Issue X | July 2015
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE GUEST EDITORIAL
The FENESTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA tabloid is celebrating continued service to the Indian Construction Industry professionals through this Anniversary Issue. The journey of this tabloid has been exemplary throughout; this anniversary issue is a paradigm shift and an echo of the previous tabloids’ success. It brings the promise of deliverance of even superior work in the approaching tabloids. The theme of the Anniversary issue has been aptly kept “The Transitional journey of Architectural Facades - from Historic to Contemporary Designs”. It is planned that the anniversary issue will become an excellent reference guide for façade design and its construction in India. The Odyssey of Facades in India is a fascinating journey encompassing more than five centuries. The Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was built almost five hundred years ago. The Master Architect created a façade, unmatched in all these centuries. The carefully carved Jaalis (stone apertures) on the façade cool the blistering hot summer breeze, into a relatively cool gently-moving stream, providing comfort to a thousand visitors, with absolutely no energy input. The last thirty years have witnessed an explosion of high-rise buildings in all Metros and major cities of India. Sadly, many designers have opted to blindly copy the façades created by masters of Modern Architecture for their iconic buildings in the USA, Europe, Australia and China. They have ignored the powerful influence exerted by the local climate on the façade design, in contributing to the energy efficiency and indoor environmental improvement of the built spaces. “FENESTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA” has done a yeomen service to designers, architects, developers, builders and owners in India, by organizing their annual flagship event, held each year in a different part of India. We look forward to the 2016 edition, being held on 25-27th February, 2016, in Mumbai, the commercial capital of India. Dr Prem C Jain
NEED TO RAISE THE BAR - Puneet Khanna, HTAU, Delhi
40 YEARS IN THE DEVELOPMENT – ARE WE READY FOR THE FUTURE? - Prof. Ulrich Sieberath, ift Rosenheim
FACADES! - Manish Dixit, Aum Architects, Mumbai
“EXPERIMENTING WITH MATERIALS, COLOURS AND TEXTURES.” - I.M. Kadri Architects, Mumbai
“THE TRANSITIONAL JOURNEY OF ARCHITECTURAL FACADES - FROM HISTORIC TO CONTEMPORARY DESIGNS”. - Kamal Malik, Malik Architects, Mumbai
PEARL ACADEMY OF FASHION, JAIPUR - A Project by Morphogenesis, Delhi
FAÇADE SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDINGS IN INDIA - Dr. Prem C Jain & Sakshi Goyal
“BUILDINGS CREATING LONG LASTING IDENTITY” - Ar. Prem Nath, Prem Nath & Associates, Mumbai
Student’s Corner “THE TRANSITIONAL JOURNEY OF ARCHITECTURAL FACADES - FROM HISTORIC TO CONTEMPORARY DESIGNS”. - Tauseef Ahmad, 5th year student at School of Planning & Architecture, Delhi
“INCREASED NEED FOR EFFICIENT CONTROL INSTRUMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS” - ZZ Architects INDUSTRY NEWS
CASE STUDY IN FACADE & FENESTRATION - Projects by Alpro Industries, Delhi – NCR
Chairman, Indian green Building Council
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE NEED TO RAISE THE BAR
- Puneet Khanna, HTAU, Delhi
Traditionally, the collective response of buildings to their geography, climate, mineral setting, local craftsmanship and economic and social realities, defined the character of the urban settlement in India, making each distinctive. Today, however, these regional peculiarities are eroding fast. A faceless aesthetic is beginning to dominate the urban environment of provincial towns in our country.
access and ensures cross ventilation across all floors. Slender brick louvers minimize heat gain in the specialized facilities such as operation theatre and post operation facilities on the first floor towards the west. The entire brick construction was done by two local masons with no prior training in exposed brick work. The architectural team worked closely with them to develop simple details and tools to assist them in construction. The masons were trained to read drawings and simplified detail drawings were prepared for use on site. The articulation of brickwork was minimized to simplify and speed up the construction process. A similar minimalist and practical approach governed the choice of other materials – they had to be ‘fit for purpose’ and easily available.
Over the past few decades, our approach to façade design in India has gone through a 180 degree turn. Looking for efficiencies in construction speed, costs and space-planning and management for fast changing lifestyles, traditional materials such as brick and stone were replaced by the more contemporary glass, steel and aluminum. While the use of these brought tremendous innovation in the construction industry and in architecture, it also began to define a ‘blanket aesthetic’ of the socalled ‘modern’ building. This mass fetish with how contemporary buildings should look rather than perform began to ignore three essential aspects – pride in the ‘craft’ of building and technological skill, response to India’s climatic extremes and the resultant loss of identity.
The building was completed in 16 months and within a limited budget. Through passive design techniques, we managed to minimise maintenance and operations costs. KMC uses artificial lighting for only 15% of the day-light hours on the shortest winter days and mechanical cooling for an average 20% of working hours (in OPD rooms and public areas) in peak summer months. We hope that KMC’s simple yet pragmatic response to its local context engenders curiosity and, more importantly, raises awareness about façade system designs that can have a substantial impact on the quality of internal and external spaces. We also hope it begins to define, in its own small way, a new identity for Karnal.
With the technological advancements and the ‘know-how’ that comes with new façade design systems as well as the age-old wisdom of working with traditional materials, delivering the highest design and finished quality of a ‘crafted’ product and ensuring energy efficiency through passive and actives design solutions to transform the quality and performance standards of spaces is indeed possible. What is needed is a massive programme for skill building in the construction industry and raising awareness about the impacts of façade design solutions. We need to raise the bar.
About the author
Karnal in Haryana, home to some of the finest historic examples of civic buildings in exposed brick in the region, now faces a similar challenge of being a victim of mass poor quality construction. In a recent project in the town, HTAU endeavored to create an environmentally responsive building and revive the local ‘craft’ of exposed brick construction through the Karnal Medical Centre. A building, through its façade, inadvertently determines the varying degrees of access it allows to light, air, sound, and, of course, people. In contrast to the colder countries of the west where air leaks are minimized and solar access is welcomed to allow heat gain, facades in India need to mostly do just the opposite. Active natural ventilation and minimal direct solar
access is most suited for our hot and humid climate. Therefore, the outer envelope of the Karnal Medical Centre was built in a rat-trap-bond (to maximize insulation) and designed to change across each façade in response to its orientation and context. Using the flexibility that brick
provides due to its modular nature, minor variations were made within the rat-trap-bond to create jails, louvers and projections. Simple yet essential solutions such as a building height brick jali along the main eastern façade in tandem with a similar jali enclosing the staircase to the south-west, allows light while minimizing direct solar
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Puneet Khanna is the Founding Partner of Habitat Tectonics Architecture & Urbanism (HTAU), a Delhi-based Architecture and Urban Design Studio. An Architect with over thirteen years experience in both UK and India, Puneet’s portfolio exhibits a wide range of projects including high rise office buildings, institutions and building restoration works. With extensive construction experience, Puneet’s particular interest lies in creating environmentally responsive architecture using a select material palette and construction processes that maximise efficiency - of time, resources and budget.
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 40 YEARS IN THE DEVELOPMENT – ARE WE READY FOR THE FUTURE? - Prof. Ulrich Sieberath, ift Rosenheim
The technical and human Limits to what is possible – Ideas and Visions A review of the subjects covered over 40 years of Rosenheim window conferences seems to suggest that there are no limits to the diversity of technology in the building industry. Visionary buildings of the past have determined technologies of the future. The roof of the 1974 Olympic venue in Munich may serve as an example. Its visionary design using new and untried architectural devices, construction and materials has influenced urban development worldwide and in Munich more than any other building. The concept developed at the time for sustainable use of the sports venues beyond the Olympic Games has anticipated trends which today are more current than ever. What we can learn from that is that technology progresses very quickly, and that limits are not fixed. Nevertheless, building components have their definitive limits in relation to: • their performance (development of individual values), • their cost-effectiveness (excessive development of individual values), • their complexity (control difficulties of details and systems), • their user acceptance (too great an impact on people), • the built environment and traditions (boundary conditions imposing limits), • the documentation (future requirements of the Construction Products Regulation)
improved accuracy, the procedure no longer seems to meet current requirements. The essential task is to focus on the complete building and to inform the consumer with transparent values that are easy to understand. Therefore the industry urgently needs new rating parameters beside the U-value, such as those promoted by the Energy Label, in order to be able to properly market its products. Another limit has been reached in terms of the weight of casements, which over the years has been continually increasing. This development is not just due to the advent of triple-glazing units. In the past, large windows with safety glazing already presented serious problems because of the almost unmanageable weight of the casements. And the advent of triple-glazing has further exacerbated this. New frame structures with reduced weight are now on the market – especially for insulating glass units – and require different detailing. More specific design parameters and compliance with local conditions and customer requirements have to be taken into account as well as the resulting limits in size, potential deformation caused by the dead load and the often discussed occurrence of condensate in refurbishment projects. In addition, there are new tasks in research and development, such as relieving the pressure in insulating glass units in order to reduce deformation, or to minimize the tension to the edge seal of insulating glass units. The future task is to develope correct testing and sizing procedures for this subject in order to ensure long service life.
USE CONDITIONS AND DESIGN ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE
Fig. 1 Development of thermal insulation (U-value) in Europe since 1977
TECHNICAL LIMITS With respect to the U-value and thermal conductivity of materials, the technical limit has been reached and hence also the ecological and economical viability. Any innovations in this respect are limited to very small fractional improvements. These do not have any real practical effect in terms of perception, and do not result in any measurable improvement in energy consumption of a building.
Fig. 2 Limits - thermal protection versus fitness for use
Fig. 3 Subjects and findings resulting from 40 years of window experience
Besides, taking account of these minute differences during everyday testing is problematic and any potential benefits may well “disappear” due to the inaccuracy of the test equipment. Of course, one tries to respond to this situation by updating the body of standards, for example by developing new algorithms for calculating window coefficients or by optimising measuring instruments. But even with
With new profiles, fittings and glazing methods it is possible to change the design of windows, making the frames narrower and more filigree. The uniformity of the windows of the 80s and 90s has given way to a new multiplicity in design. But in the absence of new design standards, it is more important than ever to comply with the most important design principles in order to ensure the product’s durability and
Page 4 | July 2015 | Issue X
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE futness for use. Just as with the old windows, the new designs need to make sure that materials are compatible, provide for water vapour equalisation, that products can be disposed of and recycled and that they work properly in terms of drainage and sealing (step model). Furthermore, there are studies to show that the living conditions in buildings are changing. In low-energy buildings heat/energy losses from utilisation, ventilation, cooling and artificial lighting are by far outstripping the traditional transmission heat losses. Plus-energy houses, which are going to be established in the market, aim to reduce these losses. This cannot be achieved without mechatronic building elements, because this is an opportunity to avoid personal misuse. This progress is forced by the automotive industry which developes automatic braking systems or sleep control systems. Even though these elements in the building industry still require more development before they are suitable for practical application. Important requirements for such elements are:
holistic and more comprehensible descriptions of our building components to convince builders to use them. The way forward is clear, provided the political framework is suitable, which, in view of the scarcity of resources and the energy turnaround, seems beyond doubt. On this basis the answer to the above question about the future is a categorical “yes”.
• rugged construction, • straightforward and integrated link with building services systems, • safe operation and • straightforward, intuitive handling.
ARE USERS PREPARED FOR THE FUTURE? Science fiction often refer to utopian housing technology such as technology automatically control systems for rooms and equipment. The inhabitants interact with the system via clearly arranged control panels and voice commands. Rooms are air-conditioned and well ventilated. The technology recognises the mood of the inhabitants and automatically controls the respective components; these ensure appropriate air change, the proportion of sunlight and artificial lighting etc. Considering the advances made in this respect by car and electronics manufacturers, these ideas no longer seem to be as utopian as previously thought.
Fig. 5 Vision of windows for the future About the author
But, we have to ask, are users really prepared to put up with this type of machinedominated control? In some respects, the new generation seems to have embraced the new technologies. Who, many years ago, would have thought that many of today’s youngsters no longer read roadmaps, but ask their smartphones for directions or for a restaurant. There is no doubt that a lot of research is still required, as well as a certain development process. But one thing is already clear: the use of windows and doors has to become more intuitive, the technology easier to comprehend and more universal, in line with the motto “universal design – designs and applications for the largest possible range of users”.
Fig. 4 Principles of Universal Design Plus-energy construction methods will also have an impact on urban design. These methods involve building shapes and technologies which are not necessarily compatible with the architectural traditions of our cities and villages. But again, this development will have to undergo a process similar to that experienced in the discussions on the first rooftop solar panels and today’s acceptance of them.
IS THE INDUSTRY READY FOR THE FUTURE? The progress of technology is breathtaking, the industry is innovative and has the technical know-how and equipment to support and drive this development. We must accomplish a move away from purely physical parameters towards more
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Prof. Ulrich Sieberath is the director of ift Rosenheim and engaged in the window, facade and glass industry for 30 years. He provides his comprehensive experience and professional knowledge to a large number of technical panels and expert committees as well as in his capacity as an assessor, expert lecturer, author and faculty member both nationally and internationally.
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE FACADES!
- Manish Dixit, Aum Architects, Mumbai
In Architectural vocabulary, the facade of a building is more often the most important feature from a designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s view, as it creates a tone for the remainder of the building structure. From an engineering point of view, the facade is an important feature, due to its effect on energy and productivity. Due to local government and historic laws, many buildings are often forbidden to alter their faĂ§ade designs. During earlier times, the facade of every building structure either had a touch of religious or local culture. From ancient Greece to British Empire, the structures have always asserted the cultural and authoritarian features in their elevations or facades with the use of materials or elements and form. Apart from political aspect, environmental and climatology aspects also played an important role in shaping these facades, such as the stone fencing in dry weather in Persia, to the heat-insulated monuments in the Soviet Union. At present, as architects, we have failed in many cases to follow the simplistic principles of facade design. The use of Glass and Steel in most facades has become an easy trend without understanding the impact on the environment of the structure. Balconies, which were an essential feature in most Asian tropical buildings have vanished
due to either local government rules or just influencing architectural features. Not very often, we get to see projects which are using the philosophy of basic architecture that we learnt in school. Environmental impact, geographical location, climatology, culture and social requirements are habitually ignored in this process. As an architect, we are the influencers even in government offices to amend the local laws and help to give the society what they need and deserve. The newer structures and facades which are designed today shows our marvel in engineering with curved structures and extraordinary cantilevered frontage. With technology to excel ourselves in the field of architecture, we are able to
reach to greatest height in creating facades around the globe. But, is technology taking over our basic roots of designing? That is something to ponder or go back to our drawing board and rethink. About the author
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From designing Kindergartens to townships, Manish Dikshit, gold medallist in architecture has created award winning designs since 2002. He is the Founding Partner of Aum Architects, a design firm based out of Mumbai, India and has executed projects across Europe, Middle east along with Indian Sub-continent. He has imparted knowledge from his experiences at world architectural events, lectures in top design schools etc. His diverse designs have added value to architecture, interior and civil work.
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE “EXPERIMENTING WITH MATERIALS, COLOURS AND TEXTURES” - I.M. Kadri Architects, Mumbai
The firm has always tried to create a distinct identity to each building making it memorable. Facades have never been just a covering skin of the building in Indian architectural history. Climate plays a vital role in designing buildings and the building breathes through the façade.
Otters Club, Bandra, Mumbai, 1973
‘Jaali’ a perforated stone screen, was an integral component of Mughal architecture, constructed primarily using marble or sandstone, and was used in windows, railings, dividers and outer walls, that provided ventilation and screening from light, keeping the interior environment cool and airy. While they admit free air, they temper sunlight and eliminate its glare. The Mughals have mostly used geometrical jalis, both with straight and curved lines. The sunlight streaming through these jaalis created patterns to form magical shadows. The Jaali in modern context is any punctured facde constructed with different materials like concrete, bricks, metal, glass etc. The use and functional aspects of it remain the same. Louvers and trellis used on the façade also provide the same desired effect. At our studio, we have used jalis, louvers, trellis in design, since the initail projects way back in 1960’s. The play of light and shadow creates an interesting and magical space for the occupants. Experimenting with materials, colours and textures, the firm has always tried to create a distinct identity to each building making it memorable.
Otters Club was one of the first aquatic clubs to come up in Bandra at a time when Bandra was a far-flung suburb. The Club was designed to make the maximum out of the magnificent views the Arabian Sea offered. It was designed to be as visually porous as possible so as to enhance its connection to the sea. This indigenous and innovative use of stone required the skill of the best craftsmanship of Indian artisans. The voids and solids interplayed dramatically with light and shade. This screen wall was decorative and served as a breather for the windows behind it. The stone used not only did away with the need of constant maintenance but also shut out ugly trappings hanging out of open windows. Today however, the original design has been bludgeoned out of shape. It has been redesigned into a faceless concrete façade.
The Nehru Center 1985
Above: The 15 acre site of ShivSagar Estate at Worli, a sea-side commercial hub in central Mumbai. Today, the complex houses five identical hexagonal towers which hug the bay and provide spectacular views of the city. The east facing offices have windows concealed with vertical fins to soften the glare. These fins were also added to the north & south faces to ensure uniformity of the façade and hide the plumbing but, most importantly, they added modernity to Worli’s skyline whilst redefining it entirely.
Happy Home & School for the Blind, Mumbai, 1971
The Nehru center at Mumbai was designed as a living memorial to India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. The cylindrical memorial tower, noted for its fretwork – like, latticed chajja houses an auditorium, a library, an art gallery and other exhibition rooms and office spaces. Today Nehru Centre is a premier art and cultural center in the country.
Sona College of Technology, Selum, 1997 The design philosophy for the Sona College of Technology focuses on interaction – the interaction between built forms, between students, and between the indoors and the outdoors. The institution has a strong design language that ties it together – the use of over sized trellis over hangs, and beautifully designed jaalis which add a play of light and shadow whilst giving the campus a distinctly Indian flavor and creating interesting shadow patterns during day.
“When designing the Happy Home for the Blind, I groped and searched in the dark, with the blind children’s ease of movement and physical safety predominant in my mind. It was a labour of love I relished doing,” says I.M.Kadri. An institution built for 200 blind students was designed with a façade which plays with textures created by a jali which acts as an external wall. This being the west wall, this Jali curtails the direct sunlight entering the building. The massing of the jali along with two solid walls at the corner created an impact of security.
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE Symbiosis Knowledge Village, Pune, 2009
The building is wrapped by a multi-foliage screen at a distance of 2 m from the main faรงade. Flowering seasonally this living breathing green wrap is not only aesthetic but also per formative in its function. It filters the incoming sunlight and significantly reduces heat gain within the facility whilst effectively shading the interiors. About the author
An eco-friendly educational institute situated on the top of the Lawale-Suz Hills, the Symbiosis Knowledge Village is spread over 47,200 sq. m. of partially sloping land. Metal screens were used extensively to cut excess light and heat entering the classrooms and corridors. It also acted as a barrier to cut the gust of wind in the public area of the building, taking into account the site was on top of a hill.
Symbiosis College of Architecture - Proposal 2014
Rahul Kadri is Director, IM Kadri Architects, an Architectural Design, Urban Planning, Interior Designing and Engineering Company operating since 1971. Reputed Consulting Engineers are affiliated with the firm for preparation of Structural, Mechanical, Electrical, Airconditioning, Environmental Control and Landscaping Designs. The Company operates under the leadership of Mr. I.M. Kadri and Mr. Rahul Kadri, who are the Principal Architects. 3 Design Directors, 2 Design Managers with 32 Architects assist the Principal Architects. A team of Project Engineers do the Project Engineering and Co-ordination, Quantity Surveying, Engineering Co-ordination, Tendering, Contract Administration and Execution. Besides Mumbai, the company has a branch in Muscat (Sultanate of Oman) and in Bangalore.
INVITING ARCHITECTS AND CONSULTANTS TO CONTRIBUTE ARTICLES AND PROJECTS THAT DEMONSTRATE FACADE INNOVATION write to us at: email@example.com
A series of vertical fins governed the faรงade placed strategically on the east side which was the main face of the building.
Ensaara Metropark, Town Square - Ongoing Project
A retail building which required people to be interested to it. A colorful glass faรงade adds to the charm of the building, whereas the use of glass makes it sleek and minimal. The colored movable louvers adds a fun element to the building faรงade giving it a vibrant look. The movable louvers would be adjusted for sun protection in various times of the day.
Franco Pharmaceutical - Ongoing Project
The focus of the project is to create an environment where all the users and processes would flourish and grow. The proposal attempts to bring in maximum daylight to enhance efficiency whilst reduce heat gain to ensure thermal comfort of the workers within. SOA - Elle Decor Ad - CLimber.indd 1
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8/4/2015 2:40:37 PM
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE “THE TRANSITIONAL JOURNEY OF ARCHITECTURAL FACADES - FROM HISTORIC TO CONTEMPORARY DESIGNS”. - Kamal Malik, Malik Architects, Mumbai Since man first discovered ‘shelter’, it has been an endless journey of finding the balance between keeping the elements out whilst allowing nature in. The earliest caves, rock-cuts and the ancient settlements followed progressively harnessed tools and technology to achieve this very primal objective of safety and permitting natural light and ventilation.
01. Cappadocia rock architecture 02. Narasimha Swamy Temples, India 03. Pantheon, Rome 04. Angkor wat, Cambodia 05. Gloucester Cathedral, UK 06. Ellora Caves, India 07. Khajurao Temples, India 08. Halebid Temple, India 09. Taj Mahal, India 10. Sidi Sayed Jaali, India
11. Hawa Mahal, India 12. Haveli facade, India
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 13.
The limitation on size of openings imposed by load bearing structures as witnessed through the ages, suddenly gave way to the total glass pavilion, the Paxton Palace. Rapid subsequent developments in technology allowed us greater levels of freedom in the design of our facades. Until finally, we are able to generate facades that are kinetic and respond to nature in that they breathe, permit precisely controlled light, adapt to the elements and are virtually able to mimic the human skin. 21.
13. Paxton Palace, UK
14.Glasshaus India, Bengaluru
15.Oriel Chambers, London
16.Flatiron Building, USA
17. Glass Building, Chicago
18.Trident Hotel, Mumbai
19.San Temlo Museum, Spain
20.KMC corporate Office, Hyderabad
21.Shenzen Energy HQ
22. Health Institute, Australia
23.Al bahar Towers, UAE
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE Lupin R&D Center, Pune
Cancer Center, Jaipur
In our design practice, based on the tenets of ecology and spirit, we have explored this subject with reference to the subcontinent and in the context of evolving a syntax that is relevant to the tropics and has evolved from the memory of the region. The building skins are a combination of double wall/ventilated deep facade systems and a double skin technology for light control and adaptability. The intent is to ensure an excellent quality of glare- free natural light as well as to allow substantial views outside of the building. Where the double skin (glazing/screening) is used, the outer layer can be structured for manual as well as system determined operation as part of an intelligent network of sensors and activators. The need for blinds can be totally eliminated and the appearance of the building will organically change throughout the day and through the seasons as the skin adapts to its surrounding.
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← Adhiraj Headquarters, Kharghar
Grande Palladium, BKC
The street facing West façade is clad with seamless corrugated aluminum broken by small sun shaded fenestrations. The south-west sun in this part of the northern hemisphere has the harshest glare, the sun shades therefore, have been designed to project out on the south side to cut out the glare. These projections rake back on the north to maximize exposure to the cool northern light. The East façade is skinned with laminated glass in order to suffuse the interior spaces with natural light. On the upper floors the skin cants up, thereby opening the fenestrations more towards the northern direction. Similar to the fenestrations on the West Facade, these fenestrations are designed with raked back sun shades. The North façade is made up entirely of triangular pieces of laminated glass interspersed by skin truss members; the façade is raked back on the upper levels. This deliberate gesture was made in order to suffuse the interior spaces with as much natural daylight as possible, and also provides a visual connection to the slopes of the landscaped garden below while cutting out any glare. In this region of the world, the South sun is the harshest, with a strong glare and warmth. The major services were thus stacked on the southern end presenting a dead facade of shear truss members clad in Kalzip. A few horizontal openings have been provided to bring light into the service area. About the author Founder and principal architect of Malik Architecture, Kamal Malik was born and raised in Shimla in the pristine environs of the Himalayas; even today, nature remains the source of his inspiration. He completed his architectural studies at the School of Planning and Architecture (SPA) in New Delhi. With over 35 years of experience, the firm continues to strive to develop a contemporary design syntax approaching Architecture as a synthesis of ‘Ecology’ and ‘Spirit’. Ecology speaks of a seamless, cohesive and integrated approach to design. Spirit implies balance, understanding and tranquility. Malik Architecture has won numerous design competitions and is the recipient of over 100 national and international awards. The firm’s work has also been featured in over 300 publications, both domestic and overseas. Kamal Malik continues to lecture on diverse subjects ranging from sustainability to Research, Education, Health-care & hospitality.
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PEARL ACADEMY OF FASHION, JAIPUR - A Project by Morphogenesis, Delhi
The Pearl Academy of Fashion, Jaipur is a campus which by virtue of its design is geared towards creating an environmentally responsive passive habitat. The institute creates interactive spaces for a highly creative student body to work in multifunctional zones which blend the indoors with the outdoors seamlessly. The radical architecture of the institute emerges from a fusion of the rich traditional building knowledge bank and cutting edge contemporary architecture.
The institute is located in a typical hot, dry, desert type climate on the outskirts of Jaipur in the soulless Kukas industrial area, about 20 kilometers from the famous walled city. It ranks third in the top 10 fashion design institutes in India, and its design needed to represent the seriousness of its academic orientation through its formal geometry. Given the nature of an institution, budgetary constraints on the project necessitated the use of cost effective design solutions to keep within the price points set by the client and yet be able to achieve the desired functionality and effect. The adverse climate makes it a challenge to control the micro climate within the project thus incorporating various passive climate control methods becomes a necessity and also reduces the dependence on mechanical environmental control measures which are resource hungry. The architecture of the academy needed to
be a confluence of modern adaptations of traditional Indo-Islamic architectural elements and passive cooling strategies prevalent in the hot-dry desert climate of Rajasthan such as open courtyards, water body, a step-well or baoli and jaalis (perforated stone screen). All these elements have been derived from their historic usages, but will manifest themselves through the built form and become an intrinsic part of the daily life of the design student.
The building is protected from the environment by a double skin which is derived from a traditional building element called the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Jaaliâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which is prevalent in Rajasthani architecture. The double skin acts as a thermal
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buffer between the building and the surroundings. The density of the perforated outer skin has been derived using computational shadow analysis based on orientation of the faĂ§ades. The outer skin sits 4 feet away from the building and reduces the direct heat gain through fenestrations, yet allowing for diffused daylight. The jaali thus, serves the function of 3 filters- air, light, and privacy. The scheme relies on self shading sliver courts to control the temperatures of internal spaces and open stepped wells while allowing for sufficient day lighting inside studios and class rooms. Programmatic requirements enabled the conception of a whole
level of functions in the underbelly which would operate in a passive environment without the employment of any mechanical means of heating and cooling. The entire building is raised above the ground and a scooped out under belly forms a natural thermal sink which is cooled by water bodies through evaporative cooling. The water body which is fed by the recycled water from the sewage treatment plant helps in the creation of a microclimate through evaporative cooling. The under belly which is thermally banked on all sides serves as a large student recreation and exhibition zone and forms the anchor for the entire project. During the night when the desert temperature drops this floor slowly dissipates the heat to the surroundings keeping the area thermally comfortable. This time lag suits the staggered functioning of the institute. Passive environmental design helps achieve temperatures of about 27 degree Celsius inside the building even when the outside temperatures are at 47 degree Celsius. The materials used for construction are a mix of local stone, steel, glass, and concrete chosen keeping in mind the climatic needs of the region while retaining the progressive design intent. Energy efficiency is a prime concern and the institute is 100% self sufficient in terms of captive power and water supply and promotes rain water harvesting and waste water re-cycling through the use of a sewage treatment plant. Besides having become a very successful model
for cost effective passive architecture in desert regions the design and facilities of the campus complement the ideology of the Pearl Academy of Fashion – a cutting edge design institute with a sustainable approach. The Pearl Academy of Fashion is an exemplar of an inclusive architecture which intends to accommodate all the heritage values while positioning it within the contemporary cultural and architectural paradigm. About the author
FACTS: Project Name: Pearl Academy of Fashion Typology: Institutional Location: Jaipur Completion Year: 2008 Client: Pearl Academy of Fashion Size: 2, 15, 278 Sq Ft Architect: Morphogenesis Photo Credits: Andre J Fanthome and Edmund Sumner Structure: N M Roof Designers Ltd. Electrical: Integral Designs Plumbing: Tech Consultancy HVAC: Design Centre Landscape: Oracles Contractors: R G Colonizers Pvt. Ltd Plot Area: 12, 250 sq m (3 Acres) Built-up area: 2, 15,278 Sq ft Building Height: 12 m Basement Depth: 4m basement 4.6m underbelly Year of completion: 2008
Manit Rastogi, Founder Partner, Morphogenesis, graduated from the School of Planning and Architecture (New Delhi) and the Architectural Association (London) with Honours (Diploma school) and Distinction (Graduate school) in Energy and Environmental Studies, Manit is the Founder Partner of Morphogenesis, one of India’s leading awardwinning Architecture and Urban Design practices based out of New Delhi, India. Morphogenesis has been ranked yet again, for the fourth time running, among the Top 100 Architectural Design Firms worldwide by Building Design Magazine, UK in WA100, 2015. Morphogenesis works with some of the best names in the industry such as Infosys, ITC, Tata Housing, Mahindra, Adani, Piramal, Reliance, GVK, Ambuja Realty, RP-SG, The British Council and the Intercontinental Hotel Group to name a few. He along with Sonali have recently been awarded Laureate of the SIA Getz Award for Emergent Architecture in Asia, Singapore 2014, which seeks to bring recognition to Asian architects, who through their vision and commitment have made a significant contribution in shaping the changing landscape of Asia. Manit is a Fellow of the IIA (Indian Institute of Architects) and the RSA (Royal Society of Arts, UK). Manit has taught at various universities and been a director of the Sushant School of Art and Architecture as well as the Sushant School of Design. He has been a juror on several design and award juries. Manit is a founder member, Association for Development and Research of Sustainable Habitats (ADaRSH). As a member of the Technical Advisory Committee of GRIHA, India’s own Green rating system, and as member, Resource Persons Group on Environment and Ecology- Lt. Governor’s Secretariat, New Delhi, Manit works with urban policymakers to spearhead initiatives with an emphasis on environmental sensibility and social welfare.
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE FAÇADE SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDINGS IN INDIA - Dr. Prem C Jain & Sakshi Goyal of various elements of the facade.
(e) Thermal insulation of Wall: Insulation providing an overall thermal transmission of R-24 fetches another 3% saving on the annual energy consumption.
(a) Right Orientation provides a 2% reduction in annual energy bill.
INTRODUCTION The architectural facade has long been the mode of making a statement by the designer, architect and the building physicist, combining in a holistic manner, the attributes of both appearance and performance. Facades are the outer skins of building envelope and symbolize the project image and creative intent. The understanding of façade as an important environmental moderator has been with us for centuries. A glance at the traditional architecture reveals that these built forms have proven their performance over centuries in combating environmental conditions and providing comfort conditions with little or no electrical energy requirement, while simultaneously optimizing the use of material resources. The Jaali has been a key element in Indian architecture for addressing environmental comfort in the traditional building facades. A thoughtfully designed facade can make a new building work more efficiently for its owner, and occupants, while also contributing to preservation of the environment. It can also transform the performance of an existing building. The emphasis on the technical design of façades for modern buildings has evolved in India during the last ten years, driven largely by the international building designers. The whole experience of the façade design is presented here under three sections for optimization of energy efficiency of a building located in a typical hot climate that is encountered practically all over India. The first section highlights a step by step approach to analyze every element of façade for optimizing energy demand at the source itself. The second section quantifies the energy benefits achieved by installing new technologies that are commercially available in India. Finally the third and the last section address how the façades in future will transform modern buildings.
1. ENERGY OPTIMIZATION THROUGH ANALYSIS OF FAÇADE ELEMENTS. The study has been carried on a midrise commercial building with 9 floors, having window to wall area ratio (WWR) of 55%. The construction specifications considered are as per common practice in India - namely, brickwall construction, un-insulated concrete roof and 6 mm thick single glazed windows. Initial estimates reveal that the 25% of space heat gain is contributed by the internal loads & occupancy demands, 28% heat gain comes from treatment of ventilation air, and the envelope contributes the remaining 47% because of not having been treated. The envelope has two components - namely, the façade and the roof. The untreated façade’s contribution is as high as 89% of the 47% gain from the envelope of the building, of which nearly one eighth is contributed by poorly selected wall material, and majority by ill-designed windows. This signifies the tremendous importance of scientifically designed envelope in optimizing the energy performance of commercial buildings in India.
The selected conventional building has been modeled for all the four different climatic zones and the energy consumption pattern at different locations is quantified. Annual energy consumption of the untreated building located in a composite climate is the highest at 9,120mWh, with a cooling load of 2000TR, resulting into 7,843 tons of carbon emission every year. We will now present our analysis for optimization
(b) Window Wall Ratio (WWR): Optimum value has to minimize heat gain, without compromising on the daylight quality within the indoor spaces. The WWR of 20% contributes upto 15% saving on the annual energy requirement of the building, simultaneously reducing cooling load by a whopping 586 TR.
(c) Shading Device: The dimension of the shading device is decided so as to minimize direct solar radiation, thereby reducing the direct solar ingress; while still allowing the diffused component of light to enter the building and illuminate the building uniformly. Optimum length works out for the shading device to extend 600 mm, resulting in saving of 7% in annual energy consumption. (d) Type of Glass: A low U-value double glass unit with a low shading coefficient (to negate the harsh effect of the direct sun) provides the best results, fetching another 6% reduction in annual energy demand.
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Thus, by scientifically designing each element of the Façade, we are able to achieve annual energy consumption saving of 34%. This also results into a dramatic reduction of 45% in the air conditioning load; which implies huge savings in cost of the air conditioning as well as in cost of generation / distribution system of power supply. 2. NEW TECHNOLOGIES AVIALBLE IN INDIA FOR FAÇADE DESIGN The designer has many new technologies commercially available; to further improve the building design. Some of these have been evaluated for the abovementioned commercial building in the composite climate of India. • Applying a superior glass (Double glazing with Aerogel filling) which reveals additional saving of over 1%. • Using Green Wall technology with natural air-filters, creating a cleaner, more invigorating work environment leading to better overall occupant’s health and productivity. Energy reductionfor the already treated façade is marginal. • Ventilated double skin façade consisting of two panes of glass separated by a cavity through which air flow occurs by natural convection. The technology helps in achieving more than 2% annual energy saving. 1. FACADES OF THE FUTURE… the trendsetter Catering to the demands of an ever expanding construction industry in India, and to meet the needs of innovative designers of modern buildings, various future technologies in Building Facades are moving from R&D facilities to select commercial ventures. These are today used in iconic buildings but will soon see wider acceptance. • Facades Generating Power – Building Integrated PhotoVoltaic(BIPV) Building integrated photovoltaics
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE sustaining. There have been other numerous advantages of this system as well. A reduction is seen in street level concentrations up to 40% of NO2 and upto 60% of particulate matter. They potentially contribute to an increase in biodiversity in urban areas by providing a habitat for insects and birds.The most important is their “rejuvenating effect” on the living creatures around, as they contribute in softening of the urban landscape and allow buildings to seem more ‘natural’ and pleasing for the people. CONCLUSION Energy efficiency for combating climate change is a primary challenge faced by today’s construction industry; specially in commercial buildings. Scientifically designed facades, using commercially available technologies presented here, will add great value for both builders and occupants. These minimize the operating costs, while simultaneously improving the occupant health through better control on indoor environment. About the authors
capture the solar radiation and turn it into energy. A modest level of energy generation (upto 12% efficiency) is achieved through Photo Voltaic Glass Unit. PGU provides upto 70% transparency to human eye, allowing their use as fenestration part of the building.The Electricity produced by one sqm area of PGU varies between 40-60 kWh per annum. Dr. Prem C Jain Chairman, Indian Green Building Council Chairman Emeritus, AECOM India A-197, Sector-63, Noida-201 301 firstname.lastname@example.org
• Thermally Dynamic Facades – phase change materials These are façades which respond in accordance with the variations in outdoor conditions. Thermally dynamic facades use phase change material wherein a layer of salt crystals captures the heat radiated by the sun (precluding from entering the indoor space) and releases it back to the environment during non-operational night hours. The thickness of conventional materials used in buildings isan order of magnitude larger than the equivalent heat capacity of a one-centimeter-thick phase change material. • Bio Mimicry in Facades – living buildings Just like the surface of a leaf, the ‘skin’ of future buildings may react to external stimuli, opening, closing and breathing throughout the day through a system of ‘cellular’ openings that allow light, air and water into the enclosed spaces. • Facades Enhancing Outdoor Environment – microclimate impact Growing vegetation on the façade (vertical landscaping) can potentially create a positive microclimate around the built form. A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area.Studies demonstrate that a reduction of approx. 2˚C can be achieved by using green vegetation around buildings, compared to the surrounding ambient, in composite climate like New Delhi. • Facades Enhancing Indoor Environment – growing fresh air Most developing countries have high pollution levels and as a result the indoor environment can be even more polluted. Drawing ventilation air through a green façade or a green house, offers a potential tocounter the toxins, VOC’s, microbial infections etc. in an air-conditioned building. • Facades Addressing Food Crisis – Hydroponics The idea that fruits and vegetables can grow with water, light and nutrients, isthe basis of hydroponic: one of the innovative systems of making the building self
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Prof. Ar. Sakshi Goyal IGBC AP | GRIHA Trainer n Evaluator M.Sc Environmental Design | B.Arch. M/s. Anubhav enterprises A-506, Govind Marg, Malviya Nagar, Jaipur email@example.com
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE “BUILDINGS CREATING LONG LASTING IDENTITY” - Ar. Prem Nath, Prem Nath & Associates, Mumbai
to optimized performance, reduced energy costs and improved comfort levels – this use to be traditionally true and is true even today; India, of late, has developed a fetish for a dynamic façade; demand of façade keeps varying from state to state; from the exquisite beauty of traditional Rajasthan to the high rising eclecticism of Mumbai. Façade engineering has seen rapid changes and development in recent years; Up to one-third, of the capital, invested in new construction projects today is being spent on the facade alone & Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi are the main markets.
One of the most important elements of a building is its façade; it is the face of the building, and is considered as one of the most prominent architectural design element to any building. Throughout the history, many buildings around the globe have helped to define the period that they were built in and have created an identity which is long lasting. Architecture across the World has taken great leaps forward, as a result of breakthroughs in science, technology and engineering. Architectural projects now often hold the objective of being inspiring landmarks, which consequently demands that façade architecture plays a vital role in achieving a successful development. Traditionally, facades have acted as the environmental modifier of the inner ambience and to a large extent controller of the energy use. The façade forms an envelope between the internal and external environments, though a façade has more purposes than simply being an environmental modifier, and
of course the main external appearance of architectural intent. The façades, which includes the outer walls, the open balcony, the portico and the open terrace, are like a cosmetic treatment for a structure yet plays a vital role. What exactly the facades did traditionally and what they do currently is a bit different visually, but yet very similar at the grass-root level. Facades add to the look of the structure with different textures, colors, materials, and distinctive architectural features that add visual interest; façade was then and is yet important from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone of the building.
Indian architects are hungry to go beyond ACP and Glass and clients are investing on more imaginative designs of façade. Last 5-10 years favored ACP or Glass, making structures monotonous either blue or green in color. But currently with the emerging economies in Asia, including India & China, one expects to record the fastest growth in demand for facades and the demand for the facades is going to be
Façades add a scale and interest to the building face by articulated massing; it has a very large impact on all aspects of building performance. The facade even gives a scale to the entire space around it. Facades are very much important as they affect the performance of the whole building and good façade designs add
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huge – thus new materials like thin format ceramics, steel mesh, zinc panels & compact laminates are fast emerging. Also, today, the facades have become smarter, with photo-voltaic films being fixed upon facades, it contributes to the power saving/generating – also LED lit structures are slowly making its way in Indian market; To sum it up all, traditionally, the facades were more functional and were kept basic, yet they served the purpose of environmental control from inside-out – then, the facades, defined a period – the face of the structure could enable one to recognise the era it was built in – today the facades have got much smarter, while they yet serve the basic purpose of enveloping around the structure and help maintain better milieu within the building, need for dynamism has enabled a lot of research and development in this field and a so called “Façade Architecture” has emerged demanding for ‘more’, and this has enabled a variety of materials and finishes being available in the façade market.
The ‘Transition’ has been drastic in last decade, but this doesn’t seem to be the end of it, what future hold (or one may say the change has already started) is an ‘Interactive Intelligent Façade’ – a façade that shall not only generate power, it shall communicate with the on-lookers, it shall change colours and opacity with the changing climate. Quite literally speaking, one has much more to look upon the Facades, yet.
About the author Ar. Prem Nath established PREM NATH & ASSOCIATES in 1967. The firm is well known as PNA and is a Mumbai based ‘Complete Design Organization’, having offices in Mumbai (HO), New-Delhi, Ahmadabad, Kolkata as well as presence in Hyderabad; Ar. Prem Nath is perhaps the chosen one to do many firsts in India...India’s first Revolving Restaurant – Ambassador Hotel at Mumbai, India’s first Health Spa – Golden Palm Resort at Bangalore, India’s first theme / entertainment Hotel at NCR, India’s, India’s 1st City Mall and Multiplex for Fame Adlabs at Mumbai, India’s 1st computerized school with no homework concept Vasant Valley School at Delhi, Countries 1st temple for Iskcon “Hare Rama Mandir “at Juhu-Mumbai and many more; Being broadly experienced in Eco-friendly & energy efficient Building Architecture & also a member of U. S. Green Building Council & IGBC - the ‘Green Norms’ are followed in most projects. Today, Prem Nath has done it all. . & yet is striving for bigger and better; from Green Townships to Sky Scraping Residential Towers; from 5million Sft. of IT/SEZ Park to landmark Commercial Towers; Temples, Lounge Bars, Malls, Multiplex, Schools, Campus to Sports Stadiums.
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE “THE TRANSITIONAL JOURNEY OF ARCHITECTURAL FACADES - FROM HISTORIC TO CONTEMPORARY DESIGNS”. - Tauseef Ahmad, 5th year student at School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi Since the beginning of human existence, the need to mediate the environment by creating enclosures has remained cardinal. Hence, all the sine qua nons pertaining to functionality of such an enclosure that could be cumulated in terms of defence against invasion of sun, water, wind, light, heat, cold and any other force of nature remained unaltered through time with additions of aesthetical, economic, sustainable and security considerations. An architectural perspective and understanding into this need, made an enclosure a façade. Although historically, there may have been two ways to understand this entity; firstly as a load bearing wall, which including floor, roof and other slabs is a segment integral to the complete structure of a building and secondly as a façade which is whole with a very long list of issues to deal including successfully dissociating internal environment from external. But with advent of structural steel and later reinforced concrete, the scope of a facade sharpened the focus as such developments allowed small and light columns to support large loads and external walls were no longer required to be load-bearing. Whatever the viewpoint maybe, the importance of an architectural façade is evident as it not only set the tone of the intended design but also interact with the users and onlookers.
Front Façade of Hawa Mahal (1799), built as high screen so that royal women could observe street festivities without being seen from outside (Bialek, 2011)
These public structures helped to extend the limits of this technology as they grew taller in height and larger in floor space. The ability to be manufactured offsite, easy assembly and the reinforcing strength of metal not only relieved the masonry weight but also reduced labour, time and cost of construction. And slowly with better design and efforts the façade - like skin to a body - got separated from buildings structural frame and became a system in itself. After which what Sir Joseph Paxton did at Hyde Park, London in his glorified application of cast-iron and plate-glass on The Crystal Palace had the world looking. American cities like New York and Chicago took to employ this method in its skyscrapers and masonry fronts started falling out of picture. Thence the Great Chicago Fire happened which showed the vulnerability of direct application of iron frames and kept the technology from being universally favoured. Although the dismay and upshot of this incident had solutions in amidst as the structures that survived motivated the ingenuity to encase those frames in masonry. There were other wrapping systems that developed, all taking masonry into account which was appropriated from being load bearing to being hanged on buildings’ structural frames. Further, architects experimented with materials like precast concrete panels, thin stone veneer panels, brick and stucco etc., bringing us to another big step in the evolution of facades in shape of the Empire state Building. It introduced repetitive grids of aluminium spandrels and mullions, fastened to structural skeleton of building. But the greatest change that happened in last sixty years was due to a system of glazing called structural glass. It is a technology which allowed bolting glass together with small metal patches overcoming the restrictions of conventional frames to provide all glass façade.
Interior of Sainte-Chapelle (1490), large stained glass windows (Jr., 2009)
One of the early ambitions of creating large openings which would eventually bring us to modern day facades started taking shape in the Gothic Architecture. This was an idea which remain curbed until the outset of necessary technology to become reality. The 15th-16th century buildings La Sainte Chapelle in Paris and King’s College Chapel in Cambridge are known as the first examples of such treatments on façade. Then came the curtain walls which essentially are a system of cladding of outer walls that are non-structural in nature. During late 16th century in parts of England, mansions started coming up with large areas covered in glass. Bess of Hardwick Mansion is one of the earliest known examples of such curtain walls. In this period, the windows started getting enlarged to the point of becoming the whole façade. Although, this inception was short-lived in the din of Renaissance Architecture, its ingenuity stuck as a very viable approach only to resurface in the beginning of the 19th century.
Façade of The Empire State Building (1931), aluminium frame and glass (Ro)
Le Oasis d’Aboukir, Paris, France (2013) 7,600 plants making it a living architecture (Blanc, 2015)
“Today the design of enclosures have become much complicated and intricate requiring collaboration of designers, engineers, artists, skilled labours, and even researchers.” Curved facades, glass cubes, transparent, translucent, reflective and patterned glass facades are not an issue now but new concerns about energy efficiency, sustainable design, vernacular materials and passive system usage are the challenge. We have built skyscrapers higher than clouds and reached and survived in almost every climate conditions on earth and we are attempting to build on sea and dreaming to live on the moon but with depleting natural resources and increasing population, this endeavour of mediating ever increasing factors and creating suitable enclosures is everlasting. References Anonymous. (2006, May 3). Hardwick Hall. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hardwick_Hall_in_Doe_Lea_-_Derbyshire.jpg Bialek, M. (2011, January 16). Hawa Mahal. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hawa_Mahal_2011.jpg
Front Façade of Hardwick Hall (1590), shows the beginning of usage of curtain walls (Anonymous, 2006)
The Crystal Palace at Sydenham (1854), General view from Water Temple (Delamotte, 1854)
In the wake of Industrial revolution steel frame structures were developed which made the combination between iron and glass possible. And it was wielded industrially too, in every coming exhibition halls, pavilions, railway stations etc.
Blanc, P. (2015). Can grass paint a city? In M. Kushner, The Future of Architecture in 100 Buildings (p. 96). Great Britain: TEDBooks - Simon & Schuster . Delamotte, P. H. (1854). The Crystal Palace. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Palace_General_view_from_Water_Temple.jpg Jr., M. D. (2009, November 11). Sainte-Chapelle. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sainte-Chapelle-Interior.jpg Ro, J. D. (n.d.). Retrieved from cgtextures: http://www.cgtextures.com/texview. php?id=64084&PHPSESSID=b7i1rs2ku4a854tid83fvh64n2
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE “INCREASED NEED FOR EFFICIENT CONTROL INSTRUMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS” - ZZ Architects
“Facade design has evolved into building science with its own sophisticated tools for responding to increasingly challenging demands.” One of the main elements of the building, constituting its identity, is the building’s envelope. Building facades have always undergone changes. We have always admired the extremely detailed facades that adorned the buildings of the past and most of the buildings today are standing testimony to the unique heritage. Historically, the involvement of artists to create fine details and ornamentations gave the buildings its own individual identity. The art of the classical period is associated with the creation of human sculpture and classical orders can be easily determined in its columns, appearing inside and outside the buildings. Personally, I ‘am inspired by stone in building facades. We consciously try to recreate our facades by trying to reinvent the way stones can be used for facade design.
Introduction of new technologies, innovative materials, changing climatic conditions and industrial products and processes all have contributed in the transition of facade design styles from traditional to modern and now contemporary. With the development of steel frame structures, potential of combining iron and glass were discovered. Introduction of glass as a main element of facade gave facade design a unique language that had an international appeal. With a surge in application of glazed facades, the need for efficient control instruments for environmental condition of building’s interior has increased. This measure, not only increased the need for artificial devices to create occupants comfort, but also changed the appearance of the buildings. The emergence of the new ‘Information Age’ has suggested ‘Building Skins’ which are more intelligent and interactive where the “Intelligent Facade” is seen as a central element in the evolution of building form to provide environmental control and comfort. Digitally driven design processes characterized by dynamic, open-ended and consistent transformations of three dimensional structures are giving rise to new design possibilities. Lighting, technology and glass are elements that constantly evolve as time passes. While designing facades one need to consciously address the factors they need to resolve.
About the author ZZ Architects is an innovative Architecture and Interior Design studio led by principal architects Zubin Zainuddin and Krupa Zubin. ZZ Architects comprises of a talented team of 65 Architects and designers who work intensively on projects, producing each work as a unique product. The studio has realized Architecture and design works across the country with extensive experience in Master Planning & Institutional facilities, Residential design including Highrises, show flats, large apartments, independent luxury villas, weekend homes along with Commercial facilities that include Retail commissions, corporate facilities, hospitality and healthcare. ZZ Architects is nationally honored with Architecture’s most prestigious awards by leading publications and prestigious bodies for excellence in design. The firm’s design philosophy is rooted in the belief that “Every Detail in A Project Counts”. Considering the challenges and opportunities of the site, ZZ Architects strives to create unique and timeless designs to optimize the space. The firm is best known for the high quality of work and its collaboration with some of the worlds leading manufacturers.
1. Urban Contextually 2. Addressing air and noise pollution 3. Filtering the right light within. 4. Keeping the environmental elements away, like rain. 5. Creating a stunning visual identity for the building as well as the neighborhood. It has become critically important to ensure building facade has both aesthetic and functional appeal. Facade design has evolved into building science with its own sophisticated tools for responding to increasingly challenging demands.
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE GEETA ALUMINIUM - NEW SHOWROOMS AT INDORE & NALASOPARA Recently restructured and completely equipped with the latest offerings, Geeta Group of Companies proudly launched two new showrooms in Nalasopara (Maharashtra) & Indore (Madhya Pradesh). The showrooms offer customized solutions of Aluminium system windows & doors for homeowners and building professionals. It is a single point location to choose from Geeta`s wide range of offerings. Their initiative is to make interior home design more accessible and fun, by providing multiple options to the customers. . Geeta has reached a network of 10 showrooms pan India including cities like Kolhapur, Nashik, Pune, Shillong & Indore and plans to expand with the launch of at least 15 more showrooms across 8-10 states in the coming year. 9th Showroom - Indore: Opening ceremony was held on 12th June 2015. 10th Showroom â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Nalasopara (Palghar District) Maharashtra: The grand opening of 10th Showroom was held at Nalasopara on 13th June 2015. The showrooms were inaugurated by prominent customers of Geeta Group. For more information please visit www.geetaaluminium.com
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE TOM DEBUSSCHERE (DECEUNINCK NV) SUCCEEDS ANDREAS HARTLEIF (VEKA AG) AS EPPA PRESIDENT. The EPPA General Assembly elected Tom Debusschere, CEO of Deceuninck NV, as its new president during its annual meeting on 19th June 2015. Marcus Wittmann, head of the division Window Solutions at Rehau AG & CO, was elected vice-president. Tom Debusschere succeeds Andreas Hartleif (CEO of VEKA AG), who had been heading EPPA since 2011. Götz SCHMIEDEKNECHT (Salamander Industrie Produkte GmbH), Patrick SEITZ (Aluplast GmbH) and Marcus WITTMANN (REHAU AG & Co) have been elected as new Directors. Former Board Members Martin ALTHORPE (Epwin Group), representing the windows group of the BPF (British Plastic Federation, UK), Andreas HARTLEIF (VEKA AG) and Dr. Peter MROSIK (profine GmbH) have been confirmed for a further term. As associated Board Member, Eric CHATELAIN, Secretary General SNEP (Syndicat national de l’extrusion plastique profilés et compounds, F) has been appointed treasurer. “During his presidency which started in 2011, Andreas Hartleif has put in a tremendous amount of work and accomplished many projects for our sector in Europe. He established EPPA as an independent trade association and succeeded in putting EPPA on the European agenda. Today we dispose of a solid network in Brussels towards the European institutions and stakeholders. For our members there are quite some challenges ahead that stress the need of a strong presence in Brussels. Major challenges are the upcoming Ecodesign and Waste Frame Directive (‘circular economy’) as well as meeting the targets of our VinylPlus voluntary commitment in 2020. We will support the EPPA management to reassure that the industry interests and needs are well represented and taken into account.” says Tom Debusschere, EPPA President About EPPA ivzw: EPPA represents the interests of the European PVC window profile and related building products manufacturers. Industry key figures: Around 25,000 employees produce 1.4 million tons of profiles/ building products, generating > EUR 4 billion sales. Contact: Mr. Gerald Feigenbutz, EPPA ivzw │ Ave. de Cortenbergh 71, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Phone +32 27 39 63 70 │www.eppa-profiles.eu
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CASE STUDY IN FACADE & FENESTRATION - Projects by ALPRO Industries, Delhi-NCR
AMBIENCE COMMERCIAL TOWER, GURGAON
SANGAM THEATER, R.K. PURAM, NEW DELHI
Client: Ambience group Architect: ORBIT, GRID Façade Consultant: DEMA Consulting Façade Contractor: Alpro Industries
Client: Sangam Theatre Pvt. Ltd. Architect: Arcop Associates Façade Contractor: Alpro Industries
The client wanted to create an iconic landmark right at the entry point of Gurgaon. In addition to a continuous 200m long glass façade, it had to be integrated with vertical glass and stone fins in a geometrically aligned design , as per the concept created by the Architect. The project is an epitome of engineering created by integrating SS Fins anchored on to base civil structure with SS brackets along with conventional structural glazing system with MS brackets. The SS fins were then cladded with laminated glass fins and stone fins held with specially created SS point fix glazing fittings. The stone was additionally protected from fall with PU foam sealant and high strength double sided tape. The complexity in execution was to precisely determine and even out the structural level variances. Special mullions were designed with three noses and glass pasting shutter sections of two sizes for glass pasting of panels with fins and without fins. The mullions were then machined precisely for the SS fin bracket to be able to come through the mullion system. Each SS fins of 4m floor to floor height was designed to take care of expansion contraction by welding it at one end only and anchoring with specially designed SS machine nuts and bolts with expansion hole slotting on the other end along with additional SS safety pins. The order of execution of works was: - Installation of MS brackets for glazing system - Installation of SS brackets for fin system - Installation of mullion and transoms for glazing - Installation of SS fins - Installation of glazing glass panels - Cladding of fins with glass/stone The building has been receiving acclaim for its complex design and execution. The other elements of fenestration executed in the project include Point fix glazing, Glass canopies, Aluminium sheet cladding, doors, windows, louvers etc.
The Sangam Theater, R.K. Puram , one of Delhi’s oldest landmark underwent a complete renovation and remodelling. The façade concept was provided as a 3D perspective and had multiple elements integrated into the design including the following elements: - MS works - Structural glazing - Spider glazing - Structural glazing with ceramic fritted glass for pattern matching on the façade - ACP cladding - Sun shade horizontal fins - Perforated Aluminium sheet cladding - CNC laser cut sheet cladding - Glass canopy - Fire doors and partitions The challenge was to integrate the complexity of these elements into the design intent of the architect. Aluminium perforated sheet was installed in front of especially fabricated and installed MS structure. The idea of the perforated sheet structure was to be able to anchor signages of future tenants coming into the mall without disturbing the elevation everytime. In front of the conventional semi-unitized structural glazing system (segmented to give curved look), horizontal fins acting as sun shade devices of specialized shape in ACP were installed to simultaneously maintain the curved profile of the building. The base structure was created and designed in a manner to be able to take CNC laser cut Aluminium sheets of approved pattern at fixed distances. Provisions for lighting the façade were created by working closely with the lighting contractor. The active involvement of client in every aspect was especially noteworthy.
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AJNARA GRAND HERITAGE, NOIDA Client: Ajnara group Architect: In House Door Windows Manufacturer: The Rishabh Winpro Pvt Ltd.
DLF MALL OF INDIA, NOIDA Client: DLF group Architect: Design Plus Façade Contractor: The Rishabh Winpro Pvt Ltd. Multiple fire exit staircases erected in MS were presented as architectural elements of the façade by cladding them with vertical colour co-ordinated Aluminium tubular louvers, along with multiple colours of ACP cladding. Aluminium expanded mesh cladding with integrated elements was used for concealed lighting. For doing this the MS beams along with vertical tubes and columns and signage elements had to be executed . Due to a local drain nearby, special grade of MS with epoxy primer and paint was used. Safety measures included restricting mobility on-site. No scaffolding was allowed to be erected on site and the entire work was carried out by deploying multiple straight and articulated boom lifts for carrying out the works on heights. Focus was on doing the maximum in factory to minimize the work on site, mostly limited to installation and anchoring. The vertical tubular louvers were manufactured in factory in modular panels that were simply aligned and bolted at the required locations. After the installation of beams, MS channels/angles were welded with slotting at the required distances. Aluminium tubular louvers were prepared with corresponding slotting on Aluminium flat in factory with tubular louvers screwed on to the flat and the corresponding holes were then matched and bolted together. The use of Aluminium expanded mesh and fixing of the same by preparing large continuous panels with overlap for pattern matching was indeed a very challenging task.
Engagement of the fenestration partner to be able to deliver the client’s vision of “Luxury at Affordable Price” was a key feature of the project. Use of uPVC windows with profile system of German origin (aluplast) along with German hardware (Roto) within the budget constraints of reality were achieved by the door/window manufacturer by collaborating with the client on design, timeline planning and phasing of the project for bulk production of similar sizes. This enabled the manufacturer to work on minimalistic overheads and production costs by utilizing the huge capacity aided with automation. Reducing inventory carrying costs along with no timelines overrun is a vital remarkable feature of success of the project for delivering world class quality at affordable price. Use of specially developed monorail system for sliders with one fixed and one openable panel was used. For gaining additional points on IGBC Green Building rating system, French doors with full opening double doors , without a fixed mullion in between were installed in the Living rooms. The material was also lifted and handled on site with hanging platforms so that there was no damage to the material on site after being produced in a controlled factory environment. About ALPRO / Winpro Industries ALPRO Industries has created a niche for itself in Building, Construction and Infrastructure Industry with a team of experienced, dynamic and professional individuals. ALPRO is a leading brand offering a wide range of uPVC and Aluminium solutions. Over the last few years ALPRO has established itself as a leading player in the Façade & Fenestration industry and is known for the quality, outstanding service to its esteemed customers and timely delivery. ALPRO has unparalleled state of the art manufacturing units in Noida & Haridwar. ALPRO’s main objective is to deliver customized product/solutions to the customer that fulfils their objectives of quality & standards within budgets.
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ANNIVERSARY ISSUE “FFI India TAB has been doing its bit for the industry which is highly appreciated. I wholeheartedly congratulate the FFI team for taking a step closer and achieving this milestone. Keep up the good work!” Anjan Putatunda KAWNEER Division of Alcoa India Pvt.Ltd.
“Every industry brings along with it its own share of challenges. FFI INDIA Tab not only imparts knowledge but also emphasizes on facts and figures about the fenestration industry as a whole. Wishing for an even more successful growth to FFI INDIA TAB.”
“Congratulations to FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA Team on yet another milestone & being one year old. You have played a very significant positive role in changing the parameters of Indian Fenestration Industry by not only providing the platform but also being the change agent. We at PEGO are happy to be associated in this process of paradigm shift & sharing common value; striving for excellence.”
Farid Khan profine India Window Technology Pvt. Ltd.
“Schueco has a proud and long-standing association with FENSTERBAU FRONTALE from Germany cutting across exhibitions to the widely read ‘FFI Tab’ in India. What’s really impressive is the quality of content ranging from latest technologies in fenestration in India, façade projects with deeper analysis to the latest fenestration industry news. A glance at the tabloid gives oneself a good overview of what’s happening around us. My best wishes for the team on occasion of this anniversary issue.” Rajeev Antony Schueco India Private Limited
Karan Shah PEGO
“We are proud to be associated with FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA . Their flagship publication, the FFI TAB reaches out to the target audience with a positive impact. We wish them success and look forward to reading innovative and interesting articles.” Subhendu Ganguly AluK
“FFI Tab fills a big vacuum in the facade & fenestration sector in India, by presenting its readers with an eclectic choice of well researched, industry-wide articles which are not only enthralling but at the same time educational, with a core focus on latest trends and technological developments taking place within our industry, with an emphasis on critical subjects like energy efficiency, sustainability, environmental impact etc. I wish FFI the very best and look forward to many more interesting articles ahead.”
“I look forward to the FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA Tabloid each time. It gets me in touch with the events that I have missed and the latest in façade & fenestration technology that was showcased there. The articles penned by my colleagues in the architectural fraternity too touch a chord as they share their views, challenges and aspirations. While the FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA Exhibition is truly a platform to meet and interact with industry stakeholders, the tabloid has become a medium for sharing information and ideas between industry professionals. Kudos to the NürnbergMesse India team for achieving such high quality standards in both.” Ruchir Panwar Susten by Mahindra
“We are pleased to send our best wishes to you on your anniversary. As you celebrate this important milestone, we hope you will look back on what you have accomplished with delight and pride. We wish you all the best for continued success and happiness in the future.”
Rajat Agarwal Bhoruka Extrusions Pvt Ltd
“As our industry is still in a growing stage, there is a need to have one common platform which not only covers news from almost all the sectors but also takes feedback from the industry colleagues. FFI tabloid provides very informative/interesting articles. I look forward to reading the tabloid each time.” Ajay Khurana REHAU Polymers Pvt. Ltd.
Kushal Bajaj Geeta Group of Companies
Congratulations and best wishes to FFI TAB on completing two years in the print-media. We respect and admire the efforts of the FFI team for providing us with a dedicated newsletter for the window, door, façade industry. The tabloid is a great source of information not only for us but also for newcomers.
“FFI TAB is a very high quality, niche publication and a great piece of information for the fenestration industry. I enjoy reading the articles. The quality and content keeps getting better.”
I appreciate the professional articles by the industry experts.
Rajesh Chawla VEKA India Pvt. Ltd.
Madhabendra Banerjee Reynaers India
Page 25 | July 2015 | Issue X
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA TAB - Facade and Fenestration News for India is very informative for everyone connected to the industry. It brings and discusses the latest developments in fenestration solutions from all over the world. It also highlights the issues the industry is facing in India.
“The last 5 years were full of challenges. We invested a lot of time in the eradication of myths and educating the customers in and around the entire fenestration field. Despite of ifs and buts the market responded very positively and we see great opportunities in the coming days.
Maja Hoellrigl ENCRAFT India Pvt. Ltd.
People are now becoming more and more quality conscious and we are confidently looking at a bright future.” Arun Sharma aluplast India
“The FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA Tab is a quality publication and we enjoy reading informative articles from Industry experts and leading Architects. Its gives us an insight into future trends as well as current practices.”
“A great initiative by FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA team. The exhibition was a platform for all professionals to network and explore the recent developments in the windows and façade industry. I would recommend a visit to all. Looking for the next one at Mumbai in 2016”
Neeraj Singhal Kalco Alu-Systems (P) Ltd.
Vijay Dahiya Team 3
The tabloid is a great opportunity for all members of the building industry to keep on top of the latest trends. This is a good read for anyone in the industry and we at Jaisim-Fountainhead wish you all the best in all your ventures.
“The event and the efforts put in by FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA team was really commendable. Varied products and company portfolio in addition to presentations by IFT Rosenheim on window fabricator certification was very interesting. We wish IGCC and FFI all the very best and look forward to participation in the near future.” Satish Kumar Deceuninck
Ashwini Jaisim Bhat Jaisim Fountainhead
I am very happy to know that you are going to publish your Anniversary issue . I found your monthly tabloid very informative and multi-dimensional. I wish you and tour team every success in your endeavour. Dibyendu Chakravorty D S Architects
“We at Falcon, Indian partners of Alulux GmbH, are very pleased to be associated with FFI. Introducing a new product into the market is always a difficult proposition but FFI gave us the prefect platform to do so. The events were well organized and gave us great exposure to not only new clientele but also other industry members and we look forward to participating in FFI’s future events.” Rishab Bhatia Falcon Contracts Pvt Ltd (ALULUX INDIA) “This is a fantastic initiative from the FENSTERBAU FRONTALE INDIA team. The tab is a very useful guide on the latest innovations around to help enhance our business knowledge and gives us a valuable perspective on the latest trends regarding facade technology. We believe this is a strong Launchpad to communicate the latest industry news and information on upcoming events to help reach our target customers. The show had a display of quality products and gave us an opportunity to network and exchange ideas with our peers in the industry.”
THE TRADE SHOW. WINDOW. DOOR. FACADE.
SAVE THE DATE! NUREMBERG, 16 – 19.3.2016
frontale.de Parallel to
Damodar Pujari Orgadata India Pvt Ltd. 2016_FF_Vorschauanzeige_A4.indd 1
Page 26 | July 2015 | Issue X
February 25th - 27th, 2016 Mumbai, India Bombay Convention & Exhibition Centre www.frontale-india.com
For more information & space booking please contact:
N端rnbergMesse India Pvt. Ltd. Ms. Rucheeka Chhugani T +91 11 4716 8828 E firstname.lastname@example.org