Page 1






Introduction PART A A1.0 A1.1

Design Futuring Case Study 1: Sustainability Pavilion Dubai


Case Study 2: UK Pavilion, Milan Expo 2015

A2.0 A2.1

Design Computation Case Study 1: The Unveils Carbon-fibre Pavilion


Case Study 2: Pleated Inflation

A3.0 A3.1

Composition/ Generation Case Study 1: Guggenheim Museum Bilbao


Case Study 2: Phare Tower




Learning Outcomes


Appendix- Algorithmic Sketches


Evelyn Ong Yi Thong

I am studying the Bachelor of Environments, majoring in Architecture at the University of Melbourne.

It has been my desire to be a creator – a creator of things to help people solve their problems through creative ideas that improve the quality of people’s lives. I believe that design is not just about its form, shape and appearance. It must have a purpose, a human-centred purpose. It is also about human comfort, experience and memory. I believe it is the duty of a architect to balance both form and function. Architect is not only about designing exteriors and interiors of physical expressions, but more Importantly, of spatial experiences, emotional connections and functional performance that touches the lives of people and make our world a better place. That is why I have chosen architecture. In my polytechnic studies (Diploma in Space & Interior Design, NYP) I have gained and developed many skills in different areas of art and design, and have also taken part in various design competitions. My greatest achievement has been the selection of my design proposal for Seletar Aerospace Park by JTC Corporation for exhibition at the Singapore Airshow 2016 corporate networking event where I had the opportunity to share my design with the Minister. Their recognition gave me tremendous strength and confidence to take on this path and continue this journey in design. I always believe in getting out of my comfort zones to experience new things to deepen and broaden my learning. I was glad to be chosen for the International Student Exchange Programme with the Technical and Higher Education Institute in Hong Kong (THEi), where I had the opportunity to undertake a semester with the Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Landscape Architecture. Being an exchange student, it was an extraordinary event in my polytechnic path as it had given me a mosaic of wonderful and fulfilling experiences. It had shaped and strengthened my character and changed my view on life. More importantly, it had heightened my awareness on design and architecture and had inspired and affirmed myself to continue this learning journey with a university. This is my vert first time using Rhino3D with plugin Grasshoppper. I’m exciting to learn this software and I hope to gain more confidence in using all these tools. Furthermore, enhancing my knowledge and perspective thinking through the computational design.

Figure 1- “Learning From The Master- ALVAR ALTO”, Public Boat House Design”, For “Studio Water” subject 2016.


. trophy DES

Figure 2- “Improving Kowloon City’s Public Space,HONG KONG”, for “Landscape Architecture Studio” subject 2015

Figure 3- “Improving Kowloon City’s Public Space,HONG KONG”, for “Landscape Architecture Studio” subject 2015

Design Brie

The concep flying fish ral’s motio great effo nents whic flying fish handwork achieve you

Figure 4- “The Integation of Human Body With Space”, for “Furniture Design” subject 2014

Figure 5- “From Sketches to Digital Model”, for “Digital Modelling” subject 2014



CASE STUDY 1 Sustainability Pavilion Dubai, Dubai, UAE.

London studio Grimshaw Architects has been awarded the Sustainability Pavilion, and collaborated with BuroHappold Engineering on this pavilion. The Sustainability Pavilion, which will be constructed for the 2020 Dubai World Expo and will be exhibited up to six months. I have chosen this project as my example after this week’s reading where Tony Fry suggests that is an essential of conceptual design should serve a purpose, understanding the present and the kind of future people want or people do not want is very critical way in developing the conceptual design. [1] The three core themes of the pavilion are Mobility, Sustainability and Opportunity. The central part of the pavilion features an 86000 ft2 exhibition space that includes an auditorium, reservoir and courtyard. The most unfathomable part of the pavilion is the architects adopts the technological method as the main concept, the concept of “energy trees”,

1 2

which energy tress will not only use the solar panels to absorb the sun’s energy, there will also have the capacity to generate water from the atmosphere. London studio architects also underline the concept of serving a purpose as a key consideration of theirs, which encompasses three relationship- technological and the environment, the environment and sustainable , lastly the technological and sustainable. Architects and engineers adopts the technological method on the energy trees yet the form of energy trees around the pavilion will also be able to provide enough shade for the visitors. It aims to create an impressiveness experience which involved in all aspect of ecology, sustainable, technologies and design elements.[2]

Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 pdf Architects, G. (n.d.). Dubai Expo 2020 Sustainability Pavilion – Grimshaw Architects. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from https://grimshaw. global/projects/dubai-expo-2020-sustainability-pavilion/

Location: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Architects: London studio Grimshaw Architects Project Team: BuroHappold Engineering

Location: Ingresso Expo,Via Giorgio Stephenson, 107, 20157 Milano, Italy. Artist and Creative Lead: Wolfgang Buttress Project Year: 2015



UK Pavilion - Milan Expo 2015,

This is project “The Hive” was part of Milan Expo 2015 with the theme “Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life”. It was created by artist Wolfgang Buttress, coming together with designer and engineer Tristan Simmonds, architecture office BDP and construction firm Stage One to complete the project and make it a reality. After a few months from Milan Expo 2015, The Hive was reopened in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew on June 2016.[3] I chose this project as its design content links similarly to the reading by Tony Fry on “Designing Futuring”. In the reading, he mentioned that design can use as a tool of improving the relationship between creation and people.[4] For example using the language and structure of design to engage people. The Hive creates an immersive space for the visitors to follow the movement of a bee, experiencing and travelling through the landscapes. Meanwhile, sending a message of the importance of protecting the honeybee to the visitors, accord-


ing to the species that has become increasingly threatened by change to the UK countryside. With the concept of spherical void, The Hive is constructed by 169,300 individual aluminium components to form the unique structure. The metal structure is integrated with audio and visual effect to represent the bee’s activity in real life yet also allowing the visitors to experience it through walking in the hive. The volume will change high and low according to the frequency of the hive. I really appreciated the way of this project integrating smoothly with people. The Hive is not just a pavilion with unique structure, it actually a story of how we bring together the disciplines of combining with the need of science, art, nature and technology which expand the future possibilities.[5]

Wolfgang Buttress’ Expo pavilion relocates to Kew Gardens. (2016, June 17). Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://www.dezeen. com/2016/06/16/wolfgang-buttress-milan-expo-pavilion-relocates-kew-gardens-london-beehive-inspired-hive/?li_source=base&li_medi4 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 pdf 5 First images of completed UK pavilion for Milan Expo released. (2015, May 01). Retrieved March 08, 2017, from https://www.dezeen. com/2015/04/15/wolfgang-buttress-bdp-uk-pavilion-milan-expo-2015/



CASE STUDY 1 The Unveils Carbon-fibre Pavilion, Based On Beetle Shells.

The Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structure and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart demonstrated the results of computerised-based digital design on this project “ The Unveils Carbon-fibre Pavilion based on beetle shells- where showcased the potential of new design, simulation and fabrication by using a custom-built system of robotics. [6] This project is a perfect example of how computational methods can be amplify and allow the design team further develop the design and process. The pavilion also reflects the idea of paradigms design illustrated by Kalay, using computation as a main tools to experiment with alternative design solutions.[7] The development of this pavilion showcased a parallel bottom-up design strategy based on the biomimetic investigation of natural fibre composite shells and generated it with the novel robotic fabrication methods for fibre reinforced polymer structures.

During the fabrication process, a double layered modular system was generated to explore lightweight structure in order to reduce the form work with interlocking the elements together and creating a high performance load bearing structure meanwhile achieving a large degree of geometric freedom – a robotic winding method was developed. Each modular component also identifying with Kalay’s puzzle making paradigm, where the outcome and solutions can only be developed and realised during the design process. Thus, computation is not only a tool to develop more intricate design, it also a tool to enhance and strengthen the design concept by exploring materiality and structural optimisation where gives a lot more deeper design exploration through the research of computers.

University of Stuttgart realized a carbon-fibre pavilion based on beetle shells. (2014, July 16). Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http:// 7 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design 6

Location: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Architects: London studio Grimshaw Architects Project Team: BuroHappold Engineering

Location: Lycée Christian Bourquin, Argeles­-Sur­-Mer, France. Architects: Marc Fornes & Theverymany Commissioned By: Region Languedoc Roussillon Project Year: 2015



Pleated Inflation

Designed by MARC FORNES& THENERYMANY, “Pleated Inflation” is an installation located in Argeles-Sur-Mer, France, which engages in a series of computational form-finding and structural organisation. Such work is predicated on communication the ability to share information from human to computers.[8]

plete the installation with a continuous pleated surface of 990 intricate aluminium shingles.[10] This proves that the importance of computation among this project not only provided a series of form-finding, it also gave a clearer structural information by easing the installation to be build up.

Digital model defined the installation into lightweight and one self-supporting systems in this project. The modelling of material as a tectonic system has provided a better understanding for the architects through experimentation the potential of new materials. [9] Following with exploring the structural performance, it also creating another experience in the space by fabricating the flora texture on pleated aluminium sheet to allow the nature light illuminate on it and creating an ornate shadows cast meanwhile bringing the spatial experience for the visitors. By using the digital fabrication, the installation team of four people only spent four days to com-


Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 pdf 10 A. (2017, March 09). Pleated Inflation | MARC FORNES - THEVERYMANY. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from 9




CASE STUDY 1 The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Bilbao, Spain

The unusual form of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by America architect Frank Gehry represents the first step in the resurgence of what used to be an old commercial and industrial area along the banks of the River Vernion.The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is one of ground breaking building representative in 20th century architecture. Due to the mathematical intricacy, the advanced digital modelling and computation technologies allowed Gehry to develop his design concept and language from the sketches on the paper to the complexities of form and space over structural concerns meanwhile help the construction. With the twisting curves form from inside to outside, Gehry used 3D software to determine the form and structure with a series of mathematic solution and geometry form. [11] Demonstrating a high level integration of form, materiality, structure and function responded to the scale and texture of the city together with historic, economic and cultural traditions of the area.

Similarly, from the reading in week three which mentioned that these computational tools and techniques will even more significantly affect the processes of design and delivery, where generating the ideas to a solution in architecture and affecting the connection between the work and society.[12] The emergence of computation provides a new strategies and new ways of thinking for design. Through computation, it increases the efficiency of produce the outcome in architecture and provides a new platform for communicate the idea of architecture with construction. .


About Us. (2017, February 06). Retrieved March 17, 2017, from

12 Peters,

Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 pdf

Location: Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Architects: Gehry Partners Project Year: 1997 Manufacturers: Gretsch-Unitas

Location: Puteaux, France. Architects: Morphosis Architects Client: Unibail Design Year: 2006-2009 Construction Year: 2010-2014


CASE STUDY 2 Phara Tower

Designed by Morphosis architects, Phara Tower is one of the good example of using parametric modelling in architectural design process. Morphosis illustrated Phara Tower is not just a pure office block, on the contrary it actually a “hybridized tower” containing with all the commercial and hospitality activities where connecting people, transportation and society all in one together.[13] Morphosis also took the advantage of digital and technologies method and applied it into this tower. For example 3d prints was used for the early stage of design process where allow Morphosis studied and highlighted the initial pattern and form of the building’s sunscreen. He also integrated technologies in analysing the number of environmental fitness criteria in order to explore the self-shading capacity of envelope shape and specific control system of the wind for the production of energy.


The dynamic and undulating structure allowed the tower reacted well to its site, environment and performance requirements. With the advanced computational techniques, the challenges of complex of site, shape and structural can be solved. And using computation to generate the organizational logic of the design control geometry into technical detail models. It seems that the uses of computational in developing complex forms, surfaces and structures is extremely versatile and useful.[14] Furthermore, it also expanded boundlessly to the possibility of geometry and material can be used where creating new strategies and new solutions in architecture.

Morphosis show Paris tower images. (2015, May 07). Retrieved March 17, 2017, from

14 Kolarevic,

Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp. 6–24 pdf

A4.0 Conclusion


Through the architectural explorations entailed in Part A, it showed that computation has become increasingly important by simulating and optimising building performance through the design process. With the development of computational design, it provides a platform to supporting design practitioners experimenting with progressive ideas that may have only previously existed within the imagination and giving them the opportunities to explore the multiple design options. The potential for developing digital tools does not limit itself to shape while creating solutions and opportunities in design process, fabrication and construction. In computational design form is not defined through a sequence of drawing or modelling procedures but generated through algorithmic by understanding the results of the generating code, modifying the code to explore new options or solutions, and surmising further design potentials. Computational design tools allowed the architects go beyond the complex geometry and advanced design which can quickly determining the better design performance on that optimized design. Thus, it will provides the flexibility to modify the design by computing.

A5.0 Learning Outcome

Learning Outcome

The theories presented in the lecture and reading literature from the beginning of the semester has become the most impact on my learning process so far. All these theories allowed me to have a better understanding of digital architecture and also showed me on how the computational has been use to speculating further design potentials in architecture. In order to solve the constraints, the theory and method of parametric design was presented in the history of architecture. It has led me to understand the definition of the relation between geometric and algorithmic, it also provides the potentials of design between traditional architectural production and the possibilities of new technological. Furthermore, I have tasked myself to practice and create a series of sketches by using the Rhino with the plug in support of Grasshopper in the past few week. And surprisingly, it has improved my workflow productivity, and bringing me closer towards expressing my creativity in the digital model. It also enhanced my explorations in composition design approaches and computational logical thinking which expanding my design possibilities. With the new knowledges of algorithmic methods, it would help me greatly in improving my past design. More fundamentally, not only my knowledge and skill in computational software have been improved, it actually develops and enhances my ways of thinking in designing and expressing my design language with profound. In the following week, I will make the best use of computational method to create and deliver my design.

A6.0 Appendix Algorithmic Sketches


Appendix Algorithmic Sketches









These sketches were demonstrating one of the theory in parametric modelling – L System. L system is uses to discover the algorithmic beauty of plants by allowing the users to model the morphology of a diversity of organisms. L-system is easy in modifying the models; with making a small changes to the model but it will brings a large impact to the outcomes.

L-SYSTEM + LOOP + HOOPSNAKE With the very basic concept of branching structure in L-system, it allowed me to explore and translate this geometry into a three dimensional outcome. Creating the complex structure from the component of line to a dynamic form.


About Us. (2017, February 06). Retrieved March 17, 2017, from Architects, G. (n.d.). Dubai Expo 2020 Sustainability Pavilion – Grimshaw Architects. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from https://grimshaw. global/projects/dubai-expo-2020-sustainability-pavilion/ First images of completed UK pavilion for Milan Expo released. (2015, May 01). Retrieved March 08, 2017, from https://www.dezeen. com/2015/04/15/wolfgang-buttress-bdp-uk-pavilion-milan-expo-2015/ Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 pdf Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design Kolarevic, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp. 6–24 pdf Morphosis show Paris tower images. (2015, May 07). Retrieved March 17, 2017, from Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 pdf University of Stuttgart realized a carbon-fibre pavilion based on beetle shells. (2014, July 16). Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http:// Wolfgang Buttress’ Expo pavilion relocates to Kew Gardens. (2016, June 17). Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://www.dezeen. com/2016/06/16/wolfgang-buttress-milan-expo-pavilion-relocates-kew-gardens-london-beehive-inspired-hive/?li_source=base&li_medi




Research Field - PATTERNING

B2.0 B2.1 B2.2 B2.3

Case Case Case Case

B3.0 B3.1 B3.2

Case Study 2.0 Case Study 2.0:Spanish Pavilion Reverse-Engineer

B4.0 B4.1 B4.2

Technique: Development Push Case Study2.0 to it’s limits Selection Criteria

B5.0 B5.1

Technique: -Prototype -Prototype -Prototype

B6.0 B6.1 B6.2 B6.3 B6.4 B6.5 B6.6

Technique: Proposal Site Introduction Site Analysis- Surrounding Site Analysis- Weather & Wind Design Development Proposal Proposal on the site

B7.0 B7.1

Learning Objectives & Outcomes Learning Objectives & Outcomes

B8.0 B8.1

Algorithmic Sketches Algorithmic Sketches 1 Algorithmic Sketches 2


Study Study Study Study

1.0 1.0:de Young Museum 1.0 - Table of Iterations 1.0 - Successful Iterations

Prototypes 1 2 3


Location: Ravensbourne College of Design and Communication, Greenwich, London. Architects: Foreign Office Architects Completion Date: 2010


Reseach Field - PATTERNING Introduction

Archway from the Darb-i Imam shrine, Isfahan, Iran (1453 C.E.) With two overlapping girih patterns.

Jakob Prandtauer, Benedictine Abbey, Melk, Austria, 1702-36 A late- Baroque spiral staircase articulated with a tromp l’oeil moulding pattern.

Patterning is an essential characteristics of interior, architectural, urban and landscape. In fact, it is a language in containing the rules for how human being interact with built forms, and the emerging of patterning brought great interaction between a number of different size, time and scale as well as the spectrum of natural and man-made pattern. Patterning could be justified as style, detail, ornament, decoration, adornment, embellishment and structure and these patterns in Western and European tradition have been deeply influenced by religion, geometry and maths including the arts, design and crafts. Pattern in contemporary concept is as an arrangement, distribution, structure, a series of repeating elements or units, system, framework or process of identical or similar components. ¹ In the western tradition, Plato’s Timaeus became the first remarkable theoretical reference to spatial pattern, in which he portrayed the universe as loaded with pattern of closely packed molecule like solids and geometric forms. Moreover, patterning which give an enormous amount of influence to Islamic architecture, most of the mosaic tile walls in medieval Islamic buildings are using the combination of polygon and star shapes to create a series of pattern on the walls, with lines stop atop them creating a zip-zag look. ²

The Mezquita (Great Mosque), Cordoba, Spain, AD 784 Perspectival illusions, after effect, interference and Doppler-type effects emerge when visitors walk around Cordoba’s Mezquita. 1 2

Nowadays, the patterning method has become very common in architecture. Architects, designers or engineers who use information technology to create the pattern in architecture. With the rise of technologies in architecture, it provides the spatial design solutions, concept and effects to go beyond the old notion of pattern. The technique being highly flexible, it is the most significant changing and centralising the roles of patterns in the futures of space and place design.

Mark Garcia, Patterns of architecture (London: John Wiley,2009), 8- 11. “Medieval Islamic Mosaics and Modern Maths « Islamic Arts and Architecture.”, Paul J. Steinhardt, 25 March 2011, http://islamic-arts. org/2011/medieval-islamic-mosaics-and-modern-maths/.


Location: San Francisco, California, USA Architects: Herzog de Meuron Completion Date: 2005


Case Study 1.0 de Young Museum, Herzog de Meuron

The M.H. de Young Museum was designed by the Swiss architectural firm Herzog & De Meuron. It located in the city’s Golden Gate Park, and its original museum was opened in 1895. The name was named after its founder and newspaperman M.H de Young.³ Unlike the old museum, the new design consists of a bold striking structure that is as much part of the exhibit as the art it contains. The dramatic copper facade is perforated and textured to replicate the impression made by light filtering through a tree canopy. The copper skin, chosen for its changeable quality through oxidation, will assume a rich green patina over time that will blend gracefully with the surrounding environment. The façade’s pattern was using algorithmic design method to generate and achieve a series of circle pattern and desired effects. The circle pattern was translated from images that taken from different angles under the tree. Image sampling is used to be generate the image pattern into the object’s surface, in order to create or customize the complex arrangement and pattern. . 3

Perez, Adelyn . “M.H. de Young Museum / Herzog & de Meuron.” ArchDaily. June 30, 2010. Accessed April 20, 2017.

Technique 5

(Change circle to polygon shape)

Technique 4

Technique 3

Technique 2

Technique 1

Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3 Variable 4

B2.2 Variable 5

Case Study 1.0- Table of Iterations

Variable 6

Variable 7

Variable 8

Technique 6 (Image Sampler)

Technique 6 (Adding Loft)

Variable 1 Variable 2

Variable 7 Variable 8

Variable 3

B2.2 Variable 4

Case Study 1.0- Table of Iterations Variable 5

Variable 6

Successful Interations 1

Successful Interations 2

Successful Interations 3

Successful Interations 4


Case Study 1.0- Successful Interations CONTRAST & SIMILARITY

Technique Development & Exploration:

Techniques 1-3: A series of changes in lattice

Technique 4: By changing the number of UV, the density of surface division can be generate varying result of image sampling patterns. Techniques 5: By changing the circles into polygon shapes, in order to test out how different shapes can be ordered according to the same arrangement. Techniques 6: By changing the height and density of the objectsc(Use loft to create 3D) Technique 7: By changing the image, in order to test out how different image can be created according to the same shape.

Final Version: Successful Iteration 1 - Regularity vs Irregularity - Circle vs Height - Circle vs Radius - With the changes of height and radius of circle, its will be able to a series of pattern on the surface - Its can be part of the buildings’s structure and decoration.

Architectural Application: - Shading Panel - Decorative Building Skin - Pattern on the building’s façade - Structure of the building

B3.0 Case Study 2.0

Location: Aichi Universal Exhibition, Japan. Architects: Foreign Office Architects Completion Date: 2005


Case Study 2.0 Spanish Pavilion, Foreign Office Architects

The covering of the façade was inspired by the Islamic celosias, the Gothic rose window and the late- Gothic insets of the cathedral of Toledo, Serville and Segovia. A geometrical pattern emerges from the aggregation of regular figures that are uniformly patterned by variable scales. FOA had to meet the challenge of finding an irregular design that would create a smooth pattern without repeating and maximising the visual effects of the pavilion. ⁴ The skin of the building is made up by 6 different blocks, which rise from a hexagonal base, like most of the decorative elements in Gothic. The blocks are assembled with steel wires, creating a colourful carpet fastened to the building from the back by means of an aluminium frame. The combination of the six elements creates a variegated texture of geometry and colour. The blocks are made of ceramic. Through the use of the dynamic patterning of the blocks, the architects were able to express the design intent of the architecture to the public during the exhibition of 2005 World Expo which held in Aichi, Japan.

. 4

“FARSHID MOUSSAVI ARCHITECTURE.” Spanish Pavilion at the 2005 World Expo, Aichi, Japan. Accessed April 20, 2017.


STEP 1 : Basic Hexagonal Grid

STEP 2 : Incresing the number slider of X/Y axis

STEP 3 : Increasing X/Y axis to required area

STEP 4 : Created hollow tiles in Rhino by inversing offset

Pattern Mapping may be used to create geometry form over large area with the use of the image samplling tool allows implementation of a variant spacies of geometry from the grid pattern to exist at areas where need be. It is a good way to create perforations in a building facade.


Case Study 2.0

STEP 5 : Switched the image sampling. Extract differences& make surface

STEP 6 : Cull using image map

STEP 7 : Lofted the panels to create the different surfaces.


Hexagonal Grid


Tree Statistics


Tree Branch


Partition List




Vector XYZ (InternalPt01)


Multi (AxB)



Shift Path

Case Study 2.0

Flipped Data Matrix


Mirror An Object

Partition List

XZ Plane




Unit X

iplication )



Image Sampler

ression Range


B4.0 Technique: Development

Table of Iterations

Technique 5

Technique 4

Technique 3

Technique 2

Technique 1

Variable 1

Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 4

B4.1 Variable 5

Push Case Study 2.0 to it’s limits Variable 6

Variable 7

Variable 8

Technique 8 (Adding Pipe)

Technique 7 (Combine Technique 1 and 2 + Adding Loft)

Technique 6 (Adding Loft)

Technique 5 (Adding Loft)

Table of Iterations Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3

B4.1 Variable 4

Detail 1

Push Case Study 2.0 to it’s limits Variable 5

Detail 2

Variable 6

Detail 3

Technique 6 (Adding the number of hexagon shape + creating multiple size of offset + creating dynamic surface + try different pattern)

Table of Iterations Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3

B4.1 Variable 4

Push Case Study 2.0 to it’s limits Variable 5

Variable 6



The Dynamic Ideas: Twisting ( From 3D to 2D )

DESIGN POTENTIAL Light Weight Canopy - Material Selection (Light and recycle material) - Structure of Pavilion - Joints/ Connections of Structure Relation With Movement of AIR - Create a dynamic Canopy - Play with sound effect (the movement of air sets things vibrating which makes sound) - Connect with natural light - Create shading Dynamic Canopy - Use different size of hexagon to create a pattern on the canopy - Adjusting the height of hexagon,in order to create a dynamic pattern Twisting Structure - Create dynamic conopy - Control the number of light and sound

B5.0 Technique: Prototypes


Structure Detail (Twisting): - Using the folding method to create twisting hexagon prism - Design becomes more structured and complex by folding method - Folding method allow the hexagon prism to expand and compress




Different Size of Hexagon: - Hexagons become more difficult to connect - Better in allowing the light and sound go into the space - More harder to create the twisted hexagon prism with this different size of offset




Multiple Twisted Structure: - Success in creating dynamic canopy by using this twisted structure - Connection becomes more logic and stable - With multiple twisted haxogon prism, it actually create a series of pattern on the canopy - It creates an interesting light effect



B6.0 Technique: Proposal




SITE ANALYSIS - Surrounding







The strongest and highest wind at South area The second strongest wind at North area More sunlight during summer time Hottest wind from North during summer time Coolest wind from South during winter time





New Proposal Classroom

The Train Art Space CERES Cafe CERES Workshop


Interacting with the surroundings Enhancing the community Riching and enhancing the sensory experience Creating/designing the pattern with connecting to natural

VARIATION: - Diameter of hexagon tube - Height of hexagon tube


create different frequency of sound effect and amount of light that entering into the canopy



Module 1

Module 2

Module 3

Module 4

Module 5

Module 6


PROPOSAL on the site

- The aim of dynamic canopy is to create a space of bonding and creative play with offering “ a rich sensory experience “ - The dynamic canopy is presented as an organically shaped structure with a curved, softly gleaming roof construction - The opening of hexagon prism allows the movement of AIR sets things vibrating which makes sound and also allow the hexogon prism to be twisted - The stronger winds blow, the higher / more interaction with the

B7.0 Learning Objectives & Outcomes


Learning Objectives & Outcomes

Nowadays, the development of computational design has influenced a lots to the architects and designers. Over the past few weeks, I have improved so much in using Rhino plug-in Grasshopper with a better and clearer understanding of how computational design work. In studio AIR Part B, it assigned me to explore a wider range of output pattern from the existing order and scripts. By changing the algorithmic definition, it allows me to produce and explore a series of generative deformation and complex form. Through the exploration of computational, it gives me a chance to know how digital fabrication technologies can make out the physical model from digital model, it allows me direct contact with construction processes while designing the objects. The algorithmic definition plays through simple rules but produce complex form or structure and also help me make difficult task easy.

A8.0 Algorithmic Sketches


Algorithmic Sketches


Algorithmic Sketches


“FARSHID MOUSSAVI ARCHITECTURE.” Spanish Pavilion at the 2005 World Expo, Aichi, Japan. Accessed April 19, 2017. http://www. Garcia, Mark. 2009. Patterns of architecture. n.p.: London : John Wiley, 2009., 2009. UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE’s Catalogue, EBSCOhost (accessed April 5, 2017). Steinhardt, Paul J. “Medieval Islamic Mosaics and Modern Maths « Islamic Arts and Architecture.” Islamic Arts and Architecture. Accessed April 27, 2017. Perez, Adelyn . “M.H. de Young Museum / Herzog & de Meuron.” ArchDaily. June 30, 2010. Accessed April 20, 2017.





C1.1 C1.2

Interim Presentation Feedback Proposal From Individual Project to Group Project - How to integrating the ideas to group - Design Development (Sketches&Diagrams) - Computational Modelling


Group Design Proposal - Tree Structure (Generating L-System)

C1.4 C1.5 C1.6

Further Research and Ideas Geometry - Form Finding The Final Design - Computational Diagram - Key Considerations

C2.0 C2.1 C2.2 C2.3

Techtonic Elements & Prototypes Core Construction Elements Prototypes Canopy Shading System - Patterning

C3.0 C3.1 C3.2 C3.3 C3.4 C3.5 C3.6 C3.7 C3.8

Group Projects - Final Detail Model Structure Overview Canopy Sun Analysis Testing Shadow Diagram Materials Overall Cost Perspectives Physical Model


Learning Objectives & Outcomes




Interim Presentation Feedback

Three Main Concept In Design: - Dynamic Structure - Responsive To Elements Surrounded - Visual & Sensory Effect

The feedback from my interim presentation was they liked the way I developed my design concept which engaging my research field - PATTERNING with the site. The feedback was mainly discussed about there still have many possibilities and opportunities that the pattern and the structure of the design could be develop and generate more in order to have a better integration with my design concept. My tutor and the guest critics were suggesting to do some research on similar pattern pavilion or canpy, for example, ICD ITKE Research Pavilion 2013 which hexagon pattern and structure could develop in my design. After I got the feedbacks, I tried to do some research on similar pattern structure and spend more time in exploring the possibilities that could emerge from the techniques into my design. To showcase my final and refine work, I will be explaining it in a little further details of what I have created and what has inspired me.


From Individual To Group Project

How your design concept can integrate with group design concept? From now onwards will focus on developing group design concept. After a few discussion with my group members, we decided to design a canopy at sandpit area. Each of us will use our previous design concept to generate it into a new design proposal for the group design concept. Sandpit area is one of the important area that allowing the kids play wild and creative in order to develop this place into an adventure habitat park. Sandpit is connecting with different type of sculpture, which is Rocky Hill Top Climbing Area and The Nest Tree House. The existing sandpit area is shaded by a membrane structure canopy but its structure doesn’t provide good shades for the area during morning and evening. Throughout this semester, I was asked to compile a series of computation design in order to form my skills to create and develop a final design for this subject. So, in this chapter, I will be explaining it in a little further detail of how my design concept can integrating with the group project for creating a final design and what has inspired me.

View 1

View 2


2 1 View 3


From Individual To Group Project

Design Development

The Existing Site Condition: The existing area is covering by a membrane structure in order to provide the protection against the sun. But its membrane structure doesn’t provide good shades during morning and evening.

Design Proposal 1: Creating a curve canopy in order to provide a better protection during not only afternoon as well as morning and evening. The curve canopy has fully block the direct sun light shines under canopy.

Design Proposal 2: After studied the site analysis, I decided to design a canopy that can conforms with the main design concept of CERES Adventure Habitat which is not just a playground, it is about a hub of creative, an evolving landscape for imagination, creative construction play. In order to achieve the similar experience and form like the Rocky Hill Top Climbing Area and The Nest Tree House, I extended the curve canopy structure touch to the ground – like a tunnel. Final Design Proposal: After the form of the canopy has been decided, I used my previous Grasshopper’s definition to generate and create the final design. By using the computation method, it allow me to explore more opportunities during the design process. It also allow me to know whether the structure or design could work or not beforehand.

Rocky Hill Top Climbing Area

The Nest Tree House

The form of the final design proposal is mainly come from the ideas from the Rocky Hill Top Climbing Area and The Nest Tree House which allow the kids have their own world by using a dome or tunnel shape. The combination of hexagon shapes will create a series of pattern not only on the exterior surface as well as interior surface. Its hexagon shapes will also be the structure of the canopy. With different size of opening in the hexagon shapes, it will control the amount of sunlight and sound go into the canopy and creating a series of abstracted shadows pattern and sound effect, meanwhile enriching the sensory experience.

Sound Transmission through the Hexagon Component

Light Transmission through the Hexagon Component Different opening create a series of shadow pattern

Sound keeps circulate within the structure.


INDIVIDUAL PROPOSAL for group project

Sandpit Canopy - Computational Model

Use the attractor point to create different size of opening, in order to create a similar effect of tree shadow on the ground. The combination of hexagons and circles will act to funnel light and sound to the interior space, offering visitors a space to take in the sounds of the surrounding. The organization of the hexagon may limit the form, but its organization can actually strengthen the structure. Its structure will also provide both shade and natural lights that allowed people to enjoy the space. This ideas will be a very good starting point for us to play with the light and structure form in order to create the tree of life concept in our design, for example the curve form structure is just like the tree use its structure to provide people or animals with shade from the sun.

As we known that CERES is a place for community-based learning and action. In order to integrate with the existing site, I decided to use recycled material in my design as well as enhance the natural environment in CERES. Therefore, I chose recycled plywood because it can provide enough strength to support the whole structure.


INDIVIDUAL PROPOSAL for group project - San

ndpit Area



Sandpit Canopy - Tree Structure After that, we decided to combine each of ours design outcome by following different research field outcome which is Biomimicry, Geometry, Structure and Patterning . And one of the similarity that everyone was trying to create in the design proposal was creating the similar tree shadow effect as well as the tree shade feeling to the users. With the combination of each research field, it allowed the design reached a coherent whole that serves a defined functions, respond to its surrounding and considers limitations. The sketches shown below are the early sketches that developing from my previous design proposal for the group in order to create or design an ideas that resembling tree structure.

Design Proposal 1: Develop the design by integrating the tree and branch structures ideas into the previous design proposal.

Design Proposal 3: Thinking about the connection and joints between the structure and the existing site. Increasing the size in some part of the structure in order to increase the shade area.

Design Proposal 2: Simplifying the tree and branch structures and analysing how the tree structure could work well as the canopy structure.

Design Proposal 4: Adding the characteristic of leaves into our design. In order to enhance the visual effect that we wanted to create and make the whole design can blends with the natural.

Imagine you stand under a tree, your favourite tree in the world, and look up. You see the light dancing amongst the leaves, refracting through the thin membrane skin and highlighting the sinewy veins. The branches caress you, keep you safe. They slowly move and creep as their joints are stressed. A slight breeze whispers against the leaves and the light comes alive, moving in time, rustling as a ballerinas would in a pas de deux. You sit against the trunk and feel the roots below, grounding the tree so the wind cannot steal it away like it would a kite. The worn bark peels away to reveal the new beneath and hidden under the skin, you know lies hundreds of rings denoting the trees wisdom. It is here, where you feel most safe. Here, you take a breath and exhale slowly, knowing nothing can hurt you. Another child runs over, ducking under the safety net of the tree and stands with her feet buried in the sand. She nods to the sand castle you have built and asks if she can help. And together, your hands mould your visions, letting our imaginations soar under the dancing light of the canopy.


Further Research and Ideas

Educating the children through our design Tree serve Earth’s creatures but also have a mystrious life of their own. [ India’s Gond Tribe ]

After went through several researches and discussions, we decided to provide an education for the children. Our aim is to represent a tree’s complexity so that children acknowledge them with more empathy, while also serving a sunshading function, sustainably.


Further Research and Ideas

Improve the su (col - make it thicke

L-System : Resembles A Tree Structure

1) Base Structure

1) Exploration

2) Secondary

2) Exploration

3) Tertiary

3) Exploration

upport structure lumn) er and stabler

From Tree Branches To Leaf Veins


Form Finding

Geometry Highlighting three main areas which are surrounded the sandpit area. Use the basic triangular shapes as a base line to connect this three different area together. And using the triangular shapes to develop further design and structure system.


The Final Design


1) Use tree branches to generate the main structure ( Rhino Plug in Grasshopper: L- SYSTEM)

2) Connecting two structures together

10) Finalising the main structure, increase the support system

9) Adding the flower panel in order to make the shadow more interesting

3) Adding the canopy shelter (rough idea)

7) Adding material thickness on the structure (Rhino Plug in Grasshopper: KARAMBA)

8) Adding material thickness and shelter on the structure

4) Optimizing the structure and connection (Rhino Plug in Grasshopper: KARAMBA)

6) Test and optimize the structure and connection (Rhino Plug in Grasshopper: KARAMBA)


The Design

Key Considerations:

From Nature - growing from the ground - camouflage, blends with surrounding - ephemeral - recycled materials - allows animal occupation Modular components allow more flexibility with the available material Constructability - cost effective - easy fabrication - non-skilled labour assembly

Growing high from existing tree trunks

For Children - safe & stable structure - child contribution and learning - unclimbable - lightweight

Function - sunshade devide - lightplay effect - comfort and closure - movment with environment

Installation of children’s artwork & abstraction of concepts

Air as the atmosphere in which trees live and communicate



Core Construction Elements

Upper part connection system:

(its structure used to connect with the column)

Flexible connection to upper canopy - Flexible structure to connect to the canopy hubs - 2 bolted connections reduce moment forces - Double thickness Capping Element - Hides structure

Spacers - Ensures stability - Binds bottom structural members Steel Brackets - Joins lower members to column structural panel - Four used for solid connection

Main Supporting System: (column)

Connection to upper part connection system - Use steel brackets to join upper part members - Four steel brackets used for solid connection - Circle panel used to ensure stability Connection of structural support system - Interlock three structural hubs together - Interlock method makes the structure more stronger and stabler - Makes the structure looks like tree trunks Capping Element and spacers - Hides structure - Serves as educational and visual effect - Engages structure with surrounding trunks - Ensures stability

Steel Brackets - Hides under the capping element - Joins the whole structure to secured stumps

Footing System: Capping Element - Hide structure - Double thickness to make it have enough strength to sopport the whole structure Steel Brackets - Hiding inside the capping element - Secure the column structure - Joins the whole structure to secured stumps


Core Construction Elements

Canopy Hub Connection Details: The connection details are perhaps the most difficult prototype that is made. details shown are located on the lower layer of timber structure, which hangs the flower panels. The purpose of this prototype is to show the connection between the connections. Since the structure is irregular and complex, an unconventional connection between the members are needed. A hollowed polyhedron shapes that has the same geometry with the juxtaposing timbers are made, which also consist of a stopping element to prevent the timber to slide deeper into the connection, that results in an intersection with other timber. The holes are made on the connection and the timber to allow nuts and bolts fix the elements. Furthermore, the use of pin joints here is to allow movement, should a lateral load is received to the structure. The mechanism of the connection here is to slot the timber into the connection, and then bolted at the holes.

These are the real model prototype for the polyhedral connection. The star connection is 3D powder printed and the timber members are 3.00mm thick MDF board that is glued together, similar to GLULAM technique, to make it 12.00 mm thick. The prototype provides issue and success of the system that is developed. The connection, relationship, and system of the complex intersection works perfectly. As it has been discussed previously, the accuracy in the definition provide the system to work. The timber members are able to be slotted on, in which stops at the designated location and able to be bolted. However, there are some issues in the prototype. A gap tolerance of an approximate 1mm is needed for the slot, in order to tolerate inaccuracy in the fabrication. In this prototype, no tolerance was given, therefor, the system cannot take any inaccuracy, which led me to reduce 1 layer of timber into 3, although the true member thickness is 4. As a result, the timber members in the slot are prone to movement and since the 3D slot is hollow, it cracks when it is bolted, since it lacks of mass inside. The second issue is that the bolts. The prototype uses the normal hex-head bolts and nuts with washer. The bolts have fixed length, as such, it would be inadequate to be used in a certain condition where there is a tight space between the slots. As such, my hypothesis was correct. In the previous page, I proposed in using a threaded rod with double nuts and washer on both sides. The reason I proposed that connection is because thread rods are able to be manually cut, thus, providing the length that is desired. However, due to a limitation of equipment skills and access, this prototype tests other connection and the proposed connection is not tested. Another consideration that i need to address is the materiality. 3D printed is not recommended at all for this connection. It is quite heavy, and too brittle. I must admit, it is sturdy if it is not hollowed out. However, the biggest consideration that i think of is its brittle properties that tends to break, if there is a wind load that moves the timber. As such, I proposed the heavy duty resin to be used in the connection



Testing & Trying: Canopy Hubs Structure System

Upper Structure Conn

Testing & Trying: Canopy Hubs Structure System

Footing S

nection System


Main Supporting System (column)



Canopy Hubs Structure System Details


Canopy Shading System - Patterning

Tectonic Element & Prototypes Test and adjust the scale of flower frame and orentation of recycled water bottles in order to get the best shading system

Use this as the main shading system. Flower pattern frame will be the structure to hold the water bottles. Use computation to do the calculation of how many water bottles we need in this shading system.

Use computation to draw the pattern. After that printed them on paper and cut them out. Use light to create the shadow. In order to test the shadow effect.


Canopy Shading System - Patterning

Use Different Height To Test Different Leaves Patte Option 1

Option 2

ern Option 3

Option 4



Final Design - Group Project

Structural Overview

Use of stock materials Maximise cost throught use in upright to canopy junctions

Triangulated Form Maximizes structures strength and resistance to loading

Footing Structure fixed to robust existing elements

Column Multiple layers to streng whole structure

gthen the

Sunshading High degree of sun protection using recycled shade sail

Lateral Stability Structure attached to existing steel upright, throught tensioned cables

Useability All aspects of design have considered human dimensions and tenderies, from avoiding climbing, to providing adequate head clerance in the canopy.


The Final Design - Group Project

Canopy By hanging the flower panels on the structure, it will not only creates the tree like shadow, the flower panel will also plays around with the winds and sunlights, in order to create more interesting shadow effects in the spaces. The different layer height of the flower panels will also create a interesting spatial hierarchy.

“Trees are sanctuaries. Whoever knows how to speak to them, Whoever knows how to listen to them, can learn the truth.� - Hermann Hesse Baume. Betrachtungen und Gedichte


The Final Design - Group Project

Sun Analysis

(Test and analysis how much shading the canopy structure will be able to pro



The Final Design - Group Project

Testing Shadow Diagram

(Test and analysis how the canopy structure will affect to the surrounding a





Canopy Structure


Shadow Trees






The Final Design - Group Project


Recycled Existing Shade Cloth - Minimal Structure damage to existing material - May be recycled after mould removel and cleaning - Highly effective shading material - Easily fixed

Recycled Plywood - Acquireable from recycled sources (building sites, online) - Bends under correct conditions - Aesthetically pleasing - High strength to weight ratio

Recycled Plactics Water Bottles - Acquireable from recycled sources - Use it to serve the second shading structure - Creates the similar tree shadow’s lighting effect


The Final Design - Group Project

Overall Cost Recycled Plywood 1200mm x 800mm

CNC Milling

Polyhedral Joints

Brackets (Footing to Plywood) Zenith 25mm Zinc Plated angle brackets (4 Pack) $2.99 x 5 Packs Polyhedral Joints Nuts & Bolts Zenith M6 20mm Galvanised (Box of 25) $4.40 x 5 packs

Screws 50 Pack $13.50 x 2packs Contingency Sum Incase something not factored in 10% = $46.40




Overall Cost = $510.35 $14.95





The Final Design - Group Project



The Final Design - Group Project



The Final Design - Group Project



The Final Design - Group Project

Physical Model Scale 1:25


The Final Design - Group Project

Physical Model Scale 1:25


The Final Design - Group Project

Physical Model Scale 1:25


The Final Design - Group Project

Physical Model Scale 1:25

C4.0 Learning Objectives & Outcomes


Learning Objectives & Outcomes

From Part C, I have learned how to create and achieve a digital model in Grasshopper into reality. From analysing the sun path, the overall shading provided by the structure, the shading that affect to the surroundings, as well as analysing the structure by testing the joints. By using the Rhino plug in Grasshopper, the experience in form finding and construction stages are the most important part for me in further development and collecting more information and data of the project. If we would have more time to go on with this project, we could probably develop even more efficient elements and some tests about how much wind that could make the flower panels to produce an interesting movement. The next step we will also work in testing the efficiency and availability in engineering stages. Overall, this design studio was expanded my knowledges within the field of computational design. Looking back this semester, I was quite uneasy with the Rhino plug-in Grasshopper software. But after played around with it, I realised that this is a fantastic and useful tools in term of developing design and collecting all the information and data of my design. This Design Studio is not only computational design, it could also allowed me create and test various forms design. I am really glad that I chose this Design Studio because I have gained some serious skills in parametric design which will be very useful in my future projects. I hope to carry what I have learnt within this Design Studio and keep on improving my computational skills to my future projects


Brooks, K. (2014, July 24). This Is How Many Plastic Bottles New Yorkers Discard In One Hour. Retrieved May 06, 2017, from C. J. (2012, July 30). Recycled Plastic Bottles Partially Filled with Colored Water Used to Create a Parking Canopy. Retrieved May 06, 2017, from L-systems II. (2008, March 03). Retrieved May 06, 2017, from L-Systems: Creating 3D Branching Structures. (2014, November 10). Retrieved May 06, 2017, from Project: L-Systems. (2007, July). Retrieved May 06, 2017, from Sanchez, C. P. (1970, January 01). Tensionadas con Bambu / Estructuras Especiales. Retrieved May 06, 2017, from



Ong yithong 855643_ DesignStudioAir_FinalJournal pdf  

Design Studio of Air _ The University of Melbourne

Ong yithong 855643_ DesignStudioAir_FinalJournal pdf  

Design Studio of Air _ The University of Melbourne