Issue I / October 2013
Facade and Fenestration News for India
Where Knowledge & Networking go Hand in Hand
Facade and Fenestration News for India
Warm Greetings India is now a member of the International Billionaires Club with our 1.64 Billion sq.ft of Green Building registered with the Indian Green Building Council. The key element in all these Green Buildings is Envelope Optimization, in which Fenestration plays the most important role. With our population of 1.2 billion people and growing, India will witness exceptional growth in construction industry. It is imperative that our construction industry, Architects, Developers and Builders adopt the Path of Green.
Dr. Prem C. Jain
Chairman, International Fenestration Forum Chairman, India Green Building Council
International Fenestration Forum (IFF), the apex industry body in India, is organizing the fourth edition of “fensterbau/frontale india 2014”, along with ACREX India 2014 at India’s capital, New Delhi. It is showcasing the finest of Indian and International technologies, helping India in its journey for global leadership in sustainability.
Thank you for your commitment
Deutsche Beschlag Systeme uPVC Hardware & Accessories
......................Exhibitors over the last three editions of fensterbau/frontale india
Facade and Fenestration News for India
The building envelope as the base for sustainable design by PROF. DR. ING. WERNER LANG The fundamental aim of designing and constructing buildings is to provide shelter and comfort by protecting the user of a building from extreme external climate conditions, such as intensive solar radiation, heat and cold, precipitation and wind. Apart from other functions, the building envelope, consisting of the outer wall and roof, is designed to influence and regulate the comfort requirements of the user inside the building. Like our own skin and our clothing, the building envelope fulfils numerous functions, such as heat-, cold- and glare protection, ventilation and the provision of visual contact between the inside and outside of the building. While such functions of façade and roof constructions have remained virtually unchanged for millennia, increased CO2-emissions and the shortage of fossil fuels have caused a major shift towards a greater ecological awareness during the past few years. Today, questions pertinent to sustainable building take centre stage in the planning process, which calls for a fundamental reconsideration of building concepts, where high performance building envelopes play a central role. In former times, aspects such as the construction and the appearance of a façade were of major concern. Today, we have to integrate the consideration of the functional quality and the thermal performance of a façade into the design process. The functional properties have to be balanced with structural and aesthetic aspects, as the creation of comfort and the reduction of the energy demand related to non-renewable energy are central. While comfort and the energy balance of a building are of major concern, we have to take an integrated approach towards designing the building envelope, as the four categories: function, structure, aesthetics and ecological aspect must be given equal weight during the design process, as they have a direct influence on each other. The physiological properties of an external wall are dependent on its structure, sequence of layers and material properties. The ecological characteristics in turn, are determined by functional, i.e. physiological aspects such as thermal and visual properties. Questions of construction, too, such as the selection of materials determine the energy consumption in construction by virtue of their corresponding primary energy content, while - at the same time - the designer is thriving for a high quality in design.
What is a sustainable building?
According to the widely accepted definition
given by the Brundtland Commission in 1987, a “Sustainable development is the kind of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”* Today, it seems to be commonly accepted that the needs are defined by our environmental, socio-cultural and economic demands, known as the “three pillars” of sustainability. Based on the “three pillars” of sustainability, a building – amongst other aspects - has to be affordable with regard to investment and running costs (economic demands). Furthermore it has to be functional, comfortable, beautiful and healthy in order to fulfil socio-cultural demands. With regard to ecological demands, it has to have a neutral or – if possible – even a beneficial effect on our environment. All these aspects, such as the appearance and aesthetics as well as the functional and ecolog-
“Sustainable development is the kind of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” ical performance of a building predominantly depend on the building envelope. It becomes clear, that a proper design of the building envelope comes first when designing sustainable buildings.
Envelope design and sustainability**
The building skin is the dominant system in all subsystems of a building - the load-bearing structure, mechanical services and spatial framework – as it must fulfil a multitude of vital functions to ensure comfortable indoor conditions and is a principal factor in the energy consumption of a building. All comfort-related parameters - with the exception of relative indoor humidity - can be directly controlled and regulated through the design of the facade and the roof, as the thermal transmittance, the total solar energy and daylight transmission depend on the building envelope. In conventional office buildings in central Europe roughly 40% of the total energy consumption is devoted to heating and a further 40% for the operation of air-conditioning systems for both ventilation and cooling. The remaining 20% is consumed for artificial lighting. To increase comfort and reduce energy consumption, the cooling loads must be reduced by means of optimal sun protection, improved daylight use, proper ventilation and daylight-dependent regulation of artificial
lighting. Moreover, excess heat gains should be extracted via night cooling, a process that can be greatly facilitated with the corresponding building skin design and exposed thermal masses in the building interior, a combination that is equally effective for reducing transmission- and ventilation heat loss. Elements that are flexible, both in design and in use, are essential tools to meet the above-mentioned requirements. Depending on the specific requirements, heat gains in a room or thermal transmittance losses can be minimized by integrating adequate components in the façade.
Sun protection systems
Independent of the heat insulation factor of a transparent facade, the placement of sun protection systems has a decisive influence on the energy consumption of buildings. Calculations on conventional facades with east- or west orientation have shown that the energy consumed for cooling can be halved when external blinds are used, if compared to a glass facade without sunscreen elements. Conversely, the use of internal blinds reduces the energy consumption by no more than 20%. Shading elements are required to prevent overheating in all building types, especially for buildings with high internal cooling loads and/or a high percentage of glazing, e.g. most administration or office buildings. Fixed, stationary systems do not allow for adjusting the shading element to the position of the sun, and this can result in functional disadvantages with regard to shading, transparency and daylight use. Moveable systems can be adjusted to respond to changing solar altitudes over the course of a day and in different seasons, allowing for individual control of the sunscreen elements, optimal shading and maximum use of daylight. It is important to point out the disadvantages of internal sunscreen elements, because the solar radiation absorbed by these elements is transmitted into the room. In summer, this results in unwanted additional cooling loads. However, in winter the incoming solar radiation may be used to increase the room temperature. Systems mounted behind glass, and thus protected from the elements, are easier to build and to install. This is equally true for double-skin facades, where a great variety of manipulators can be installed behind a protective shield of single glazing. Since these systems are protected from dirt and pollution, they allow for the use of elements with sensitive i.e. highly reflective surfaces for daylight redirection. With elements installed into the cavity between insulated glazing, the cleaning and maintenance effort is potentially reduced even further.
The main task of anti-glare systems is to prevent extreme contrasts in lighting intensity, an issue that is especially important in office buildings with monitor workstations where visual comfort must be maintained. A variety of different systems can be used to mute and scatter intense light, such as curtains, horizontal blinds, vertical blinds, venetian blinds, screens, translucent glazing, or electro-chromic glazing. Whenever these systems are used, it is important to avoid reducing daylight transmission to the point where artificial light has to be used. Textile anti-glare systems, screens and perforated aluminium louvers are practical options. The position of an anti-glare system in relation to the internal glazing layer determines the amount of heat gained in the interior as a result of radiation. In comparison to an office building with external sunscreen elements, sun protection glazing combined with an internal anti-glare system leads to an approximate increase in heating requirements of 20-30% as a result of the reduced radiation transmittance, and to increased cooling energy requirements by 10-20% as a result of the heat gain in the anti-glare system.
The use of natural daylight is increasingly important both in terms of the comfort and contentment of the users and with regard to reducing the requirements for artificial light. Daylight systems should be applied above all in areas where significant room depths preclude direct use of daylight, and/or where the quality of lighting is a high priority, e.g. at computer workstations where optimal direction and distribution of light are essential. Daylight-dependent artificial lighting offers an additional savings potential. Measures to optimize the use of daylight should always be closely integrated with any sun protection systems to keep the daylight component of transmitted solar radiation as high as possible and the short- and long-wave spectrum of solar radiation as low as possible. The following systems are suited to meet these requirements: - Glazing with selective coatings - Reflectors that deflect daylight into the depth of a room - Micro-grid systems with high reflective coatings - Prism systems - Light diffusing glazing - Glass louvre systems - Holographic detractive system (HDS)
Thermal insulation systems
One option of regulating the resistance to thermal transmittance in a facade- or roof
* United Nations General Assembly (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Transmitted to the General Assembly as an Annex to document A/42/427 - Development and International Co-operation: Environment. ** The content of the following section is based on the book contribution by Werner Lang ‘Is it all ‘just’ a facade? The functional, energetic and structural aspects of the building skin’. In: Schittich, Christian (Ed.): ‘Building Skins: Concepts, Layers, Materials’, pp. 28-47. Edition Detail - Institute for international architecture documentation GmbH, Munich and Birkhaeuser Publishers, Basel, 2001, revised edition 2006.
Facade and Fenestration News for India structure in response to internal requirements and external weather conditions is to employ materials and components capable of reducing heat loss through transmittance, convection or radiation. The common approach is to use materials with low thermal transmittance factors, low emission properties to decrease heat loss by radiation, and high-reflective foils or surface coatings to reflect heat radiation. Aside from reducing heat loss by transmittance, these measures can also help to increase the internal surface temperature of the exterior wall. While opaque skin structures with insulating materials of 12-16 cm in thickness display U-values below 0.3 W/m2K, similar values can only be achieved for transparent or translucent wall- and roof structures through temporary measures for thermal insulation. For a direct comparison, however, one should consider the option of using solar energy, since this factor is crucial in defining the energy balance of a facade. The radiation transmittance of an insulating material also influences the options for direct use of solar energy, e. g. for pre-heating fresh air or heating a massive external wall structure. Insulating systems are divided into functions according to their adaptability. Fixed systems, such as combined heat-insulating systems or rear-ventilated façade systems, do not allow the insulating properties of the building skin to adapt to seasonal and daily fluctuations in external temperatures and radiation conditions. This may become problematic when transparent or translucent insulating components are used and overheating in summer must be avoided. In moveable systems, such as sliding- and folding shutters, the insulating material or component is installed either on the inside or on the outside of the existing skin structure. Transparent and translucent building components can be used to utilize heat gain in winter for preheating the air in the facade cavity, while evacuating the heated air via facade openings in summer. Opaque insulating systems do not offer this advantage of utilizing solar gains.
Aside from the above-mentioned parameters for regulating the energy balance, the building skin plays an important role in terms of the natural air exchange in buildings. Meeting requirements for air hygiene is the key factor in this context, with a special focus on the correct amount of ventilation to minimize heat loss by ventilation in times of cool outside temperatures. Free ventilation through existing openings in the building skin is generally sufficient for rooms whose depth does not exceed the height by more than a factor of 2.5. Dependant on the manner of opening, as well as the location and position of the operable element, this solution achieves air changes between 0.2 and 50 1/h. Designing the building skin specifically with these natural principles in mind, e.g. the stack effect, can help to achieve natural ventilation even in the case of great room depths.
The building skin as power station
Before low-cost fossil fuels were widely available, the efficient use of heating energy and the principles of solar energy use were essential considerations in the design of buildings and building skins. Material selection, orientation of the building volume towards the sun, exposure, plans, and the design of facade and roof surfaces were all harmonized with the conditions dictated by the site. These are, among others, the local climate, the topography, the availability of materials for construction and combustible material for building operation. Over many centuries, a culture of building evolved, which demonstrates the direct link between functional requirements and external appearance, a link that is still visible today in traditional buildings. The drastic changes in the energy sector, in particular the availability of inexpensive fossil fuels and electricity, had a lasting impact on this traditional link. The relationship between local conditions and their impact on the built environment was more or less nullified. Only the realization that fossil fuels are an exhaustible resource and that the burning of coal, oil and gas presents a grave danger for the environment and the population, prompted planners to change their attitudes. Throughout Europe, approximately half of the consumed primary energy is consumed for the construction and operation of buildings. A radical reduction of energy consumption, coupled with the use of solar energy, is therefore the only logical and sensible solution to the problem of dwindling energy resources and environmental destruction. Solar energy can be utilized twofold. Direct use is mainly concerned with orientation, plan and the design of the building and its components, especially the facade. Applied to the building skin, solar energy is used for natural ventilation (making use of thermal lift and the resulting pressure differences), for lighting interior spaces with daylight, and for heating interior spaces by harnessing the greenhouse effect. There is a wide range of systems from which to choose for collecting, distributing and storing the available energy: Buffer zones, transparent heat insulation, aerogel glazing and high-insulating glass with U-values below 0.8 W/m2K widen the field of options for direct solar use and reduce heat loss in comparison to conventional insulated glazing. Components and systems such as massive wall components faced with translucent heat insulation, make it possible to use the solar energy stored during daytime
to provide heat in the evening and early night hours. As to the use of daylight, one should consider micro-grid systems, prism systems and other forms of light-redirecting elements, which enable a more efficient use of daylight, especially for office and administration buildings where higher cooling loads and user comfort requirements come into play.
ever, individually controllable skins can only be understood by their users and adjusted to their satisfaction, if they recognize the link between their actions and the impact on the building climate. In other words, the regulation and adaptability of the skin must be achieved with control systems that are intelligently planned and easy to operate.
As its name indicates, indirect use refers to indirect application of solar energy through collectors, that is autonomous systems, which can be integrated into the building skin. Indirect uses of solar energy include the heating of water and air for interior space heating or for domestic/industrial hot water consumption. The conversion of solar radiation into cooling energy is yet another application where solar collectors are used in combination with heat absorption pumps or thermal/chemical storage systems. Photovoltaic elements have become increasingly popular in recent years for generating electrical power as a result of technological progress in this field, state subsidies and the development of panels that are easy to integrate. A wide range of applications has been developed for the building skin.
In view of the rapid development of new materials, planning instruments and production methods, as well as the countless options for combining existing materials and systems, the possibilities for the building skin seem limitless. Thus new procedures for determining material hardness have made the use of renewable raw materials in the area of innovative load-bearing concepts possible. To advance the issue of the building skin with a view to creating truly sustainable and enduring architecture, planning must be goal-oriented, responsible and sensible. A high degree of technical and creative ability is essential. The enormous potential of the building skin must be realized from a structural, functional, aesthetic and ecological perspective to promote advances in the development of architecture that is oriented towards a sustainable future.
Contrary to collectors that are mounted onto the building skin, these systems allow for full integration, both in terms of construction and of design. Aside from the functional advantages, this approach also results in cost savings, since no additional financing is required for the roof or façade surface covered in collectors.
About the author:
Building materials, components and techniques must be carefully selected with the building concept in mind and harmonized with each other. Both in the area of the roof and the facade, the
“The enormous potential of the building skin must be realized from a structural, functional, aesthetic and ecological perspective to promote advances in the development of architecture that is oriented towards a sustainable future.” building skin offers a variety of options for applications capable of meeting nearly all energy requirements, provided the systems, combination- and storage options are employed accordingly.
Summary and outlook
The preceding paragraphs have offered an overview of the principal options for developing building skins that are highly functional with regard to support the creation of comfort and to reduce the energy demand of buildings. When the options for combination are taken into consideration as well, we are presented with a tremendous variety of different envelope systems, which can be conceived in correspondence to the desired functional requirements. At the same time, one has a clear sense of the enormous creative freedom that results from using vastly different materials, surface structures, colours, formats and proportions. In future, new forms of generating energy will influence the design and the performance of the building envelope as a central component of our overall energy system. However, there is still research on new materials, manufacturing methods and facade components vitally important. This may well revolutionize the performance and image profile of the building skin in a manner comparable to the invention of the float glass process in 1955. High-performance computers and new testing methods complement the options for glass applications in construction, advancing the production of transparent total-glass-structures. The advanced development and optimization of synthetic materials exemplifies the potential changes, which the functional, structural and design characteristics of the building skin may undergo in the future. Thus the development of ETFE foils has made it possible to create multi-layered, wide-span membranes. The thermal properties of membrane structures have been significantly improved, and transparent, extremely light and durable external wall and roof constructions have become feasible. The continued demand for high-performance and flexible facade systems will drive the development of the external skin from a static system to a multi-leaf and multi-layered building skin, equipped with manipulators. A variety of control functions, regulating thermal and visual comfort as well as the energy gain and consumption of buildings, will join and complement the traditional function of shelter. Hence, flexible skins are an increasingly important issue and the development of new, cost-efficient materials and components will play a significant role. Even today, electro-chromic glazing can alter the radiation transmission by applying integrated charges, while thermotropic glazing systems metamorphose from a fully transparent into a milky white skin as temperatures rise. The integration of the building skin and the building mechanics is of vital importance in the goal to successfully translate and realize innovative facade concepts. The self-regulating, polyvalent skin (Mike Davies), in which the many tasks of tile building skin are carried out by a thin, multi-layered and multi-functional external skin structure, is one of the visions that points to a possible direction in future developments. How-
Prof. Dr. Ing. Werner Lang Architect as well as Professor and Director of the Center of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Design and Building at the ‘Technische Universität München’ (TUM). From 2008 to 2010 he was Professor of Architecture and Sustainable Design at Austin School of Architecture, University of Texas. From 2009 - 2010 he had been Director of the Center for Sustainable Development at Austin School of Architecture, University of Texas. His award winning design-firm focuses on energy-efficient and future oriented solutions for advanced building in various climatic zones. Recognition Award for ‘Wooden Louvre System for Heat Conservation and Shading Purposes for Double-Skin Facades’. Expertise Research and teaching in the fields of Energy-effficient and sustainable design and building, Use of renewable energies in building, Development of building components and building systems. Research and Development: • Future-oriented concepts for urban renewal • Low-energy facade systems • Building Systems for Schools in hot Climates
Lakshmi Precision Screws Ltd. Group inks JV with EJOT First Indo-German Joint Venture in organized Construction Fastener Market in India
JV to bring global expertise local access to India Lakshmi Precision Screws Limited, a leading brand in automotive and industrial fasteners in India, announced its joint venture with EJOT Germany Gmbh, a leading European group of companies in the construction fastening market. The Joint Venture between the two companies combines best-in-class technology and product knowledge of EJOT with the market comprehension of LPS, thereby establishing a new benchmark for quality assurance, quality control and timely delivery of customized solutions to customers. The JV is the first Indo-German joint venture in the organized construction fastener segment in India. The solutions will be manufactured, marketed and customized by LPS drawing from the in-depth product and market knowledge, dynamics and technical know- how and transfer offered by EJOT. LPS EJOT Fastening Systems Pvt Ltd. The line of products and solutions from LPS EJOT will be manufactured at LPS Rohtak (Haryana) plants in India and distributed through the extensive sales and distribution network of LPS. The JV will cater to Construction fastening Solutions for Industrial Lightweight buildings, ETICS –(External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems- Special Anchors for Insulation), Solar Fasteners (specialized solar application for PEB and flat roofs), IFF - Industrial Windows and Façade, Rear Ventilated Façade (Anchors for fixing substructures and façade fascia) and solutions for Flat Roofing.
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Facade and Fenestration News for India
Are green facade elements the symbolic forms of our time? energy sources can be integrated (e.g. solar thermal, photovoltaic’s, Hybrid-technologies etc). Another focus lies in considering different technical solutions and integration of new “smart-materials”. The challenge is to have flexibility in manufacturing the facade elements, in order to adapt them to types of forms and needs. These typically fulfil high thermal requirements and make use of the advantages of prefabrication, such as avoiding thermal bridges and reducing on site construction time. Windows, ducting, cabling etc. can also be integrated and other design adaptations of multifunctional facades could be their use as Rain Skins, and as Heat Screens with myriad design possibilities.
Some of the great moments in architectural history resonate with the same arguments about what buildings should look like and what the elements of facade design in architecture are. Historically an integration of art, sculpture and architecture has always been evidenced in the grand ecclesiastical traditions of churches, temples and mosques all over the world. The pre modern (Sullivan) interest in integrating structure and ornamentation too is well known, the modern movement’s reliance on structure as a strictly constructional basis for design expression is also well recorded architectural history. Indeed, architectural facades have not only formed the first impressions of a building, developed its crucial design and construction position, in fact they place it in the time period it belongs, giving it identity, and showcase the future it offers. Now, forced by a volatile energy price environment, climate change, depletion of carbon based energy resources and increasing population growth vying for the same scarce resources, architecture faces a never before need for greener practices. Today there is thus an extraordinary push for change in practice to innovate in the design of facades. In a world increasingly focussing itself on sustainability perhaps a change in the traditional term, “facade” to perhaps something harder working and appropriate term like building skin, or the term, “building envelope” might just be more apt, given all the interfaces that need to be resolved in the performance design, the response to local climate, sun and light and local aesthetic characteristics and the present day supply chain involving glass, metals and energy skins with performance criteria to match all the present post-modern environmental challenges. This is not say that the use of ‘facade’ as used by modern theoreticians and symbolist architects to invoke the perception of architectural form is problematic for those reasons, but only that the present day need is to refocus facades on adding a performance dimension to their form rather than only aspects of their style. The aims of post energy crisis- building envelope design really begin with its reaction to earlier design- in that it needs to address the limitations of its predecessors. New ideas of a soft architecture that does not think of building envelopes only as fixed, permanent, passive, and hard. The thought is to enable an active interaction between digital networks, and physical materials that can adapt to new conditions over time and use multiple sources of energy to work together to create new space and environments. This idea must be extended to think of energy as just another material in the language of architecture, used in communicating ideas with the public without quoting extensively from past architectural styles. In breaking away from the past, architects can then strive to produce buildings that are sensitive to the environmental context in which they are built.
To be exemplary in Indian cities, architecture today must not only be graceful, but should also be seen to offer a hardworking, environmentally sensitive and sustainable energy design in keeping with the resource-scarce times we live in. Improved building performance and sustainable practices in architecture have a staggering impact on the entire economy. In fact a 60% of the power consumed by the economy is accounted for by the built environment. The green building industry has experienced phenomenal growth throughout the country. The numerous benefits of high-performance buildings, combined with rising energy costs and government pressure to combat global warming, suggest this growth is likely to continue. Building owners too have a tremendous opportunity to help the environment while increasing their financial performance- in fact, sustainable buildings may shortly become the hardest working investment for building owners. Our job as architects is to align our buildings to a powerful architectural idea while offering meaningful solutions that are conservative with the use of energy and responsive to the environment and our experience of it. This will at once make buildings economically viable, cut excesses and optimize costs, provide a great fit for the end users. Not the least, of course is that great design always remains attractive to owners, buyers and tenants. Today’s more visible star architects produce buildings that are as stylistically “branded” with signature forms whose schemata, is shown off as a unifying determinant of their individuality and mind. Actually this schema is in us all- the unity of concept and intuition, a common achievement of both factors. These schematic, symbolic, and signifying forms are representative of new knowledge and discovery. What is this knowledge? What are the discoveries that building forms today allow us? A case for India with its harsh climate, must be made to transcend the presumed dichotomy between ornamentation, structure and form and add to the mix- the criteria for climatic performance and new materials. For India the honest challenge of designing building envelopes is our environment with its suspended dust, polluted air, scarce electricity, high sun and all too harsh climate. For us it could be all about using efficient facades that can provide insulation, energy saving and aesthetics. There are several energy-conservation measures that building owners can implement, which range from renewable energy technologies to relatively simple upgrades. Below is a general overview of many design ideas that have been explored by architects all over the worldwhere the main differences lie in integration of materials, renewable energy or solar energy concepts. Multifunctional façades: The design of building envelopes that focus on some of the buildings’ physics functionalities (e.g. lighting, shading, thermal insulation, acoustics, sometimes fire protection, and moisture handling). Furthermore, large-scale innovative renewable
Solar photovoltaics: Photovoltaic (PV) integration that use semiconducting materials to convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV-integration avoids additional sealing of natural green areas. An improvement of the eco-efficiency and value increase of modern sustainable buildings is achieved. For the integration of PV in facades, new fixing systems were developed that comply with load bearing requirements and at the same time fulfil high aesthetic design expectations. Green/Bio Climatic facades focus on Improvement of the microclimate (reducing temperature, increasing air humidity), Prevention of overheating, noise reduction, CO2-storage, biodiversity and dust filteration. Vertical greening in standard refurbishment is now easily possible has a large potential for retrofitting building facades in Indian cities and may provide an effective solution for overheating, water balance, fine dust, biodiversity etc. Though, current challenges are the high maintenance and the high costs of necessary fertilization material, mounting systems, and irrigation. Energy façades: Optimised building equipment (heating, cooling and ventilation) and/ or renewable energy are integrated in these façade panels, which are mainly used for new development and office buildings with integrated building services for heating, cooling, ventilation and heat recovery as well as lighting and sound insulation within unitised cladding panels which can measure a mere 20 cm in depth. Gap solution façades: Double skinned, insulated facades in which stable honeycomb structures are the innovative component in the design. During summer much of the radiation is reflected due to the comb structure itself. Depending on the orientation the improvement of the U-value of the exterior wall is very high. Hybrid façades: In hybrid façades new smart-material, such as nano-/aerogel and vacuum insulated panels, are integrated. Most of these materials are still very young technologies and further development and research is ongoing in the world. Most promising development are known for Vacuum Insulated Panels. The insulating effect of VIP is 5 - 10 times better compared to conventional insulation systems. VIP is still a very young technology and is not yet suitable for processing at construction sites, as they can easily be damaged. Accordingly this material is suitable for prefabricated building elements or sandwich elements, where the risk of damage by building users, durability of the vacuum (currently 30 years), maintenance or replacement of single panels is addressed.
part of the schematic arrangement for transferring geothermal benefits to the building. Phase Change Materials (PCM): A layer of salt crystals stores the heat irradiated by the sun, and releases this as required. A prismatic glass that is also incorporated allows the solar radiation to pass through only when the angle of radiation is low (i.e. in winter), and in summer protects the space from overheating. In this manner a building element is created that utilises and stores the power of the sun and at the same time provides protection from it Energy-modelling: Software is used to assess and improve the efficiency of buildings through sophisticated software tools that recreate building systems in a simulated environment. The simulations display the building’s systems and their interactions to show how the building would operate and demonstrate how the systems affect energy performance. Once the model is verified, you can virtually run the building using the software. This provides a powerful resource for making infrastructure changes in a virtual environment and testing a variety of solutions to determine which would function best in the building. Architects have traditionally continued in the modernist vein to be dismissive of decorative ornamentation and clearly historical references and motifs are an impediment towards other aesthetic judgment. But yet today we run the danger of a mechanistic reliance on dumb new technology structures as a basis for a definitive form in architecture. While we know that the world cannot have a strictly constructional basis for ornamentation, today much like historic examples where art, sculpture and decoration was integrated into architecture, present concepts of architectural envelopes need to integrate into their storyline, energy and climate performance, into an expressive and morphologically complete whole. Design Atelier is a multifaceted Architecture, Interiors and Urban Design Firm, based out of New Delhi that is founded on the belief that architecture and design provide a sense of grace to life- and we believe that matters. Our unequivocal focus is to positively influence the future shape of built environments through design leadership, expert knowledge and services excellence. About the Authors
Aashish V Karode,
B.Arch. | M.U.D. (Berkeley), USA Principal, Planning and Design Services Member, Council of Architecture Associate, Indian Institute of Architects Aashish believes in Architecture that is beautifully functional, ecologically responsible, and environmentally sustainable. While he finds his passion in the careful balance of client and end user input, he matches this with an uncompromising dedication to design that elevates the experience of places that he designs. With over twenty years of extensive design experience on a number of significant projects, Aashish has led the firm in a variety of works ranging from Hospitality, Schools, Commercial and Institutional projects to Urban Townships including the Reliance Power Township at Sasan, and Industrial Townships in Odisha., and various LEED Gold and Platinum projects that the firm has recently been engaged with.
Sushil L Karer
B.Arch.| Institute of Environmental Design Principal Member, Council of Architecture Associate, Indian Institute of Architects Sushil Louis Karer is focused on the role that design plays in creating exciting and stimulating environments that are sustainable over their life cycle and use resources conservatively. He has more than 20 years of leadership and recognized experience in architecture, facilities planning, design and concept development of Institutional Architecture and Interior Design in the IT, Hospitality, Retail and Residential sectors and project implementation. His experience and commitment is a complement to Design Atelier’s sustainability resume and market focus.
More recent developments: Geothermal systems: Transfer heat stored in the earth or in groundwater into the building during the winter and transfer it out of the building, back into the ground, during the summer. The building envelope is a integral
Facade and Fenestration News for India
CNC Profile Machining Center - Automation the way ahead From hand cut & fabricated windows to CNC (computer numerical control) machine fabricated windows – The Indian Facade and Fenestration Industry has indeed come a long way. Production plants are expanding owing to an increased demand in the sector, and Fabricators are investing in hi-tech, high capacity machines to enhance their production and provide quality systems. We spoke to some of the leading names in the Industry to find out about the benefits of automation and its advantages. Here are the excerpts:
Advantages of automation / CNC- Is it to save labour cost or attain better quality? “The Indian Market is in a state of evolution. For quite some time after the advent of u-PVC Doors and Windows to India, the market was in a nascent state. Consequently, most fabricators were operating on a small scale. The Machines and processes were basic level”, says Mr. Arijit Bhattacharya, National Head – Machinery, LGF Sysmac. “With increasing size of projects and decreasing delivery times, it is but necessary to go for automation”, adds Mr, Satish Kumar, Director, Elumatec India. He further explains that “Labour cost per say in relatively cheap in India but what is lacking is the consistency in performance. Repeated quality and accuracy is necessary to ensure timely completion of projects and recovery of payment. High attrition rate in the Industry further aggravates the problem. People need to be repeatedly trained to achieve the necessary result”. Automation starts before the machine, actually even before the order is bagged. Estimation, preparation of shop Drawings, BOQ, Profile order, optimization, assembly line and packaging can also be automated. According to Mr. Keshav Babu , National Sales Manager , Fom Aluminium Machines “The main advantages of automation are higher consistency and quality, reduction of lead times, simplification of production, reduced handling and improved work flow”. “The reliability and repeatability of performance is high in this case because it is the Machine that is doing the job and if correctly programmed, would deliver the desired result”, concludes Mr. Bhattacharya.
Do we have the required trained / skilled manpower to operate the sophisticated CNC machines? Mr. Babu explains “Handling the CNC machine definitely requires skilled manpower, so that the machines are used effectively and efficiently and investment made towards procurement of such machinery is justified.”
Mr. Kumar feels that “It is important to choose the right machinery supplier who has an efficient and trained team, who can further train the operators on running and maintaining the machine.” “CNC Machines are designed for ease of operation and Maintenance. They have an extremely intuitive Graphical User Interface and can be used by personnel after just a few hours of training .We impart Training to Manpower not only on the operation of Machines but also on Basic Programming and Preventive Maintenance”, asserts Mr. Bhattacharya. Mr. Babu, further adds “In India there is no dearth for skilled man power, the automobile and engineering industries use very sophisticated automation to produce goods. Automation is now gaining popularity in the Indian fenestration Industry and we can take the required support by hiring engineers from the matured engineering industry. In fact we are soon planning to start a training facility to support the Indian fenestration Industry, so that any existing or new facade/ window manufacturer can get the services to train their work force effectively.”
Importance of a qualified workforce: Mr. Kumar elaborates “We have three categories of Service Personnel – 1. Mechanical – for installation of machines and mechanical parts. 2. Electrical/Electronics – for trouble shooting during breakdowns. 75% of the break downs are electrical/electronics related. 15 – 20% are related to programming/operational and around 5% is mechanical.
3. Trainers – for training operators on the correct usage of the machines. The Trainers have themselves worked on the CNC machines for nearly 6 years. They are able to train the operators much faster and better”. As per Mr. Bhattacharya “CNC Machines are quite expensive and the Customer of today is very wise. The entire selling process involves a lot of iterations and the customer is keen on verifying every aspect before taking a final call. We have trained persons who are very capable of answering all the Technical questions of the customer, not only prior to sale but also post sales. The support is not limited to selection of the right machinery, but also assistance in selection of peripheral machinery and equipment required for running the plant, advise on optimum layout for the plant, guide on electrical and Compressed Air piping etc.” “A qualified and well trained workforce is essential to promote such advanced and hi-tech solutions, and to offer qualitative and timely support. We suggest the right solution to customers and value for the customers investment, as automation typically requires a very large initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although the cost of automation may be spread among many products and over time” explains Mr. Babu
AMC (Annual Maintenance Contract) “We offer AMC to the customers post the expiry of Warranty at very reasonable rates. The AMC includes pro-active Preventive Maintenance visits and also visits for Break Down Maintenance”, says Mr. Bhattacharya. Mr. Kumar however feels that “AMC unfortunately hasn’t been well accepted by the Industry. Very few people have come forward for AMC though the costs are minimal. Our emphasis on maintenance and operator training is an on-going process.” Mr. Babu explains “First we understand the requirement of the customer with clarity and the way the customer is maintaining the machines. We do have AMC scheme, however depending on customer requirement, we suggest/advise whether to have AMC or individual break down call, whichever is more beneficial”. All three companies maintain stock of Critical Spares and Spares for Normal Running and Maintenance.
Voltage fluctuation Voltage Fluctuation and Power outages form a serious problem for CNC Machines and Machines with Electronic components, especially in a country like India where power cuts are quite common. Frequent fluctuation harms the electronic components and axis controllers. Mr. Babu agrees, “Yes this is a worrying factor for all machines suppliers in India, our CNC machines are equipped with built in stabilizer as a protection feature, and we always advise our customer to install servo controlled voltage stabilizer to ensure smooth running of the machines” “ We recommend that our customer go in for a Servo Voltage Stabilser or Servo Control Panel with automatic Servo Control for each individual incoming phase and with the ability to trip even if one of the three phases has a fluctuation higher than the set value or if one of the three phases trips. Another option is an on line UPS. These are some of the things that help alleviate the Voltage Fluctuation problem”, explains Mr. Bhattacharya. According to Mr. Kumar “ In India we face Voltage fluctuation, frequent power shut down and erratic voltage. At one location the voltage was varying from 350V to 470V during the day. It is possible to isolate the DC voltage and supply a DC UPS just for the PC and controllers in some cases. Most cases a Servo Stabilizer would be more than enough. However one needs to go for a Stabilizer from a reputed manufacturer. We have had instances where the output from the stabilizer was more erratic than power supply from the grid. Some of our customers have invested on an Online UPS too. Additionally proper industrial wiring is necessary in the factory. In some cases we have observed the wiring is done by a Domestic Electrician who loops lighting, AC and machinery all in one line. It can lead to dangerous accidents.” “Employing a proper Industrial Electrical Contractor is a must” he asserts.
Facade and Fenestration News for India
Media Facades - Intersections of art and architecture The system is highly flexible as modules can combined two-dimensionally to create panels and expand three-dimensionally to cover more organic surfaces. The tetrahedral form and linking system allows for a self supporting structure. Gaps in-between the linked modules allow for passage of natural light and ventilation, giving the system a very porous effect. Hence the interior surface of the building receives shaded natural light while the exterior can be used for animation. All modules are lit with an LED diode, which are controlled through a micro-controller to create patterns. The prototype was experimenting with directional graphics and we programmed the screen to display a right pointing arrow. We are looking at public signage systems which can form an integral part of the urban fabric and slowly replace static sign boards. Based on the requirement the system can be modified to use RGB LEDS which allow a wider range of colours. These panels can also have a wide range of interior applications with respect to interactive lighting, space dividing systems and ceiling panels. The prototype was displayed during this year’s India Design Week (2013) at a pop-up exhibition ‘OTLO’ curated by Ashiesh Shah and Tejas Mangeshkar. Cellular Fission – Projection Mapped Media Façade
Architectural facades have become a new medium for animated advertising and illuminated communication. Places like New Yorks’s Times Square, Hong Kong and The Strip in Las Vegas have been the innovators for this form of architecture where the building façade is transformed into one massive advertising medium for communicating messages. In recent years these media enhanced building envelopes are evolving at such a considerable pace that we now have to consider a new element in architecture. One that demands the same scrutiny as fundamental architectural principals and many debated theoretical concerns which precede the spectacle displayed by the media facades. Large single message neon installations are being replaced by large scale LED media screens. Upon the onset of dusk, these screens run high definition advertising content but also run the risk of dematerializing the building that supports them, rendering the architecture two-dimensional and irrelevant upon sunset. Media facades demand high density pixilation to facilitate commerce and branding within the building’s skin, often raising the question of how do architects approach this dilemma. By accepting this form as an addition to the language of architecture; we open avenues to further embrace art, creativity and present an alternative holistic approach to branding. By collaborating with lighting experts and engineers we can innovate and experiment site-specific solutions to clothe buildings thus creating possibilities for art and commerce to be displayed through the same medium. However, we must also address how this new ‘language’ can seamlessly communicate from dawn to dusk. The media façade comes to life when natural light fades, hence the building runs the risk of presenting merely a lifeless surface.
In contrast to conventional media facades, where surfaces are tangible, projections form an intangible content beyond the surface onto which pictures are projected. The challenge is the interaction of the surfaces, the technology and the content of the projections. Using frontal projection techniques we experimented with projection mapping on a ‘Cellular Fission’ panel constructed from ‘Stone Paper’. Stone paper is a relatively waterproof material composed of crushed stone and adhesives in a sheet form. The panel was experimented at a café in Mumbai for a music collective ‘District Fifty’. The projected graphics were in sync with the modulating music tempo. With recent realized projects we are slowly creeping towards the scale of the screens displayed in the movie Bladerunner and cyberpunk themed anime movies. Media facades pose a fascinating challenge of understanding and applying technology and transforming cityscapes. About : Arjun Rathi is the principal of the self named multidisciplinary design practice operating from Mumbai, India. Established in 2011, the work has gained national recognition for its exploratory approach towards design processes. Through the disciplines of Architecture, Landscape, Interior Design, Product Design and evolved concepts of ‘Psyche-tectural’ theory; the practice aims to innovative spatial forms that actively engage, enhance and influence the body, constantly challenging its relationship to the built environment. ‘Cellular Fission – Media Panel’ is a prototype for a media facade; which is part of the studio’s ongoing research in paper architecture systems. The proposed system can function as a external skin for a structure providing shade for the interior space and allows the external surface to be used as a media facade.
Cellular Fission – Media Facade We as a studio consciously investigated the further potential of media facades and their capacity to form an integral part of an overall architectural strategy and language. The challenge was to integrate the language of media generated imagery into the concepts of the building. We paid equal attention to design and structural aspects of the building; the variations of natural light, the slow path of the sun moving across the building surface and the resultant creation of shadows. One of the key challenges we wanted to address was to create fenestration in the media façade to allow people to look out of the building. The resultant was ‘Cellular Fission’, a structural system inspired from Kunihiko Kasahara’s ‘Bird Tetrahedron origami model’. The slit and insertion method of the assembly enables a limitless kind of reproduction – reproduction, similar to cellular fission. Hence the structural system derived makes possible for dynamic and free growth; making it adaptable to varying site conditions and requirements.
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Facade and Fenestration News for India An overview of the Indian Facade and Fenestration Industry - Industry Speaks India is the seventh largest country by area and the second-most populous country with a population of about 1.278 billion* people and growing. About 69% of India’s population is rural and 31% urban. Off late India has seen a huge movement of population from the rural to the urban sector. A huge factor driving this change is the availability of better work and housing opportunities across all major metros. Real estate in India is hence growing, in order to cater to the growing needs of infrastructural development and can be further divided into five sub- sectors: Commercial, Residential, Retail, Hospitality, Office space.
ganized and 15 % organized. As far as the International players are concerned, there is a huge potential with a rapid growth possibility. However in terms of market size the ratio is 95% local and 5 % international” explains Mr. Kushal Bajaj, Executive Director, Geeta Aluminium.
The India advantage... A fundamentally strong and growing economy, with changing consumer aspirations and a nascent developing market for quality products, opens up huge opportunities for International leaders (with new technologies to offer), to establish a long-term presence in India. The fenestration Industry in India, although fraught with challenges, is now slowly and gradually finding more acceptance as the common man becomes more aware of the importance of good windows and doors. Now, along with investing in a 5 star-rated air conditioner, they are also using good quality system windows, which further increases the air-conditioning efficiency. In a country like India where, the noise pollution levels are very high, good quality windows also ensure noise reduction. The Indian Fenestration and Façade industry is a developing business with a small base, offering great opportunities for successful international players to play the role of a market developer. Market Share – Organised vs. Unorganised / Local vs. International According to Mr. Rajeev Antony, Managing Director, Schueco India Solar & Windows Pvt. Ltd. “Before the entrance of the organized system companies, the façade & fenestration industry was highly unorganized and to a large extent, it still is. However, that being said, things are changing fast as we see a lot of efforts on the part of the industry to educate and familiarize the masses with inherent advantages of organized window/door and façade system companies.” Mr. Ajay Khurana, Country Head, Rehau estimates the Indian market size for windows and doors to be approx. Rs. 10000 crore with the predominant materials of construction being Timber (in rural and in upper end constructions), MS (in low cost housing) and Aluminium (in urban constructions) and the approx. market for u-PVC between Rs 600 – 700 crore. Mr. Shrikumar Kothari from Hindalco divides the sector into two different categories - doors and windows which is largely catered by unorganized players (approximately 85-90%) and Facade. “As Façade is considered as building envelope, focus is given on the design and durability of it and it is perceived as a technical product and is catered largely by organized players” he adds. “In rural areas & very small towns, the concept of system windows does not exist at all. These areas are more than 95 % unorganized. When it comes to cities & big towns, the ratio changes to 85 % unor-
Mr. Bajaj feels that “The international system companies surely have better quality products but at higher price. This will give a huge benefit to the Indian Fenestration Industry which has always been a ‘sq.ft. sensitive’ market. It will open doors for high quality local suppliers and with an improvement in the buyers’ purchase, the prices will be triggered.” Mr. Y.P. Singh opines that “the Industry should be able to offer international products and services to the consumers and elevate the overall product, performance and service level of the industry.’’
The accelerated growth in this sector could also be attributed to factors such as increase in FDI, which results in a greater demand for office and retail spaces. A substantial rise in employment opportunities created by MNCs in India has led to an increase in purchasing power which in turn has also triggered the demand for housing. The sector is estimated to have a total supply pipeline of close to 3.6 billion sq ft lined up for completion in the year 2013, with about 98% of this being concentrated in the residential**. The union budget 2013/14 has also taken initiatives to promote this sector. The Fenestration and curtain wall industry in India has a key role to play in real estate development and sustainability. This not only extenuates the exterior façade, but also ensures decreased energy consumption, better insulation, noise reduction, weathering, durability, etc. Glass, windows and façade are a major factor for every building. For example, the right choice of glass and frames and professional installation can save up to 30 per cent energy. The new Architectural landscape (in Urban areas especially) is turning towards high-rises, wherein the role of fenestration is vital. The growth of this industry is linked directly to the construction industry’s performance. The commercial and residential space growth (in the Construction industry) is significant and it is expected to grow at >20% pa. And, as per a McKinsey study ‘…a new Chicago needs to be built every year’ to meet India’s growing demand by 2030***.
involved in drafting Indian standards’’ adds Mr. Khurana.
Quality awareness in the fabrication Industry According to Mr. Chawla “A more serious and constructive approach is needed for a vast market like India. Building up the business volume comes first and the quality awareness aspect gets the second priority. In such a scenario, only time will bring in the bigger change needed.’’
New trends, Driving factors and Challenges for the Indian Fenestration Industry As per the studies by various research organisations, the Indian construction industry is growing at a rate of 6% and has been forecasted to grow at 8 % in FY 2013-14 (despite the recent economic developments). Keeping in mind the growing population and housing needs, small townships have already started to mushroom around large cities and tier 2 cities. “The ability to customise, localise standard to acceptable solutions for quicker turn-around time and an efficient cost is a key challenge that we strive to deliver to our customers” asserts Mr. Antony. “Windows are no longer an object to fill the openings in the Building envelope. Today’s windows are expected to perform various functions such as letting the light in, keeping out heat/cold, noise attenuation, as well as being aesthetically attractive, with lower maintenance requirements and manufactured using energy saving/efficient materials/processes. Much needs to be done in marketing of these products by showcasing the advantages of these products to the builders, architects and the common man” explains Mr. Khurana.
Mr. Antony feels that “The fabrication industry is developing along with the construction and building materials industry. Since more and more international corporations are setting shops in India, it is imperative to bring the fabricators to a higher level and introduce them with international quality jobs. We work in India with chosen local fabricator partners and also develop new ones. There is an exclusive fabricator training facility which Schueco houses within its 22,000 sq. metres facility in Bangalore. A Schueco certified engineer imparts trainings to various fabricators across India at project sites and in-house to ensure correct fabrication requirements of our products.’’
Mr. Kothari feels that “With the new players coming in (Doors and windows), focus is being given on educating the end user. This will drive the market in terms on demanding right product and also with more premium properties being developed; it will also create a demand for premium high–end products.” This is also endorsed by Mr. Herat Mehta, CEO, Geeta Alsysco Pvt. Ltd., who feels that the market will get further distributed into different segments like Projects, Retail, High value products etc. and people will choose their comfort segment. Mr. Y. P. Singh, Technical Head, Fenesta adds an interesting perspective, wherein he feels that there is a huge potential in the replacement market in India. “As of now this market is untapped and already existing houses with poor insulation and increasing cost of energy are potential market for the product.’’ According to Mr. Rajesh Chawla, Director, Veka India “The growth potential of the construction industry in our country is enormous - for both basic Infrastructure development and residential development. However, with the local unorganised practices, the end quality of the products is marred heavily. The new trends are largely driven by the western practices and many a times not completely suitable for our geographical requirements. The driving factor could be the awareness and demand for better quality products supplemented by the actual availability of such materials and solutions. But the bigger challenge that still remains is the implementation of right practices of execution on ground.” “Architects/Builders/Promoters and other key players who play an important role need to understand the importance of green or eco-friendly products .Once the standards are laid simultaneously sub-standard products would no longer exist in the market” adds Mr. Farid Khan, Chief Executive Officer, profine India Window Technology. Impact of absence of codes on quality fenestration products The building law in India is governed by the National Building Code (NBC), issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The codes for fenestration (similar to, say, EN 14351-1 etc) in India is in the process of being drafted. Currently internationals codes (ISO, EN, ASTM etc.) are used. Although the National Building Code exists, it is unfortunately quite old and does not take into account the changes in Building design changes that have evolved over the last two decades. “Proper planning, energy efficiency, green concepts, safety of people working and number of occupants are some factors that need to be considered, but are not given due weightage. To give an illustration, Annealed and single glass is used extensively in High-rise apartments, even though the window sizes have changed and many a times, a wall is replaced by a window with a large glass area. With such changes, we defeat the very objective of windows and in turn invite unwanted energy loss from the system’’ explains Mr. Singh. Safety is another aspect which gets affected due to the absence of codes. According to Mr. Mehta “Many developers install unsafe products even at 100 metres height; this practice is not only unsafe for the user but also for the installers, and people around the area. Furthermore, the end product does not even perform the basic features that are expected out of a quality fenestration product.’’ “As of now, major manufacturers are still following the respective country codes in profile extrusion. However, to meet the International standards BIS needs to refer the International codes already defined for manufacturing u-PVC profiles and device respective codes in India to meet the International Quality standards for u-PVC’’ proposes Mr. Khan. “The industry largely depends on international codes, rather on the excerpts from the detailed international codes and everyone has their own interpretation” adds Mr. Chawla. Impetus International System Companies will give to the Indian Fenestration Industry Owing to the potential created by the need for high quality, reliable façade and fenestration solution, international system companies are setting shop in India. “Our tested and certified products have contributed to the impetus required by the Indian Fenestration Industry by bringing high quality engineered products. This in turn gives the Architect / Builder - Developer / Fabricator community a reliable source, as we provide ‘all’ the articles constituting the aluminium systems- profiles, accessories, screws and consumables” explains Mr. Antony.
“A quality product becomes one of the very important elements in this business for which good tooling is needed. Quality products would help entrepreneurs in fetching higher net profitability due to the higher selling price of the final product. Another important factor is that of a high volume business hence extruders of high capacities selected would lead to a more viable business’’ asserts Mr. Khurana. Mr. Y.P. Singh further explains that the “The window fabrication industry is very new in the country, less than a decade as of now and still in the evolving stage. We do expect lot of entrants to make use of the existing opportunity; however this comes surely with its own challenges.’’ We expect the profile and machine supplier to provide extensive training to the users for its right use to produce and install quality products. uWDMA, (u-PVC Window and Door Manufactures Association) is too aware of the fact and is organising hands on training sessions for fabricators and users.” he adds further. Mr. Bajaj defines the evolution of the Industry from hand cut & fabricated windows to CNC machine fabricated windows, “We have come a long way. The factories & production plants are rapidly improving but due to the price constraints the quality products have taken a back seat. It is very important to understand that the in a country where the industry is highly unorganised, only improving the efficiency production plant will not suffice. One will have to concentrate on the entire cycle (from procurement to Installation) to get best output. R & D will have to be introduced and training programs for upgradation of human resource will be essential.” * http://countrymeters.info/en/India/ ** Report prepared by CBRE titled “Assessing the Economic Impact of India’s Real Estate Sector” *** (MGI Report, April 2010)
“System companies coming to India do a wide research, before offering a product according to the technical and market requirements. We share our experience and knowledge to improve quality standards. We are also
Facade and Fenestration News for India
World’s leading trade fair for windows, doors & facade Energy efficiency and sustainability coupled with safety, design and comfort are the major requirements for product development in windows, doors and facades. A visit to Nuremberg is essential for latest updates on the international market’s innovations. Visit fensterbau/frontale, the world-leading exhibition for windows, doors and facades from 26 – 29 March 2014. As the world’s leading exhibition for windows, doors and facades, fensterbau/frontale is the sector’s innovation motor. More than 770 well-known companies from 36 countries present products and solutions for the trend themes of sustainability, comfort, automation and energy efficiency. You just have to be there too! The exhibition duo of fensterbau/frontale and HOLZ-HANDWERK attracted around 100,000 decision-makers from all over the world in 2012. No other international trade fair offers more product information, more experts from architecture, industry, trade, craft trades and research, and more potential business leads in one place.
Venue & Date
Exhibition Centre Nuremberg, Germany 26 - 29 March 2014 parallel to HOLZ-HANDWERK Daily 09:00 – 18:00
Opening Times Saturday 09:00 – 17:00 No. of Exhibitors
approx. 780 exhibitors
Discover the World of Fenestration Fenestration China, 19 - 21 November 2013 426 exhibitors, 51,520 Visitors fensterbau/frontale, 26 March - 29 March 2014 779 exhibitors, 98,973 visitors Istanbul Window, 12 March – 15 March 2014 595 exhibitors , 52,536 visitors GlassBuild America, September 9-11 2014 364 Exhibitors, 6,200 Visitors www.global-fair-alliance.com
Facade and Fenestration News for India
Performance testing of the façade and fenestrations by ANTONY JOHN Engineering Director Schueco India Solar & Windows Pvt. Ltd.
In the past 5 years we have seen a marked growth in awareness in the façade and fenestration industry. The call for correct specifications relevant to the project has been growing stronger by the day. Since India is yet to formalise the codes that are needed to form the yardstick in assessing if the proposed design is deemed to be adequate for the specifications of the tender, we are left to follow American, European and Australian norms. While most of the parameters are the same, there are variations in the testing methodology and acceptable parameters. Schueco considers the following key parameters while addressing the system testing requirements. 1. Design Load: This is usually determined by IS 875 Part III. However, this code is based upon the BSCP 3:1973: CP3 chapter 5 Part 2, AS 1170, Part 2-1983, NZS 4203-1976, ANSI A58.1-1972 and Wind resistant design regulations, A World List. Association for Science Documents Information, Tokyo. All of these have been revamped. While the effect of this is not significant for villas and mid-rise buildings, it is highly recommended to conduct a wind tunnel simulation for high rise buildings. This study should also take into consideration adjacent buildings as well as any known future developments. Research has been conducted on accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics software’s on wind load determination. For complex structures, research presented in international forums have recommended a combination of both. ASTM E330 test methodology is followed to determine the compliance of the system. The allowable deflection parameters are currently varied. “AAMA TIR-A11-04 Maximum Allowable Deflection of Framing Systems for Building Cladding Components at Design Wind Loads” addresses the issue of when Span/175 or 19mm is recommended and when span/240 + 6.35mm is applicable. 2. Air infiltration and exfiltration: This parameter is important for many reasons. Movement of external air to the room and vice versa has significant effect on the estimated thermal and acoustic levels as well. Control of water penetration is also made redundant. Most specifications call for ASTM E283 as the test methodology but stop at a pressure differential of 300Pa. EN12207, EN12152 addresses the classifications of Air infiltration requirements upto 600Pa and beyond. EN 1026 addresses the test methodology. In all cases differentiation in parameters for fixed lites and openable units are identified. Since the water penetration is invariably tested to beyond 300Pa, the European code addresses this parity.
5. Seismic movements: In general floor slab movements (inter storey drift) as well as vertical movements of floor slab are usually covered under this test parameter. IS 1893 Part 1 defines the zones and the loading requirements. Similarly Clause 7.11.1 specifies that the inter storey drift shall not exceed 0.004 times storey height. AAMA 501.4 is the test methodology commonly followed. 6. Acoustic tests: This is a key requirement for both the buildings located near airports or flight paths and the hospitality sector in general. The various weighted average ratings such as STC, OITC and Rw are available. However, the correct selection of the rating for the specification of the fenestration and façade while ensuring that the walls, air condition system etc also comply with the specified acoustic requirements and will result in optimal costs. EN ISO 140-3, EN ISO 717, ASTM E90, ASTM E 413 and ASTM E 1332 provides the test methodology and classifications for the above three ratings. 7. Thermal cycling test: This is not commonly specified in India. However for areas such as Delhi where the lowest recorded temperature is -2.2°C (1967) and maximum recorded temperature is 49°C (June 9, 2007), the existing thermal codes would have to be modified. Once the U value of the façade and fenestration through both conduction and radiation is stringent, thermal cycling tests to verify the current software based thermal simulations would be specified. 8. Operating forces: Both the AAMA 513-12 and EN 13115 prescribes the test methodology for the various openables i.e. sliders and vents as standalone fenestrations or in facades. Both AAMA and EN codes are available for lifecycle testing. This will ensure that the end customer has a product that will perform as designed. One key aspect of laboratory testing that is yet to be implemented is “controlled dismantling” in the presence of the Façade consultant and other stakeholder representatives (quite common in Europe and USA). This will ensure that whatever deviations from the original design has been made to pass the test will be also implemented in the Project. Awareness and selection of the optimal test parameters applicable to the project shape, size and location ensure that the project costs are also optimal. Antony John has over 19 years experience in the Façade and Fenestration industry. He has a Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering and a Masters in Business Administration. His experience spans across projects in India, Middle East, Europe, UK and USA. He has hands on experience in designing, estimation, production, planning, installation, testing and system design. He has worked with leading international fabricators and for the past 12 years has been working for Schueco International KG, Bielefeld, Germany representing their Technical division in Middle East, USA and India.
FLASHBACK- fensterbau/frontale india 2013
3. Static pressure water penetration: The specifications that are currently seen in the tenders vary from 450Pa to 1000Pa for facades depending upon the façade consultant. While the codes do allow for increase performance specifications, the most common test parameter used worldwide is 600 Pa. Test methodology commonly adopted in India is ASTM E331. With significant number of European systems companies and Architects now operating in India, European norms are gradually getting accepted as an alternate to American and Australian norms. EN12154, EN 12155, EN12208 and EN 1027 provide the testing requirements and the classifications for the same. For systems that are predominantly dependent on sealants to ensure water tightness, an additional degradation test is carried out taking into consideration the possibility of de-bonding .
4. Dynamic pressure water penetration: This is the most important aspect of testing as a cyclic positive and negative pressure is applied while testing for water penetration. This test is the closest to the realtime scenario where the pressure on the façade or fenestration is not static. AAMA 501.1 is most commonly used wherein an aero engine is used to simulate the requirements.
Facade and Fenestration News for India
· India’s only focused event for the Facade and Fenestration Industry · Concurrent Conference program under the heading of “Envelopes for Green Buildings” where experts from India and all over the world will discuss the latest technologies and trends with key focus on Trends in Science & Market, Energy Efficiency and Quality. · Special Architect’s Forum · Accompanying Workshop for local fabricators · Opportunity to meet Indian and international manufacturers, brands and suppliers under one roof · Witness the best of national and international spectrum of products and technology
February 27 - 1 March, 2014
· Get an insight into the growing Facade and Fenestration Industry in India
Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India
· Parallel to ACREX India – India’s biggest Exposition on the Heating, , Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air- Conditioning Industry.
Thu/Fri/Sat, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.
For more information, please contact: NürnbergMesse India Pvt. Ltd. Tel : +91-11-47168828 Email : email@example.com
International Fenestration Forum
Façade and Fenestration News for India : Technical Article, Industry News, Latest Trends