revolting in 1601 and killing the missionary whom Governor Tello had sent to them with an expedition. A similar religious revolt of the Gaddangs In 1621 was however pacified by the intervention of another m1ssIODar~ who, In the end, was allowed to depart unharmed wltb ali the ornaments of bls church.


A third religious revolt was that of Bancao, a convert who In hi. old age apostatized and prea.hed a return to the old gods. Many in Leyte beeded his cali but Bancao was beaten by the alcalde-mayor ar Cebu who rushed a .tron g expedition of 40 boats m anned by Chrr.tlan Filipinos.



222 In

nearby Bohol the old gods also Led by Tamblot, and heartened by priests that they would triumph with the about 1.500 Boholano. took to the field but tlan Cebuan08.

raised their heads once more. the prophecies of their pagan aid of their ancient divinities, were defeated. alaln by Chrl.-



New kines, as weU as old klnJr£. continued 10 tbreaten Spanlsb rule. Pedro Ladia., a Borneall wbo claimed descent from Lak~I ·{IUla. urged ~Ile 223 ple of Malolos to rise Iti 1643 and enthrone him as KInJr of tbe Taplocs. He wo n many Collowers but beCore be could strike. bls




erredlvely counleracled by S panish missionaries. Ladla was taken a nd executed In ManUa. ~--~~------------------I

Anolber Pampanro revolt literally flared up In 1660 .. hen Ihe 224 Pampanr'" set fire 10 their own houses and swore by tbe IIJrhl


their buminr homes to flJrhl for tbelr ri.rhls. Their leader. Francisco ManlaI"O, mll'bl have had more success had not Governor Manrique de Lara ....rsuaded Juan Macaparal. chief oC Arayal. to remain loyal. SIU! Manla&,o Reured some concessions.


225 It remained for Fl'anc,sco Da.rohoy to lead Ibe firs t unbeaten r~vo lt

apins! Spanlsb rule. Infuriated by the decision oC a priesl t~ deny Christian burial 10 his brother. Dagoboy orpnued a Cormidable .• ellion in Bobol in 1744 and esta blished bls own govemmenl In t be Isla'ld's mountains. In bls stron.rhoid be remained until 182~. cor.q""red I n the Il1sl.




226The B ritish Invasion. whioh shall be covered in the next chapter. broue-ht to a head not only the conflict between Church and State but also the chronic state of unrest amone- the Filipinos. The (leteat 01 the Spantards raised the hearts 01 the discontented. Outstandlne- amone their leaders was fa med Diee-o Silane- who. imprisoned by the Spaniards after he had offered to assist them. turned ae-ainst, them and ailled himself with the Invaders after his escape. He was so successful in his native north that the British recoe-nized him as e-overnor of 1I0cos. He died like l\tae-atat a' tbe hands of a hired assassin.

murder 01 Silane- demoralized his lollowers. But his wile Gabriela was a brave woman who resolved to carry on the work '" ber "" .. and, 227 SThe he Ilrst ied a revoit In Kabue-ao but was deleated by an army 'rom lJocos Norte. She escaped to Abra and raised a new rorce ,with whlcl Sk atterapted ta attack Vigan. But again she was deleated. this Ume by the arcber. 01 Piddic. She was caught and hanged . PAGE 76



WlnLE, in t.he years before the Britis h Invasion. the Filipinos gave constant proofs by their revolts of their desire to rul e themselves, they furnished equally eloquent evidence of their ability to do so. particularly in the person oC Mig-uel Lino de E~pe­ leta. Born In Manila. he studied Cor the pries thood in the Real Colee-Io de San Jose and rose gTadually in the erclesiastical career unUl at the a"e or 59 he was consecrated bis hop or Cebu. While at his see In the south both tbe archiepiscopal see ill Manila and thc ,ovel"nor~l'eneralship became vacant and Ezpelcta ca me to the capital to act In Ibe two bighest capacities III tbe Philippines or that time. The Moro-Mohammedan wars were then at a high pitch and Ezpcleta's enerreUc measures against them prove his excellent leader.hlp. Tbe new archbishop or Manila. the Spaniard J\fanuel Rojo. having arrived. however, he sought to be also a.ctlng govemor"eneral. The Filipino prelate reCused to surrender his civil authority. When the Junta de Autoridades met to decide the dispute. Ezpeleta calJNI up hl'\ troops and surrounded the palace where th e sessions were beln~ held. Tben. when the Junia asked him Cor his authorlt~· to conUnue as governor. Ezpeleta pointe(l s imply to his troops.

He was the first Filipino governor-general under Spain and the list: not until 1\ similar conjunction of circumstances occurred under the United Stales was there an acting Filipino governor general Ilnd only ror a Cew days. He was also the Cirst Filipino archbisbop or Manila and. to thls day. the only one. Even in the independent Republic or the Philippines. tbe archbishop oC ManUa continues to be a forei,ne-r.

nmo. Sr. D. Mienel Lino de Espeleta

Obispo de Cebu y Gobernador de Filipina$ (1 757-'7 61 )

228 The FilIpln... were engulfed once more in a war not or their own making when Spain was drawn by dynastic loyalties Into the Seven Years' War between Enl'land and France. Communications bet.ween the metro poll» and Us colony were so bad thnt wben a Crilish fleet appeared orr M.nlla on September 23. 1162 and landed a force unlier artillery cover. It look the Sp".,lards completely by surprise.

229 Ezpeleta's successor as archbishop,

Rojo. was by now acting gov· ernor also. He lacked the Filipino prelale's qualities or leadership hut. he found the courage to refuse the summons to surrender sent by General William Dr"per "Dd Admiral Samuel Cornish. Instead he launched 200 Spaniards anel 800 Filipino lancers in a determined sortie agulnst the tightening-British si ege. The aitack \~' as repulsed.


230 Ga llant as

usual in fighting the batUes of their foreign masters. the Filipinos made other attacks. On October 3 Manalastas led 3,000 archers from Pampan ga. Bulacan and Lag una In a fierce assault that forced the British to call for reinforcements.

23 raisf'


That same day the Spaniards called a council ot war inside the beleaguered capital. Strangely enough It was the professional soldiers who proposed surrender in the face of heavy odds: the priests, merQhants and magistrates opposed it and voted to fight to the last.

T he misguided enthusiasm ot the civilians proved talal. The n ext day the Brilis h broke through the east waUs after a heavy barrllge and Ih~ .11l' ran red with the blood of tl\ose who sought lu flee from Ihe dlsasler foretold by the milltary experls. The slaurhler compelled (tojo to white flag.


the terms of surrender the Spaniards turned over l\fanila. 233 Under Cavitt. and other lorts to the British as well as a war indemnity ,

before the fall of Manila. howeyer. Rojo had commissioned 234 Shortly Simon de Ands, a member of the Audiencia. as lieutenant-general.

of four mUllon pesos. The British promlsed protcction of property. freedom of reltrion and trade. tbe preservation of the Audiencia, and tbe parole of all Spanish officers.

Ands escaped to Bulacan in n banca with 500 pesos and org3nized a resistance movement. lie procJaimed h imself governor-general with seat at Bacoor.


'-nda's nlovernent attracted thousands of Filipinos who remainr.d loyal 10 the fallen Spanish retrlme. Under his orders a slraletrY of con lain men I was execuled .. plnst the British In J\1anlla. Guerrilla trnards were stationed at Pasltr to Intercept food goin&, Inlo the capital from Lapna.



236 The

British broutrht pressure to bear upon Rojo who was intlmidaled Into a pacification campaign. And a denounced Rojo and claimed the legitimate Spanish authority in the Philippines. The controyersy dragged on until Rojo's death on January 30. 1764. The British Ira ve him full military honors. PAGE


237While the resistance movement prospered,

the British took to quarreling among themselves. Governor Drake, who was In charge of the military a dm inistration, clashed constantly with General Draper and Admiral Cornish, the military commanders. This situation, not without historical parallels in the Philippines, reached a point where charges of bribery, malversation of public funds. and disobedience of orders, were brought against Drake.

British occupation lasted almost two years, sil, months too long because news of peace In Europe waS delayed by difficulties of communica238 The tion. Upon the death of Rojo the British had to recognize Anda as the legitimate governor and the resistance leader had the satisfaction of returnIng triumphantly into Ma nila on May 31, 1764. Amid salvos he r aised the Spanish flag once more. The Filipinos cheered this symbol of their colonialism. E '0



239 Tbe BrItish did not give up bopes of returning to tbe Pbillppines. Lone after tbey bad evacu"ted Manila. tbey malnbined a lIase in one of tbe Sulu Islands. In 1773 Anda sent an emissary to protest ",alnst this unautborlsed retention.

240 Tbe soutbern FUlplnos fina.U y did for tbe Spantards wba t tbe latle, were unable to do for tbemselves. A Jolo chlef. Datu-Tenr;teng. atbcked tbe British rarrlson and compelled It to wltbdraw wltb large loss of mUitary supplies, a.rms, and money.


Tbe end of ..... and enemy oceupatJoo enabled tbe Pbillppines to en tor into an ..... of peaceful PI'Orress and development. Under tbe farslgbted and eDlOI'P'tle Jose BaICO y Var ..... one of tbe wortblest Spanlsb Covemors of tbe country. wbose term becan in 1778. ambitious programs wet'e ..taIIlIabecI for the Improvement of acrIculture. comm ....ce. and Industry. prln clpally throuCb the Economic Society of Friends of tbe Country. founded






,/• j

was an economic planner and, tben as now, planned economy 242 Basco was often Incompatible willh individual liberty. Basco's tobacco monopoly, conceived as a revenue-raising measure and as a means to increase and standardize production, led, for eomple, to official corruption, smuggling, and unreasonable searches ..nd seizures of private property:

243 Discontent was bred by these

abuses and several minor uprisings took place against both the tobacco and the wine monopolies. But the most serious revolt was not due entirely to these causes. A warlike and restless people, the Kallngas, revolted In 1785 under Lagutao. It took three hundred musketeers from Cagayan to subdue them.











U. S, (1781)


244 But althouch he conquered the Batanes and subdued the Kallnga., Basco made his nine-ye..r term a period of economic development rather than military glory. His well-integrated .prOP'am made the colonial government self-supportinC and laId the basI. for the country'. forelm tnde.



245 Ba8CO'. polley

D, Antonio Pineda

was followed by his successor, Felix Herenguer, who

"rew up a program or reforms. It was also durlnC' his term that a Spanish upedltion under Captain Malaspina charted the San Bernardino strait, the coasts or some of the Vlsayan Islands, and part or Mlndaqao.

246 The expedition had

been ordered \0 make scientUic observation s as well and one or Its members, Antonio Pineda. studied the flora or the Philippines and "C'I"icultural conditions here. Be died in Docos in July 1792 after three years of valuable pioneerinC' work on Philippine botany.

247 Apiculture and

commerce, science and eJ<pioration, were, however, not allowed to enjoy for 10nC' a time of undisturbed peace. The Moro raids continued, and Indeed reached luch an extent that the Mohammedan Filipinos plundered the coasts or Luzon as far north as Bawn from a base In Mambuno, MIndoro. The "vlntas" and upancos" used tor defense were replaced with cannon-carrying launches and there were some brisk fights at - . Bnt the lOuthem ra\den were 01111 too fast, too strong, and too many.



The eastern, as well as the western, coasts of Luzon felt the Moro 248 stance, the Moros took 450 captives Including three parish priests.

249 In 1796 the threat of a new BrltlBh Inv....lon brought a .tr"ng neet

under Admiral JUava. The threat did not materialize but .....yed untU 1802 and hls squadron helped to ..... bUlze the situation. The sight of the men-o' -war, quietly at anohor, reassured the anxloua.

lunges at the hated


In Baler. Caslguran, and Palanan, for In-

250 Inpopulation the main however It wu an era of peace and pr....resa. The Increased; highway. were built; .treet. In Manila were lIghted at public expense for the first time. In December 1806 a bureau of vaeclnatlon wa. created and the ravages of Imallpoll greatly curbed. PUI1..Il"PINE ';!lG"

251 The French Revolution brought (orth not only the historic declaration of the rights of man but also the first of the modern dictators, Napoleon Bonaparte. who, harnessing the spirit of the revolution to a vast military machine, conquered aimost the whoie of Europe outside of England and Russia. He Influenced the liCe of the Filipinos when he dethroned the kJng of Spain and set up instead his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as puppet ruler.

253 De loa Reyes arrived too late for tbe opening of the session but he participated in the deliberations and was one of the signers of the new Spanish constitution, which was promulgated In Cadiz on March 19, 1812 .... d solemnly proclaImed in Manila on March 17, 1813. To the FIIIPinoe the constitution was the first recognItion of their human and political rights, and the first affirmation of the revolutionary ideas of liberty and equallt;,. EVENING NEWS

252 The Spaniards refused to recognize the new king and a

resistance muvement spread rapidly which culminated In the convention of the Cortes, the Spanish assembly of people's representatives. Under the influence of the new spirit of liberty born of the French revolution, and perhaps-also to win the loyalty of the colonies, the Filipinos were. given representation. The Filipino diputado Ventura de ios Reyes arrived in Madrid in 1811.

254 The

Filipino delegate also proposed tJ:>e abolition of the kalleon trade, which had brought vast wealth to a few Spaniards in ManUa and Acapulco in Mexico but which had gravely hindered the economic development of the Philippines by virtually closing the local "",rketo except to the galleon monopoly. The Filipino proposal was supported by the merchants in Spain itself, who wanted to share in the Asian trade, and the galleoll trade was abolished. PAGE 85

255 T he conStitution of 1812, however. was abolisheil two years later by Ferdinand VII. a stubborn absolutist. who regalneil his throne by hypocritical shows of allegiance to the Ideals of' the revolution and the resistance.

256 The abolition of the constitution bewtldered and dismayed the FIli-

pinos. The news spread swtftly, In part through the embryonic press which had been born In the Philippines in 1811 In the form of a war gazette.

257 The loss of cons titutional rights provoked what "'"s perhaps the first modern class revolution In the Philippines. FIfteen hundred nocano peasant. rallied to the cry of liberty and equality In Sarrat. killed the rich townsmen and landowners. and were subdued only with difficulty.



the death of Ferdinand, his daughter Isabel ascended the 258 Upon throne. To ' win the favor of the people she consented to a new Cortes, which assembled on July 24, 1834. At first the PhlIIppines had no representation but two local deputies were eleekd In March 1835 and took their seats later that yea!.

260 It waa a bad time for revolution, which everywhere met defeat at the hands of triumphant reaction. Even the Independent regime in Bohol, founded by Dacohoy, was finally suppressed In 1827 after nearly three quarters of a century.


259 The ferment of discontent and revolution, however, continued

to work In the Philippines. The Filipinos were not the only ones af¡ feeted. When they were replaced with Spaniards in 1822,¡ Mexican officer. stationed here mutinied. A Pampanga regiment queUed the outbreak and captured the leader, Captain Andres Novales.


The Chinese also felt the renewal of absolutism. In obedience to a royal deeree they were segregated and classified Inlo those engaged

In foreign trade, domestic trade, and industrial arts. Many refused to obey

and returned to China or else fled to the mountain..



262 It was a t t his time also. in the year 1829. that a Spa nish expedition under Guillermo Galvey. sent out to bring the mountain people of Benguet a nd Abra under Spanish rule. stumbled upon a delightful land where the air was crisp and cool. The marvellously terraced mountains that Galvey saw are st ill one of the en gineering wonders of the world and Baguio's invigorating climate to this day attracts international c.onferences.


Under polaico-Mi/i+Clr!j Governors


Under civil ru./e. Under olcaldes ~Q.~or es appointed by iht. SPQrLlSh. tIIi.riister

of Fino n ce CUI.d Justi ceo Roods and bridges built b, Governor Enrile .

..AGE 88


l._ __

was followed by reaction in Europe. Repressive measures 264 Revolution were taken to stop the spread of the new ideas of liberty and equal.

ny. They were enforced in the Philippines in 1839 with the establishment of a board of censorship which screened books and newspapers from abroad.

265 No censors however could kin the desire for equality which, among the Filipinos, naturally took a racial form. Its first apostle was Apo ~ Iinar io de la Cruz, a native of Tayabas, who was not allowed to enter or. e of the religious orders because of his color and thereupon found ed his own.



266 De la Cruz' confraternity, founded

in 1840, gained many adheren,", so many that the authorities suspP.cted Its members of politicai activity. Their meetings were prohibited, their leaders arrested. Thereupon the brotherhood rose in open rebeJiion, prociaiming De la Cruz king. At tirst the, were sucrpssf ul. With the help of the Negritos, they repulsed the forces of the provincial governor of Tayabas and killed him.


lPAGE 89

267 T his set¡ back to the government forces alarmed the Spanish authorities in Manila. Reinforcements of regulars were dispatched to strengthen the provincia l militia. In the subsequent battle fought at Alitao the confraternity was defeated and De Ia Cruz was captured and shot. In his own way he was t he precursor of Burgos, Gomez and Zamora, and many other Filipino priests who to this day arc slill fighting for the principle of racial equality in the Church.

r;; a Ii¡" it~.

268 I n 1844 Narciso C1averla assumed the governorship at the Philippines. He seems to have been Imbued with something at the liberal and scientific

spirit of tile revolution. One of his accomplishments was the correction at the calen-lar after a centerence with the archbishop. Due to an error of early explorers, Philippine time had long been one day behind.



ria also introduced changes In provincial and municipal administration. He r equired two years' legal experience for alcaldes mayores and, in 269 Clave 1847 instituted limited municipal elections wherein the 'gobemadorcillo was elected by a board of thirteen under the presidency of the provincial alcalde ma;or. The election was subject to the confirmation of the governor general but it was doubtless a significant step forward .

270 Claverla even

took steps to remedy the lamentable confusion of names which arose from the practice of giving the Fillpinos Christian names in baptism. in maul' cases similar¡ or identical, without making any provision for surnames. The Filipinos had their own native patronymics but for purposes of their own the Spaniards frowned on their use except by the old nobility. In a compromise measure which has survived to this day and Is probably a permanent feature of Filipino life, OIaverla oent out lonl' lists of Spanish surnames in 1849 from which each family was allowed to choose its own or assigned one.



The shrewd and energetic governor finally turned toward the solution of the persistent Moro problem. His int.,rest was stimulated by evidences of French .. ctlvlty in the southern Philippines. When a French fleet negotiated a treaty with the sultan of Sulu providing fo... the cession of Basilan, the Spaniards determined to pacify the entire region a.t once and assure their paramountcy. Jose Oyanguren was commissioned to subdue the western coast of Mindanao as tar as the Cotabato river and for this purpose was furnished artiRery and ammunition. Claveria wa. preparing an even more decisive measure. PAGE 91

arrival of three steam-propelled wars hips, the Ma ga Ua nes, E lcano a nd Reina de Castilla, signa lled the beginning of the modern scientific age 272 The in the Philippines, an age wh ich was burgeon ing ra pidly from t he increa sed fr eedom of m a n's spirit. It was fitting tha t Cla Yeria, who had Introduced so many modernizations in peaceful pursuits should also have spon sored the modernization of war in the PhUippiiu;s. His new steamers were faster than the vintas and were independent of sh ifting winds. T hey m a de short work of the once elusive Moro warcraft.

""Âť -- .

273 Claveria followed up his victories at sea with an assault on the fortifications at Bnlan&,uln&,ul, just east of Jolo. After his departure, his suceessor, Urblztondo, sent an expedition In 1850 which destroyed the Samar stronghold In TonquU and, on the following year, another force which penet ra ted the Sulu archipela go and captured the heart of Moro piracy In Jolo. In this a nele:>t capital the Spaniard. found flye fort. and a double line of trench es fa chlg the sea, once the dominion of Jolo's d a ring TOyers, now lost to the mechanical wonders of a new al'e they did not yet understand. PAGE




274 The middle of the nlneteenth century was an era of unrest and -revolution all over Europe. In Spain the people drove tsabel out of the country and set up a provisional government which promised reforms not only for the metropolis but also for the colonies, of which the Philippines was one •.






o C E.AN

275 The timel,. opening of the new Suez. canal shortened the route for liberalism as well as trade between Spain and the Philippines. A dlteh dug in the sands of Eupt thus hastened the development of Filipino nationalism. No longer were the Filipinos doomed by the exigencies of geography

to be forever one ;rear behind the times. EVENING NEWS

276 From the new government in Spain via the equally n ew Suez canal

a new governor general came to the Philippines, Carlos de la Torre, fittingly enough a sincere liberal wh .. dismissed the usual bodyguard and rode out alone in the streets with impressive simplicity. What was perhapS mor~ Important, he treated F.ilipinos and Spaniards alike.

277 One of De la Torre's first act. was to solve the persistent probiem of

laW and order in Cavite .. rlSmg from agrarian disputes by pardoning the leader of the dissidents, Eduardo Camerino, and making him commander of the Guias de Torre, a police force comp<>sed mainiy of the former clutlaws.


new gove~nor showed his sympathies with intellectuals and reformers too. At a receptio~ which ~~ ~aye to cele~rate the ~~VOlu~on :f ~~68, ~e 278 The welcomed Father Jose Burgos, Maximo Paterno, Joaquin Pardo de Tavera, and other prominent Fihpmos and listened un ers a.n mg 0 Wlt

sentiments which his predeces .. ors would have called treason.

1.79 De la Torre misjudred the strength and


influence reactionary elements In the Philippines. Many voices were soon raised against his pOlicy of attraction by appeasement. The friars in particular protested aralnst what they considered betrayals of the Spanish state and church. The Flllpino liberals were denounced to De fa Torre os atheists or heretics. EVENING NSW8

280 In

the end liberalism was defeated. A ehanre of gover.nment in Spain brought a new governor to the Philippines, a hard and haughty despot, Rafael de Izquierdo, who promptly reversed the trend of De 18 Torre's policies and set out to suppress the movement for reforms. He made the diehards happy but forced many Filipinos to despair of pP.3.ceful means. PAGE 95


One of the first fruits of Izquierdo's policy was the Cavite uprising. The Filipino garrison of the fort there oonspired with their comrades in Manila to rise on the night of Janua~y 20, 1872. Rockets were to be the signal for attack and when the Cavite garrison saw fireworks lighted for a fiesta in Sampaloc, they thought tha t the hour agreed upon had come. They took up arms under Lamadrid but they struck alone. Their mutiny was quickly suppressed.

282 It was a

relatively unimportant riot. But the reactionaries saw a splendid opportunity to get rid of their enemies. Many of the prominent Filipinos who had advocated reforms under De la Torre were seized on suspicion of complicity with the Cavite mutineers, among them the priests Jose Burgos, Feliciano Gomez, Jacinto Zamora, Mariano Gomez. and Agustin Mendoza. A council of war condemned some to death, others to imprisonment and exile.

~,,*.f<' '






283 Burgos, Gomez and Zamora were condemned to die. To the last ther

protested their innocence and the Spanish archbishop ot ManUa, more Christian and Impartial than others in his post, ret used to untrock them. On February 17, 1872 ·the three Filipino priests were cruelly strancled with the garrote on the field ot Bagumbayan tor a crime they had never commit ted. If they were guilty, they were guilty only of desi· '", racial equality In f he Church. PAGE 96 PIIJLJPPINE SAGA

summary arrests and executions tor which the Cavite revolt provided an eIcuse enforced an artuicial peace upon the Philippines. The pro:-284 The reuive 130vement was compelled to seek industrial a.nd commercial ra ther than poUtical outlets and a show of modern improvements resulted .

285 But the IntroductIon Gf modern mechanIcal facUlties only empha. sized by contrast the outmoded feudal structure of Philippine life. ID â&#x20AC;˘ peasant country like the Philippines the conflict naturally centered LrOUnd the ownershIp of land. One celebrated example was the case or Ule people of Calamba who contested the claIms of the friars to their lands. losl In wurt. and were .victed . Only a brutal polley of suppression p .. vented a rebellion.


286 The government, however. saw lhe need for at least token reforms. In 1884 Ihe payment of t ribute by every male inhabitant of the archipelago was abolished. Instead a residence t.."\x was imposed ->n both male and female, Filipino and foreign . residents between the ages of 25 a nd 60 tor wbich t.he evidence of payment was a. paper 01 identification called the ucedula personal!' But the Filipinos believed the new tax t o be still the old tribute and resentment persisted. PAGE 97

Other reforms were Introduced. In 1886 Filipino justices of the 287 peace were appointed. The provincial governments were reorganized and governors were appointed vested with executive power while the old alcaldes mayores r etained only judicial authority, thus Introducine in part the separation of pOl\'ers.

288 But the land question remained unresolved. Feellne was particularly bitter against the friars, who were g-reat landlords and who were accused of sabotagine the prog-ram of reforms. In 1888 a petition was sent to the queen of Spain askine for the espulsion of the rellel008 ord ...... Eleht hundred dared to sien their names.

289 Disoontent

anton&" the Filipinos had Dot yet led to a separatbt movement but ouly to a clamor for reforms. This was natural since the leaden of the FIlipinos at that time were for the most part YOUDC men of subs lance who, Uke the representative ,roop above, had studied and lived In Spain and owed the metropolis at least InteUectual and spiritual allea-iance.



290 Greatest. and

most beloved of these t-eformers was Jose Rizal. a skJUed ph ysi cian whose chiet concern were the ills of his unfort.unatl' country. A protean genius who excelled at everything he a ttempt.ed. Riza.1 was most effective as a pat.riotic propagandist. His two novels, the "Noli me tangere" and U EI FilibusterismoJ " may be classed among those few books that have changed the course of history. Whatever tbeir merit-I;; as literature, It Is beyond doubt that they created the s pirit of nationalism and revolution a.mong an entire people.


Rizal's only important rival in fame and influence was Marcelo H . del PilarJ a writer just as powerful as Rizal. Fiery, aggressive. politically experienced, del Pilar was compelled to leave the country. Sunk in destitution. embittered by exile, del Pilar dedicated himsell to masterful attacks on reactionary Spa.niards. It is, however, a s ignificant tribute to Spain that, like Rizal and del Pilar, tlie Filipino reformers directed or engaged in their campaign aga.inst Spanish abuses in Spain Itself, where the liberal elements of the m etropolis lent them respectful a.ttention and positive help.

292 Indeed when &he FIllplnos In Spain founded the Spanish-FUiplno Association to fight for reforms, several Spaniards joined them . The leaders


&he ,",up were Rhal, del PIlar, MarIano Ponce, Galicano Apaclble, the Lunas, and others. Aceordlng to Antonio Luna. the aim of the assoclatlun . . . to make Ule FUiplno a free man. PAGE 99

293 Tlte

organ of t h e reformer s was " La Solidarida d.," a fortnightll' establish ed in Barcelona in 1888 by Gracia no Lopez-Jaena. Afterward del Pilar bought the newspaper a nd tra n sferred its seat of publlca- ¡ tlon to Madrid, the capital. The""SoJi" was banned in the Philippines but. like Rizal's novels, it was smuggled through t he censorship and Influenced the minds of thousands.

294 Rizal himself decided to return to the Philippines In 1892. Be knew the risk he was t a king ; hIs novels had gained him the batred of reactionary Spa niards wbo wonld rejoice to find bim once a ga in in tbelr power. Undaunted Rizal spent a short stay In Bongkong before taking a boat to Ma nila In drafting tbe constitution of a new association. for reforms.

295 Rlza l's faltb in Spanlsb justice was perhaps s kenlrthened by tbe seeming HUCcesS of previous agitation for reform â&#x20AC;˘ . In 1893 tbe Maura laws had been passed, effect.log wise and liberal chanlre!! in tbe municipal governments of the PbUipplnes, which "ave the Filipinos a. &'Tea.ter s hare In the administration. But the reforms were, as usual, too little and too late. PAGE 100


treatment pven to Rizal upon bls return gave tbe Filipinos .tW weightier reason to doubt tbe sincerity of tbose reforms wbicb tbe natiou'" 296 Tbe foremost oha.mpion bad always advocated as the only alternative to armed force. Using as a pretext the new association, "La Lip Fillpina," which Rlaal had founded upon bis return, the reactionary Spaniards bad him exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao. There Rizal continued to weave b ls dreams of peaceful progress wblle practising bls profession as a physician wltb such eminent skill that his fame crossed the boundaries of tbe PhWppines.

297 But more ruthless and aggressive leaders were already

rising In Rwl's place. Tbe difference between them and the great reformer was the dlf. ference between bll idealistic "Llga" and Its platform of mutual asslslance and their new secret organization, the Most High and Most Venerable Aaootatlon of the Sons of the Nation, popularly known as the "Katlpunan." Organized In July 1892 In a house on Calle Alcarraga In Manila, tbe "Kati. punan," as Its name indicated, sought a mass base amon&, the proletariat In the capital and the peasantry In the provinces rather tban among Rlzal's elite and bourceob. And Its aim was no lonl'er reform but Independence.


PAGE 101

298 The fate of t h e "Llga" h a d

taught the cons pira tors a h a rd lesson. Secrecy shrouded every activity of the " Katlpunan"; tota l dlscipltne was its greatest s treDgth . Ca n didates for membersh ip s wore a solemn oa th. signed in their own blood. to support ... e alms of the society. ,k eep Its secrets, implicitly obey its laws. and assist any of its members who were in da9ger.

299 The fuund er of t h e " Kalipuuan" w"'" Andres Bonifacio. Born poor in Tondo on t h e 30th of November 1863. Bonifacio went to work f rom boyhood , But he devoted his s pa re honrs to r eading. Hls fa,v orlte su,,,ect was the F r ench Revolution which In the end tnsp\red him to found ~he "Katlp una n ." the historical vehicle ot t he Filipino Revolution,

p AGE 102

300 Bonifacio', right-hand man

was EmlUo Jaotnto who. poor like hb friend. was able to support himself throu~h school This brilliant student at the University of Santo Tomas devised the " Katlpunan" code. es tablished Its printing press. and became 80 valnable to the work 01 the or~anlzatlon that In It he was second only to the leader. PHILIPPINE SAGA


The "KatipunaD" avoided any premature test of streDlrLh by concentrating first on organization and espansion. By 1894 it had enroUed a large membership, including even some women. It had a regularly elected president, secretary, treasurer, and fiscal. Local commltlees r a n the a.soclation in the various districts of ManUa and in the provinces.

however by th e government's On August 19, 1896 Teodoro Patino. a m ember, revealed the secret to bis sist~r, a convent-school girl in Mandaluyong. Tbe, frlgbtened girl a nd a nun wbo was a lso presenl advised Palino to teU Fatber GU, then parish priest of Tondo, home of the flKat ipunan".

303 Father Gil losl no time afler hearinlr Patmo's .tory. Be decided to

304 The friar rushed to announce his discovery t.o the governor-genera1

investigate the matter personally and on tbat same evening he instituted a searcb In the offices of the Dlarlo de Manila, a printing establishment. After a half boor's search be found a lithographio stone used by the "Katlpunan" In its work as well as receipt-stubs of tbe association.


The "Katipunan's" band was forced 302 unexpected discovery 01 its

e "i ~ teDc e.

who at that time was Ramon Blanco, a kind and just man known a. a liberal. Blanco .eemed to be the oniy Spaniard who did not lose his head upon hearing the Dews of the vast conspiracy. WbUe his outraged and distraught compatriot._ olamored for a blood bath, Blanco kept his counsel. PAGE 103

305 B ut even Blanco could not restrain tbe fear-sbarpened fury of the

Spanisb r eactionaries. A reign of terror broke out to ManUa and every Filipino, wbetber actually connected w\t.b tbe association or not, fear ed t bat be would be in tbe next batcb of arrests.

306 Rizal himself was the most tragic victim of the Spanish panic. His

name bad b""n used by the "Katlpunan" and his enemies avaOed themselves of the opportunity to consummate their revenge. He was thrOWll toto Fort Santiag-o despite his protestations of innocence.

307 Ironically enoug-h Rizal bad lert Dapiian to serve as a surg-eon with tbe Spanish forces

In CUba. Blanco had accepted hi. humanitarian offer and everythtng had been ,arranrec! for Blzal'. new assignment. But Blanco was relieved on tbe 13th or December 1896 by Camllo de Polavleja and RI¡ zal's fate was sealed. Under tbe cruel and vindictive Polovleja, Bizal was given a mock trial and sentenced to death. He spent hi. la.t days putting bl. concerns In order. To his people, he left a noble poem of farewell. a testa ment In verse. To the woman he loved, be ,ave bls name In marriage. Then. early to t he morning of tbe 30th of December, havlnl returned to the Catholle Church and received Ito ..eraments, he gave his loul to God. He WI. . ""xecuted by musketry on the Luneia. t he greate.t of the Filipinos. PAGE lOt



Revolution was born shortly before the death of the hopes for pea cefuI Reform embodied in Rlzal. His hand forced by the unexpected dis308 The covery of the Katlpunan, Bonifacio rallied his men at Balintawa k and with the cry of "Long live the Philippine Rep u\llic !" began. on t he 30th of August 1896, this nation's 50-year struggle for independence.

309 In the widespread fighting that fOllowed a new leader arose in Cavlte, whloh became the stronghold of the Revolution. This was the 27 -year-old mayor of Cavltc Viejo, Emllio Aguinaldo y Famy, whose bravery and mUlt.ary skill gradually overshadowed the turbulent democratic spirit of Bonlfaclo. Aguinaldo had receiVI d the benefits of formal schooling. After studying In his native town, h e had enrolled In the Coleglo de San Juan de Letran.


310 No

enterprise demands unChallenged leadership and unity more than a revolution and either Aguinaldo or Bonifacio h a d to m ake way. After a series of quarrels and disputed elections, the miliiary hea d gained supremacy. The founder of the Katipunan wa.s condemned to death by a court martial and, although his senience was commuted by Aguinaldo, was later killed with his brother under clrcumstnnces thnt have not yet been flllly explained. PAGE 10f


The contemporary photographs on these pages help to recapture the spirit and atmosphere of the campaign of '96. possibly the last of the old colonial wars in the 19th cent-ury s tyle. From left above are one of the flags of the Katipunan, whose eight-rayed sun, representing the original eight provinces of the Revolution, has survived in the present Philippine flag ; a primitive trlantaka" or small cannon used by the Filipinos; and au undcrsWrt worn as an t'anting-anUng" by onc of the soldiers of the Revolu tion.


While the campaign was largely one of movement, both sides knew h ow to build and use entrenchments. Above left is a Spanish trench in Dai!lh ican facing Novcleta sho,," ing a battery of brollze 9 om. cannon. Above right is a Filipino trench ill Naic which covered the approaches to a strategic river.

313 The bridge of Zapote shown above was the scene of one of the most fa mous encounters In the history of that time. In

the be,lnning the forces of the Revolutl~n: wh~e never outfought, were badly handicapped by lack of weapons al'd organization. The reenforced Spanish ~roops gradually pushed back the FliJpmo fIghters from the environ. of Munlla intI) Cavlte .

.,AGE 106


316 Hospital facilities, such as the aid station shown above. were still another advantage which the well-organized Spanish army enjoyed. The Filipinos had to depend



the patriotic enthusiasm of the civilian popul. tion.

PAGE 107

317 From

the lost battlefields of his native Cavite Aguinaldo led his forces to new headquarters at Biak-na-bato. of which two vie,ys are shown above. The more dist a nt view of the encampment shows part of the Filipino forces drawn up in the clearing. The close-up shows Aguinaldo's residence, known as the Casa Presidencia, where a Republic was proclaimed bn the 1st of November 1897.

318 Both sides were feeling the strain of the conflict. however ; Spain, because of the Cuban rebellion, and the Filipinos, because of their inadequate armament. A n ew Spanish governor-general, Primo de Rivera, chose this time to launch a pacifica:tion campaign. First he proclaimed an amnesty. Then h e commissioned a distinguished Filipino, Pedro Pa terno, to negotiate with Ihe leaders of the Revolution. The result was the famed Pact of Blakna-bato. a t whose con clusion the photograph above was takp.n, guaranteeing cerlain reforms a-nd liberties.

of tbe terms of the Pact was the exile of the Revolution's lead ers to Hongkong. The photograph above leCt shows the train which thcy took 319 Another to Sual. At U.e are, from left, Wenceslao Vinlegras, Aguinaldo, Vito Belarmlno. and Paterno. All along the route great crowds cheered WJD ill)wS

the leaders who. In turn. by contemporary accounfs are saId to have cheer cd also lor peace, Spain, and "A Philippines Forever SpanIsh". The photograph above right .h~ws the lea ve-taking at Sual where the leaders boarded launches which took them to thc steamshIp Uranus, Hon,kon,-bound. Upon news of their sale atTlval, the Revolution laid down Its arms on the 31st ot December 1897. f'AGE 108 PIULIPPINE IllAGA

CHAPTER Pag.....Dd Moh_.ed.... : As alrudy iMitated In Chapter 8 ' of tJut· "Saga" the art and culture of ",any of our p.gan peoplea in northern Luzon; Mindoro, and Mindanao haa remained practically unchAnged from time. down to the present day. A number of auch. peoples, In fact have changed bnt little In the put thousand yeam or morehavillg' been only .lightly affected even <by th.e pre-Sparush influx of Hindu and Chinese, '; TIle Moros on the otber hand, have cPanged a grea~ deal. The entry of Islam occurred such a short time' befbrs the Spanish arrival that the accompanying culture trait. had not yet become fi'1"ly established among the massee. It was the bitter struggle hetween Mohammedan and Christian during tJle late 16th and early 16th. oenturiee that led to a ~­ IIurgenC9 and continued growth of a purely !'foro ar~ and cul·t ure ~unng the subsequent centuries. This new art ~fered 1n ma~y part •.cula~ from the pre~p8nish cullure, ar.d is desetvlng of a sect.on In our present review. The Christian. Filipino.: In the case of the lawland ~nd coastal peoples, however, the story is quite differ~nt. They wer,: not only greatly changed through their many cent~n7' of l're-Sparusb contact and trade wjth their neighbors on the As.atic ma.nland, but reacted quickly to the new Spanish culture as well. Pre-Spanish Survival.. The Chinese and Hindus especially, and the more cultured peoples of Indo-<:hina, brought in a constant stream of new influences that produced notable changes in Filipino life-in the late pre-Spanish period. The descriptions of native costumes, houses, boats, weapons, images, and ornamental "bjecta, that ha-:e been furnished us by the early Spanish writers amply confirm thIS &tatem~nt. Notably, Pigafelta, Loarca, Plasencia, Chirino, M?rga, .and Franc.~co Deza-illl writing in the 16th or early 17th centune.s--g1ve us a s<lrle.B of fairly clear picture. ::4. lowland' Filipino culture and ~ at the dawn of Spanish and Christian influence. Deza furthern10re fU11lnshe;' a number (If crude but infonnative sketches of the actual people and dwelhng9 of Negros and Panay in th" early 17th century. Ne" Culture from Spanish America: Although the spread of Spanish religious and polit.i,cal intluence wss rapid, the entry of other types of cul~ural inliuence and art W-.lS a much sio-wer or more gradual process --being retarded both ' by the small number of Spanish arrivals and the infrequency of communicatio!'l with their homeland. In fact, it was from Spanish America-and not from Spain itself-that the really penetrating early influences came. For example .the tY'Pical costumes of the Christian provinces that we now often speak of as "Filipino dress" were in common use in Central America and Mexico long before they reached th""e shores. The penetration of Spanish-American culture in Philippine social arts is equally outstanding. While barrio life still retains some real native dances and music, Filipino ·town Ii~e in the 18th and 19th centuries dTew the great majority of its music, dancing, social gra('es, and· even of its games and ' amusements, from Mexican and Central American .ources, And even today, if one wishes to hear any truly Mlilayan or Indonesian mliSic he .has to seek it among the pagans, the Moros, or in the less sophisticated lowland barrios. The Blending Gives RiBe To Something Ne .. : However, the dictum ~rten voiced by foreign critics, lhat l>i1ipino art and culture are purely imitative and not creative, is actually n<>t justified hy the facts. What &e&ms to have happened is that out of the blending. of native witb imported Oriental and Occidental elemEnts, a new and dist inctdvely Filipino art and culture i! slowly emerging. The speed and degree of this emergence varies greatly in the different art and culturo elements. In some it began even in p .... Spanish times-when, for example, we Sf.e a "Philip.pine" stepped adze, and a "Luzon" ridged adze, emerging already in ·the New Stone Age-and new typee of Hindu-·Malayan art emerging in Panay and :::ebu following the periods of Sri-Vish3ya and Madjapahi~ contacts.. (The Panayan art differs definitely from anything that is found in Java, Sum, or indoChina-and has its own distinctive and highly ooveloped ch&rac,eristie&) In other cases the emergence hJS been much. slowe., &no in 80me fields has not become noticeable until recent decades. But in the wide intermediate field many 8t a!<e~ of growth are discerna,ble; and wa may no..- consider ·them seraratcly ur.der the different phase. in which art and culture manifests itself. The following eight subjects will be very briefly discussed in the order indicated: (1) Clot'hing and ornament; (2) Architecture; (3) Decorative art and design, in general; (4) Music and dancing; (5) Drama; (6) Literatun; (7) 'Representative art ( drawing, painting, and sculpture); tn be followed by a "hart discussion of (8) Mora art and culture. It should furth.r be kept in mind that the d :acussion is limited to lhe Spanish period-the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, especially-and that developments during the present century are either omitted or mentioned only incidentally. (1) CLOTHING' AND ORNAMENT COBtumes : The pre-Spanish costume styles gradually died out in the Filipino towns before Ute end of the 17th century_lthough they persisted in the barrios and amor.g the country people until much later dates. • Throughout the l8lh and early 19th centuries, Filipino town costumes closely followed those of Mexico, Central America, ' and pa"ts of the West Indies-aa has already been indicated above. After the severan=e of relations with Mexico about 1820, the true later Filipino costume began to evolve-reaching its best known form in the latter half of the 19th century (see iIIustrations-). The use of starched piiia. and the finer forms of sinama), and jusi brollght a delicate perfection to the laler productions that has few rivals elsewhere. The 16th ,nd 17th century cestumes were chiefly an interesting mixt~ of Moh811lmedan and Chinese with native elements. SpanishAmerlc.n clothing beg,.n to replace the earlier garb about 1&80, but did not become fully dominant. until the, early 18th century. The baro for the men and paiiuelo and Ba)'a for the women carne in at this 'time, The old aarong or tapia Willi worn on top of the new s.ya-an interesting auertlon of native pride.



'Embroidery and ap.plique were the chief forms of ornament on clothing. Jewelry: With the advent of Christianity many pre~panish necklaces were transfonned into rosaries-and the addition of a C~OS9 of scapulary soon followed. The old necklaces with ·thelr delicate filigree work are said to have been made chiefly by women_nd the fame of "Manila goold-work" reached even to the distant marts of Sumatra and Malace&. . As Spanish influence increased, the styles of the ear-rings, pins, brooches, lockets, and the like, beca,!,e rna",: ~uropean.izell-but th.ey &tll1 .r etalned a considerable measure of thl! ongmal art. Thin gold work set with seed pearJ.., or alternated with red coral, became a great favorll:e--and many fine pieces fonnd their way ·through the galleon trade to Spanish AmerIca and even to Europe. rrhe old jeweled daggers and other weapons formerly carried by the men were banned under the ne.w culture, and were gradually replaced by carved or decorated canes and payong; while an embroidered .and decorated fan hecame essential for the well-dressed lady. Large Sparushstyle combs were worn chiefly by the msstiza class; bull the smaller and more commonly used native combs to<>k on new styles and beauty of decoration. Footgear remained largely of native or Chinese styl~s, and was worn c.hiefly in ·t he towns-hut headwear under:went some radical changes. For the women, sun-hats and ~-~ts w"re chiefly ~r country use, and churchly requirements were satiSf.ed_ Wlth a kerchief; but among the men the old .... tyle putong or head-band gradually disappeared, and a ~at became essential in ·the town as wen as in ·t he country. .In .t he barr'06 the salakOt stin remained the favorite, but in the towns European style headgear ran the same gamut here as in Western lands. The top-ha,;, the bowler, and the derby ,a.ll had their day-until the Btraw-~~t fina!l)' came into permanent style. In 19th century Luzon, the fme-quallty produotions of Lukban, Baliuag, !Ind. Calasiao developed int", a firstclass industry-equalling if not outdoing the Panama hats of the Western world. The finely woven cigarette cases and PUIS"" of rattan, sabotan, and.. bamboo also became famed aibroad and acquired a wide distributi<>n. • (2) ARCHITECTURE Under this .heading we may consider house and hoat .types, vehicles, and furniture--as well as such structures 8B monuments, arches, ornamental stairways, el<: . In the matter of dwellings and public bu'ldings, Jlt"I!-Spanish s t ructures in the Philippines appear to have been all of w ood or bamboo-as no ruins of more cre..tions have come doWJl to. us. But the Spaniards were builders in stone and mortar, and within a few generations they. had literally covered the law land provinces w ith a remallkable series of churches, fortresses, walled towns, monuments, watchtowers, and other p\lblic structures-most of which endure to the present time. While the motive force and planning behind an "f th is .b uilding was chiefl~' SpJnish, the actual labor was na tive Filipino and Chinese-and these workmen managed to incorporate some interesting elements from native and Chinese architeetu,e into the finished struc oures. It is only possible to illustrate here a few select ed examples of such buildings, b\lt several volumes could easily be writlen upon the subject. One fact that immediately strikes the· observ~r is the great vaTiety in .t ype and design. Scarce ly any two ~hurch es are alike-and some of them contain a great variety of architectural styles within the same s~ructure. For example t!J~ fine church-tower at Morong (Rizal Province) has Greek and Roman motifs c"mbined with May1l., Zallotec, and something that seems purely Chin'J6e; while many of the churches along the I1ocos coast, in the Cal'lYan Valley, and in Panay Island present remarkable combinations of ;,nu.'l'al or striking .uchitectural ideas. The liortresses ano walled towns are massive and durable structures, with excellent artistic qualitWs as well-and it is only .tbe recent age of aircraft and high explosives has destroyed their utility. The neglect and ruin that some of them have been a\lowed to fan into is a sad commentary on the quali17 . <of modern life-and thooe that are still left should be respected and ;ltotected by prcsu:t-d.y Filipinos 2S one of lhe greatest treasures out of their hist<>ric past. House and Boat Types: As one travels from north to sO\lth through t.he Philippines an impression is gained of a great variety in native dwellings, and in the means of local land and wat~ r traooj:ortation. Again only a few typical examples> of house", boats, and vehicles can be sh<>WJl in our iIIuslrat;ons-but the subject is really worthy of much more extended study than anyone has given to it in the past. Here we s<e ",uch lhat is pUlely native "nd Philippine; a nd, aside f. n~ rertRi, of thr mor.. sophisticat-.'<l vehicle typp.s, foreign influence is at a minimum. Some of the larger dwellings show very interesting combinations of FiIi!,ino, Chinese, and Spanish traits; but the more numerous smaller structures are almost purely native, or at least Malayan. (See the strong kinship of some of the dwellings wilh those found· in Celebes and Borneo.) Most of the boat types are purely Philippine or Malayan, but a few sh<>w strong Chin&e influence (as, for example, the C8ec:o and other similar river and coast.wise craft.). In the extreme north and south of the Philippines, wel1-made plank-built boats are found-but in most of tJhe Archtpelago the basic tYlle is a real or modified dugout. The long Agu£an Rh'er cance and the Tagalog paol"llo have e specially fine lines and much artistry is often exhibited in their shaping. It is in the Moro vinh' and sapit, however, that the finest carving and decorative effects are achieved-wltile the largest cr.aft and mcst elaborately pa inted designs are fou'nd among the houseboats of the Badjaos (the wanderi'ng "Sea Gyp8i~s" of the Celebes and S,~lu Seas). In sailing craft, the Moros "gain excell-both in speed ~nd in beauty of line and design; but som. BisayoJn areas provide a close second. Furniture and Equipment: The carving and inlaying of tables, chairs, cabinet", wooden chests, and other similar· objects is another art in which Filipinos have produced not ..bly excellent work-particularly during the 17th and 18th centuries. Carved images, altars, and other ornamen~al woodwork for the churches and better pri'Vate homes often reached a high degree of perfection. PAGE 109

In native pottery a wide variely of design and decoration is notable -and the special type that I have named "Manila Ware" (produced at t he San Pedro Makati kilns from Ihe late 16th to the early 19th centuries) deserves a place .by itself. ArtisticalJy caTV1>d clay pipes of this material were produced not only at Makatr but were developed in t·he Ilocos provinces, Abra, Bohol, a.nd Antique as welL Elaborate water-vessels, flower - pols, and glazed tile ornaments for stairways, balconi€s, and balustrades, were manufactured in some areas -most of t hem showing decided Chinese inf:!uence . (3) DECORATIVE ART AND DESIGN.IN GENERAL The designs in Philippine decorative art all show strong traces of Indian and Chlnese influence mixed with a considerable native element of Indone.sian and Malayan origin. There are also important elements <>f European and Spanish-Amer:can origin~pecially manifest in the finer arts and in decorative desigps of a religious or political character. Native art "utcrops most strongly in the ornamental or the ecQnomic and utilitarian fi~lds--as has been indicated in the previo1l& discussion. When we come to t he social <lnd mental arts, we will find that W este rn influence h as llenetrated very deeply-and the Japanese discovered to t hei r sorrow (as 1 had already predicted in 1921) that Fili'pinq, psychology i.s now more Western t han Oriental. H owever, I cannot agree w:ith · Filipino at:ti.sts--and there aro a considerable number. of them-who hold that the native element ill essentially " primit"·e," and I·b at only those artists wno follow Western ideliS and methods reach the highest plane of their profe66ion. Art manifests itself in many ways; hut, if it be real art, It Is alwa~ ar. artist's attempt at expressing some beauty or ideal which he seesor of which he d reams. In the art of the P.ast many fine ideas have been circumscribed or hidden by the conventionalized designs that the period demande<lr-and often, now, only a few privileged inwviduals can interpret them. One of t he g..eatoot contributions of the modern. era of f reedom has been the release of the artist from the conventions of the past-and t he age of "realistic alii" has certa:inly given the creative genius a much wider and more appreciative audience. Every different environment breeds a new type of individual. And it ill not believable that the ideals and dreams of a t)'lpical Filipino wiJI be qu:ite t he same as those of one· wh" has grown up in another and perhaps very different land. It should be obvious that the greatest cont ri.bution a Filipino artist can make to world civ'iJizatioh is precisely the putting into graphlc and appreciable form of .t hose special ideals lIIIld dreams that his native environment has given him. !No one else can do this as well, if at all. This is not to say t hat a Filipino artist may not successfully interpret American or European scenes and life in a ·new way-just 80S Vollbehr, Kulesh, and other European artists have given a new and at.tractive twist to Philippine life and scenes.-but in both cases it is the !lew ap proach that makee Furth.e rmore, a r t is no r <!Spector of mediums, and the lowly woodcarver, the smith, or t he potter, with an artistic soul, may turn out productions that command the respect and appreciation of beauty-lovers everY"'here-irre~pective of race ~r creed. , The early Filipino artist who 16(}0 y.ears a go carved the horse's head, shown in " Sag.a" iJlustration No . 106, from a N ovaliche .. potsherd, made a real contri.bution to w()Tld IIr t -and is as wo rthy of our r""peet, if not in the same degree, as the 20th centnry artist who so capably drew the pictures numhered 6, 13, a mi 36 . In other words, art is art-in whawver form it may appear. (4) MUSIC AND DANCING A pr oper history of Philippine music and dancing has yet to be written ; {but to thos e who wish to delve deeper into the subject, I recommend the accounts. of Philippine music and musical instruments written f<>r Vol. IV of Zoilo M. Galang's "Encyclopedia of t he Phllippines" by t he la te Prof. Francisco Santiago and Justi'ce Nonberto Romualdez (Manila, 1935); and for dancing, the recent volume by Mrs . Francisca Reyes Tolentino ent itled "PhlJippine National Dances" (New York, 19(6). Older works by Mallat, Walls y Merino, Retana, Baiias, and the late Epifanio de los Santos also contain milch useful and basic information; while in 1933 Prof. Jeno vo n Takacs conducted special and informative s tudies concerning the music of t he Philippine Negrit<>s and the pagans of No I¢hern Luzon. My own collection of source mater ial conta,",s several hundreds of manuscripts recording local music and dancing froIr nearly every Philippine province-and coutd be used as lhe basis for a !omprehensive history of the s ubjEct, if some capable worker were willing to undertake such a task. It is impossible 10 .ncluoe here more t han a f ew gener~lized .. marks, touching uron certain phases of the s ubject. Musical In!>truments: A great variet.y· of simple musical instruments uf bambuo, wood, and metal haei a lready been developed in the PhjJippines in pre-Spanish times-and most of them ar e stiJI to be found in use among lhe pagans, the Moros, or in the Christian barrios. Instrumenta of percussion, wind instruments, and stringed instruments lire all to be found. AmQng the former, many varieties of drums both 0: hollow wood and with akin heads occur-togelher with bronze gongs, large kettle-drums, xylo phones, bamboo clappers, ex., while small jingle bells -.vere formerly frequently attached' to clothi ....;: (and Btill are among the Mindanao pagans and Lanao Moros). Wind and stringed instruments were mostly of bamboo and local resonant woods>-until European-maei. metal pi""es began to be imported in the 19th century. Among stringed ins truments, the sim!>le bamboo ba rp and a rather primitive guitar with only 2 or 3 strings apparently go back to pre-5panish times-but the violin was not widespread D:ltil the early 18th century. Of other nativemade inst ruments the bamboo jew's-harp and flu te are the most widespread~th e former being intimately associated with courtship in the barrios. Th" long Mala guitar known as kudyapi came in from the south at a very early date, reaching even to Luzon, and was very popular. until replaced by imported instrument types. Other early stringed instruments were of Ohinese or Japaneee ori~as was a\.;o the bamboo pan-pipe of widespread use in Nvnhern Luzon. FilipinOs of all g ro ups and types have a natural talent for instru.mental music, and quic Kl y I""rned to use every v.lriety of imported instrument. H<>wever, t he quality of the mu",;" played on such instruments nearly alwa ys haa a European or American cast. Vocal Mu.sic: Filipmo folksongs and rituilishc ~r ceremonia: songs are very ancient; and, while rathe r simple from the standpoint of music PAlO"; llU

nota tion, have many striking and interestiltg qualities. The old religious daeng,, and baltong of the northern Luzon pagans, the dania and dal-lot of the I1ok os, lhe warlike tagllJllpay and kumintang of the central Philippines, and the war~ngs and religious chants of Mindanao and the Sulu Islands.,.all have fascinating qualities of their own. ·Much of this lS rea. pre -Spanillh JI1~iayal\ music-but httle of it is heard in the larger lowland towns today. Spani.9h influence first manifested itself in <the religious music and the singing of the Pasion-but was later extended, among the ' Christians, to much of the Iopular music as 'Well. The palimoB or begging songs, new work-songs and lullabies, so~gs con nected with varioU!3 games and amu.ements, and lastly but not least, the kundiman or lovesongs, all bear a s t rong SpaniS'h or Spanish - American imprint. The kundiman, however, an interesting example of something new arisIng from the mlJcture of Spanish and native culture. It gradually became typically Filipino-" going deep into their hearts and best expressing their emotions," as Prof. ' Santiago says- and. possesses 3. sad but attractive plaintiveness that is quite distinct from aflything in North American and European mu's ic o,f similar type. Dancing: The older na!""e dances were decided'l y mimetic in type, and were always rather seriou6-joyou3ness or pleasure b eing seldom or never expressed. Spanish influence brought in a quite different .rsyehology, in whlch. active ryt.hmic movement and open expression of plEasure or en:otion were characteristic. The fandango, cueuraeha, balitao, cariiiosa, and surndo (especially popular in the Visayan regi<>n) ai:e all certainly derived from Spanish or Spanish-American proto-types. On the other hand, during this period, many distinctive Filipino dances grew out of the culture mixture in many parts-Df the Islands-as Mrs. Tolentino has 60 ably shown in her excellent collection and ,malysist of ;\mown dances of all lowland types. Many examples might be cited if srace were available-but the tinikling dance (originating in Le)'lte Province) may be especially cited as differing from any known elsewhere. At the end of the Spar.·ish period most of these dances were still actively practiced-but they have now largely faUen into disuse due to the modern jll(LZ era. Bands and Orchestras : The earliest and most primitive type of mass playing was the Deating of sticks and bamboo clappers, or warriors beating a tattoo all' their shieJds--in early wrlr dances and funeral celebrations. MassM drums and gongs were also often used in communal dancing. However, the filEt organized orchestra.--combining several claSSE!8 of instruments.-was of the type of the Javanese gameJan. Simple gamelans were introduced into Sulu 'Ind Mindanao, and prohably also into the Mi~la Bay region, during the time of Madjapahit in the 14th century--and they: still survive in the southe.-n islands. Various types of agong, kulintaiigan, and xylophones form the mass of the instruments used-but wind and stringed· instruments are also round. The Spanish-American· type of band spread into bite Philippine provinces early in the 18th century-and in many !>Iaces bamboo bands or sirnpli!ied native-made instruments were used in place of the expensive imported ones. Even a pipEHlrgan Was .construeted of bamboo, at Las Piiias, in 1816, During the 18706, musical organizations began to be formed in Manila and eLsewhere, and. modern-type orchestras soon came into heing. Jt(llBical educati()n waa on a fairly high plane during the late Spanish iI'eg'ilne; .b ut it was not until the American period that a f~lJ-sized s~­ pbiony orche!rt.ra was born . The churches took a leading .part Jill the development of choil' and orchestral music-and the organ and harp were first introduced by them_ The firat Church orchestra is said to have been organized in 1870 under the leaderahip of Marcelo Donal', Filipino composer. In adWtion to Donay, LadiBlao BonUS', Jose Canseco, Antonio Garcia, Juan Nakpil, Hipolito Rivera, and others, produced interesting compositions during the late Spanish period. (5) DRAMA For a history of the theater in the Philippines, see works by Barrantes, Retana, Riggs, Baiias, CastilJo, and others . One of t he earliest types of native drama in the Spanish period wa.!I ~ainly the moro-moro, · after which came the ""media, and in 19th century the zarzueJa. rr'he largest clilss of dramatic productions, how· ever, were the religious plays.-the pel1iormance of which began early in the 17th century and continued down until the end of the Spanillh reg.ime . A majority of the religious plays were written by friars Or priests -but a great many (especially in .the dialects) were also produced by devout Filipinos. ·M ost of them are motivated by religious propaganda, and many were fa r. ..tic in their zeal for the faith. A few attained to a rather hlgh order of dramatic art . In any case, throughout the Spanish period, religious plays, ceremonies, and processions bulked very large in Filipino community life-and constituted the greateat lIour.,. at n:aa. entertainment. The moro..moro plays-usually depicting gory scenes in the agelong wars between Christian and -Moor-were also chiefly for m...... amusement, and were rather looked down upon by the more educated Filirinos. Some we're very len~thy, and constituted a source of pOl'ulor entertainment for days at a time . The zarzuelas of the late Span ish peried were a ttempts at serious drama. mixed with light operar-and a number of them were quit" creditable »loductions. Some of the best Filipino composerI' and dramatic writers collabomted in such works-and their p opuH1.rity extend." weU into the early American period. The ViBayan and Bikol languages contain the largest number o( dramatio productions in the vernacular, Tagalog and Pampangan coming neX!!; while t he least number .. re found in lloko and t he other language of Nodhern Luzon. (6) ' LITERAR t' ART The chief forffiB of literature-folktales, poetry, and prose-can be considered only very briefly he-reo (For further literary data, see the works of E. de 106 Santos, De:ln Faneler, T . del Castillo, E. G. Gonzaga, L. Y. Yabea, J. T. Burgos, Sol Gwekoh, etc.) Folklore and Popular Litenture : In ihis field the Philippines rank high . India, P ersia, Ireland, Russia, China, and Japan bave always been noted for the quantity and variety of their p opular tales-but in some ways the Philippines exceed all these lands in variety of veroal lore . It might be better to say that we have elements from all of the countri.. PHB.IPPINE SAGA

mentioned, pi .... a bac!;ground of Ir.done::;ian and Malayan tal ..- of stili earlier types. . The myths and ritual of the pagan group.s constItute a class by tbemselves-and the;" epics will be discussed later under "Poetry." Mo~o folklore Is richest in Indian, Persian, and Arabi~n elements on n .ba.SlC foundation of M.. layan and early Indonesian survIvals . In the Cb,:,s~an provinces, however, we have a gradually fa<;ling backgro und of slm.'I,!r material overlain with thick layers of A.-liatic, European, and Spa:\lshAmeriean origin. . . The earliest important overlayer show~ strong ~odQ~lSt cha;act~r. istic... and doubtl ..... came to us from India and Ch,na In pre-Spamsh t imes. Oar nomerous Philippine fables and animals stories largely belong to this tn:e . . . Howpver in the case of the magIc tales-whIch form one of the largest elem~nt. in Ph ilippine hav,: .. triple origin . Tbis type of tale grew up chiefly in PersIa and ArabIa, and spread eastward to India and wesbward a cross North Airic.. to Spain in the early centuries of Islamic expansion. The oldest group of such stories appear to have entered Malaysia and the Philippines from India along with. SriVishayan influence-although the early Sabaean Arab trade may have also played a part. The second and purest group came with the entry of the Mohammedan faith : while the third and probably largest group cam. to us second or third hand through Spain and Spanish America . The late Dr. Dean S . Fansler made a speci"l study of these s!orirs, and found that it was possible-.lthough s om,tim !!3 d ifficult-to ct:1Bsify most Philippine magic tales int<> one or the other of the above group3. ·F inally we have a large group of religious or semi-religious stories (miraclIKales, and stories about saints, sacred e·'ents, holy places, etc.), in which Spanish and SpaniBh-American influence i. most pronounced. Even here, however, there is often now a strong native element. Somelimes pre..spanish tales are r ....told with Christian names and events mixed In; or sometimes local incidents or happenings .re introduced into the imported tales. In generations of re.tell!ng, Filipino psy, hology has more and more asserted itselt. . Poet..,. and Verse: Epic and nanative poetry, Iyri~s, and medieval romances done in verse may be considered very briefly. True epic poetry is today fouQd chiefly among the pagan groups. and the Moros; hut fragmpnts of pre-.Spanish epica have heen recovered" among the Christian lIokes, Bikols, and Leyte Visayans. The Ifugao hudhud and alim, some lengthy tales among the Igorots and Tinggians ol1epaDto and April.. '-1Id. tht' Sulv MOTO Paran, SahlI, for example, are true epics. So also is the lIoko Biag ni Lam-ang-although some mod~­ fications have crept in, in early Spanish days. Fr. Castano recorded an important fragment of a true pre...spani.h Bikol epic; while Miss Eulalia Brillo has, recov-ered some highly'ng epic fragments from eastern Leyte. Some versions of the Christian Pasion may be regarded as religious epics. The is in t·he I1oko language. Lyric poetry of all qualities, from very good I<> bad, is found in every Philippine province; and mo"t of it is ·h ighly romantic In character. Some at the best collections have been made from the Visayan IBlands, especially from Samar and Lel'te-where Indian influence of the Tagore type is very pronounced. On the whole, ·h awever, lyric poetry )n the vernaeular---<luring the Spanish period-presents a mixture of native and Spanish influences; while Filipino poetry written in Spanish is nlOre definitely European in type . 'l'he most extensive class of printed literature written by Filipinos In SpaniBh time.; (excePt religious writings.) is the group of medieval romances, in verse, commonly known as eorridos or awlt. Several hundred <luch romances reached .printed form in various Philippine dialects during the 19th century_ They all show a strong European influence, and some are merely translations ~f Spanish romances. Others, however, are purely local productions by writers who (althou!!,h using European Bettings and names) knew onlY' Philippine 9C!'nes and characters. The most acclaimed of the ..,Midas iB "FloT8Jlte at Laura," written about lS37 by Francisco Baltazar y Balagtas, a native of Bataan Provinee. This work haa been put into a clas9 by itself, by modern Tagalog critlcs--who have placed all sorts of st.range interpretations upon tne author's language, which mayor may not have foundation in fact. In any case it is a beautiful piece of narrative verse, and a credit to Filipino literary art; and haa been translated into both Spanish and English during the American period. Several other corrid08 were de.;ervedly popular during the later Spanish period--the most widely read being "Principe Igmidio," of which the late Juan Martinez once told me, more than ·h alf a million copies had been printed and sold., Pro.e Literature: Aside from religious and linguis·tic work&---of which .. great number were written and printed in the dialects-vcry little prose literature appeared during the Spanish .period in anything except the Spanish language . Most of what did appear was utilitariansuch as textbooks, books of home medicine and . health, law hooka, commercial and agricultural books, and the like. Only a mere handfu\. of novels, books of eseays, etc., appeared during the last two or three decadEs of tho Spanish regime. Of prose literature in Spanish a vast amount appeared, and of great variety-as one may discover by consulting any good Philippine bibllog$Lpl\y-l>ut only a small proportion of it was written by Filip'nos. Some Filipino wri ti ngs (surh as Rizal's novels, etc.) were printed in forei",n lands, and denied entry into the Islands. However, a good many copies were smuggle.; in. The real period of liilipino secular prOBe writing ~ with the Amerioan regime. , (7) THE REPRESENTATIVE ARTS (Usuall)' Known As ''The Fine Art.") Sculpture, drawing, and painting were not well developed among Filipinos during th& Snaoish period--except as applied to religious subJect.... Some of the sculptu1'E6 and paintings made by Filipinos for the churches, and for religious shrine.; in private homes, have real artistic merit-although the great mlUority aTe of crude or ordinary quality. Some fine pieces were rarved or nainted by unknown artists-and only .. few worthy names have come down to us. In architecture and sculpture, the beautiful St. Ignatius Church-one of the greatest attractions in the Walled City prior to the war-was built and carved in the 'lS70. bv Fell" Roxas and Isa""lo Tamoirurco. BVENING NEWS

Roxas also desir.ned and built a number of other fine buildings and private homes between lS70 and· lSS5, besides serving as director of public w?rks for the City of Manila . Arcadio Arellano was anotber .noted lo-cal architeet of the late Spanish regime. Although not. a professlO."al, t he scu!ptures aud earvings of Dr. Jose Rizal have been Justly accla' med-an~ his bust <>f th'E> Atoneo profe.".,r, !Fr. querric.o, !os a w?rk ·of real ment. Painting: The two outstanding F,llpmo · pal~ters 'Yho made a name for themselves in Europe during the late Spamsh pellod' w..!'re of course Juan Luna and Felix R . Hidalgo-both of whom produc~ work that commanded the respect and praise of their contempo:":,,,, and WIll always be a credit to the Philippines as their land of. natlVlty . .However, their work was almost wholly in European style, and they pamted few Philippine sul>jects or scenes. Fabian de la Rosa .bridged. the. gap ~e­ tween the old and new-and: ushered in the AmerICan perIod m wh""h t he Amorsolos and others became bright and shining sta:-o. . .. Other artists of the late Spanish period, however, did, w?rk th!'t ,. ",'ell worthy of mention . Rafael Enriquez, Jose Ma .. AsunCIOn, Miguel Zaragosa, Lorenzo Guerrero, Lorenzo Rocha, and F~llpe Roxas all p~o­ duced a number of excellent paintings and portraIts-many of which were of purely Philippine subjects. Still earlier painters, whos: work was chiefly in t he religious field or in portraits were Jose, Antomo, and Hilarion Asuncion, Antonio Ma1ar.tic, and Damian AI~houg~ their work seems rather flat and lifeless to modern reahs:t'c artists, It had its own artistic characteristics and quality of exprosslOll;Drawing, Engraving, s.nd Other FOmtB o~ Repres~"qon.-: Many Filipinos bave shown special aptitude at ~'T~W1ng, eng~aVlng, fm: pe~­ manship, and other similar forms of .artlstlc e,,!,r~sslon, MeleCIo F1gueroa engraved some excellent medals m the last th lTd of the 19th centuryl-while many good drawi ngs of native I~fe. and scenes w~re made by unknown Filipino artists for SpanISh penodlcals such as La llustracion Filipina" and others. . . From T omas Pinpin do",,", FiliDinos were the chIef craftsmen m both Spanish anfl native printing estabJi.o;hm~nts. Eve.n in the 17th and lSth centuries many books wera no t prmted but Illustrated' by. them; and the fine iSth century copper-plate engravings by Nicolas Cruz de Bagay and others are superior pieces of workmanship. In the late Spanish period, some excellett!; satiric and hUmorous drawings were t ne worl< of Filipino.;.--although s uch dT8winltS reached their peak of artistic merit in the early American period, with the a ppearance of such illustrated periodicals as " Lipang Kalabaw", etc. Fine penmanship was c\l"racteristk tllroughout most of the Spanish period, and the lSth and 19th century wo,'k of some professional Filipino scribES is egual to that produced in any other country. The photograpblic art, so important today, was s till rath~r primitive at the end of the Spanish regime; lrut some interesting photographic re. cords of the 1890s have come oown t o us. (S.) MORO AND PAGAN ART DURING THE SPA N[SB PERIOD. As indicated at t he beginning of this Chapter, Moro Art developed 50me interesting new phases during the centuries of Snanish dominatiod in the centrai and northern Philippines-but the art of the pag a n peoples was affected very little, except in ::;oma a reas of intimate contact. -Some of the special of Lanao Moro art and design were discus.ed, in 1933 in a seTies of articles by A. V. H . Har tendorp in the "Phili ppine Maga~in." (and s ome selected illustrations fro m t hose 'l1.rticles appear on tht last page of the p rEsent chap ter ). Other excellent oxamples of Moroand pagan art app.ued at a 'still earlier period in tb.e old uPhilippine Craftsman.." As Mr. Harte!ldor p has p ointed out, there is g reat originali t y in the L.9.nao decorative art-not only in the elaborately carved houses, boats mlla.-;:cul instruments, etc., but also in their textiles, jewelr y, weapons' and many other articlea. And, while exhibiting some kiru;ilip wit'> Moh~mmedan art .Isewhere, many of these designs appear to be purely local de*lopmen.t-s during the past two or ~h~e centuries . ... While La nao r a nks high ir. this r espect, It IS not t he only PhIlipPIne Morb area I " ~"hibit such originality. I n Colabato; Basilan, and Sulu, new phase. of Mora art have some into being during the Spanish period in the Philippines. Metal worki ng and weap ons wer e highly developed in Cotabato, textiles and body ornament in Basllan; while in Sulu, carving atnd sculpture and a varjety of other arts re~ched a .high ~tate ?f perfectio n. Beautifully illuminated manuscTlpts lD ArabIC scnp,t stili existed in the 19th century, both in Sulu and Cotabato, but were m ostly destroyrd by the various wars du ri ng the past 60 years . Finely sculp: ured .lone tombs still exist in S 'butu Is land . . . . . Mixed cultures: While thE're has been but httle ChTlshan and Moro mixture, in some special areas Christian and pagan (or Mohammedan and pagan) culture h ave become blended in curious ways. In northern Luzon both in Abra and in parts of the Cagayan valley, some strange ChrlStia.n-pagan culture mixtures occur; while in Mindanao, Christianpagan mixture is notable in Bukidnon, and ?tlaro-pagan mixture in Davao, part~ of Cotabato, and the Z!lmboanga P eninsula. (See illustrations.) • CONCLUSION Despite the strong penetration of European and Spanish-American culture traitB in the central and northern Philippines, and the p enetration of Mohammedan and Indo-Malayan culture traits into Mindanao and Sulu there has been considerable growth of a true Filipino art and culture during the more t han three centuries of Spanish contact. This new culture presented .f eatures of diUerence, both from that of preSpanish times and fIT om t he imported elements. '{'he degree of n e.w culture development, however, manifeste d itself much more st~ongly m some arts than in others, and uniformity of progress .h as still to be allfained. The general effect of the American period has . been. to aholish past restraints, and t o give g reater freedom of independent development in all art and culture phases. Wi th the dawn of complete political fre~­ dom, we should Bee stiH fu rther " Filipinization" along t lines. We should be ever on guard, however, against the most serious defect of nat ionalism-the tendency to regard everything na tive as good, and everybhing f oreign as bad. Such a policy can lead only to deterioration, and should be constantly curbed . The growth of the true F.ilipino culture of t oday has resulted from a blending of the best elemedB tha.t have come to us from both Eastern and Western lands-and it is only by maintaining and holding fast to that culture balance that we can reach our true destiny and remain ~ distinctive and permanently visible spot in world culture and civiliza tion. tH.



PAGE 111


320 Carved narra cbest from Cew

(18th century).

322 Carved pan el of the 18th cen t ury ; f rom another old house s1m11ar to 321.


Carved hardwood panel over doorway of old wooden and bamboo house in Naga, Camarines Sur.



323 Sixteenth century clay pipe, exca vated In Ma-n1Ia. (a t tbe old Bacnmba yan site) . 324 Elaborately carve<! and painted chair, made In 1702 at Vlnt ar,



Norte. (Perhar-s t ile seat of a. governor or encomendero?)

A earved bamboo .nantel ornament dated 1870.

PAGE 112

326 Ca.rved hardwood table, ~howlng Chinese Influence In desl",. (From the Pardo de Tavera. CaUection.) 327 Inlaid hardwood ca.blnet from Central Luzon (18th or early 19th century) .

(Note: FIgure. 324-327 a.bove are reproduction. from Vol. IV of the "Encyetoped1a of the PhlIlpplnes," by perml..lon of Zollo M. Galang.)


. -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ P_BU_,I..P-JPlNE COSTUMES AT THE BEGIN .~ ,,:f OF "::BE SPANlSBP r.E.R.I.O.. D_ _ _ __


328 Rajab Ma1.anda. King Sapa (now Sa.nta




Rajah Lakandula, King ot Tondo.

330 Wlte of lbe Rajah of Ma. nil... (These three figures redrawn by Belen Benton from original pencil sketches made the late Spanish period by Jose Ma. Asuncion.)

costumes from Ne&T05 and Panay In the late 16th or beginning 17th century. (Redrawn by Manuel M. Santla~o from 331.331.333 Vlsayan ortginal oketehes by Jo,. Maria. Asuncion, based on the book ot Francisco Deza written at lIo&,. Nelffos, In 1678.)







AGE 114

(about 1700) ;


(about 1720);

336 (..bout 1730);


(aboot 1750):



(from 1859) .

(about 1840);

(These six figures all laken from old records and repainted In tempora by P1la.r S . GramoNe, In 1935.)


COSTUMES OF THE LATE SPANlSH PERIOD (19th century, latter half)

of the mid340 ,Gobernadorc\llo dle 19th century (c. 1850).

. 341

~43 l\1anlla mestlzas 01 the ~ 1870s. From Alfred l\1arehe.)

~42 A well-dressed oouple on a

The normal feminine costume about 1860.

344 I\fourn\ng costume at the end of the 19th century.


Sunday In 1890. (These three (igures taken from old records and repainted In tempora by Pilar S. Gramonte, In 1935.)

345 Costume .

(Photo from Charles E. Griffith.)


of the transition from late Spanish to the early American period. (From Pilar Gramonte, fig. 29.)

347 A simple 19th century

native house In I\1asbate interesting wooden panel under the windows). PAGE

r - - - - - - -- - -- - -- - - - - - -- -

350 BIkoI h ouse, the windows.

8ho~ interesting- panels of turned balusters under


Interesting house-type from Dapa, Slarg-ao Island. Surigao; with _ a l stairway, and Interesting ridgepole and g-able ornaments.

352 and 353 Two interesting house-types from Zambales Proviilce. (Nole: The "Sap" will eontaln additional pictures U1ustratlng "FUlplno An and Culture durin," the Spanish Period".)

\pAGE 118










50 'fEARS


356 Sa1l1na-craU and be6ch on a windy day, between Tabaco and Le-

357 double WeD-made sailboat with outriggers, Manila

paP!, A1bM'.



Lal'ge Sulu " saplt," witb. elaborately carved cabin and s tern. PAGE 117


Sculptured facade 362 Mlagao Church.

of the Doilo.

363 R.zal. ~ch

(From "Phil. Magazine".)

365 Ancient chnrch at Pa.oa.y,

Dpcos Nort.,; with Immense buttresses

against ea.rthquakes.

century ''Moro'' 367 Eighteenth tower ...t Duma.guete, Negroe; with top of tower rebuilt In Ia.te 19th century. (Photo by Jose l\fa.rco.) PAGE 118

tower a.t Morong,

364 Old

church a.nd tower a.t Tumaulnl, Isa.bela. (From "PblJJppine Magazine".)

366 Paoay tower and church from the front.

368 Seventeenth century brick church, with IItta.ched 19th century "con-

vento"; of a. type found In several parta of Lacuna and Ba.ta.npl.


369 G .....t stalrw&y IUld church &t Santa Man&, I1ocos Sur.

- 370 Old cburch at Lukb&n . T&yab&. (Quezon) ; w it b Im&ges of S&\nts displ&yed .

Tbe "Holy Child of Cebu" In full . reg&1la; oldest Church ~e In the Philippines.


Longest stalrwa.y In Lozon; connecting the two churches at T&al. 372 8&tang&5. (See typical old wa.JIs of the lower churchYard, In foregroun".)

373 Old church of a type found In the Blkol area; wltb "convento" attaehed. 'NING


374 The great stone

....chwa.y at the entrance of Pagsanjan. Lago,!" (with Chinese lion on top). PAGE 119


375 In$erior of the church at Dumalag-. Capiz h o.mee (as it appeared at the end of the Spa.n.lsh regime).

377 Wall of the old Spanish perloll (showing Chinese intIuence).

cemetery at Nag-carlan. Lag-una

379 Gateway anll ,,'un, of Lbe old S panish fortress in Cebu (one of tbe ea.rUest in tbe Pl:.illppines).

rAGE 120

378 Interior FraTÂ¥lia

stairway of the mansion at lPa&"sanjan, Laguna. (late Spanish period).

310 a..arly SpanISh lorn...... typical of several in the Central Philippines. I'JIILIPPINE BAG '




Palntln&" entitled: "The Beg"""," by FellJ: Resurreceion Hidalgo when only 18 yean old.

382 Palntln&" of a skeet scene in Antipolo, by Felipe R'oxas, 1885. (From


the S. GarcilO Rons Collection.)

(Pi ..... 3St-384 IU\d 385-38' are jl'eproduced from lVoL !IV pf Ithe .. Entyd of th e Philippine.'·. by perm.ise:lon 04 Zoilo M. Galarur. \


Sculptured head of Father . Guerrico, an Ateneo profes'SOr; by Jose Kizal.

384 wood-carvin&" "Josephine BfIOCken," a by Dr. Jose KIzIOI.

383 pines Spain cu1d1ng the Philipon the dUficuIt of pro&Te8S, by Juan Luna.

385 plna Palntlna' entitled "A FiliBeant)' of Yesterday," b)'


Resurreoolon. HldIOIgo.

(From the FeUpe K . lIldalgo CoI-



387 . atAn hls old FUipino wood-carver work. PAGE



388 Agoldcollection of old Manila jewelry, mostly from the middle Spanish period. (Reproduced from the "Terno Magazine," by permission of Mrs. Mina Roa.)


389 the Old Cebu gold ear-ring of late 18th or early 19th century.

390 rosary Old Manila gold-fUagree and pendant. (From the same source as Fig. 388.)


a nd Front and b...,k views of an interesting middle 19th century carved clay pipe, from Abr.. Province: collected in the 18705 by Juan Alva rez Guerra.

Large goblet of "Manila Ware," made in San Pedro Mabti In the 17th century. (Thlo lo the only known whole specimen of thLs ware; found by the late Dr. T . H. Pardo de Tavera in Cebu in the late 19th century.)


395 and 396 Two in394 mounted An 18th

century .Uverusalakot" from the Cag.ayan Valley. (The 17 SJJQ.nloh sUver pesos ..round the rim were ..u dated In the 18th century. The specimen, formerly in the National Museum, WI\S destroyed during the war.) PAGE 122 '

teresting carved bla<lk clay pipes from Bohol Province: 19th century types. small clay cup 397 Inter-estlng of Cebli red-painted pot"(Pl,,,. :194-397 are from dr.a'Win ... by M •• 'Fluet M. Santiap.)

tery : probably of early or middle 19th century wor)IInanahlp.




the "Cariiiosa." (Figs. 398-399 are reproduced 399 Dancing from T. d el Castillo's "Philippine Literature" .)

Magindanao "kullntaiigan" <Cotabato Province), forming part of a primUive Moro "pm.Ian" orchestra plaYing at wedding feast.



. i'




elaborate!)' carved and painted body. (From a be "PbWppine Man&ine".)

403 Bagobo musicians of Oa.vao Provinoe; Gowing an inter-

esting mixture of I\loro and Pa.g:pl art. In the beadwork clothing and tbe Ion .. "Moro" guitar b'ift Im~ as "kudlon". PAGE 123



Carved hardwood headpiece, on a woman's at Slmonol Island.

407 Ba.djao houseboat at Sitangkal Island, occupied by two famUles.

(The Badjaos are the "Sea GypSies" of Borneo and the southern Philippines.)

408 Women's graves a.t South Ublan.

409 Beautiful carved and painted marker on a BadJao man's grave at . Sitangkal. .

410 411 412

Eight painted 01' dyed designs from Lana<> umbrel• • las, ha.ndkerchlef., etc. (From llarte'nclorp's a.rtlcle on "La.nao Art" in the "Philippine Maga.zine".)



414 Ca.rved

and painted deslrn over the house. (From Bartendorp.)





415 The feudal civilization described In the

~wo preceding chapters, so richly and variously compounded of Asian, European, and American elemen ts, had a brief reprieve after the uneasy truce of BIak-na-Ba~. Ou~wardly Flllplnos and Spaniards slipped back Into the old cus~ms bu~ a~ bottom neither had much fal~h In ea<lh other's pledges. In his exile In Hongkong Aguinaldo cashed a Spanish draft of 400,000 pesos and &et aside the m oney to finance another uprlslnc If the Spaniards failed ~ institute the promised reforms which already the forces of reaction were denying or obstructing In ~bnlJa .

416 ~lnaldo'. pa................ and political vision, however, were

not shared by aU .... -....lens In e"lIe, whom he had organized InIG a Junta. One of a.e. ......... a share of the Spanish payment as back-pay for his aervIee In .... W - t Insurgent government. To avoid court aotlon, Agulnal" . . . . . . . . 11ft for Slnppore where he would be outside the Jurlsdlctlca ., tile .......... courts.


at Singapore that caught up again with Aguinaldo. 417 ItWarwasseemed ImmInent between the United States and Spain and the American consul there. In his desire ~ gain a powerful ally for his country In the event of hostillties. gave the FIlipino leader an unauthorized assurance that the United Slales would support PhIllpplnlf Independenoe If Aculnaldo returned ~ renew the revolution. PAGE 125

418 Meantime the internal situation in the Philippines Ivas beeoming as propitious for a new uprlsin," as the international crisis. Discontent spread once more as the S paniards failed to fulfill the pact of Blak-na-Bato. In April 1898 about six thousand Filipinos sUddenly attaoked the Spanish forces in Cebu.

Sot\'.. II .. ,

1'f{ t'SllJE!1 T

McKINLEV ANI) Cep""~ .

' ,.:,0.

IH~ by

j ...... ~c

C'\UI ~ E'" I"~I" "~'"

!>«. 'h,dICOdl

s.. •.

K ....

1', )I.\Ato. :.'.....!.

I X J.\XU .\f{\·. ")00



In the same fateful month the Spanish-American war was deelared. Conscious of her weakness. Spain had desperately tried to avoid the conmet. But a demand from Prt1lldent William McKinley. shown above with his cabinet. for the withdrawal of Spain from Cuba proved impossible to aceept. Upon the outbreak of h ost ilities ~he United States immediately made preparations to throw the Spaniards out of Cuba. But the first battle of the war was not to be t"light there but In Manila bay. The pictures and tables on the opposite pare describe the oPPoslnr forces In that h.istoric enrarement which was to affeet the destiny of the FUlplnos so deelslvely. PAGE 126














Pro«cUd cruUcr. Pro<cca:d cruUcr. Protected cruiser. Protected cnWcr. 5...1 gunboot. Sted gunboo~



5,870 .......00 3,200 3,200 .,700 890

34-0 321.6 300 210.3 230 '76

+00 +00 350 350 250 J SO

Four 8-in., fen S-in., fourteen 6-poundcn, six .-poundcn. Four 8-in., six 6-in., four 6-poundas, two 3-pounden, two r-pounden. One 6-in., ten s-m., eight 6-pounden, four J-pounden. Two 8-in., lix 6- in., two 6-pounden, two 3-pounden, two r-pounden.. Six 6-in., two 6-pounden, two 3-pounden, onc I-pounder. Four 6-in., two 3- pounden, three I-pounders.








T_I ,~·

Reina CriJtina..

Steel cruiser,

3,51 0




Wooden cruiser.



300 130 ' 30

Don Antonio de Ulloa.. Iron crui~. Iron cruiser.

1, ' 30

21 0

J , 13 0

21 0


Iron cruiser.

Steel . loop.


21 0

lala de Luzon. !ria de Cuba.

Steel cruiser.

General Lez.o.

Gun vessc.l. Gun vase!. Dctpatch vard.

Don Juan de Awtria.

Elane. Marques del Ducro. J~.

de Miodanao.


Auxiliary cruUcT. StC'C:l cruilCf. Torpedo gunboot.

T .... ttxpcdo boob.

1 ,03 0 1,0 3 0

5 2+ 52+ 500 +,195 3'5 3'5


113 160



157 ·5

97 116 98

'57·5 '57·5 37 6 .5 '55


60 60

Six 6.2-in. (Hontoria), two 2.1 -in., dutt 2.2-in. rapid-6ring, cwo 1.5-10., six 3-pounden, two machine. Four S.9- in . (Krupp), two +.1 -in., two 3.3 -in., four 2.9-in., eight rapid_ firing, two machine. Four +.7-in . (H ontoria), two 2.1-in., two rapid-firing, five machine. Four ....7-in. (Honloria), three 2.2-il1'. rapid- firin g, two 1.s- in., five machine. T hree: S.9-in . +-ton (Amutrong), two 2.7-in. (Hontoria}, two machine. Four ....1-in. (Hontoria), one ...6-pounder rapid-firing, two 3-poundcn, two machine. Four +.1-in . (Honlon a), one ...6- pounder rapid-firing, two 3- poundcn, two machine. Two +.7 in. (Hontoria), one 3'S- in ., two rapid-firing, onc machine. Three: 4-.7-in. (Honlon a), two rapid-firing, two nuchinc. One 6.2- in . muule-loading riAcs (palliKT), two .... 7-ln. smooth-bores, oDe machine. Two 2.2-in . rapid-firing, thrtt macrune. Two 2 . 2-ln , rapid-firin g. two machine.










PAGE 1211

420 F ew naval battles have been as decisive ,as Dewey's victory over Montojo. The remarkable engagement during which the Americans calmly annihilated the Spaniards without the loss of a single man set the pa.ce for the entire war. It made American superiority unquestionable and. from the lst of I\lay 1898, It was clear that Spain would lose the war. .


With only the bumin&' hulks of the Spanish nee! left of any hostile forces In Manila. bay the victorious Dewey could afford to land In Ilyle in the Spanish naval base at Cavlte. The Photo&,raphs above show him going for a ride as well a. the wreckage of the ships he sank. Dewey'l squadron. however. ruled only the waves. Manila Its~1f was well fortified and the American bluejackets did not feel stronlr enoulrh to atlack a .ld lalle It. j>AGE 128


isolated by Dewey's naval victory and without hope of reinforcements, the Spaniards belatedly tried to turn tbe Filipinos from active 422 Completely enemies to allies. Once a-gain reforms were promised and even partially instituted: fenlent appeals were made to the Filipinos' religious a nd cultural loyalties; but it was already too late. The Spanish overtures were rejected.

423 Aculnaldo returned In time to resume leadershIp of the Filipinos at Ihls junclure. He had hurried back to Hongkong but had missed Dewey Ihere. So, afler selUlng the back-pay claim out of court for 10,000 pesos he Invested the remainder of the Spanish draft in arms and ammunition and procreded to Manila where Dewey awaited him.


424 To the American admiral, forced to remain idly at anchor within sight of tbe enemy capital because of the lack of an army, Aguinaldo was a godsend. He temporized on the Filipino (lemand for confirll)ation of the Singapore consul's pledge while encouraging Aguinaldo to muster a new army against the Spanla.rds . PAGE 129

425 Unused to diplomatic evasion and ambiguity, Aguinaldo remained confident that the Americans would support PhUipplne independence and prompt. ly set out t o win It from Spain. He quickly organized a revolutionary force and proclaimed himself dictator. promising a constitution once the entir e country was freed.

426 ferent Dewey "Ire JIC11lna1tl.o 82 captured Spanish l'Itte. bat the FIlIpln. . 1UID&' the _ UId _IUlUIoll ehIetly tabla from S~ ID difquIeldy captured connol of LIIHIl and larroanded MaDlla.. ThIa ovenrhelmlDa' _ _ eDoouracecl Al'alDal4o to 0I'IUI1Ie II revolu0Dly


tIoaar7 l'OVorDIIIaIIi OD the 23rd 01 JUDe III " Pl'OCIamalioD $bat ~ to " declaratlGll 01 IDdepeadeDoe. PAGE 130


427 Prac tically the only s izeable Spanish Core. left in the Philippines was the garrison

of about 15.000 in Manil â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ a ty pical unit of which. the 3td Company. Casino Corps, Svanlsh Volunteers, is shown above. The Governor-General a nd Ca.p1ain-Ge n el'a l fcornnla nder-in -chief) was Don Ba.sili o Augustin . s hown above. who was succeeded by Don Fennin Jaudenes. '

428 Conquero", of the Spanish army were the 10.000 Filipinos under Aguinaldo. who in one month had taken control of Luzon and laid down the siege of ManUn. Dewey would have been helpless without them and they sa.ved the Americans the trouble of fighting their own wa r with Spain in t h e Phlllppines , But the revolution ..ry army. one of those IInits in the siege of Manill, is shown a bove together with Diclator- Pl'esident Aguina ldo. was fight not for- America but for the new nation.

PAGE 131

431 The Spanish position was hopeless and Jaudenes, througb tbe Belgian consul, intimated to the Americans that be would put up only a

token resistance if the Filipinos were kept out of the city_ The Americans kept tbeir part of tbls bargain, which cheated the Filipinos of their singlebanded conquest of Luzon. for wben tbe Americans finally a ttacked Manila on the 13th of August they detailed their rearguard to keep the Filipinos out. Tbe pictures abo,'e sbow units of tbe Colorado regiment moving along tbe beacb and through grass toward Manlla_

The main advance was a long' the sbores of l\lanlla bay and It met almost no resistance. The Americans. like the Nebraska regiment shown above. 432 marched tunnatJon â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ little was the da nger. Indeed the sporadic clashes between FIlipinos a nd Americans. barblnger. or future full-scale IT.


conflict, were a. greater threat to Merritt's plans. An open encounter was avoided only because or Aguinaldo'. PAGE 13%




Amid the uncertatnt)' that foH.;)wed the fall of Manila and the S))3nish¡Ame..-ican armistice, the Filipinos ha~tcned to orga.nize an htdc .......nden t. government which might secure recognition at the peace conference. The photo above s hows troops of the Republic drawn up i.n front 01 thl' church or Barasoain near 1\1alolos, Bulatan, a.w ailing the arrival of President Aguinaldo on the 15th of September 1898.

434 The contemporary

photo above shows the arrival of Aguinaldo who had left behind in I\'fanita. an explosive situation of increasing tension with the Americans in order to open the Congress a.t Barasoain. The Congress wa-s designed t.o be not only the ar('hite('t of the Republic but a lso ~In open demonstration of the Filipino aspirations and capa~ities lor i.ndependence.


That the grea.t masses of the Filipinos truly desired independence was proved by their enthusiastic a.pprova.l of such a pa triotic speeches as that delivered by Felipe Buencamino. l'hoto above shows the crowd that listened to his address. Considering the difficulties of communication and the compara.tive Isolation of B3rasoain. the size of the crowd, while not comparaule with those tha.t have gathered on similar occasions in our days, W!.iS e:otl'aordlnary for tho," limes.




T he Congress was opened by Aguina ldo amid a solemn simplicity. shown by photo above. There were eighty-five delegMes, among them the IOb"', l

436 leaders of the li"iUp inos. A foreign observer said of thes e m en : "They conduct.ed themselves with great decorum and s ho",'ed a knowl cd l{e of dc ba

l. '

and parliamentary law tha t would n ot compa re unfa vora bly with other parliamenLfiO". ~-----------~----------------------------.

437 T h e Cons titution of the Philippines was Congress' first serious task.

Two parties de ve loped in th e discussions of the draft whic h were to con t inue in substantiall y the sam e fo rm throu ghout the s hort life of the R epublic. One party was led by Apolinario Mabini, A!:'l1ina ldo's closest a dviser, who is cred ited with havin g drafted the young- dicta tor's orders and ma n ifest oes. He offer ed Congress a ctr art of his own for the Con s titu tion.

f AGE l3(

438 A rival dra ft was submitted by Pedro Ale jandro Paterno. the peace-

maker of Biak-na-Bato, who was cho. en president of the Congress. Paterno, a pollshed and dlstinguis h ecl scion of wealth. had aspired to a Spanish .pa tent of nobility ; he was a grut compromiser and was the natural counlerfoil to Mabinl. the s tron l:'-willed intransi"ent who had work~d his way through Ia.w school.


439 The final draft of the Constitution was the work of neither Mabini

nor Paterno but of Felipe Calderon who distilleCl the best provisions of man y Cons titutions In Europe and America. The most bitterly debated provis ion was t.he separation of Church and State ; separation won by only one vole which the cast to break a dea[llock. The Constitution was a model of the 31:"e.

440 All classes of the popula ti on

ra llied to the Constit ution, whi ch w a~ passed by Congress on the 29tl1 of November . a pproved by the PresIdent on the 23rd of December. a nd promulgated on New Year's Da.y 1899. Even the Inodest Filipino woma n pledged h er open support, foremost among tbem Aguinaldo's wife shown a bove a.n horseback.






But the fate of the RepubUc depended not so much on Congress and the Constitution as on its generals and diplomats. Before the President could even approve the Constit.ution. the news was received that Spain baA sold the Filipinos to America. in Paris while in l\fa nila itself daily friotion between FWpino and American troops boded UI for the futUre. More and more It beeame apparent that independence rC3ted on the sboulders of ¡ the ;,ollD& mea of .rm, ab"wn above. the &"enerals of the

PAGE 135

442 While preparing for war, the Filipinos at the same time exhausted the peaceful m ethods of diplomacy. Felipe Agollcillo was thl> Republic's envoy t o Paris wh ere he unsuccessfully tried to plead the cause of Philippine independence before the peace commission. "The Filipinos," he warned, "will not permit themselves or theil' homes to be bought and sold like mercha,ndise."



\ ' ':00:, ~




444 The treaty uf l'aris, a

443 Another Philippine envoy was l\'lariano Ponce who was sent to Japan

to negotiate Japanese support for Philippine independence. The Japanese showed interest in the situation but their own international troubles prevented them from doing much. They allowed the shipment of arms and a few milita< ry advisers. Phjlippine diploltcu.y. untrained aud unsupported, accomplished little.

"( ~

facsimile of which is shown above le ft , spdlcd tht. doom of Philippine independence. With the pa.yment of 20 million dollar!' the United States in settlement of Span ish claims, shown in photo above right. the Spaniards ceded what thcy no lonorer had 10 Ihe American â&#x20AC;˘. The tra nsfer of sovereignty was purely theoretica l on both s ides; the Filipinos hac1 already recaptured their own sovereig nt y from the Spaniards and wouid clefend it 10 the biUer end against the !\mcrican s. Thus lhe Paris tl'caiy of the 10th or December 1898 marked the end of peace in the I'hilipplnes rVf?'n as it sig-na lled the bp,lfinning of peaf'e for S "ain and the United SLates. \\'a r belwctn Filipinos anc1 J\mcrica ns was now ~nly a matter ,,1 tim..-..-Iess than l\\O month."'C. PIIILIPPINE SAGA /pAGE 138 b~'





,aM whUe the FWpinos hastened to buUd their Republic in peace 445 inEvenMalolos, WtV closed in upon them in Manila where" new AmerIcan commander-in-chlef, Major Gener,,1 Elwell S. Otis, disturbed by the FUlpino forces slatloned in the suburbs or the eapilal, sent Agu.lna.ldo a demand on the 8th of September th"t "If your troops are not withdrawn beyond the nne of city defenses, within one week, I wW force you to move and my government. shaU h~ld you responsible."

F !:

446 The Filipinos, already

smarting under the terms of the Spanish c&pitula.tion which had denied them entrance into Manila proper, were angered by this new demand to evacuate even the suburbs. A minor clash resulted and Aguinaldo gave orders to sland fast. Genera l Pia del Pilar fortified Paco and Panda can. His lines in Pandacan were just across the river from Mal&ca.iian and from his quarters Otis could see for himself the evidence of Filipino defiance.

447 But Gener&! CaWes,. FWplno commander in the south, reported th"t his soldiers had no bullets, no supplies. Aguinaldo therefore was compelled to .end a commission to Otis to negotiate. When the American commander &greed to change his "demand" to a "request," the FUipinos a.greed to wIthdraw a.nd they marched out in style while the Americans presented a'¡ms. But General del Pilar remained in Paco and Pandacan whlch had not been Included in the terms or the SpanJsh capitulation. EVENING NEW8

PAGE 137



Frictio'l cuation. of the city of on the

between the two armies continued despite the partial evaAn extended controversy developed as to the boundaries Manila and in this tense atmosphere the Americans rea lert, like the Utah volunteer b;l.ttery shown above.

450 The Filipino

forces also kept themselves in readiness for any eventuality. The soldiers. such as t.hose shown above, were ilJ·al"med and ill· equipped but. they were filled with patriotic enthusiasm and could count on the support of the population.

- -- - - - -- - -


In this equivocal situation tocldents were bound to develop. The

most. serious occurred when General Thomas H. Anderson, American commander to the south. was arrested at a Filipino outpost, such as that above. and stopped from proceed in • .on an inspection trip . At another point of contact, an American sentry shot. a Filipino captain.

PAGE 138

452 The actual contemporary photograph of an outpost incident shown

above illustrates the small begtonings of the war. But the Isolated outpost disputes could not lead to outright hostUities untU the treaty of Paris and the refusal of the Americans to recognize PhUlpplne Independence made war incvltable.


On \.he night of the 4th of February 1899 Private Willie Grayson of Ne6rasKa. regiment stood guard on San Juan bridge. His orders were to "aUow no insurgent to enter the vicinity." Shortly before 8 p.m . Grayson and two other men a.dvanced on patrol into the village ahead. They saw four armed men appear in front of them. Grayson yelled "Halt!" The Filipino answered with bis own "~to! " Grayson shot him . Then another American caned I\liller shot a second Filipino a.nd Gray~on killed a third. Genera.l firing developed thereafter. The Filipino-American war bad begun .


., IIIaaIIa developed on two fronts. It started in the northern sector under General Arthur MacArthur to which fighting was confined bad broken out by accident: neither side was p;epared; and the engagement was confused. With s uperior fire-power, howpicture above. the Americans were able to repel the scattered Filipino attacks and to take the offensive themout of the line of old Spanish blockhouses and taking \.he waterworks at Sa.n Juan and La Lorna hill. PAGE 139

455 In Anderson's southern sector, held for the Filipinos by <lei Pilar, action did not start until the morning of the 5th when

the Americans drove into Pandacan, Santa Ana, and Paco. The photograph above shows the fighting at Paco where only 100 Filipinos, entrenched in the church, held t he Americans at bay for one afternoon and were not dislodged until the church had been destroyed and most of the house in the district burnt. The Americans afterward claimed that they had lost only 59 killed and 278 wounded in the entire bat.tle.

456 Although Otis believed that the situation tn the southern ..ector was under American control. on the north side of the city the line was much

longer. The photograJlh above show.. flghtln.; in the town of Caloocan, which contained an important maintenance plant for the railroad . Althou,h MacArthur's division advanced its lett flank, stubborn resistance from the Filipinos, as evidenced by the photograph on Ih" rlrM of a dead Insurrent, slowed them down. The Wltl' had only bel:':n; It would last much longer than Otis or any American expected. J'AGE 140



457 The commanding general of the American forces \vas Major General Elwell S. Otis, a 61-year-oid lawyer with a gallant Civil War record who reUcved Merritt shortly before ~he outbrp.ak of hostilities. Conscientious rrnd meticulous to the extreme, Otis was afterward severely critic'zNi because his alleged over-caution and inability to delegate authority upset thc American time-tablc for thc oooupation of the Philippines, delaying It beyond all expectations.

458 No man could ha.,fe been a more complete contrast with Otis than

his antagQnist. the fierce impetuous General Antonio Luna, the Republic's minister of war. to whom Aguinaldo yielded the supreme conl¡ mand of the army on the field . Like his brother, the classic painter Juan Luna, General Luna had s tudied and agitated in Europe. Nol"d for his blazing courage and UD('ontrollable temper, the Doeano fencing-master was one of the leaders of the war party.

459 Luna lnunedlately took the offensive. Anticlpalins the strategy of tbe "fifth column" by half a century: he ordered the revolutionary organization inside ManUa to start fires and in tbe eWiuing confusion to faU upon I.he Americans in coordination with an advance from the Filipino lines outoIde the cllY. This bold plan tailed be<:ause the Am'ric"",s captured a copy of the Instructions. But even with all their precautions, they came very olose to defeat w~ huge tires razed Santa Cruz, Tondo, and Binondo, wbile 500 Filipin05 unde.. Luna's a.ide, Major Francisco Roman, slashed tbelr way into

the oily. The torce enlrencbed Itself in Tondo and (ought to the dcatb. Tbe phGt<>graphs above show (lop) the ruins of Tondo after I¡he battle and lbelow) other of the destruction wrought.



PAGE 141











11~ APRIL 1e.99

460 The Kepublic lost t he initiative a fter the fa ilw'e or Roman's galia.nt sort¡ie. Thereafter the Americ!.ns t<>ok the offensive and

never again relinquished it. North of M anila. the zone commander, General Art,h ur MacArthur (above, right), set l\1alolos, the Republic's capital, as his first objective. B ut MacArthur was after more than jus t a town. He planned to outflanl, Luna and to surround and capturc the entire army uf the Republic. The m.ap (a.h o\re. left) summa rizes a ll th e c~mpai,!ns north of l\laniJa in the first s tage of' the war bef4?re the rainy season enforced a temporary lull.


The battles of Manila and Calooean led ilic American commanders to .believe that the FUiplno s'lldler, "me of whom i. shown above as pictured by a contempor2rY American artist, was no match tor the American in open warfare. This was due to the unfamiliarity of the Filipino with the use of the rifle and other modem weapons of war; the FUipino was used to fighting with his bolo; at close quarters and with naked steel, he was unequalled ; but he was neither trained nor equipped for modern war.

PAGE 142

462 But the Filipinos had a powerful ally In nature. The Americans 800n found that tlrelr carefully prepared Illans had not taken jUll&'le and rain Into consideration. There were no roads and the outflankln&' column. s hown above crossinII' the Tullahan river, WIlS delayed by difficulties of transportation. It failed to surround Luna's army. MacArthur w .... forced to content himself wlt.h a s low advance northward toward Maloloo agaln..t an elusive enemy that anticipated the modem "defense In depth."





round. Luna l~sued orders to use "scorched earth" tactics. When MacArthur took MaJolos, the town was in. flam es .. T he contem~

463 :::.:~ Ph!to~Ph pictures tbe Republican capital as the Americans found it. They ente~ without ~pPosition after. a 25-m.mute artlllo::~:e~:;~ CoIoneJ' Frederick Funston, one of the first. to advance into the town. fOWld the convent OCCUPied by Agumaldo as a residence fla.m es. JJ1

:l.bout. a. dozen snipers.



464 Ou. onIued MacArthur to stop at Malolos and l.he American troops engaged ill the characterls1.ic past~times of armies everywhere : t.he contemporary American sketches above show tht"IU "libf"or'ating" such souvenirs as Aguinaldo's mirror and bed. MacArthur afterwnrd proceed toward San Fernando. Another column led by Ma.jor G<>ueral Henry \V. Lawt.on. the ca.mpaign's outstanding leader, simultaneously smashed through Bulacan and Nueva. EclJa, (see map, opposIte pa.gc) toward the new capita l a~ San Isidro. After taking it, Lawton was ordered by Otis to return. CIrcling the Cand s"'amp, he made contaot with Ma.oArthur's forces a.t Arayat. The oautious Otis thereupon abandoned aU the conquered territory north of a line between San Fernauclo and Ba.lluac, wbleh he held during tbe ensuing rainy season.


PAGE 143











"..... ... ......'


~ TO







/ 465 M eantime the American zone south of Manila h a d a lso witnessed considerable


, /...., " , .......-. '


activit y under Anderson and Brig-adier Genera l Lloyd Wheaton

(above left). The American advan ces h owever h ad few tan gible r esults because Otis a lways ordered his field comma nders to return a fter a successful "tour." The first of these was conducted by W h eaton who open ed the r iver down to P asl::-. A second a mphibious a ttack was led by t h e dashing Lawton who crossed the Laguna de Bay at Santa Cruz.

466 The overland campaigns were much more s trenuous due to the IIsual difficulties of

communication. A two-prol\&'ed attack designed to tnp Plo del ptIa.r in the Morong peninsula fafled to encircle the Filipino general The photograph a bove pictures a short enragement In the hills near Paslg. Lawton also handled the first thrus t toward Cavlte. Althourh once again the flanking American movement faUed to encircle the FlUpinos at las PIfias, Lawton advaru:ed steadily, although with considerable opposition. especially at ZapOte bridge. Otis' caution, however, enabled the armies of the RepubUc under General Trtas t o . eform a nd a second C"vlte campaign had to be undertaken by Brigadier General Theodore Schwann. Thu.o ended '\be firs t stage of the F ilipino-American wa r. Dewey had estlm .. ted that only 5,000 Americans would be needed. By the start of the rainy sen90ll in 1899, there were 34,661 troops in t he P hilippines and Congress wa... being forced to raise more reenforcement. wblcb raised Otis' str"ngth to 56,000 by March 1900. PAGE 144


.. ' f

rapid and irresistible was the American advance in the north that, toward the end of the first stage of the campaign, the Republic sued for a. 467 So IS-day armistice. The Americans refused to grant it but allowed a commission headed by Colonel Arguelles to enter Ma nila for negotiations. Ar,;ueUes, who Is shown In the contemporary drawin, above meeting General MacArthur, ,ave such a convincing report of American strength that lllablni's war cabinet feU In San Isidro and a Dew peace cabinet was formed under Paterno.

468 Luna bitterly opposed the change of polley.

When the new ca.blnet sent a second commission to IIlanl1a, he Intercepted It at Cabanatuan, arrested Deleaates Buencamlno and Arguelles, and sent his own men to confer with Otis. The negotla.t1ons were fruitless. But Luna had shown his hand and, to forestall a coup d'etat on his part, he W&a assassinated in Cabanatuan. Aguinaldo resumed command of the Republican army and lrumedla.tely launched a fuU-_1e attack aplnst San Fernando. The thrust was repelled.


PAGE 145

469 l\leantime,. at the end of t h e rains, Otis was preparing for the second stage of the American campa.ign. His strategy called for an advance by MacArthur which was to be eoordinated with a gigant ic flanking movement by La.wton in the east and a landing under Wheaton at . Llngayen in order to trap the en tire army of the Republic (see map on last page). Lawton, shown above with his staff watching the effoot of American artiUery, can-led t h e brunt of the offensive.

470 The Republican fot¡.,.". pthered thW"JlSelves for a last desperate effort al Otis' grand plan went Into operation. All the contempo....ry photographs and drawings above shOW, the FUlpinos built hure mah-traps, wrecked transport trains, and took every ...... lbl" advantage of natural fodlfications In r iver, swamp, and jungle. But American equipment and organization kept the offensive going at a s teady paee. PAGE a e l'nlUp .. INE SAGA

Wben Lawton's bard-driving column neared northern Luzon, Wbeaton's unU effec~ Its scheduled landing in Panpsinan, ca.tchlng tbe .Republican army in the rear. The photoJ;raphs above show American gunboats bombarding San Fabian preparatory to tbe landing and an AmerIcan Gatling run on the beacb. It seemed tha.t Aguinaldo was doomed.


r----- - - - - - - -- - - . - .. -. - -

472 But In....plJeabb Wbeaton faDed to move from San Fabian. Riding hard

wltb his sick wife and a small bodyguard, Aguinaldo manaced to slip lI,roa.b the American enclrdement at Poaorrublo whloh Lawton's cavalry entered onlT a Cew hours aCter tbe Republican President had left. Wheaton', InaO&lvlu th"" all_ed Aculnaldo to eseape. But the masa oC tbe ' Republican Corees was trapped.' EVENING, NEW!! PAGE 141



473 The map above, like the In the

precedln~ chapter, was prepared exclusively for this series from ofllclal records. It details the American In the Philippines for the first time In local chronicles, which have so far treated It in eeneral terms. On the Z3n1 of November, after the completion of the MacArthur-La.wton- Wheaton three-pronged otf~nslve diagrammed above, MaoArthur wired Otis: "The so-called FUlplno Republic is destroyed. The congress has dissolved. The President of the so-called Republic Is a fu~ltlve as are all his cabinet officers, except one who Is in our hands. The army itself as an organization h.'lS disappeared." But, before f1Jght, A~ulnaldo and hb ~enerab had agreed to switch to perrilla tactics. Ma.cArthur did not know It bllt the third and hardest stalre of the campal~n ha.d only Just bepn. Far from belne destroyed, the Republic had only Irone underground and its arml.,;, whirh ha' "dlsappearw" before MacArthur's eyes, would return, flehtlne with the arms and the ladles suited to their Irenlus and necessities, to piape Ihe victorious American Irenerals and kill the Irreatest of them all, tbe dashing Lawton. campai~

PAGE 148


474 The bI'ttle of Tirad Pass was probably the

last field encounter between the Filipinos and the Amerie&DS. R idtn g h ard a fter Aguinaldo, & battalion under Major March had been pulled up at the pass by the Presidential Guard under 22-year-old Genera l Gregor io del Pilar. The figb t wa.s long and bitter; It ended only when the Americans outflanked the Filipino barricade and annilillated the Guard. By modern standards it was not much more thall a sklrmi!oh. But for the Filipinos it will always be surrounded with the halo of a ¡ national tragedy f or here, at a rocky barricade thrown across a lonely trail, the First Republic, fighting at the end with sticks and stones, was finally laid low. No m ore a ppealing symbol for tha t shcrt-Ih'ed Republic, embodiment of a people's unspoiled bopes and brave illusions, can be found than the young commander of the guard who r ode his white horse with quixotio gallantry under enemy fire to di c fcr a cause already lost.

475 Del Pilar's stand saved Aguinaldo, who


had been resting a.t Cervantes: 15 miles from Tjrad Pass. Thereafter the Americans los t ('ontact. with the fugitive President and the war entered its thil"d and last stage of guerriJIa w arfare. The Filipinos kept up an undergoround g overnment a.nd army throurhout Luzon that had the Americans chasing up and down the Island with greater losses than ever before (see contemporary drawing above). So effective was the merrWa warfare that American casualties were doUbled and the stren gth of tbc army of occupation had to be raised to '0.000 . Lawton himself was killed bJ ruerrlllas near San Mateo. . F.VENING NEWS PAGE 149

477 Aguinaldo feU through treubery and deeelt. One 01 his couriers was betrayed

by a pro-American mayor. On hi. pers, n the Americans lound coded instructions to Baldomero Aguinaldo to send a lorce 01 400 men to the President's hideout In Pnlawan. After a Spaniard bad helped to break the tipher, Funston disgu ised 80 Tagalog-s peaking Ma.cabebes as soldiers of the Republic. The lorce was taken aboard the "Vicksburg" to Caslguran and thence marched overland to PaJanan. The Maca.bebes, Kreeted (ormaUy by the Presidential Guard, opened fire on them without warning while they were presenting arms. Aguinaldo W&S then caught by the Spanish spy. . PAGE 160 PHJLIPPINE SAGA

him aides on :\ piaz· AcutnaJdo was insbUed by l\1acArthur in a spactous house near Ma~caiian. T h e contem~rary p h 0 tograp h above shows . d a with eace proclamation. za in the palace. After studying the situation Aguinaldo was convlDced that further reslSta·nce was futile an~ he. ';"Sue p im ortance on "Enough of blood. enouih of tears and desolation," he said in pa.rt. Within a comparatively short LIme almost ever) F illpmo leader of p Luzon sllrrendered. The war was over. American sovereignty wa.s supreme.


479 Even

whUe hostilities were gOing on. and precisely In an err()rt to cut them sbort. the Americans had announced a program of civil rights a nd and liberties for the Filipinos. In 1899 the First Philippine Commission. shown In top photogra ph ab()ve. had issued a proclamation on the alms of the United States in the Philippines. A Second Phiilppine C()mmlssi()n. whose members '11'e shown In the bottom photographs above (from left. Wright. Moses. Taft. Ide. and Wor.... ter),·1I &,overnment nnd n uotable experiment in colonial administration and democratic Ind()ctrlnation.


PAGE 111

480 Acting- under Ihe histor ic " lnstl'uction s" of President William McKinley.

the Commission. and laler the flrsl Civil Governor. William H. Taft. fostered the g-rowth of those democratic institutions. which indeed had inspired the First Republic from the start. Local offlcl8,ls wcre chosen from amon g the FilipillOS: men like the town mayor pictured taking his of office in the contemporary drawing above. a.ssurecl 3 mass base tor democracy .


Positions of the hlg-hest responsibility were also opened to FUipinos ; Filipinos became members of the Commi.. lon. the leg-Islatlvc orl'an. ' and of the Supreme Court. the hlg-hest Judicial org-an. The first Filipino Justices are shown above taking- their oath of otfice. Hut Filipino nationalism had never died; men whose wisdom. patriotism. and Integ-rlty were unquestioned were branded collaborators tor acreptlng office ullder the Americans, It was not until the passagc of many years that these early collaborators were vindicated and honored as prophets who toresaw th,,1 Filipino nationalIsm would draw strenglh from the new institutions and that Filipinos and Americ"n•. lately such irreconcilable enemies. would grow 10 b~~ome fast friends and loyal alltes in the pursuit of their common ideals . THE END Ad'nowled r em~nt .. ,nlftull1 fllIHIf" In IbC' IHre(lor ... ut 1I11l1f ,,' Iht NUllo".' Llbr lu ·, ,,,' helS! Ih ,b. prepJuallcul .. , Ih •

PAOE 15t

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Philippine saga : a pictorial history of the archipelago since time began  

Philippine saga : a pictorial history of the archipelago since time began