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A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO SPORT SPECIFIC TRAINING

VOLUME 2 • ISSUE 3 • JULY 2016

HOW TO SCREEN

FOR POTENTIAL INJURIES Chinese Champion

ZIJUN LI

trains with Figure Skater Bootcamp

GRACIE GOLD WHERE HER STRENGTH COMES FROM www.figureskaterfitnessmag.com

OVERTRAINING

WHAT EVERY ATHLETE NEEDS TO KNOW

BEFORE YOU BUY NEW BOOTS EXPERT ADVICE

SLEEP

A NEW OUTLOOK TO YOUR TRAINING PLAN


FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

EDITORS LETTER

MAGAZINE

THANK YOU TO EVERYONE WHO HAS CONTRIBUTED TO FIGURE SKATER FITNESS!

• makes skating smoother • improves feel and stability • increases agility and speed

Ad 1 Edea Skates Ad

The new anti-shock system reduced impact shocks, the major cause of overuse skating injuries.

PUBLISHER/EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Signe Ronka CREATIVE DIRECTOR Dawn Drummond-Hill CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER Angela Ronka CONTRIBUTING PHOTOGRAPHERS Christian Bonin Stephan Potopnyk Danielle Earl Carly Gold WRITERS Valentina Campanelli, Ph.D. Patty Cranston Matthew Crawley Hugo Chouinard Charlene Bailey Ricky Boudreau Meghan Buttle Rebekah Dixon Dr. Judy Goss Margot Lattanzi Nick Littelhales Kristen Piché Cheryl Richardson Signe Ronka Adam Schumacher Dr. Bryon Weinberg DESIGN/LAYOUT Envinion

WELCOME TO OFF­-SEASON TRAINING TIME!

It’s time to start picking up the pace with strength & conditioning training. Off­-Season is the best time to do cardio training, resistance training with light load and flexibility training. It is the time of year when skaters really need to think about what areas need most focus in order to prevent injuries. This issue covers great topics such as selecting proper equipment and understanding right fit with boots. Our fitness section is packed with amazing exercises for leg strength and conditioning exercises. We have a new topic on sleep presented in this issue, for skaters, coaches and parents to start thinking about how sleep patterns affect performance. I was particularly excited about this issue because we had the absolute pleasure of interviewing Gracie Gold on her fitness routines. She is a lovely, down to earth young lady. She even shared with us her favourite easy recipe to make! I had the opportunity to be at the 2016 World Championships to watch the ladies event. Gracie stood out with her presence, and focus. I hope you enjoy our off­-season issue! Let’s start resetting next seasons goals, getting into summer mode and having some fun in the sun!

Cheers! Signe

Visit us at www.figureskaterfitnessmag.com

Available in March

www.edeaskates.com

Figure Skater Fitness is published four times a year by Figure Skater Bootcamp Inc., 33 Villiers St. Suite 202, Toronto, ON, M5A 1A9. Copyright 2015 by Figure Skater Bootcamp Inc. All rights reserved. Nothing appearing in Figure Skater Fitness may be reprinted, either wholly or in part, without the written consent of the publisher. Email address must accompany all submissions and no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited submissions. All email content, photos, manuscripts, sent to Figure Skater Fitness will be considered as intended for publication and Figure Skater Fitness reserves the right to edit and/or comment. Figure Skater Bootcamp Inc. reserves the right to reject any advertising at its discretion. Advertising office phone: (416) 419 3837. The publisher accepts no responsibility for any harm or injuries incurred by practicing the activities suggested in the publication. PRINTED IN CANADA

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

WRITERS CORNER

TRAIN THE MIND

INJURY PREVENTION

Rebekah Dixon MSc, CPC Mind­Body Performance Coach

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ebekah Dixon is a Mind­Body Performance Coach who empowers skaters with the skills to improve their mental game and achieve peak athletic performance. As a former junior ladies competitor, coach, and choreographer she has a thorough knowledge of figure skating that allows her to tailor her coaching services to the unique needs of young skaters. Using her education in Developmental Psychology,

NLP, Time Line TherapyTM and Hypnotherapy, and certification as a Life Coach, she created the Mind­Body Performance Coaching Program, offered privately and in groups. She has worked with skaters in Canada, Sweden, USA and Australia. You can find out more about Rebekah’coaching programs at rebekahdixon.ca or email her at mindbodyperform@gmail.com.

Valentina Campanelli, Ph.D.

Dr. Judy Goss

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r. Judy Goss is a Mental Performance Consultant that has been working in Toronto for over last 20 years. She is currently a Mental Performance Consultant at the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario where she has worked since 1999. She works on the Integrated Support Teams with Figure Skating, Trampoline, Beach Volleyball and Wheelchair Basketball. Judy provides mental skills training, program management and leadership, and research development for these sports. Judy received her masters’ degree from University of North Texas and PhD from the University Maryland in Sport Psychology. She is a Certified Consul-

tant, Association for Applied of Sport Psychology, a member of the United States Olympic Committee’s Sport Psychology Registry and an associate member of the American Association for Marriage Family Therapy. Judy sits on the Managing Council of the Canadian Sport Psychology Association. Judy has written numerous articles and her interests are focused on hardiness, burnout, team effectiveness and peak performance. She believes in the holistic development of high performance athletes and endeavors to provide them with the skills to be well rounded high functioning individuals on and off the field of play.

FITNESS INSIDER Signe Ronka, CSCS, PTS, BA, NCCP 3

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igne is a certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist through the National Strength & Conditioning Association. She is also a certified Personal Trainer Specialist. Signe has an honours Bachelor of Arts degree from University of Toronto (Trinity College), where she specialized in psychology, political science and bioethics. Signe is a former National and International level competitor and certified NCCP level 3 National Competitive Coach. She is the founder of

Figure Skater Bootcamp Inc. and Figure Skater Fitness Magazine. Signe has worked with Olympic/World level figure skaters, teaching them the importance of fitness training and sport specific training. She also travels internationally hosting Figure Skater Bootcamp workshops. www.flexafit.com info@flexafit.com

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risten is a certified Skate Canada figure skating coach and an athletic goal coach. She graduated with a B.A. Honors in English Studies and a B.Ed in the Primary/Junior division at York University and was a primary classroom teacher for two years. Kristen was a competitive gymnast before switching to figure skating. She attained her gold tests in Freeskate, Skills, and Dance as well as

her Senior Competitive Pair test and competed nationally in Pair Skating. Her background in athletics and having goal coached several athletes at varying levels influenced her to create and be the founder of www.kristenpiche.com, Carve Your Path, with the mission of inspiring athletes to overcome the psychological and emotional challenges that come with being in a competitive sport.

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egistered Physiotherapist Adjunct Lecturer, University of Toronto – Department of Physical Therapy Meghan graduated from the University of Toronto in 2005 with a Masters of Science degree in Physical Therapy. Meghan has been practicing at The Sports Medicine Specialists in Toronto, Ontario for over 10 years where she has numerous figure skaters on her caseload from the recreational level up to the World and Olympic level. Meghan is part of the Integrated Support Team with Skate Canada and has covered various National and International events

in Figure Skating, Gymnastics, Tennis and Hockey. She has been involved with skating for over 25 years as a competitor, coach and now physiotherapist and thus has an extremely high knowledge about the sport as well as the injuries sustained by these athletes. Since graduation, Meghan has completed her Advanced Diploma in Manipulative Therapy (FCAMPT), her Sport Physiotherapy Diploma and also obtained certifications in Acupuncture and Intramuscular Stimulation (Gunn IMS).

SKATERS CORNER

Matthew Crawley

Margot Lattanzi

Head Sports Performance Coach at IMPACT Sports Performance

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injuries in ice figure skaters, and performed biomechanical testing of new skate designs. She is currently developing new tools for the assessment of the performance of figure skaters. Valentina is herself a passionate amateur skater, particularly fascinated by the science that is behind this sport. She believes that by understanding the laws of physics and motion dynamics present in this sport, skaters and coaches can learn how to observe, analyze, and correct errors in performance.

Meghan Buttle, MSc.PT, BSc.KIN, FCAMPT, CGIMS, Sport Diploma (SPD)

Kristen Piche

NUTRITION INSIDER

att is the Head Sports Performance Coach at IMPACT Sports Performance located inside HARBORCENTER, Buffalo, NY. HARBORCENTER is the only three­rink complex in the NHL and will be the host of the 2015 camp & 2016 NHL Combine. Matt is the former Head Strength and Conditioning Coach for Men’s Basketball at Webber International University, FL. Previously, Coach Crawley served as a Performance Center Coach at the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)

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alentina is a researcher at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of California, Davis. She received her Bachelor and Masters of Science in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Bologna (Italy), and pursued her doctorate degree at the University of Verona (Italy). During her doctoral studies Valentina designed and performed different research projects on figure skating injuries and performance: she investigated the factors that are correlated with an increased risk of developing overuse

Headquarters in 2013. He has extensive experience working in the private sector with youth, high school, college, professional, tactical, and Olympic athletes. Coach Crawley holds a Master of Science degree in Health and Human Performance from Canisius College, currently enrolled in a second Master of Science in Applied Sports Nutrition at Canisius College, USA Track & Field Level 1, and is certified as a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist with Distinction® (CSCS*D®) through the NSCA.

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argot is currently studying to become a Naturopathic Doctor at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine and has a Hons Bachelor of Science in Nutritional Sciences and Human Biology from the University of Toronto. She has been a Skate Canada certified figure skating coach since 2007 and currently coaches at various clubs in Toronto.

Having been involved for many years as both a competitor and a coach, Margot can appreciate the number of factors involved in order to perform your best on the ice. Studying naturopathic medicine has allowed her to combine her love of sport with her passion for healthy living! Follow her health and wellness blog at www.wholeandholistic.com.

GLAMOUR Charlene Bailey

Ricky Boudreau­

Hugo Chouinard

Nick Littelhales

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edefining sleep in elite sport Nick Littlehales an International elite sports sleeping recovery coach, is regarded as a leading industry expert with over 30 years’ experience in the world of sleep, sleeping habits and sleeping product design. Over 16 years dedicated to elite athletes & elite organisations in world sport, founder of the unique R90 Recovery Technique. As a former aspiring professional golfer, International Sales & Elite Marketing Director of the global Slumberland Group and Chairman of the UK Sleep Council, Nick has conducted many practical and clinical research projects into the varied sleeping habits adopted by the modern day sleeper and athlete. His unique, passionate and

proven approach, is endorsed by leading sport science professionals, managers, coaches in sport and business. Clients include: British Cycling & ParaCycling Teams ­Real Madrid C.F ­Manchester City FC ­The Netherlands Bobsled Squad Sochi 2014 – Team GB – Team Sky The Sky Professional Cycling Team­Manchester United FC – Southampton FC ­Arsenal FC ­Chelsea FC ­ The FA &England Squad ­UK Athletics – The Royal Yachting Association RYA ­The Rugby Players Association RPA –The Rugby Football Leagues RFL ­The Rugby Football Union & England Squad – Yorkshire County CrickeClub London 2012 & Rio 2016 Olympic Games. sportsleepcoach.com - Redefining sleep in elite sport info@sportsleepcoach.co.u

Dr. Bryon Weinberg BA, DC, CSCS, Acu., ART®

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hiropractor, High Point Wellness Centre Co-director of Athletic Movement Assessment Inc. Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist Medical Acupuncture Provider Active Release Techniques Provider Dr. Bryon Weinberg is a graduate of the University of Hawaii where he attended on a tennis scholarship, and the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. In addition, he is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist and co-founder of Athletic Movement Assessment (AMA). As a chiropractor specializing in sports performance at

High Point Wellness Centre, Dr. Weinberg has been able to help athletes from all different sports achieve their goals through treatment, rehabilitation, and pre-habilitation programs. Dr. Weinberg has worked with numerous amateur and professional athletes, including former top 10 world ranked tennis player Maria Kirilenko, many Toronto Argonaut players, and North American Boxing Association champion Stephan Boyd. Please check out highpointclinic.com and athleticmovementassessment.com for more information.

IN THE SPOTLIGHT Founder of Studio Unisons a.k.a Sk8mix.com in 1993 Former Member of the Canadian National Team in Ice dance Working for the beginner to World Champions Collaborated with 55 athletes from 14 countries who competed at the 2016 Worlds in Boston

Cheryl Richardson Cheryl Richardson is a Level 3 Choreographer and Coach residing in Toronto, Canada. She currently coaches at the Scarboro Figure Skating Club and the Granite Club.

Patty Cranston With over 35 years of skating experience, Patty Cranston isa figure skating champion, coach and choreographer and the author of bestselling children’s book Magic on Ice. Off the ice, she is a marathon runner, yogi and hiking enthusiast with a keen interest and expertise in all areas of health and wellness, including

nutrition, fitness and stress management. She lives in Toronto, where she is a devoted wife, proud mother and grandmother. You will still find Cranston on the ice enthusiastically passing on the art of ‘beautiful skating’ to the next generation.

Make Up Artist

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fter retiring from competitive skating, Ricky enjoyed a very successful show skating career. In 2004, Ricky became a makeup artist, working with M.A.C cosmetics. Ricky’s body of work includes the Opening Ceremonies of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games and many Fashion runway shows including D2Squared, Oscar de la Renta, Greta Constantine and Marchesa. He has also worked abroad at New York Fashion Week doing shows for Badgley Mischka, Nanette Lepore, Tim Coppins, MM6 Maison

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Martin Margiela and Jeremy Scott. He has created competition makeup looks for both Joannie Rochette and Miki Ando. He has worked with multiple celebrities and public figures such as Dame Shirley Bassey, Deborah Cox, Chantal Kreviazuk, Shawn Mendes, Kreesha Turner, Kristine W., Platinum Blonde, Jacob Hoggard, Jessi Cruickshank and Dan Levy.

FIGURESKATERFITNESS JULY 2016

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former competitive singles and pairs skater, Charlene is the founding owner and Director Creative of her own design company based in Toronto, Canada. Specializing in competition wear for skaters, she also consults with athletes to establish an overall ‘look’ tailored to each of their individual performances. Since officially launching her business, Charlene has worked to develop garments for skaters’ very first competitions right up to pieces for World and

Olympic competitors. Bringing aspects of haute­couture to the ice, believing that every garment should make a statement and have a red carpet feel. Charlene also holds a double major in Kinesiology & Exercise Science and Health & Society and is a registered Skate Canada coach. charlenekbailey.com @charlenekbailey (insta & Twitter) www.facebook.com/charlenekbailey

Adam Schumacher My name is Adam Schumacher and I have the skate solutions in my store The Skate Shop @RIM Park in Waterloo, Ontario. I have been helping skater for over 18 years to find the proper skates and been able to solve their fitting issues from working closely with the

figureskaterfitnessmag.com

great people who design and build these amazing skates. Please go to www.theskateshop.ca to contact me if you need help or have questions, I am here to get the best skates for you to help you become the dedicated performer.

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

TABLE OF CONTENTS FITNESS INSIDER

FITNESS INSIDER WORKOUTS PAGE 10 ZIJUN LI TRAINS WITH FIGURE SKATER BOOTCAMP CONDITIONING WORKOUTS + LOWER BODY WORKOUT

IN THE SPOTLIGHT PAGE 14 SHAPING UP-IN THE STUDIO, IN THE GYM AND ALONG THE BEACH: GRACIE GOLD’S OFF-ICE ROUTINE

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PAGE 8 IF YOU’RE NOT ASSESSING YOU’RE GUESSING PAGE 9 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ENERGY DEFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE IN FEMALE ATHLETES INJURY PREVENTION PAGE 20 OVERTRAINING: TOO MUCH TRAINING CAN BE DETRIMENTAL PAGE 22 REDEFINING SLEEP IN SPORT PAGE 24 WHAT MAKES A SUCCESSFUL JUMP?

NUTRITION PAGE 30 NUTRITION & TRAINING: WHAT TO EAT AND WHEN PAGE 31 GRACIE GOLD RECIPE PAGE 32 PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS GLAMOUR PAGE 35 MICHELLE LONG: A UNIQUE JOURNEY PAGE 36 A NIGHT TO REMEMBER PAGE 38 A ROYAL LOOK SKATERS CORNER PAGE 40 MEASURING SUCCESS PAGE 41 SKATE FITTING 101 PAGE 42 TIPS ON MUSIC SELECTION PAGE 43 GETTING NEW BOOTS

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

FITNESS INSIDER

IF YOU’RE NOT ASSESSING YOU’RE GUESSING BY: DR. BRYON WEINBERG

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an you squat? Can you single leg squat? Can you lunge? Can you press up? Can you hip hinge? Now, can you perform these complex movements with proper form? These movements require prerequisite motor control (muscle control), coordination, tissue compliance, and adequate joint range of motion, which should be attained before hitting the ice. If the skater does not possess these attributes, then the execution of various techniques on and off ice may be compromised. The skater may still be able to perform the techniques asked of them, but at what cost? Most athletes that lack or do not possess the required physical attributes to perform a certain task will still find a way to accomplish what is asked of them. Athletes are the best “cheaters” or “compensators” with regards to how they can achieve a certain movement or perform a certain task under

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rigid circumstances. Through these compensations, the athlete may be putting more stress on their body then they need to and may ultimately be decreasing their performance output. Our bodies are robust enough to adapt to the stress most of the time, but it may be the performance that suffers. So, how can you tell if you have the required control, coordination, and compliance in order to decrease the odds of compensating and maximize your athletic ability? One way is to break down movements in order to find out if the athlete possesses the prerequisite ranges with adequate control. In other words, assess the athlete.

Assessments, such as Athletic Movement Assessment (AMA), will profile the athlete’s movement while putting the skater through sport specific movement patterns. The AMA system will help guide the coach, strength coach, and athlete if some sort of intervention is needed, such as, mobility work, motor control exercises, advanced exercise regimes, or in some cases therapeutic intervention. Performing a movement assessment on the athlete allows for an individualized physical program to be created based off of the assessment findings, ie. individualized warm-up or individualized strength and conditioning program. Not every athlete should be foam rolling, stretching, and mobilizing the same body parts, or even doing these techniques to begin with. The only way to know what part of the body needs work is through a thorough movement assessment. This will allow for a specific path for the athlete to go down, as oppose to just doing random exercises for the sake of doing an exercise. More and more athletes are developing a customized approach to their sport according to their strengths, weaknesses and compensatory patterns. Performing random exercises for the sake of doing an exercise is old thinking. Certain movements have been shown to increase risk for injury, so if these movements are identifiable, then they can be assessed for, and can be addressed reducing the risk of injury. Assess and address the movement patterns, ie. the elements that make up the skill. The goal of this approach is to improve the skater’s movement efficiency. This process takes commitment and is dependent on the athlete’s ability to retain new movement patterns and build on them. The athletic assessment will help better guide this process. If you’re not assessing, you’re guessing.

THE CORRELATION

BETWEEN ENERGY DEFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE IN FEMALE ATHLETES

BY: KRISTEN PICHÉ

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n athlete’s optimal performance is achieved with a great amount of energy output. This means that nutrient intake is a key factor in an athlete’s energy availability (EA). Low EA can compromise sport performance as well as the overall health of athletes and is a growing concern in competitive sports, particularly for female athletes. The International Olympic Committee published a consensus statement in 2005 on the female athlete Triad pointing to three major elements of low EA including disordered eating, menstrual irregularities, and a decreased bone mineral density (BMD). More recently a statement was released in 2014 about Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) expanding on the Triad to describe a “clinical status that results from energy deficiency affecting numerous aspects of physiological health and psychological health” (36). Understanding the fundamentals of both can improve the health of female athletes.

The amount of daily energy differs for every athlete and depends on factors such as duration and intensity of training. Essentially, EA is “dietary energy (kilocalorie) intake minus the energy used to support basal energy needs— thermoregulation, cellular maintenance, respiration, and immunity—as well as locomotion, thermic effect of food and growth” (36). The first component of the female athlete Triad condition involves disordered eating and eating disorders. It indicates that disordered eating is a temporary change in eating behaviours, however, if an athlete displaying these irregularities is not educated on the required caloric intake, they can adapt to having a clinical eating disorder. Both can be detrimental to an athlete’s health and well-being. The second part of the Triad consists of menstrual dysfunction, including a delayed menarche, short infrequent menses, or the absence of menstruation, which can lead to a negative impact on bone health. The third element of the Triad concerns BMD, one aspect of bone strength. Low BMD

can increase the risk of stress fracture and may be caused by an absence of menstruation. Similar to the Triad, RED-S principal issue is that energy intake isn’t supporting the energy output. The difference is that it includes other variables that a low EA could negatively affect, such as psychological patterns. In order to help prevent the Triad or RED-S, screenings should “occur at annual health examinations, and when an athlete has other problems such as a stress fracture, recurring illness or injury, a decrease in physical performance, severe weight loss, or [absence of menstruation]” (36). Ultimately, the best way to identify the Triad or RED-S is for the coaches and training professionals to work with a support team that includes a physician, Sports Registered Dietitian, and psychologist. Conclusively, coaches and trainers should engage in ongoing education surrounding the warning signs and guidelines to protect the health of the athletes.

Melinda W. Valliant. The Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency In Sport: Knowledge of Both Can Improve the Health of Female Athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal: The Professional Journal of The National Strength and Conditioning Association 38: 35­39, 2016.

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

FITNESS INSIDER WORKOUTS

Half Turn Hurdle Hop

Single Leg Hurdle Hop

Set up 6­-10 hurdles about 2 feet apart. Start facing the hurdle. Hop over the hurdle half a turn facing the opposite direction. Hop to forwards and repeat for the next 6-­10 hurdles. Repeat 3-­4 times.

Set up 6­-10 hurdles about 2 feet apart. Start facing the hurdle on one foot. Hop over the hurdle on one foot. Repeat for the next 6­-10 hurdles, then switch feet. Repeat 3­-4 times on each foot.

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WORKOUTS

ZIJUN LI

TRAINS WITH FIGURE SKATER BOOTCAMP

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ijun Li is the 2016 Chinese National Champion and finished top 10 at the World Championships in Boston. While in Toronto, Zijun trains with Signe Ronka at Figure Skater Bootcamp, where they work on taking Zijun’s off ice training to the next level. Zijun demonstrates some of her favourite conditioning drills and lower body strength exercises.

CONDITIONING

S T U O K R O W

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Half Turn Lateral Hurdle Hop 4

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Set up 6­-10 hurdles about 2 feet apart. Start facing lateral or parallel to the hurdle. Hop over the hurdle half a turn to face the opposite direction. Continue the pattern jumping over 6­-10 hurdles. Repeat the exercise 3-­4 times.

Lateral hurdle hop Set up 6-­10 hurdles about 2 feet apart. Start facing lateral or parallel to the hurdle. Hop over the hurdle facing the same direction all the way through the 6­-10 hurdles. Repeat the exercise facing the same direction coming back to the start to get the other side. Repeat 3-­4 times.

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tip If you want to make it more challenging, add a medicine ball for extra weight.

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

FITNESS INSIDER WORKOUTS

Hamstring Curls

Bulgarian Split Squat

Lying on your back, place your calves on the exercise ball. Lift your hips off the ground with the hands placed on the floor next to you. Initiate the movement by pulling the heels towards the hips, while maintaining the hips in an elevated position. Extend the legs back to the starting point and repeat. Do 2-­3 sets of 15 reps.

Place one foot on a 12” box, with the other leg straight in front. To add difficulty, you can hold a weight in each hand. Begin the movement by bending in the front knee to 90 degrees, keeping the weight distributed equally to the center. Repeat 15 reps on each leg for 2­-3 sets.

Step Ups Step on a box 12”­18” height holding a set of weights. As you step up on the box, make sure to initiate the movement from the leg on the box, with as little push off the ground as possible. Do 15-­20 reps on each leg for 2­-3 sets.

LOWER BODY WORKOUT

One Leg Squat on Bosu This exercise is more advanced and designed for skaters who have already mastered a perfect one leg squat on the floor as well as balancing on one leg on a bosu. Do not attempt this exercise without a certified trainer. Start by standing on one leg on the Bosu.

Squat Jumps

Find your balance before going down into the one leg squat. Repeat this exercise for 10 reps on each leg 2-­3 sets.

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Start standing holding a set of weights with the feet slightly wider than hip distance apart, toes slightly turned out. Begin the movement by bending the knees and pushing the weight back into the hips, while maintaining a neutral spine. As you reach just about 90 degrees, explosively jump into the air and land back into the squat position. Repeat 10­-15 reps for 2-­3 sets.

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

SHAPING UP In the studio, in the gym and along the beach – Gracie Gold’s off-ice routine

GRACIE’S THOUGHTS ON HER FITNESS ROUTINE My routine is adaptable and specific to the needs of my body. When I feel the need for a low impact sweat session, I go to a hot yoga class or take a sauna.

BY: PATTY CRANSTON

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eigning US Women’s Champion and 2014 Olympic Team Event Bronze Medalist Gracie Gold, is a highly conditioned athlete. She knows that being uber-fit is a prerequisite if she wants to compete amongst the world’s best skaters.

When I need to go deep, nothing less than a high intensity session with my trainer will do. And if I want to clear my head, I go for a run.

GETTING IN SHAPE MOTIVATION

GRACIE’S HACKS ON PUSHING THROUGH Despite possessing a steely discipline, elite athletes are not robots. Some days the struggle feels greater than the will. Gracie knows how it feels when muscles ache and fatigue overwhelms. But she also knows there will be magic if she just shows up. Working out on difficult days is about compromise and managing expectations. Some days, especially on the road, I dread going to the gym and have little motivation to run on the treadmill. So instead of abandoning the workout, I adjust it. For instance, I can always set the treadmill on an incline and walk while holding small hand weights. Or I promise myself I will run just one mile instead of 3-4 miles.

My off-ice conditioning ramps up in June and July. By mid-summer I like to be fit enough to get through my programs. Then I can determine how well the elements fit. It’s – RUNNING 3-4 X /WEEK CYCLING important that I can skate&the programs as close to how I want to perform them at the I love taking early-morning runs along the end of the competitive season. ocean. They make me feel healthy and kickDecember is also a key month for off-ice start my day with a good flow. training; a fitness tune up before the final I amto also a fan ofand Soul-Cycle push Nationals Worlds. – spin classes set to music in a dark room. The workout is intense and inspirational. Unlike regular spin bikes, the bikes at Soul-Cycle have no odometers to indicate intensity or distance

CARDIO

Soul-Cycle isn’t about competition. An adjustment made to the dial signifies a goal you’ve set and an opportunity to test yourself. You can still tap into the group’s energy but the experience remains personal.

STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING

GRACIE’S NUMBER ONE WORKOUT HACK My playlist! I load my phone with motivating music which inspires me to get through challenging workouts.

3-4 X /WEEK These little adjustments change my mindset towards working out and get me to Twice-weekly sessions with her personal trainer help Gracie build strength while Bar Method classes lengthen and tone muscles. the starting line.

And for those days when she is stuck inside a hotel gym exercising on a cardio machine, Gracie downloads movie and TV favourites to watch on her iPad.

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Before she skates …

RECOVERY Gracie prefers active recovery rather than passive activities such as stretching. These are some of the ways she handles recovery: I. Foam rolling sessions (following skating) II. Sauna III. Ice baths – on rare occasions Gracie says an ice bath is an effective tool for aching muscles and joints. IV. A long walk after an intensive day of skating is a perfect recovery tool, she says.

As soon as I arrive at the rink I find a private spot where I can settle in and quiet the mind. It helps me find peace and inner calm.

I need a system I can maintain on and off the road – in season and out – because I don’t always have access to a kitchen or the time to cook meals. I take energy-dense snacks to the rink to munch on during the day that satisfy hunger but never make me so full that I can’t skate. While I try to eat clean most of the time, I allow myself a cheat meal once a week. I used to make excuses to avoid going out with friends to eat. But now I realize it’s important to socialize and enjoy a treat like frozen yogurt or a plate of sushi. It revs the metabolism and more importantly, being out with friends provides a break from the intensity of training.

OFF THE GRID: How do you relax?

Gracie’s typical meals & snacks: Smoothie made with frozen bananas. Yogurt – “It’s fast & packs a good amount of protein.” “I love all vegetables. Cooked or uncooked.” “For protein I eat a lot of eggs, and mostly fish and chicken.” Oatmeal in a ‘to-go’ container. Fresh fruit i.e., apple or banana slices & berries. Homemade protein muffins and bars. Luna bars, Larabar, GoMacro bars.

3. Slow & Steady wins the race Don’t expect instant improvement. Be patient and build up slowly. After a few weeks, you’ll wake up one morning and notice a difference; you’ll feel much more fit. 4. Make adjustments to your routine if necessary When a full workout seems unmanageable, lower the intensity. A thirtyminute walk always beats sitting at home on the couch.

Following this reflection, it feels like my heart has slowed down and a weight has lifted off my shoulders. I am ready to tackle the training day; to organize my notes, begin the warm-up and get on the ice.

MENTAL TRAINING

In season Gracie works with a sports psychologist once or twice a month. Here are her thoughts on handling the mental aspect of competitive life: Being able to perform at the crucial moment is a universal challenge for all athletes in all sports, despite age or level. Applying the lessons learned when most needed is the real work. Like all competitive athletes, I’ve struggled with consistency at various times – being able to go out and just skate. Nothing good ever comes from a mind that is racing 100 miles an hour; one that constantly reminds you: THIS is my moment! This is what the press will write Photo Credits: Carly Gold Danielle Earl Nike

Watching TV shows lets me leave my own reality and become invested in someone else’s life for a while. It’s a break from my regimented routine.

FIGURESKATERFITNESS JULY 2016

2. Stay active Try a variety of activities. If you enjoy what you’re doing you will develop exercise habits that can be sustained for the long-term.

I also ask myself the following questions: Why am I here? Why am I doing this? Why am I at this rink, at this moment? What joy can I pull from this?

Gracie is a voracious reader and also enjoys movies and TV shows.

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1. Focus on your overall fitness Make fitness your goal, not the number on a scale or workout stats.

I take stock of how my body feels. Am I holding tension? And if so, where? If there is any tightness, I make the necessary adjustment and relax that area.

NUTRITION Gracie once worked with a nutritionist but is more apt to apply the lessons learned and practice what works best for her.

GRACIE’S ADVICE TO YOUNG SKATERS:

Carving out a little quiet time before stepping on the ice gives Gracie the space needed to transition into her training day.

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and talk about. You just can’t go there. You have to learn to ignore the chatter and reassure yourself you are ready, that you have trained for this and you can do it. Other challenges like public speaking have taught me how to manage nerves and become comfortable on stage; to be able to perform despite the anxiety. When I am at a seminar or asked to deliver a speech, I review the material the night before. Then I leave it and vow not to think about it until I’m actually on stage. I have to constantly be aware of any negative self-talk. Otherwise I’d think only about what could go wrong. If this happens, I return my focus to the present moment and assure myself I am prepared.

5. Consistency – Avoid the tendency to overdo it The key to training is consistency. I may not workout every day but I have a fairly regular routine. When I feel overly energetic and want to push too hard, I harness that excess energy so I won’t overdo it. Otherwise I could easily crash the following day. In the end, working out becomes counterproductive if you are too exhausted to skate. 6. Ask yourself: “Why are you here?” This simple question will help you achieve clarity. Everyone has a why. It can be personal – you may want to keep your why just to yourself. Hopefully your why is because you want to skate and not a result of someone else’s motives. It’s not unusual if your reasons to skate change or evolve over the years. As long as your pursuit brings you joy at some level, that’s what matters. 7. Remember that it’s not wrong to hope So what are your hopes? Be clear, because what you hope for often comes true. FIGURESKATERFITNESS JULY 2016

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ABOUT THE WRITERS

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

INJURY PREVENTION

OVERTRAINING:

TOO MUCH TRAINING CAN BE DETRIMENTAL BY: MEGHAN BUTTLE MSC.PT, BSC.KIN, FCAMPT, CGIMS, SPD.

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A

s the start of the competitive season approaches, figure skaters will likely increase their training regime in order to be ready for the season and to peak for their goal competition. Training is important in order to reach an elite level and achieve the pinnacle of figure skating goals, however, is there such thing as training too much? The physical demands on athletes in sport have progressed over the years. Training frequency (how often), intensity (how hard) and duration (how long) have all increased and children are now specializing in a particular sport earlier than usual, especially in sports where athletes generally peak at a younger age like figure skating. The length of the competitive season is longer than in the past, thus, leaving little time for recovery in the off­season. The higher training intensities and increased demands on athletes in sport can lead athletes to devastating consequences known as overtraining syndrome. Overtraining syndrome is a neuroendocrine disorder that can result from the process of training too much and can manifest as fatigue during periods of excessive training with inadequate rest. Unlike overload, which is characterized by intense training with appropriate bouts of rest that can lead to improved performance, overtraining syndrome leads to impaired performance as well as a host of other physical and psychological changes. A figure skater that has fallen into this syndrome, will likely try to combat their decline in performance with yet another increase in training, which just continues to strengthen the overtraining syndrome phenomenon. An athlete with overtraining syndrome may present with feelings of persistent fatigue and can also exhibit cardiovascular changes such as a decrease in their maximum heart rate, which when training at their peak level can put additional stress on the heart. These athletes may also be more susceptible to illness, persistent muscle soreness and overuse injuries because their body is not getting enough rest in order to recover. Overuse injuries, such as stress fractures and tendinopathies, are usually caused by

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excessive stress on the body and not enough rest time for the tissues to recover. Thus, the area eventually breaks down. There are also other symptoms such as loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, mood changes, lack of motivation, irritability and depression that can manifest in athletes who overtrain. Overtraining without the appropriate caloric intake (energy in) relative to caloric expenditure (energy out) can lead to an energy deficit in the body, which can progress to another medical condition in women and girls known as “Female Athlete Triad”. This problem is comprised of three key aspects: disordered eating causing an energy deficit, amenorrhea (lack of a regular period) and osteoporosis (brittle bones). This medical condition is serious and not only can it force an athlete out of their sport but it can also have long­term health implications if it is not addressed and treated. Both of these conditions can be avoided with education on proper training intensities and the importance of rest. Coaches and off­ice trainers should work together to design individualized training

programs to ensure that their skaters are not being overloaded with the combination of their on­ice and off­ice programs. All athletes should have at least 1 day of complete rest per week in their schedule. The intensity of their training should vary throughout the season to allow for periods of overload and periods of recovery to ensure the athlete is peaking at the right time and not exhausted come competition time. Nutritional counseling and education on proper food choices can help an athlete understand the need for calories (energy) in order to train at an elite level and also the importance these calories play in achieving optimal performance levels. Prevention is much easier to address than treating these conditions thus it is important for coaches, parents and skaters to be aware of the signs and symptoms and to seek medical attention if the conditions do arise. Meeusen, R. et al. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise: 2013, 45(1):186­205. Budgett, R. Fatigue and underperformance in athletes: the overtraining syndrome. Br J Sports Med 1998;32:107­110 Lewis, N. et al. Can clinicians and scientists explain and prevent unexplained underperformance syndrome in elite athletes: an interdisciplinary perspective and 2016 update. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2015 Brukner, P & Khan, K. Clinical Sports Medicine. Third Edition. McGraw­Hill. 2006

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INJURY PREVENTION

INJURY PREVENTION

g n i n i f e d e R

sleep in sport BY: NICK LITTELHALES

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t would be fair to say that up until the mid 1990’s we were getting away with it, with an almost non existent Sleep Hygiene awareness and by default poor, counter productive, associated routines. However, the seismic changes since then, in our approach to 24/7 culture, combined with the advancements in technology are now exposing the very real mental side effects of not being sleep aware. Not being able to recovery well from the hours allocated to sleep every day, builds fatigue that requires over stimulating to push through, which leads to erratic sleep patterns and in time the onset of insomnia. A negative mindset kicks in from the moment of wake, feeling unrefreshed again, with mood, motivation and therefore confidence low. The common and growing consequences in sport, with athletes crossing all age groups are, anxiety, worry, stress, anger and relationship management and depression. Which leads to the regular use of sleeping tablets and much higher in take levels of caffeine, adding to the issues rather than resolving them. The global 24/7 demand for sport and the athletes involved has created schedules that are very now putting recovery under real pressure. However, there are no real indicators that

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this will change and more likely to increase. One reason for that is our and an athlete’s ideal objective would probably be, not waste valuable activity time sleeping and find other ways to recovery smarter and faster. Using this motivation and redefining sleep for the athlete can unlock a far more positive mindset on why and when they sleep. So by adopting a Polyphasic sleep wake routine, using the three natural sleep periods available every day, is a key technique for dealing with the timings of events and frequency. First step is to raise awareness, concerning the impact the 24 hour Circadian Rhythms have on biological and physiological functions and identify the athletes genetic Chronotype [sleep characteristic] AMer or PMer. The next step is to think in 90 minute cycles not hours, a time period principally required for us to develop and experience the five sleep stages. The athlete can then plan ahead identifying when they can confidently complete one nocturnal block of cycles, 5/4/3/2 supported by, as required one midday and or a shorter 30-minute cycle early evening, being the other two natural sleep recovery periods. So either planning ahead or adjusting to how the day unfolds requires this technique to help take the pressure off just nocturnal sleep or no sleep. By raising awareness and redefining it for the modern day athlete, develops a better understanding of its value to them and how they can, by adopting a sleep best practise approach feel in more control of it and therefore recovery confident which is a key mindset factor. This particularly applies to high pressure periods, events and games

when everything is mentally building against being able to sleep at all. These pressures don’t come as a surprise, so can be prepared for and should be. Using the R90 technique, recovery in 90 minute cycles ensures the athlete can plan to optimise recovery running into and out the event. Applying the polyphasic tactic they have more opportunities to recover, creating a confidence to even adopt, not even trying to sleep immediately before or after an event [Timing dependent] when these factors are at their peak. Not sleeping because it’s highly likely they won’t, adrenaline wired, nervous, anxious of the probable outcomes, can figureskaterfitnessmag.com

be used positively. Using other recovery interventions and techniques during these periods can play a key role in the mental mindset going into and out of the event. This might include targeting no or just one or two cycles into the required wake time, rescheduling the evening activities, reminding themselves of their best moments [Reading or watching] using yoga, meditation, mindspace tools, binaural beats, massage and Biohacks like Montmorency Tart cherry supplements or Banana Tea. Worrying about not sleeping when we should be, is the key factor why we don’t. Plan the need to, out and it becomes for

most the trigger why they do get what they planned for. The very same tactics would be applied after an event, keeping a targeted wake time maybe get, no or a couple of cycles in and boost in the two other recovery periods and later that and back on track. For example, a 5 cycle sleep wake routine is a good benchmark provided 7.5 hours sleeping recovery every 24 hours, ideally five in one block each night, but unachievable for most if not everyone. So the seven-day target is 35 cycles throughout the period.

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INJURY PREVENTION

WHAT MAKES A JUMP SUCCESSFUL? PHYSICS AND BIOMECHANICS OF FIGURE SKATING

BY: VALENTINA CAMPANELLI, PH.D.

I

n order to be successful, a jump has to be both high and long, because high jumps without any length are typically scratchy on the landings and long jumps without any height can sometimes

result in a downgraded jump if it lacks completed rotation. In this article, we are going to discuss the physics behind the height of the jump, while in the next article we will focus on the length of the jump. To explain these concepts we are going to illustrate the physics of

projectile motion. A projectile, such as a ball or a figure skater, is an object that moves in two dimensions (horizontal and vertical) along a parabolic trajectory curve solely under the influence of gravity (Figure 1).

Figure 1. All jumps in figure skating follow the physics of projectile motion. Here are several things to notice about this jump: 1) The path of the body of the skater always follows a parabola; 2) the vertical displacement, or height of the jump, is the height of the parabola, and 3) the horizontal

HOW CAN A SKATER GENERATE JUMP HEIGHT?

To generate height a skater needs to be able to generate vertical velocity at takeoff which is the speed at which a skater propels up into the air. A good skater may have a vertical velocity at

HOW CAN A SKATER GENERATE VERTICAL VELOCITY? Vertical velocity is developed during the takeoff phase of the jump during which the skater uses his muscles to forcefully

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displacement, length or distance of the jump, is the length of the parabola, 4) the time to reach the top of the parabola is equal to the time to go from the top of the parabola to the point of landing on the ice (unless the skater lands with bent knees and hips).

takeoff of 2.5 meters/second (m/s), which means that the skater could jump as high as 2.5m above the ice (8.2 feet) in one second. However, you don’t see skaters jumping as high because gravity is pulling the skater down toward the ice, thus slowing down his vertical velocity. Gravity (g) is the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth with

an acceleration of g=9.8 m/s2 (or toward any other physical body having mass). Indeed, we need to be aware that as soon as the skater takes off, the gravitational force pulls the skater down to reduce his vertical velocity. That’s why we don’t see skaters staying up in the air more than 0.5-0.7 seconds. See the example in Figure 2.

and powerfully extend the hip, knee, and to some extent the ankle, creating downward forces against the ice (vertical impulse). For Newton’s 3rd law of motion (which states that exerting a force results in an equal force in the opposite direction), the force the skater creates

by pushing down on the ice by extending their joints will result in the ice pushing the skater up. The vertical velocity needed to achieve a given height is the same for all skaters. The force (F) to generate that velocity at takeoff, however, depends on the weight

The heavier the skater, the greater the force required to attain a given takeoff speed. The more the force applied in jumping (is an “explosive” force of brief duration), the higher the skater will jump. Therefore, bodies with a higher fraction of

fast twitch muscles have an advantage in jumping skill. Interestingly, a skater has the same vertical velocity at takeoff when doing singles, doubles, or triples. Male skaters have generally higher vertical velocities than female skaters (on average 2.6 m/s for males versus 2.3 m/s for female skaters), and elite skaters have higher vertical velocities than non-elite skaters (on average 3.4 m/s for elite versus 2.6 m/s for non-elite skaters).1 Hence, in order to generate a higher

vertical velocity, physics tells us that a skater should: Extend their take off leg (especially knee and hips) more quickly and forcefully by training the muscles of the thigh and buttock (such as gluteus maximus, quadriceps, hamstrings, adductor magnus, and gastrocnemius)2 Control their body weight For some jumps, like the axel jump, use the upward motion of the arms and free leg to increase vertical velocity 2.

Figure 2. Before the takeoff the skater has zero vertical velocity but he is subjected to gravity. At takeoff, we generate an upward vertical velocity of, for example 2.5 m/s, while still being subjected to gravity that creates a downward vertical velocity, which is smaller than the vertical velocity, hence the skater can propel up. Next, the vertical velocity generated by gravity (g*t) increases over time, thus decreasing the vertical velocity of the skater. After a quarter of a second (0.25 s) the skaters’ vertical velocity is zero as per the equation: V(t)=V0 - g*t; where V(t) is the vertical velocity at time t, and V0 is the vertical velocity at takeoff (t=0). So, after a quarter of a second from takeoff the skater has no more vertical velocity to go up and now

gravity accelerates the skater back to the earth increasing his vertical velocity during the descent. Notice that when the vertical velocity reaches zero, the skater

is always at the top of the jump. Hence, vertical velocity can only be generated at the time of takeoff and can’t be changed when the skater is in the air.

of the skater (or better the mass of the skater m) and the time over which the force is applied during the takeoff (t), as for the equation:

V0 = (F*t)/m

The vertical velocity at takeoff (V0 ) determines the jump height (HeightJump) the skater can reach and this can be computed by using the following equation:

HeightJump= (V0 )2/(2*g) Generally, jump heights in proficient skaters range between 34 and 50 cm. This height is reached at the top of the parabola (Figure 1) just before gravity prevails on the vertical velocity of the skater and starts pulling him down toward the ice.

1. King DL. Performing triple and quadruple figure skating jumps: Implications for training. Can J Appl Physiol. Dec 2005;30(6):743-753. 2. Zatsiorsky VM, IOC Medical Commission., International Federation of Sports Medicine. Biomechanics in sport : performance enhancement and injury prevention. Oxford UK ; Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Science; 2000.

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TRAIN THE MIND

FRUSTRATION PLANNING BY: DR. JUDY GOSS

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veryone gets frustrated at one time or another, however the frustration can overwhelm us at times and cause even more performance problems. Frustration is often generated by the desire to perform well, achieve a goal or win the game. All well and good, but it’s the composed player who does not let frustration get to them, and most importantly impact negatively on their performance. Being

able to recover from a technical/strategic mistake, a poor call or mental lapse is essential for consistent play. There are several “by-products” that come with frustration and they pull you away from a good performance state. Being able to notice that your state is changing is an important first step, sometimes your coach can assist in this. However, the next step is making sure you have a plan to get yourself back into that good performance state. Here are some suggestions for your plan:

PHYSICAL TENSION

It is natural to get a little angry with yourself however this can cause some physical tension whether you feel it by clenching your fist or tightness in your shoulders. It is important to first identify where you carry the physical tension. Once you have determined where you carry your tension (shoulders, back, knees, legs, etc) you can then use a method to release that tension. Here are a few suggestions:

DEEP BREATHING

PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION

Not just one big breath, several nice deep breaths with your attention focused on releasing the tension with the breath.

STRETCHING If you carry the tension in a specific area/set of muscles in your body, some stretching can assist in releasing the tension.

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This is the tensing and relaxing of a specific muscle which will allow you to feel what the tension is like as well as what a relaxed muscle feels like.

REGAIN FOCUS When you are frustrated it is often because a skill is not working well and this is generally assessed by the outcome: landing a jump or completing a footwork sequence. Your focus can turn to, “Just land it” or “Don’t pop”. You need to make sure that your focus is on what it is that you need to do to land the jump. For example, smooth through the transition, check shoulders, pull in tight, etc. So to get that focus back, here are a few suggestions:

SAY IT

IMAGERY

Talk yourself through the skill using the components or cue words that you need to focus on.

Seeing yourself complete the jump will bring your attention to key components of the jump.

WALK THROUGH THE SKILL

Walking through the skill helps to focus attention and feel the key components.

ATTEMPT THE SKILL Attempt the Skill – you need to make sure that you have done the first 3 steps before you attempt the skill again. It is rare that anyone has a great performance when they are tense, distracted and not confident, so take your time and release the tension, regain the focus and confidence. This plan may take you 2 to 3 minutes when you begin

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REGAIN CONFIDENCE Frustration doesn’t always start when you make one mistake, it generally comes when you have made a few errors. This can also affect your confidence. It is necessary to regain that confidence or at least the feeling that you have the ability to execute what you need to do, here are a few suggestions:

POSITIVE SELF-TALK

Speaking positively to yourself is generally the first thing that doesn’t to use it but as you happen when you get frustrated, become better at have a few statements that you it, the time should can say to yourself that are only be about 20 encouraging. seconds. Therefore, easily IMAGERY implemented you’re your Seeing yourself successfully training. Remember the skater that can complete the skill builds let their frustration go is the skater that confidence. can be more consistent.

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TRAIN THE MIND

POSITIVE SELF­-TALK Before you start using positive self-talk it is important to first bring awareness to your negative thoughts. Ask yourself, “what do I say to myself when I am

Talk yourself out of an emotionally charged outburst.

& L E M A H DU S ’ D R O F D RA

TWO MENTAL TRAINING TIPS TO START USING TODAY! BY: REBEKAH DIXON

S

ummer school is an excellent opportunity to start implementing new training ideas for the approaching competitive season. Perhaps you want to step outside your comfort zone and incorporate something into your off-ice regimen. This is the

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perfect time to “try on” a new program, figure out what works for you, and start perfecting that skill. I encourage you to try implementing one or two mental training techniques and who better to get suggestions from than the 2 time World Pairs Champions, Meagan Duhamel and Eric Radford

Directly following their win at the World Championships, I interviewed Meagan and Eric, and they talked a great deal about the mental training techniques that helped them overcome a rollercoaster season. They recommended two techniques that skaters can start doing today to help improve their skating:

struggling to perform my best?” Once you identify the negative thoughts you can reframe them to be more positive for you and for your future. Replacing a negative

thought with positive self-talk can help you:

Move on from a disappointing start to your routine.

Change the negative course of a practice and finish productively.

Sometimes you use positive self-talk to fake it till you make it by telling yourself that you are landing a jump that you may have never landed before ie. “I always land my double flip”. Other examples of positive self-talk include: “I have done this before, I will do it again”, “I am powerful”, “I am strong”.

SELF-AWARENESS Eric suggested that all skaters can bring more selawareness to their everyday training. When running through your program or learning a new jump take a moment and think about how you are feeling in the moment. It is especially important to use selfawareness or mindfulness after a competition. figureskaterfitnessmag.com

Whether it was a great performance or an awful one, ask yourself,

“WHAT DO I WANT TO REPLICATE AT THE NEXT COMPETITION?”.

“WHAT WORKED FOR ME THIS TIME AND WHAT DIDN’T?”, These two simple techniques are a great introduction to the impact training your mind has on your skating. Use these tips to help you start training your mind like elite athletes do.

You can see Rebekah’s full interview with Meagan and Eric at http://rebekahdixon.ca/meagan-duhamel-and-eric-radford-secrets-tosuccess-mental-training/ FIGURESKATERFITNESS JULY 2016

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NUTRITION

GRACIE GOLD RECIPE

Nutrition &Training

What to Eat and When BY: MARGOT LATTANZI, NATUROPATHIC MEDICAL INTERN

T

he timing of food intake is a crucial component of athletic performance for figure skaters. Food provides the body with the right nutrients, which ensures proper energy to fuel physical activity and prevent fatigue. Nutrients provide the building blocks to develop strong muscle, repair tissues and prevent injury. The goal is to achieve the right nutrient timing and overall caloric intake to best support the daily metabolic, physical, and mental demands of an athlete’s training and competition. PRE TRAINING: It has been shown that athletes perform better when eating before exercising compared to training on an empty stomach. Snacks or light meals should give you energy, top off muscle glycogen stores and prevent hunger. Focus on eating foods that are rich in low

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glycemic index carbohydrates, moderate in protein and low in fat and fiber. Larger meals, as well as high fat and fiber foods, should be saved for a few hours before, as undigested food in your stomach can be uncomfortable while skating.

CARBS

5-7g/kg body weight per day depending on the number and intensity of workouts.

PROTEIN

1.2-1.8g/kg body weight per day. There has been found to be no benefit beyond 2.0 g/kg of body weight.

FATS

1.0-1.2 g/kg body weight per day.

POST TRAINING RECOVERY STAGE 1: WITHIN 30 MINUTES OF EXERCISE Right after an activity, your food should be high in carbohydrates (1.0 to 1.5 g/ kg), moderate in protein, low in fat and fiber. Carbohydrates help replace depleted energy stores. The addition of protein is beneficial to stimulate protein synthesis and repair damaged muscles. You should also remember to replenish your fluids. POST TRAINING RECOVERY STAGE 2: 1-2 HOURS AFTER EXERCISE During this time, a meal that has both carbohydrates and proteins will continue to help replenish nutrients lost during activity and keep you strong.

Resources: Griffin, L. The Female Athlete. In: Miller, M, 4th ed, DeLee & Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. Elsevier Inc. 2015. 32, 338-355.e6 Gruner, M. Sports Nutrition. In: Madden, C, ed. Netters Sports Medicine. Elsevier Inc. 2010. 31-37 L Sheehan-Smoth. 2008. Nutrition Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Adult Figure Skaters. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 108 (9): A107-A107. The American Dietetics Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. 2009. Journal of the American Dietetic Association

y m a e r C Oats 1

In a small saucepan, boil 8oz water and 2oz milk. Any kind of milk works, I use cashew or almond milk.

2

Add oats. Reduce heat, and let simmer for about 5 minutes. Stir occasionally.

3

Pour oatmeal into a bowl. Stir in 6oz of frozen berries or banana slices. Top with 4oz of remaining milk (optional depending on your preferred oatmeal consistency).

4

Drizzle with a bit of almond butter and honey.

5

Enjoy

Topping can be added or removed. Quinoa flakes can also be subbed for oatmeal for a fun texture change up. I mostly use this recipe for breakfast. Sometimes for lunch or dessert if I have a sweet tooth craving :­)

Gracie

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NUTRITION

WHAT AND WHY? A consistent and properly implemented nutritional plan can help provide athletes with adequate nutrients dedicated to improve sports performance and life-long health. When following a proper nutritional plan for a sport such as figure skating it is essential to understand the physical demands of the sport with the strength to weight ratio, fatigue resistance, and anaerobic power (Benardot R. , 2012). If the athlete is not following a balanced individualized nutritional plan, they are more prone to illness, poor recovery and a decrease in mental focus. While it is important to educate athletes

how to understand the significance of carbohydrates, as they are the primary fuel of the body, protein should not be neglected since it is the building block for muscle. Protein plays a key role in mental, organ, hormonal & organ functions. The daily recommendation is between 1.2-1.7 per kilogram of body weight (Benardot, D. 2011). An easy way to measure the recommended protein portion is to use the size of your palm. Example 1 chicken breast at lunch is ideal for females. As it goes with any sport, it is critical to consume well-balanced meals at breakfast,

lunch, dinner, and snacks. It is essential for athletes to follow consistent and disciplined nutrition habits, that contribute to a healthier lifestyle, and adequately prepare for training sessions. It is also important to create awareness about making better food choices for the remaining hours of the day spent away from practice, competition and exercise. In between practices and competition there may not be time to consume adequate energy intake, therefore consuming the right snack and small meal is imperative to mental focus and athletic performance at an optimal level.

n i e t o Pr Requirements

For female figure skating to improve health & sports performance BY: MATT CRAWLEY, MS, CSCS*D, RSCC, USATF­1

WHEN? DAILY MEALS WITH A LEAN PROTEIN PRIORITY The maintenance of a sufficient total energy intake to satisfy energy requirements involves monitoring meal consumptions based upon daily activities with practice, competition, and exercise. It is important to understand that there is a significant amount of calories that are burnt during those activities and must be accounted for to prevent a calorie deficit. There must be an energy balance throughout the day to help achieve this goal. As an athlete you need fuel for the body to ensure that it improves mental focus and performs at an optimal level. It is recommended to consume a balanced moderately sized meal every 2-4 hours. If planning to eat pre-physical activity choose a small meal or snack with a lean protein that you know the body will tolerate.

How? We must not forget to balance out the rest of meals throughout the day. This is integral to fuel the body for the physical preparations of training sessions (Layman, 2009). Meal Schedule Examples with Lean protein, fruit/vegetables & healthy fat Breakfast example: Chicken, egg, & cheese omelet with grilled vegetables, avocado, and whole wheat toast.

THE LOW DOWN ON PLANNING YOUR MEALS WITH CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, & FATS Carbohydrate is the body’s primary fuel for daily human function (50-60% of daily calories). Protein is a crucial part of the human diet for mental & muscle function (15-20% of daily calories). When planning your meals choose a lean protein at breakfast, lunch, & dinner and even your snacks. Choose a balanced amount 20-30 g protein with each meal throughout the day with breakfast, lunch, & dinner - This will avoid dips and peaks in protein intake to be evenly distributed. Protein helps to recover more efficiently from workouts - By increasing/maintaining of muscle mass with the repeated maximal stimulation of protein synthesis. With carbohydrates being the primary source of energy for the body we must accommodate them with protein.

Lunch example - Chicken stir fry with vegetables and fruit Dinner example: Salmon with grilled vegetables and fruit In conclusion figure skaters need real food for energy With the right amount at the right time With more energy needed during training hours Delivering energy is a challenge when practice hours are long Simple food solutions go a long way and are necessary (Benardot R. , 2012). Every individual training plan requires a customized food plan to complement

Works Cited: Benardot, D. (2011). Advanced Sports Nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Benardot, R. (2012, October 29). Nutrition For Figure Skaters. Layman, D. K. (2009, March 13). Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs. Nutrition & Metabolism.

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figureskaterfitnessmag.com

TAKE AN EGG

E

ggs are an ideal bundle of energy and nutrients for an athlete and they come in the perfect portion control size. The average chicken egg has 6 grams of protein, approximately 80 calories and high water content that makes it a quick to access energy for your body to access. With this high protein count eggs satisfy your appetite better then a carbohydrate based snack. Here is a simple quick to make snack that you can adapt to your taste and take with you to the rink.

Ingredients 6 Eggs 2 TBS Sharp cheddar cheese

grated

2 TBS Cooked ham diced

Directions Preheat oven to 375*C an d lightly oil a silicon muffin pan. Crack one egg int o each muffin cup. Place ingredients on top of the eg g. Note: cheese is best placed on the ver y top. Pla ce in oven and bake for 12-­18 minutes depend ing on your oven. Once cooled wrap them up and take to the rink. The flavor combinations are endless for this protein packed bite. Try parmesa n cheese, pancetta, potatoes and/or bacon; any fla vor combinations you like will work.

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GLAMOUR

BY: PATTY CRANSTON

M

AD 7

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ichelle Long is not your typical skater. At an age when many skaters have already retired from competition, Michelle still thrives. To wit, at the age of 23 she placed fifth at this year’s Canadian Nationals and for the first time in her career, earned a spot on the National team. She has always beaten to a different drummer. When Michelle finished high school, she decided to enroll in part-time university studies so she could commit a heftier chunk of time to skating. With that decision came responsibility. Double axels and other key triple jumps were essential additions to her skating repertoire if she wanted to reach her goal of qualifying for Nationals. While top competitors typically perfect these requisite jumps around puberty, Michelle landed her first double axel at 18. One by one triple jumps followed. Her determination paid off when she qualified for her first Nationals four years later. “My parents figured I would quit after that Nationals (2015) because I accomplished my goal,” she said. “But I knew I still had the passion, drive and capacity to improve.” Michelle is a skating anomaly in yet another way. In addition to all the hours she spends training and attending university, she also works several jobs in order to earn the money required to cover skating expenses. “Every minute on the ice is precious so I have to optimize my practice sessions,” she says. “Especially because I am the one paying the bills.”

MICHELLE y e n r LONGA unique jou FIGURESKATERFITNESS JULY 2016

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

A NIGHT TO REMEMBER BY: CHARLENE BAILEY

F

SF took a trip to my studio for the inside scoop on Canadian National team member Michelle Long’s new free program dress. Skating to selections from Nessun Dorma, we developed a garment that would capture the essence of this story with an haute couture twist. Though choreography and musical interpretation play an integral role in delivering a moving performance, the “packaging” as I like to call it, is the visual thread that ties the auditory and physical movements of the program together.

GLAMOUR

Music​: Nessun Dorma (“none shall sleep”) is about a princess who orders an entire kingdom to remain awake until the name of her suitor is discovered. That meant we needed a dress that was fit for a princess, yet represented the falling night. Inspiration​: With this concept in mind, Michelle browsed haute­couture gowns online in search of an image that represented the “look” she was aiming for. She came to me with a fabulous long­sleeve number in a navy that fell to a sky blue in the skirt. Balance​: Once we had our inspiration, we needed to make it Michelle’s. Because the silhouette of the dress was relatively classic in the front yet intricate in detail, we opted for a gorgeous open back for a little contrast. The simple structure of the basic dress allowed us to really focus on the intricacies of the bodice and how it flowed together.

I assure you, it is flattering on 0% of the population! Colour​: Despite the fact that Michelle wanted a blue dress, we needed to pick the right blue for her skin tone and hair colour. It may sound silly, but colour selection is everything and will prevent you from looking like you’ve recently seen a ghost or been seasick! Even the colours of the crystals were carefully chosen. Too often I see beautiful dresses hammered with clear crystals. Sparkle selection is a costly part of production so take some thought! To get an effect like Michelle’s, try colour­on­colour crystals. We picked Sapphire and Cobalt as our “base” and used Aquamarine and a Sapphire AB (multi­colour sparkle) to bring in gold, teal and purple tones for depth. Details​: More than 6300 crystals were arranged into tiny perpendicular lines over the span of approximately 40 hours, creating somewhat of a harsh

geometric. As a result, the neck and back lines needed to be softened. To parallel the colour gradient from navy to sky blue, we decided to integrate the crystals over these seams, representing the falling night. The idea was that up close, the dress would look very busy yet from afar (on the ice!), the colour gradient would be soft and the crystal patterns would mimic the constellations in the night sky.

Shapes​: Though it may seem unnecessary, choosing the best shapes for a skater is really important in helping them look their best. Creating a nice leg line in the bodysuit and skirt was just as important as selecting a neckline and a back shape that complimented Michelle’s best features. Don’t do yourself a disservice by choosing what I call a “lampshade skirt” (cuts straight across your midsection).

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GLAMOUR

FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

A royal look BY: RICKY BOUDREAU

B

efore I began creating a make­ up look I had a conversation with Michelle, and her team. Robert Burk her coach, Danielle Rose her choreographer and Charlene Bailey the dress maker. Michelle’s character

1

Prep

Properly prepping the skin is always the first step when applying makeup. Use a moisturizer that’s appropriate for your skin type. I like to use a hydrating spray before I apply any type of foundation, this helps to pre­moisten the skin and then allow for the moisturizer to be better absorbed. ­Massage moisturizer into the skin with your fingers or a brush if you want to pamper yourself. If using a brush, you can sweep the moisturizer all over the face or buff it in using circular motions. You can add another step here and use a skin primer to help things glide on more smoothly and keep your foundation on longer. Use your fingers or a brush to do this, same technique.

2

Foundation

The skin trends over the last few years has been to make skin look like skin. You can achieve this by mixing your foundation with your moisturizer, this will sheer it out and make it more see through. A tinted moisturizer is a great option as it is 2 steps in one and will look more natural than a foundation by itself. Remember that you can apply foundation only where you need it, it doesn’t have to go all over the face!

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is a princess who is looking for her prince. Through this, I created 2 different eye looks that we were able to try and collectively decide which one we liked best. Seeing the dress was an important step, allowing me to see the texture and the colour/s used. The rhinestones were also inspiration for the colour and texture

3

Concealer

Use concealer only if needed and only where you need it, under the eyes in the inner corner, around the nose and any trouble spots that have popped up.

4

Set

Use a big fluffy brush to lightly sweep a powder over the areas that you have put foundation/concealer. A fluffy brush will help ensure that you are not putting on too much powder. You can use something that is invisible but if you are wanting a bit more coverage, then use one with a tint. Oilier skin will need a powder to set the foundation, dry skin.

5

Eyes

of shadows on the eyes. I created a face chart and did the 2 different looks on the same face. It helped give everyone the visual of what I had created, like seeing a sketch of a skating dress. We all decided the the winged liner was the way to go. It’s bolder and something a princess would wear. It’s regal and refined.

6 Liner Next, I chose an electric blue creme liner using an angled brush. Brushes are a personal choice, so use what you are comfortable with. A fine tipped liner brush or a pencil brush will also work. Use small strokes across the upper lash line and build the thickness as you progress outward. For that perfect feline flick, look straight ahead into the mirror and imagine your lower lash line extending up beyond the outer corner. Place your brush there and make a flick. Do this on both eyes first, this way you can assess the symmetry and adjust before you fill them in. I find that using this technique allows

I like to use a primer in the eye before I do any eye makeup as this will help things stick and last longer. This is especially important for long wear and for perspiring. In deciding what colour/s to use, I used my colour wheel. Using the dress as the inspiration for this look, I decided to create an eye that incorporated an electric blue. Looking at Michelle’s gorgeous brown eyes, I decided that a shimmery gold shadow would be great as the base colour for the eye and help the blue pop. I swept the shadow across the lid using a bit of a firmer brush to push the shadow into the primer and then blended with something fluffier, up into the crease. I used a light, shimmery highlight colour under the brow, to help catch the light. A fluffier brush was used as it will always deposit less than something firm and I wanted a very sheer wash.

for better placement and minimizes having to adjust the angles. After applying the creme liner, I went over it with a shimmery electric blue shadow, to add a different texture and intensify the colour. I did this using a small firm bristled brush to give me precision placement.

7

Brows

I filled in the brow using a soft deeper brown and an angled brush. I like to start under the brow and brush up and through. I always brush through the brow with a mascara wand to help blend and soften the colour.

8 Mascara Curling the lashes with a lash curler is a great way to open up the eyes. Doing this before mascara is on, will help prevent the lash curler from getting covered with mascara and the lashes will not stick to it or pull any out. A waterproof mascara is what I used next. This will prevent any running onto the face if Michelle’s eyes water during her program or if she cries after a gold medal performance. To enhance the eyes even more, I applied a set of false lashes. I used a lash that is longer towards the outer corner to help lift the eye and mimic the liner. Pull the lashes out of the tray and hold each lash up to each eye. Line it up to the inner corner lashes and then you can see if there is any outer portion of the lash that needs to be trimmed. Trim the lashes if needed. Apply a dental floss amount of glue to the band and allow the glue to get tacky before applying right away. This will help the lash stick more quickly. Place the band very close to the upper lash line. You can manipulate the placement for a few seconds if need be. Don’t be intimidated by the lashes, you can always pull them off and re­stick them. The glue will dry clear.

9

Blush

I like to choose the blush colour after I choose the lip. They should be in the same family, so I chose a light peachy blush. Using a blush brush, I swept the blush from the back of Michelle’s cheek, near the ear, down and onto the cheek. This technique can help the cheek look more contoured. I then added a gold shimmery highlight to the cheekbone to bring that area forward and make it pop. It will also give her skin a gorgeous glow when A colour wheel is a great tool to have and you the light hits it. can use it to help you choose a lip colour. The complimentary colour to blue is orange. I chose a softer coral lip for Michelle for a touch of colour and not so strong that it competes with the eyes. I started with a lip primer, this helps any lip products stick. I then used a brush to apply the lipstick, this helps control how much you are applying and enables you to manipulate the colour.

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Lips

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

SKATERS CORNER

MEASURING SUCCESS

The idea of success is complex and subjective. What defines it for one person may hold little or no meaning for another. Medals won and tests passed are one type of success but they don’t tell the whole story. There are other important measures that hold true for skating and for life. BY: CHERYL RICHARDSON

Passion

Successful skaters are energized by their participation. They feel engaged and compelled to do it. It’s important to feel alive in any activity that takes up so much of a person’s time and energy. Passion for what you do is fuel for success. Being happier and more energized spills over into the rest of your life

Love

Skating decisions should provide for skaters to love, care and respect themselves and allow them to engage with others who feel the same. There should be enough time left over after training to allow skaters to experience other parts of their life.

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Health

Health is a resource. The healthier the skater and the better he treats his body, the more energy he’ll have to put into whatever he does­ school, work or play. Skating can also help children become stronger, fitter and wiser about health issues.

Being Present

Sports, including skating, presents a wonderful opportunity to experience what is happening right here and right now. In fact, that is one of the key factors in becoming a successful performer. Learning and experiencing this skill helps people fully experience their life.

Meaning

Skaters need to feel that the time they spend skating is worthwhile. If it isn’t meaningful, it doesn’t really matter how much fun it is, it’s just junk food. Meaning turns it from an empty snack into a gourmet meal and keeps skaters interested and engaged for the long term.

So the next time you’re disappointed with a result, consider that every skater, even the one who placed last had an opportunity to learn wonderful lessons because he took a chance, participated in the fray and really tried. He is in it, participating with all its joys and sorrows.

SKATE

FITTING 101 BY: ADAM SCHUMACHER

N

ot too many years ago, there were only a few choices when it came to figure skates. Today we have so many options available that selecting the proper skate and getting the proper fit can be a struggle for a skater and their whole team. The best resource when it comes to your skates is a trained professional who can assist you in choosing the correct level of support and the correct fit for your feet. But here are some things to think about when trying to decide which skate is best for you. A properly fit skate should be snug on your feet all over, from toes to heel. You always want to try to get a full season out of a skate so that you don’t have to break in a new pair mid-season, when you should be concentrating on polishing up your programs instead of worrying about figureskaterfitnessmag.com

getting your new skates to work properly. To do this, we want to allow a small amount of growth space if the skater is still growing. Usually, this is about a half to 3⁄4 of a size, which is the average amount a child’s foot will grow in 12 months. The skate should not be any larger than this because your foot will move around inside the skate and make your skating harder than it already is. It may also cause blistering on the foot from the rubbing inside where the movement occurs, usually on the back of the heel or on the inside of the instep. We also have to consider the width of the foot both in the forefoot and the heel. Most people have a slightly narrower heel than they do at the forefoot. Because of this, some of the skate manufacturers make combination widths as their stock sizes. Always go by the narrower part of the foot because you can always make

a boot larger, but you can’t make a boot smaller. The other part of properly fitting your skates is making the correct adjustments to the boot to have it fit properly on you. Skates are made for perfect feet, so adjustments need to be made to help relieve the pressure points anywhere on the foot or ankle. When looking for the correct support level for your skates, you want to find a skate that will last for 10 to 18 months in terms of support. They will break down as you skate, and you want to have enough support to keep you going for whole season. Usually, if your skates last longer than this, you probably are in a skate that is too stiff for you when you first purchased them. You want to be able to bend and flex the ankle slightly when they are brand new so that they will be easy to break in and hold up to the long training season you have each year.

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

SKATERS CORNER

TIPS ON MUSIC SELECTION BY: HUGO CHOUINARD

P

eople are constantly asking me to help find music for their next program. With your choice of music you are creating the foundation of your next skating season, and this first step can be a scary one. Let me share a few of my tips on how to make this an easier process. The music search shouldn’t start in April, it should be a constant preoccupation. Planning the years to come, by taking notes, making playlists, keeping ideas for the coming seasons.

Today’s music streaming applications, allow you to listen to any style of music at anytime. Music is everywhere, always have your ears open. Sometimes I find ideas listening to the background music at the restaurant, you may find it funny but I found a fantastic classical piece while waiting on hold on a phone call once. Make sure it’s age and lyrics appropriate. Be strategic when you have two programs (short and long) by creating contrast and variety to show your versatility. Try new styles, experiment. Push the limit by adding composition

to your mix. It’s easier than you think. Get out of the fast-slow-fast pattern; because now we can use vocal music, the program structure can be pushed to a totally new level. Always remember your coaches and choreographers know your potential, work with them and trust in their vision, because together you will push your limits. If you want to feel it on the ice, your music must mean something to you. Tell a story and most of all, pick music that grabs your heart and soul.

GETTING NEW

BOOTS

Tips to Remember When and how often

Some elite skaters change boots once a year, while others change them twice a year. This is a personal matter and depends on many factors such as the number of hours per week you train. When your skating level is increasing and you need more support to perform your routines and new jumps.

Bring your old skates with you so it will be easier for you and the dealer to check the size and evaluate any issues you may have faced in your training. Try the boots on for a while with the innersole supplied or with your own orthotics. Edea uses memory foam, which shapes to the foot at body temperature ensuring the perfect fit and maximum comfort. Take your time while trying them on so you feel confident and comfortable with the size.

Edea boots are produced in C width, which is the right fit for most skaters, but are also available in 3 other different widths: B (narrow), D (wide), and E (extra wide), upon request. Edea uses Thermo Formable Material so that all boot widths can be custom shaped.

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Correct footprint If the areas of the holes and the hooks are too close together the tip of the boot is raised ­resembling the tip of Aladdin’s shoes.

Short footprint showing boot is too larg One of the most important things to remember in order to maximize the performance and the duration of Edea boots is to use the proper method for lacing. Laces should be fed through the holes using the “over­under” rather than the “under­over” technique used

it’s a good idea to change the laces often in order to keep the strength of their elasticity.

Blade Mounting: The correct procedure for mounting the blades is fundamental and is something that can only be done by a professional. Edea boots require shorter blades because of the unique design of the sole, increasing power and maneuverability for the skater. This provides skaters with an enormous advantage when performing step sequences and changes of direction.

This means the boot is either too wide or too long. On the contrary if the holes and hook are too far apart this means the boot is too small or narrow (suggest image of too tight / too loose and correct for people to see).

Where

Your skates are technical equipment and Edea recommends getting fitted by a technician at an official Edea dealer that will give you the proper assistance in fitting and in choosing the correct model, size, and width.

commonly in shoes and other boot brands—you can help yourself get the perfect tension using the Edea lace puller.

To maximize performance, the blade should match the pressure points of the foot and run the length of the boot from tip to heel.

What

Choose the boot model according to your skating level; it will help you to improve gradually and avoid issues or injuries. Why the Piano? Anti-shock system Heel lock More support Piano is designed for toplevel skaters who are looking to increase their power and control as well as minimize overuse injuries.

If you feel that your boots are not supporting you on the sides,

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FIGURE SKATER FITNESS

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1 Jerry´s Skate Bag