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S T R AT E G I E S   F O R   S Y N E R G I S M

a  conceptual  toolkit  for  planners  and  designers a   g u i d i n g   m o d e l   f o r   f l o w s   a n d   u r b a n   d e v e l o p m e n t

WATER

L

DELTA / RIVER • •

sea

inlet

salt water fresh water

storm flood barrier

bypass & gully model !

• •

bypass

river gully

A •

A

L

R

N

river

Purpose: drainage, (rainwater)flood protection, water conservation Working with nature: peak- and seasonal storage in surface water, wetland purification Synergy of water system, green structure and green edges in urban and rural landscapes

gully

river

super dike model !

Purpose: (river)flood protection / reducing the risk of bursting Working with nature: imitating natural levees Synergy: urban land use

river

super dike

Purpose: conditions for good water quality Working with nature: water flows from clean to polluted / use of pure sources, wetland purification Synergy: water flows + land use: D-drinking water, N-nature, Fforestry, L-leisure, R-residential, I-industrial, A-agricultural

A

I

L

R F N D

Infiltration model •

urban drains / canals

pump

peak/seasonal storage

Greenway model bypass

N

Purpose: first storage of rainwater runoff Working with nature: fluctuating water table for storage of rainwater in surface water / natural banks with water plants (purification) / water depth enough for cooling in summer and not freezing to the bottom in winter Synergy: water storage and greenways; conditions for aquatic diversity and dry to wet gradients for biodiversity

Purpose: drainage, (rainwater) flood protection, water conservation Working with nature: peak- and seasonal storage in ground water, wetland purification. First storage in ‘wadis’, gradual infiltration Synergy of water system, green structure and green edges in urban and rural landscapes

Wadi model • • •

Purpose: first storage of rainwater run-off Working with nature: infiltration to phreatic groundwater, wetland purification Synergy: water storage and green spaces / biodiversity

river

‘wadis’ / swales pure source

L

R

Circulation model •

Purpose: (river)flood protection Working with nature: increasing river flow capacity as an alternative for building higher dikes Synergy: water management and mining (gravel, sand, clay) / floodplains with nature and recreation

A

Purpose: conditions for good water quality Working with nature: water flows from clean to polluted / use of pure sources, wetland purification Synergy of water flows and land use: N-nature, L-leisure, R-residential, A-agricultural

river

Higher dikes ?

URBAN

Upland connection model

Lowland connection model

seasonal storage

UPLANDS

pure source

E

Purpose: (sea) flood protection, freshwater supply Working with nature: using sand and other sediment flows / seasonal storage of fresh water Synergy of dunes and nature, recreation and drinking water supply / polders: agricultural and urban land use

Models for floodplains •

D

LOWLANDS / POLDERS

Estuary model

• •

peak storage

• •

Purpose: prevention of run-off nuisance / avoidance combined sewers Working with nature: slowdown rainwater run-off, starting on roofs or using rainwater inside buildings Stepwise retention of rainwater: buildings, streets, parks, urban fringe, river Synergy: rainwater and green roofs, water storage and water use inside buildings, water and green spaces, parks / blue-green quality in urban fringes Purpose: first storage of rainwater run-off in densely urbanised situations Working with nature: open gullies that carry rainwater to surface water (reduce underground drains) Synergy: rainwater drainage and street design / water storage and green spaces

Cascade model

‘Gracht’ model

AREAS

ENERGY

O

S . P. T j a l l i n g i i J . F. J o n k h o f 0 1 - 0 7 - 1 2

Bio-CHP heat model

TWO NETWORKS STRATEGY

blue-green heating&cooling model •

M

Purpose: Use blue-green network in the city to create conditions for energy and climate strategies Working with nature: Cooling the urban heat island in hot summers through blue-green corridors, starting with natural valleys in urban landscape / heat extraction from (circulating) surface water Synergy between urban climate strategy, urban landscape structure, parks and greenspaces

regional carriers model

koeling uit oppervlaktewater

wind

wind wind

urban heat network model •

Purpose: Saving energy use, using sustainable resources Working with nature: cascading, exergy principle, use of residual heat flows and residual biomass flows / use of geothermy, wind, solar and water energy / underground heat and cold storage Synergy: Combined Power Heat (CHP) systems at district level / synergy of activities by using residual heat and residual biomass

electricity network rk

wo

et at n

he

water

bio-CHP

TWO NETWORKS STRATEGY activities model

biogas

heat&cold storage

energy

windpark

G

FOOD food

urban agriculture model

global world market large scale bulk production

N

national industrial agriculture

TWO NETWORKS STRATEGY urban structure model

logistic centre

agro-park model

regional

I

traffic

large scale bulk production

agro-parks

urban agriculture

u r b a n fringe

synergism

supermarkets

D

c

i

t

local and streetmarkets

y

TRAFFIC randlengte

I

b

U

G

• •

Purpose: Reducing transport need for commuters who want to live ‘in the green’ and work in the city / Keeping ring-roads at distance from the green edge of the city Working with nature: Creating space for use of landscape ecological potential for creating attractive green edges Synergy between outer ring at distance from the edge and industrial/commercial areas synergy between inner rings in tunnels and built and green programmes on their roofs

outer ring

randlengte

abc cluster model •

inner ring

PHASE 3 outer ring

Purpose: Improving the regulation of traffic flows / reducing congestion and creating conditions to overcome traffic barriers Working with nature: Concentrating traffic axes to concentrate investment in noise and pollution control and in bridges and tunnels for green connectivity Synergy by separating traffic flows functionally and concentrating them spatially

• •

Purpose: Reducing transport need and promoting public transport by clustering activities that require optimal access for people (a), people and goods (b) and goods transport (c) Working with nature: Creating space and rest outside the clusters Synergy between offices, (agro) industrial and commercial activities and their traffic needs

green bike path model • •

Purpose: Creating attractive conditions for the use of bicycles in urban areas. Working with nature: Using blue-green structure of the city as a basis of an attractive bike path network. Synergy of traffic flows: bike parking facilities and rental bikes at key parking spaces and train stations / synergy between streets and bike lanes, parks and bike lanes

CS park- and bike bike path network train network

motorway

bike path network

T R A N S P O R TAT I O N   M AT K E T

c

PHASE 2

ringroad model

inner ring

TRAFFIC MARKET

PHASE 1

C O M M U T I N G   M A R K E T

a

corridor model


strategies for synergism