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Magazine from the European Geography Association for students and young geographers

the European Geographer

Fifth issue January 2010

Innovative Geography


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Claudia Iordache – Editorial

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Falko Krügel – What about the future of the inner city of Leipzig?

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Catalina Ionita & Catalina Neagu – Using Innovative Methods at EGEA Events. The Protected Areas Seminar, Buila-Vânturariţa National Park

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Christoph Fink & Markus Belz – Can inland waterway transport be a sustainable alternative to road transport? – On the sustainability of ship transport and its chances in a changing economy

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Maiborodva Nataliia Volodymyrivna – Dark topic brings brightness to the future of tourism

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Inge Wiekenkamp – Uncertainty in ‘measurements Applications’ for a GPS bird tracking system

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Mariusz Matyjaszczyk – Problems with implementation of new, innovative instruments – spatial planning system in Czech and Poland at local level

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Marek Szponik – Turning our roofs into green

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Tatiana Bibikova – Prospective estimation of water consumption in the former USSR

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Aino Kirillova – Some approaches to measure the landscape aesthetics in the Votkinsk region (the Eastern European part of Russia)

Colophon

Editorial

The EGEA Magazine is a publication from the European Geography Association for Geography students and young Geographers. The EGEA Magazine is published twice a year. The magazine is produced for the EGEA community, EGEA partners and all others interested in EGEA, Geography and Europe.

Being geographers, innovation is very important to us as we constantly seek ways to discover places, new ways to understand the world around us and to bring our contribution to the field which we have chosen to proceed in our career.

Postal address: EGEA Faculty of Geosciences – Utrecht University P.O.Box 80.115 NL-3508 TC Utrecht Telephone: +31-30-2539708 E-mail: egea@egea.eu E-mail EGEA magazine: egea.magazine@egea.eu Website: www.egea.eu Editors of the fifth issue: Vera Bornemann, Elisabeth Wimmer, Vlad Dumitrescu, Jan Smutek, Maike Metzkow, Inge Wiekenkamp, Ayeshe Hercules, Lisa Sommerlad Graphic Design: GeoMedia, Gérard van Betlehem Contributing authors: Claudia Iordache, Falko Krügel, Catalina Ionita, Catalina Neagu, Markus Belz, Christoph Fink, Maiboroda Nataliia Volodymyrivna, Inge Wiekenkamp, Mariusz Maryjaszcyk, Marek Szponik, Tatiana Bibikova, Aino Kirillova

As well, EGEA wishes to constantly create opportunities for its members in order to give them a place, a way, a means of expressing their passion for Geography through its activities, its publications, its network and, of course, its people. The Annual Congress of 2009 organized by EGEA Groningen in Heeg, The Netherlands, marked the beginning of a new EGEA year. On October 1st, the last GBM of the EGEA Foundation and the first General Assembly (GA) of the EGEA Association took place. Also, in order to continue its development EGEA has elected a new board for 2009/2010. Knowing that it is not an easy job to handle, it is by far the greatest experience and challenge EGEA has yet

Photos: Claudia Iordache, Catalina Ionita, Stefania Russo, Nichita Fedul, Inge Wiekenkamp, Tatiana Bibikova, Aino Kirillova Coverphoto: Claudia Finkler Authors are completely responsible for the content of their articles and references made by them. The editors would like to thank: Gérard van Betlehem – GeoMedia Margot Stoete – GeoMedia Utrecht University Jelle Gulmans All authors EGEA is supported by: ESRI - HERODOT - Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University This publication is financed by the European Commission through the Youth in Action Programme.

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

offered us and we are happy to be able to bring our contribution to supporting and improving the great environment of our association. To improve cooperation at the local level, this year we will introduce the CP day for the first time. It will take place at each regional congress and is meant to be an opportunity for Contact Persons to share ideas, to discuss about their problems within their entities, to exchange best practices among each other and to address their concerns to the BoE in a live meeting. Moreover, it will include a series of trainings about promotion and group management. Besides putting ideas in practice by organizing activities that meet the wishes of its members, EGEA offers ways of getting involved, which are meant to raise the quality of the association but also to encourage the self-development of the people who choose to get involved in administrative matters. Last but not least, I invite all of you to read this edition of the European

Geographer, put together by a handful of people – the European Geographer Editorial Board – with great dedication and hard work in order to publish the thoughts, discoveries, ideas of students, young geographers and EGEAns like yourselves. Do not hesitate to do the same and contribute in the next editions of the EG! I use this opportunity to thank the Editorial Board on behalf of the BoE and to let them know that their work is very important for EGEA! Remember that the BoE is here to listen to your ideas, to help and support you as much as possible. Still, EGEA would not be able to proceed without your cooperation, involvement and initiatives. Enjoy the EGEA experience! Claudia Iordache EGEA President of 2009/2010 claudia.iordache@egea.eu


What about the future of the inner city of Leipzig? By Falko Krügel EGEA Leipzig This article is based on my bachelor thesis. Introduction The structure of European cities has been changing for centuries. However, change seems to be the only constant regarding the perception of a city. In this context, the concept of demographic change assumes a special role. Approach The effects of demographic change are decreasing birth and death rates, which results in a lower population growth rate. As a consequence, despite political efforts, the population is shrinking relentlessly (cf. Mertins 1997: pp.9). This effect is exacerbated in East Germany by the heightened migration of young workers to West German states. Leipzig, an East German city, assumes a primary role with its inner city, providing for the population in and around Leipzig and needs to adjust to the coming demographic changes. Instead of viewing this as a problem, solutions should be conceived in order to create the best possible chances and potentials from the new structures. One of this article’s emphases is the analysis of the effect of demographic changes on the inner city. A future projection is developed using prognoses and scenarios. This projection produces further information, which can be relevant for inner city players regarding business and city planning. The presentation of these results forms the second emphasis of this article.

prevent poor investments by public and private institutions. In this context, public and private institutions should be understood as all institutions that are able to exert influence on the configuration (for example: building structure, retail space and retail surrounding, semi-public and private space) today and in the future – above all planning commissions, retailers, and the real estate industry (hereafter referred to as shapers). The shapers’ goal is to form an inner city structure in a way that it will appeal to a wide range of consumers in the future. It is also essential to demonstrate the consequences that a modified consumer age distribution has on the inner city of Leipzig. A time frame up untill 2020 was chosen for establishing a midterm prognosis and scenario corridor. All of the results referring to consumers emerged from a secondary statistical analysis that was carried out within the scope of a bachelor thesis. The data was compiled in a representative poll of 492 people conducted by the Institute for City Development and Building Industry (Institut für Stadtentwicklung und Bauwirtschaft: ISB).

1. As the first diagram shows, Leipzig’s inner city draws people from wide and distant areas due to its attractiveness and its central function. 2. These areas have various demographic developments ahead of them. While the rural areas (surroundings of Leipzig) are losing inhabitants, the population in Germany as a whole remains relatively constant, even though there continues to be even fewer young people and even more older people. 3. The shopping locations visited vary according to age. Older people prefer shopping options that very close – for example department stores in which wishes can be fulfilled in close proximity. Younger people, however, prefer long shopping streets. Diagram 2 bolsters this observation for Leipzig’s consumers. It is noticeable that older people visit department stores (Karstadt, Galeria Kaufhof ) more often in comparison to the younger segment of the population. In contrast, sweeping shopping streets (Petersstrasse, Grimmaische Strasse, Nikolaistrasse), are also frequently visited by elderly people, but younger people spend an increasing amount of time in these areas. If only the groups under 30 and over the age of 49 are compared, the difference is even more striking. Prognosis All data that demonstrate demographic connections (data are relating to the present and year 2020) was determined by the state statistical office of the Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt as well as

Preliminary Information Municipalities, which are almost universally suffering from increased financial strains, can hardly afford planning mistakes (cf. Müller 2006: 90). An authoritative depiction of the changing parameters could a least produce customized investments in Leipzig’s inner city and

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hand, will increase by 14,611 (17.9%) to 15,102 (18.5%) in this region (Land Sachsen, Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen 2007; Land Sachsen, Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen 2009). That means the portion of older people in the inner city will rise whereas the portion of younger people will sink drastically. The extent of this change needs to be analyzed for every age group from every region. It can also be expressed by the following mathematical formula (diagram 3 ):

the German statistical office (cf. Land Sachsen, Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen 2007; Land Sachsen, Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen 2009; Land Sachsen-Anhalt, Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt 2008; Land Sachsen-Anhalt, Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt 2009; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Statistisches Bundesamt 2009a; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Statistisches Bundesamt 2009). Basic data was needed in order to construct a prognosis. The consumers’ region of origin with supplementary age distribution is known and the officially coordinated population prognoses predict how the population in the various surrounding areas is expected to develop by 2020. Assuming that the demands on the inner city from the various surrounding areas will remain constant up to 2020 (excluding a change in societal values or other pivotal changes which could affect the areas studied), which is based on the development of the surrounding areas and the current demand on the inner city, the age distribution of the shopping community in Leipzig’s inner city in year 2020 can be predicted.

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

In 2008, 23,401 20- to 24-year-olds and 81,776 50- to 64-year-olds lived in the areas surrounding Leipzig. The 20- to 24-year-olds from the areas surrounding Leipzig made up 1.1% of the people in Leipzig’s inner city and the 50- to 64-year-olds made up 1.5 %. In the best case, the younger group will decrease by 9,483 (40.5%) and in the worst case by 10,869 (46.5%). The number of 50- to 64-year-olds, on the other

According to diagram 3:

= Inner-city consumer demand (K) from the age group (Az) from the area (Ry) in the year (x).

= Population (P) of an age group (Az) from the area (Ry) in the year (x).


Diagram 4 compares the current age distribution in the inner city with the predicted distribution for 2020. While the current urban image is influenced by a high portion of people under the age of 50 (64%) it will have changed by 2020. Consequentially, the portion of people over the age of 50 will rise significantly from 36% to 56.6%. The loss of 20- to 24-year-olds is striking. Currently, the urban image is influenced by people from this age group at the ratio of one to five. By 2020 it could be as low as one to twenty. It should be added that these relatively rigid prognoses are based on simple assumptions, which are simplified reproductions of reality. The so-called status quo prognosis works in a way that significantly reduces complexity and excludes many factors. Scenario Scenarios help to counteract the drawbacks of system aspects that are factored out. This leads to a possible future vision, which does not necessarily has to become reality. The goal of a scenario is to give scenario users an understanding of the system (cf. Gausemeier, J./Fink, A./Schlacke, O. 1996; Von Reibnitz, U. 1992, Wilms, F. E. P. 2006).That means in this case it should be shown to what extent prognosis results can be influenced by other factors. Table 1 shows the factors, which the development of Leipzig’s inner city could depend on. The identified factors are partly based on the author’s considera-

may be hard to achieve. City planners and retailers need to adapt their structures in the long term in order to draw in customers whose free time behaviour is easily influenced. Thus, the inner city needs to be redesigned in the future, so that older people are more satisfied during their stay.

tions (cf. Dziemba/Wenzel 2009; Foscht/ Swoboda 2007; Frerichs/Kübler 1980; Götze 1993; Kernig 2006; Schmöler 2004; Stührenberg/Töpken 1996) and partly on factors in similar scenarios.

x-y coordinate system for every factor. In scenario terminology this is referred to as a system grid. Diagram 5 communicates an understanding of the system grid.

This is followed by the so-called influence analysis. Its purpose is to examine to what extent all factors are influenced by each other. The analysis establishes a relative order of factors. Factors of the lowest degree can then be selected. The result of the influence analysis is the answer to the question, “who or what actually influences whom?”This is displayed with active and passive sums. The active sums show how strongly one factor influences all other factors, while the passive sums show how strongly a factor is influenced by all other factors. Both of these can be transferred onto an

Using the system grid, all factors with a low degree of influence are visible and can be selected correspondingly (all non-shaded factors). These system properties can be seen in diagram 6. The area of demographics is in first place in the active field. Demographics has the most extensive influence on all other areas but is only affected by a few other areas. This means that it is hard to imagine factors influencing demographics. The economy is also shown to be influential. Only the employment and real estate market in Leipzig’s inner city are influenced by other systems to a slight to strong extent. In relation to all other subsystems, the factors of society and formers tend toward passivity. They can be influenced more and can only exert a small amount of influence. Only consumer behavior and the city planners’ and management’s strategic concepts exercise a high degree of influence on other factors. Conclusion This analysis clearly demonstrates the shapers’ systematic role. They exercise a small amount of influence on the system but are also influenced by the system. In regard to developing strategies this means – for shapers – to identify the biggest lever with the larg-

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est influence in the system. These are all areas of influence that can be characterized by high active dominance. This refers to demographics and economy as well as to consumer behaviour and the formers’ strategic concepts. However, the big levers (demographics, economy) can hardly be influenced. This means that the lever cannot be “pulled”. Instead it has to react. One example: no former can directly lower the average age, but nevertheless, the better they react to demographic developments, the more they can profit from them. Consumer behaviour and strategic concepts, however, lie in the formers’ area of influence. Because they are characterized by such a high level of active dominance, they are the only “adjusting screws”to influence development. In general, shapers have limited influence and have to adapt their structures more than they have the opportunity to exert influence. The shapers’ success depends on factors such as economic and demographic developments, which can scarcely be influenced. However, when the players realize a shared strategy in the future even during the economic recession and operate shared management, they might be able to absorb customer crises. Demographic change always has to be kept in mind with regard to all decisions. Older consumers will soon have to receive greater focus. In the future, a concentration on the rapidly decreasing number of young customers will no longer be a guarantee for successful economic management. The

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

shift in age distribution is accompanied by a change in the use and demand on city structures. For the formers, the older population – based on its strong growth – is becoming an attractive group. If they adjust early to new customer wishes it will be advantageous. Moreover, older people need adapted transportation systems. The motto is public and safe transport. Without a doubt, trains are the best option in this case. With the construction of the City Tunnel, which will now connect the core of the inner city with the rail network, the city is well-positioned in the fight for customers from the peripheral areas. The inner city, which is currently tailored to young consumers, has to rethink its structures, i.e. spatial and route design, as well as the pedestrian accessibility of locations for older consumers. Older people are less agile, their physical strength is more quickly exhausted. As a result, short distances and appropriate resting areas will gain new relevance. As unusual as it may seem, easily accessible toilets are important for “ripe old customers”. The public toilets are often far away from the shopping locations and only reachable with a high level of physical exertion. Not only toilets, it could also be recommended that public and private spheres cooperate in the area of public space design in order to create spaces for calm and quiet even in premium spots (THIEßEN 2004). Such measures may appear to reduce profits, but in the end they help prevent the inner city from losing attractiveness. Shared initiatives between city planners and retailers are the best solution, even though they

Bibliography: DZIEMBA/WENZEL (2009): Marketing 2020. Die elf neuen Zielgruppen. Wie sie Leben, was sie kaufen. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus Verlag. FOSCHT, T./SWOBODA, B. (2007): Käuferverhalten. Grundlagen – Perspektiven – Anwendung. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag. FRERICHS, W./KüBLER, K. (1980): Gesamtwirtschaftliche Prognoseverfahren. München: Vahlen. GAUSEMEIER, J./FINK, A./SCHLACKE, O. (1996): Szenario-Management. Planen und Führen mit Szenarien. München: Hanser. GöTZE, U. (1993): Szenario-Technik in der strategischen Unternehmensplanung. Wiesbaden: Deutscher UniversitätsVerlag. KERNIG, C.D. (2006): Und mehret euch? Deutschland und die Weltbevölkerung im 21. Jahrhundert. Bonn: Verlag J.H.W. Dietz. LAND SACHSEN-ANHALT, STATISTISCHES LANDESAMT SACHSEN-ANHALT (2008): Statistische Berichte – Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit – Bevölkerung nach Alter und Geschlecht. Stand 31.12.2008. Halle (Saale): Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt. MERTINS, G. (1997): Demographischer Wandel in der Europäischen Union und Perspektiven. In: ECKART, K./GRUNDMANN, S. (Hrsg.): Schriftenreihe der Gesellschaft für Deutschlandforschung. Demographischer Wandel in der europäischen Dimension und Perspektive. Bd. 52. Berlin: Dunckner & Humbold. MüLLER, W. (2006): Räumliche Auswirkungen des demographischen Wandels auf die öffentlichen Finanzen. In: GANS, P./SCHMITZ-VELTIN, A. (Hrsg.): Räumliche Konsequenzen des demographischen Wandels. Teil 6. Hannover: Verlag der ARL. SCHMöLER, C. (2004): Bestimmungsfaktoren der künftigen räumlich-demographischen Entwicklung in Deutschland. In: ROSENFELD, M. T. W./SCHLöMER, C.


(Hrsg.): Räumliche Konsequenzen des demographischen Wandels. Teil 4. Hannover: Verlag der ARL. STüHRENBERG, L./TöPKEN, M. (1996): Prognostik im Spannungsfeld von Kreativität und Systemdynamik. Integration der Szenario-Technik in ein quantitatives Prognosemodell am Beispiel der Bevölkerungsentwicklung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang Verlag. THIEßEN, F. (2004): Neue Ansprüche an die Innenstädte in einer alternden Gesellschaft. In: Immobilien und Finanzierung. 58.Jg. Heft 12. S. 425-427. VON REIBNITZ, U. (1992): SzenarioTechnik. Instrument für die unternehmerische Erfolgsplanung. Wiesbaden: Gabler.

Using Innovative Methods at EGEA Events. The Protected Areas Seminar, Buila-Vânturariţa National Park

Tabellenabruf durch: Vorausberechneter Bevölkerungsstand: Deutschland, Stichtag, Varianten der Bevölkerungsvorausberechnung (Variante 1-W1/Variante 1-W2), Geschlecht, Altersjahre]. BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND, STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT (2009): Bevölkerungsfortschreibung. < https://www-genesis.destatis.de/genesis/online>. Stand 2009. Zugriff am: 27.06.2009. [Datenbanktabellen, Tabellenabruf durch: Bevölkerung: Deutschland, Stichtag 31.12.2007, Altersjahre] KORZER, T. (2009): Shopping Center am Brühl und innerstädtischer Einzelhandel. Auswertungsergebnisse 2008/2009. [unveröffentlichte Studie des Instituts für Stadtentwicklung und Bauwirtschaft der Universität Leipzig]

by Catalina Ionita & Catalina Neagu EGEA Bucharest Introduction From 31st July to 4th August, EGEA Bucharest organized the first edition of the Protected Areas Seminar for young geographers and people studying connected subjects in Europe. The case study of this project was The BuilaVânturariţa National Park, a site of the Natura 2000 Network Programme (an EUwide network of nature protection areas established under the 1992 Habitats Directive), the smallest national park in our country, located in the Vâlcea County in the south-western part of Romania.

WILMS, F. E. P. (2006): Szenarien sind Systeme. In: WILMS, F. E. P. (Hrsg.): Szenariotechnik. Vom Umgang mit der Zukunft. Bern: Hauptverlag. S. 39-60. Grey Bibliography: LAND SACHSEN, STATISTISCHES LANDESAMT DES FREISTAATES SACHSEN (2007): 4. Regionalisierte Bevölkerungsprognose für den Freistaat Sachsen bis 2020. Stand: 2007. Entnommen am: 09.06.2009. <http://www.statistik. sachsen.de/bevprog/Alter.jsp>. [Datenbanktabellen, Tabellenabruf durch Alter der Bevölkerung, Kreisfreie Städte und Landkreise] LAND SACHSEN-ANHALT, STATISTISCHES LANDESAMT SACHSEN-ANHALT (2009): 4. Regionalprognose (Basisjahr 2005) Schriftliche Mitteilung (14.07.2009). [Datenbanktabellen: Bevölkerung insgesamt nach Altersjahren von 2005 bis 2020] LAND SACHSEN, STATISTISCHES LANDESAMT DES FREISTAATES SACHSEN (2009): Kreisstatistik Sachsen. <http:// www.statistik.sachsen.de/Index/22kreis/ unterseite22.htm>. Stand:2009. Entnommen am: 09.06.2009. [Datenbanktabellen, Tabellenabruf durch Kreise, Gebietsstand bis 01.01.2008, Bevölkerung am 31.12.2007] BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND, STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT (2009a): Bevölkerungsvorausberechnung. < https://www-genesis.destatis.de/ genesis/online>. Stand 2009. Zugriff am: 27.06.2009. [Datenbanktabellen,

The Buila Vanturarita Massif is part of the Capatanii Mountains, a limestone massif situated in south-east with a maximum elevation of 1885 m (Vanturarita Mare Peak). This area is appreciated very well by local communities, authorities and specialists and it was decided to be protected for several reasons: virgin forests, special elements of flora and fauna in their natural environment, both natural and anthropological tourist attractions (gorges, caves, the glades of orchids, natural reservations, trovants, monasteries, hermitages etc). During the seminar we intended to point out the connection between nature and human activity, how they interact and how they influence each other. The participants worked together using different methods and instruments and had the final target to understand the role of culture in the nature’s conservation. This article will present only a small part of the work done during the seminar and its aim is not to describe the event, but to introduce the results of applying a method new to geographers.

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

Methods To underline the importance of nature in the life of local population as well as to emphasize the interconnection between culture and traditions and environmental protection, we used two methods: focus groups and fuzzy cognitive mapping (further on called FCM). FCM has been used to model a variety of elements in different fields: the physiology of appetite, political developments, electrical circuits, a virtual world of dolphins, sharks and fish, organizational behavior and job satisfaction, and economics/demographics of world nations and recently in ecological modeling. The origins of FCM are of course, as the name suggests, in cognitive mapping. A cognitive map can be described as a qualitative model of how a given system operates. The map is based on defined variables/concepts and the causal relationships between these variables. These variables/concepts can be physical quantities that can be measured such as amount of precipitation or percent vegetation cover, or complex aggregates and abstract ideas such as political forces or aesthetics. The person that makes the cognitive map decides which are the important variables that affect a system and then draws causal relationships among these variables. The directions of the causal relationships are indicated with arrowheads (Kosko, 1986). Because cognitive maps are directed graphs, or digraphs, they have their historical origins in graph theory, which started with Euler in 1736. In digraphs each link (line or connection) between variables (points or nodes) has a direction. Axelrod (1976) was the first to use digraphs to show causal relationships among variables as defined and

described by people, rather than by the researcher. He called these digraphs cognitive maps (term first used by Tolman, 1948). Many studies have used cognitive mapping in decision-making as well as to examine people’s perceptions of complex social systems. Kosko (1986) modified Axelrod’s cognitive maps, which were binary by applying fuzzy causal functions with real numbers in the interval [−1, 1] to the connections. This explains the term fuzzy cognitive map (FCM). But how does FCM actually work? There is a causal relation between two given concepts/variables whenever a change in one of those concepts affects the other one. Causal relations in causal maps always involve change: the result of a causal effect is always a variation in one or more concepts. In FCM we have two kinds of causality: positive and negative. If an increase in concept A causes an increase in concept B then causality is positive. If an increase in concept A causes concept B to decrease then causality is negative. The amount of change is defined by a weight between concepts. Of course, there are multiple possibilities because A can be influenced also in certain way by concept C or D. The main advantages of cognitive maps include: a) the ability to allow feedback processes; b) the ability to deal with many variables which may be not welldefined; c) ability to model relationships between variables that are not precisely known but can be described in degrees such as “a little” or “a lot”; d) the ability to model systems where scientific information is limited but expert and/or local knowledge is available; e) ease and speed with which cognitive maps may be obtained, while reaching similar results with lower sample sizes compared


to other techniques; f ) ability of combining different knowledge sources, including expert and local knowledge; g) ease and speed of modeling the system and the effect of different policy options. The disadvantages of cognitive maps are: a) the respondents’ knowledge, ignorance and misconceptions are all encoded in the maps. This could be a disadvantage unless these presumed ignorance and misconceptions are the subject of study; b) although what – if’s can be modeled in FCMs why’s cannot be determined; c) they do not provide real-value parameters; d) lack of a concept of time – that is, they cannot model transient behavior; e) they cannot deal with co-occurrence of multiple causes such as those expressed by “and”conditions; f ) “if, then”statements cannot be coded. (Ozesmi, U, Ozesmi, S, 2004) Results and Discussions All the participants at the seminar were split in 3 groups, each with two coordinators (organizers). During all the focus groups, participants were asked about their opinions regarding the places they have seen and about possible solutions to enable a development of local economy without affecting the nature’s protection. We applied FCM during the last meeting of each group. Because of the differences and flaws in the procedure between all the groups we will continue explaining the results of FCM with an example of only one group. Cognitive maps can be obtained in four ways: a) from questionnaires, b) by extraction from written texts, c) by drawing them from data that shows causal relationships, d) through interviews with people who draw them directly. In order to obtain maps we used the last method (most popular). Since questions typically are open-ended, we mostly used “When I mention this area you have visited and its surroundings and its inhabitants what are the variables/ things/concepts that come into your mind?”and “How do these variables affect each other? ”There was no limit (in numbers of concepts) that each member of the group could add, so they continued until it was considered there were no more variables to be added. At the end, the group totally identified 51

Fugure 3.1: The group of “bats”at work - Source: Stefania Russo (Egea Bologna) concepts related to the studied area. These variables were listed on a large piece of paper (A3). After the respondents made the list they were asked to explain the relationships between the variables. The variables were drawn in the center of the paper and the lines, or edges or links, were drawn between them using arrows to indicate their direction (see figure 1). First we ordered the variables by the times they were mentioned. It is considered that the most important variables are those that were mentioned by most people. As predominant “pottery”and “landscape”were chosen. After this process ended all members of the group were asked to gather at a table and work on the map by drawing lines between the named concepts and identifying the character of the influence. We used a black line for a positive feedback and red line for a negative feedback. Because the process would have been too complicated with such a large group the process of assigning real numbers to the connections was eliminated from the procedure (except for the fact that the participants were asked to underline the strongest connections). As it is difficult to look at a complex cognitive map with many variables (in our

case 51) and connections and find out how the map operates, we simplified it (see figue 2). Figure 3.2: Resulted FCM According to graph theory condensation is an effective way to simplify complex cognitive maps and understand their structure. Condensation is done by replacing subgraphs (consisting of a group of variables connected with lines) with a single unit. When replacing groups of variables, the connections of variables within subgraphs with other subgraphs are maintained (Ozesmi, U, Ozesmi, S, 2004). The resulted map has 16 concepts/variables with in the center “pottery”and “landscape”(see figure 2). Each concept is connected with at least two others, while the central concepts are connected with at least five others. Although participants selected two central concepts, one of them is much stronger and is connected with at least six other concepts – “landscape”. Most of the time, the variables have a positive impact on the landscape, except for: “tourism”and “cheap”. The analyzed area is a holiday destination for people coming from all over the country. Still, most of the services offered here are quite cheap, facts that enable bigger tourist fluxes, that at the same time can destroy

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or endanger the environment and/or the landscape (both terms chosen by respondents for the original map). This concept of “tourism”can easily be distinguished among the others because it has causal connections with so many other concepts. Thus, an increase in culture or friendliness of local population can always cause touristic development, while old infrastructure and low promotion of the area are conducting to a decrease of tourism. Of course, an increase of tourism can always lead to a decrease of other concepts as “landscape”or “conservation”. Although ten of the concepts are societal related and only six are related to nature, the last concepts were more taken into consideration by the participants, not only by setting one of them in the centre, but also by underlining the strong connections between them. Most of the time the lines between nature related concepts have douFigure 3.3: The traditional artictic motif – the Horezu rooster - Source: Stefania Russo (Egea Bologna)

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

ble arrowheads. Therefore, a strong relationship between “landscape”, biodiversity”and “wild nature”exists. The same approach is also observed at socio-economic concepts such as “religion”– “culture”– “tradition”– “pottery”, but the relationships between nature and society & economy are also visible. In this case most of the time economy has more impact on nature. Thus, “religion”, art of “pottery”, “subsistantial agriculture”, “tradition”are considered to have a positive influence on nature (“landscape”, “biodiversity”, “conservation”). The positive causality comes from the fact that religion and tradition encompass a certain degree of respect for nature, that is why a part of the population (especially elders) consider cutting a tree as a sin. Also, the local population is practicing agriculture only for consumption and not for commerce. Low scale farms do not use intensive methods or chemical fertilizers, thus the pollution related to agriculture practices is reduced. Over the time, the main occupation was pottery (the area is considered to be the center of pottery in Romania). Because the art of pottery


Kosko, M, 1986, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, in Int. J. Man – Machine Studies 24, p. 65-75 Ozesmi, U., Ozesmi, Stacy, 2004, Ecological models based on people’s knowledge: a multi-step fuzzy cognitive mapping approach, in Ecological Modeling 176, p. 43-64

Can inland waterway transport be a sustainable alternative to road transport? On the sustainability of ship transport and its chances in a changing economy. by Christoph Fink (EGEA Wien) and Markus Belz (EGEA Berlin) In this essay we want to outline the present role of inland waterway transport in Europe and discuss whether in it’s current state of development it can be seen as more sustainable than road cargo, before we proceed to a brief scenario building exercise (cp. e.g. Banister e.a. 2000; their research design is being discussed on pp. 3ff ). In this discursive approach we want to define key circumstances and policies which could lead waterway transport to be a major factor in a sustainable future of transportation. Finally, we will evaluate the probability that such a scenario or parts of it could once become reality.

Figure 3.4: Nature on a plate – artistic motif on a pottery plate - Source: Nichita Fedul (EcoAssist) is a good and stable source of income, it was not necessary to develop industry or economical branches that may pollute the environment. Conclusion The resulted graph is the expression of the complex system we were studying (directed mainly towards BuilaVanturarita National Park). The original map created by the group and having 51 variables on it was almost impossible to read for someone not familiar to the concept of FCM, because almost all of the variables were connected in a way or another among them. The complexity of the relationship between natural capital and socio-economical capital is underlined by positive causality lines among concepts that belong to both systems. We can now see that in the group’s vision (used as touristic vision) environment conservation and protection of nature in the area is strictly dependent also on the tradition. This is easy to explain if we consider the fact that the area is well known for its culture and traditions that have a big respect for the nature (also by using the nature as artistic motif ) (see figures 3 and 4). Conservation of these customs

automatically led to conservation of nature. That is why Buila-Vanturarita National Park is one of the wildest areas of Romania, although it was declared as a protected area by law only 5 years ago. Furthermore, we can consider that breaking the traditions and altering local culture and religion can have a negative outcome for the national park and its biodiversity. In a nutshell, one might say that the preservation of the nature may depend on passing the tradition and customs from a generation to next one. Thus, we recommended the local authorities to try to conserve the nature by conserving the culture and also to promote the area as a touristic one, but mainly centered on cultural, religious objectives and less on natural ones.

The term sustainable development emerged in the early 1970ies and was closer defined by the Brundtland-commission in 1983 (cp. Rogall 2002:41ff ). Today, sustainable development is generally viewed as the total of economic, environmental and sociocultural sustainability. “In an economist’s language it means the claim that every generation shall be entitled the same chances for benefits realization and therefore each generation is required to hand on the same environmental capital stock to it’s successors.”(Rogall 2002:43; own translation) “That doesn’t mean a sustainable development aims for a joyless society in an ‘eco-dictatorship’, but for a society where the freedom and the quality of living for all present and future generations is secured.”(ibid.) We want to discuss solely the obstacles and chances of waterway transport on the way to a (more) sustainable future, so the emphasis of this essay will be laid upon the ecological and economic factors.

Acknowledgements: the authors would like to thank the members of the organizing team that leaded all the groups at the seminar – Simona Gradinaru, Andra Macaun, Ioana Andreea Andrei, Alexandru Craciun and also all the participants (“bats”, “bears”and “deers”). References: Langfield-Smith, K., 1992, Exploring the need for a shared cognitive map. J. Manage. Stud. 29, p. 349 – 367

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

As Eran Feitelson and Erik T. Verhoef state in the preface of their collection of papers Transport and Environment (Feitelson & Verhoef, eds., 2001:xiii) all questions in these fields “appear time and time again to be complex and multifaceted”. Therefore, they warn against mono-disciplinary approaches and demand broader co-operation (ibid.). Transport geography plays traditionally and historically a connecting and integrating role “in the middle”and as it seems to us it can effectively promote policies towards sustainable development – especially when paired with the well-developed public agitation and opinion shaping methods of e.g. the critical social geographies. Inland waterway transport has existed in Europe at least since Roman times, when rivers were already used to ship both military forces and their supplies. While having lost its predominant position and much of it’s importance first to rail transport and later to road cargo, inland waterway transport still provides an average 6% share of total freight transport in the EU-27 member states and accounts for 12.38% in Germany and astonishing 30.96% in the Netherlands. Both countries are situated along the river Rhine which is the most important water path in Europe. [Note: Figures are taken from EUROSTAT (2008) and may be inconsistent due to different data collection methods for the different modes of transport (cp. ibid.).] River Rhine connects not only the most important European overseas port, Rotterdam, with the densest heavy industry cluster, Ruhr area. Transport on it also benefits from the typical goods used and produced along it: liquid bulk (the

majority being oil and oil products) and major bulk (coal, iron, cereals) still by far outweigh container cargo in the share of goods on Europe’s inland waterways. (Zachzial, 2008) Up to now the most important argument of the opponents of a larger inland waterway transport share has been it’s heavier pollution (especially of air and water). Indeed, for a long time ships did not have to achieve as strong emission goals as lorries and just recently a – still comparatively high – limit for sulphur in ship fuels was defined on a European level (0.1% in weight for inland waterway vessels; European Parliament and Council (2005)). But as Whitelegg (1993:58) shows, both energy consumption and emissions of ships are lower than those of lorries when viewed per tonne-kilometre (tkm). Nevertheless, there exist emission problems with vessels as they are not legally required effective exhaust filtering (cp. Rieker, 2008). In a nutshell, waterway transport’s advantages are its enormous capacity, a low energy consumption per tkm and easily estimable run-times (important for just-in-time productions), while it’s major drawbacks are a comparatively slow speed, the limited reach without a change of transport mode and its more contaminated exhausts. Especially the environmental and social impacts of most – if not all – modes of transport are “paid”for by society (health insurance, disaster recovery, road construction) or by nature itself (extinction of species etc.; cp. Whitelegg 1993:127f ). These indirect costs or externalities will “have to be met at some time in the future”(p. 127). Ecological economists see the solution in trying to internalize


the costs. They provide different strategies for that (cp. Rogall, 2002:58f ), all of which lead to a monetarisation of negative social and ecological effects and incentives for environmentally sustainable actions. For example in the case of road freight “the taxation amounts to about 15% of the costs they impose”(Whitelegg 1993:131; figures from Teufel 1989) – already including the costs of land use and road maintenance. In 1990, the total external costs for freight transport (per tonne-km) summed up to 5.01 pfennigs (former German currency; 1 pfennig would be around 0,005€) for road transport, rail 1.15p and inland waterways 0.35p (p. 133, citing Planco, 1990). If all those now external costs were to be internalized in our future scenario, it would be a big step towards a larger share for inland waterway transport. Given that adequate exhaust filtering is introduced and the quality of ship fuel is improved, also a more sustainable approach is likely to be met. Of course this considers only the modal split, while many other important factors, as e.g. the total volume of transport, would have to be recognized here. A very holistic and sophisticated approach can be found in Banister e.a. (2000); also Whitelegg (1993) discusses a more complete set of factors. Still, we think waterway transport has a potential to become both more important for transportation and more sustainable in environmental terms. It is the mode of transport which would need the smallest changes to meet the urges of a more sustainable society. At the same time, we do not expect the prices for waterway transport to rise in the same ratio as e.g. the prices for road traffic – once a cost-by-cause principle is achieved – as only a small part of the real costs of waterway transport has not been internalized up to now (air and water pollution, land use and noise pollution of ports). We think, in combination with efficient multi-modal traffic nodes, waterway transport is likely to become an important mode of transport in a sustainable future. References: Banister, D., D. Stead, P. Steen, J. Åkerman, K. Dreborg, P. Nijkamp & R.

Schleicher-Tappeser (2000): European Transport Policy and Sustainable Mobility. London & New York. Button, K., & Nijkamp, P. (1997): Social change and sustainable transport. In: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 215-218. European Parliament and Council (2005): Directive 2005/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2005 amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. – online: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/ LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:20 05:191:0059:0069:EN:PDF (last viewed 2009-05-05) EUROSTAT(2008): Modal split in the inland transport of the EU (=Statistics in focus 35/2008). – online: http:// bookshop.europa.eu/eubookshop/ download.action?fileName=KSSF08035 ENC_002.pdf&eubphfUid=568567&cata logNbr=KS-SF-08-035-EN-C (last viewed 2009-05-05) Feitelson, E. & E. Verhoef (2001, eds.): Transport and environment: in search of sustainable solutions. Planco (1990): Externe Kosten des Verkehrs. Schiene, Straße, Binnenschiffahrt. Gutachten im Auftrag der Deutschen Bundesbahn. Rieken, P. (2008): Emissionen der Binnenschifffahrt: Aktueller Stand und Perspektiven. In: 100 Jahre DWG. Rogall, H. (2002): Neue Umweltökonomie – Ökologische Ökonomie (=Lehrtexte: Umweltökonomie). Opladen. Teufel, D. (1989): Gesellschaftliche Kosten des Straßen-Güterverkehrs: Kostendeckungsgrad im Jahr 1987 und Vorschläge zur Realisierung des Verursacherprinzips (=Bericht Nr. 14). Umweltund Prognoseinstitut, Heidelberg. Whitelegg, J. (1993): Transport for a sustainable future. London & New York. Zachcial, M. (2008): Prognose der Seeverkehrsmärkte. In: 100 Jahre DWG.

Environmentally Sustainable Transport. – online: http://ideas.repec.org/p/dgr/ vuarem/1993-69.html (last viewed 200905-05)

Dark topic brings brightness to the future of tourism by Maiboroda Nataliia Volodymyrivna Specialization in International Tourism, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Faculty of Geography. EGEA Kyiv It was a great surprise when I found a very unusual topic of Geography among the long workshop list of the Annual Congress 2009 (Heeg, The Netherlands): “Final Places: Geographies of death”. It looks like our science is developing a totally new and innovative field, which deals with the cultural and spatial aspects of the places of death (necropolis). Normally people associate the word “necropolis”only with a cemetery covered with darkness and an inanimate atmosphere. And for sure the mention of traveling there would sound too crazy and unreasonable to be accepted by some minds. But let me ask you if you have ever visited the Egyptian pyramids, Taj Mahal (India), the Pantheon in Paris or Rome, la Basilica di Santa Croce (Florence), the Basilica of Saint Peter (Vatican), the Kremlin Wall (Moscow), the Westminster Abbey (London), Chernobyl (Ukraine), Auschwitz (Poland), the cemetery Skogskyrkogården (Sweden) or the Merry Cemetery in Romania? All these famous places are considered to be necropolises (from Greek. ‘nekros’ – dead, ‘polis’ – a city) – a «city of dead people», a generalization for graves, cemeteries, mausoleums, brotherly graves and other types of burial places [3]. Nowadays, much attention has been paid to necropolises as mysterious, unique displays of organization of the space, inevitable and eternal residence of many temporal inhabitants of Earth, as to the specific components of the architecture and history related to them. This point of view is reflected in advertising-information production (tourist booklets, city guides, TV programs etc.), in positive dynamics of tourist visits, in the permanent growth of the amount of scientific and popular science studies and articles, [2, 3] and the visits of world leaders and other VIPs.

Further Reading: Åkerman, J. & M. Höjer (2005): How much transport can the climate stand? – Sweden on a sustainable path in 2050. In: Energy Policy 34, pp. 1944-1957. Litman, T. & D. Burwell (2006): Issues in sustainable transportation. In: International Journal of Global Environmental Issues Volume 6, Number 4, pp. 331-347. Nijkamp, P. (1993): Roads Towards

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

World and European experience testifies that necropolises were and still are a popular destinations in tourist routes (it is confirmed by statistics about visits to the world, European and national cemeteries – Père Lachaise, Montmartre Cemetery, Les Invalides, Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Green-Wood Cemetery, Great Pyramids of Giza, Luxor, Taj-Mahal, Arlington cemetery, Highgate Cemetery, Novodevichy Cemetery etc.). Necropolises indicate the objective analytic base of the history of a certain territory, nation and period. The burial rituals and remains of ancestors, which have a spatial component, often underlie the geographically marked phenomena of any kind of culture. It is evident in the territorial distribution of burial places, which is the base for developing a new scientific field – the geography of necropolises. Necropolises show an authentic historical constituent (the older the object, the greater its chronological weight), a biosocial and architectural value which is related to the period of origin and its dominating traditions and norms [1]. Necropolises could become a great prospect for tourism. In international scientific literature the phenomenon of travelers visiting necropolises is characterized by the term «Dark tourism» or «Grief tourism» [5]. Professor D. Lennon (from the University of Glasgow), coauthor of «Dark Tourism – The attraction of death and disaster (Continuum)» says that this term is used in the curriculum of tourism specialization at the University of Glasgow, to represent the growing demand on tourist attractions, such as Ground Zero and other places associated with death, genocide, terrorism and suffering. [6]. Some of the most notorious destinations for dark tourism are the Nazi extermination camp at Auschwitz in Poland, the Chernobyl site

in Ukraine, Bran Castle or Poienari Castle in Romania [7]. There are a lot of definitions of “dark tourism”, such as – disaster tourism, recreational grief, grief tourism, black and cemetery tourism. Here, the reason for traveling must be considered. A tourist who travels to New York City to visit Ground Zero is a grief tourist, but a tourist who travels to see some Broadway shows and climb the Empire State Building who also happens to visit Ground Zero is a regular tourist, as has been mentioned by James Trotta [8]. On an article published by Catherine Soanes on askoxford.com (Oxford University Press) the case is made to differentiate “dark”, “disaster”and “grief”tourism: • Dark Tourism would then be referred to as “traveling to areas associated with death and disaster”such as former concentration camps, battlefields, and even to contemporary sites of mass destruction such as Ground Zero in New York City. • Disaster tourism would be “traveling to places affected by natural disasters”, such as hurricanes, tsunamis or earthquakes, sites devastated by natural catastrophes like the South-East Asian tsunami or Hurricane Katrina. • Grief Tourism relates to “places associated with grief”, like the village of Soham in Cambridgeshire after the murders of Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman. The definitions above are too narrow to describe how dark tourism is used, that is why on my research, the term “dark tourism”refers to each and everyone of the examples above. So, a person who visits either cemeteries, crypts, concentration camps, battlefields, places affected by natural disasters or basilicas, churches and temples (generally defined in this article as “necropolis”) to


honor the memory of lost and buried people can be referred to with the term “dark tourist”. For most people, a visit to a cemetery as part of a holiday is not a dark tourism episode. It is, rather, a way to get another, more oblique view of the social or cultural history of the host city or region, and to view the works of local architects and sculptors. Also, it’s a way to get closer to the famous people buried there. For the dark tourist, however, the imagined presence of the dead – amid the rich symbolism of grave markers and atmospheric surroundings – provides a sensational or emotional pleasure, rooted in Romantic or Gothic art and literature [9]. Dark tourism is therefore more about the emotions that a tourist feels than about the scene or the spectacle. It has been said that cemetery tourism for some is an “aphrodisiac for necrophilia,”for others, a temporary feeling of sentimentalism and grief, but for many, it is just another form of entertainment. Cemetery tourism has become far more than a popular tourist attraction; it is, in reality, an institution, as L. Slayton Sharon says. [10]. Humans feel a strange attraction to cemeteries, especially if they are famous, where outstanding people are buried. For example in the classical sightseeing tours of the French capital there is a visit to Père Lachaise Cemetery. As are also famous the tours to the Egyptian pyramids in Cairo or to “The Valley of Kings”in Luxor. Taking into account that among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World there are 2 objects connected with necropolis (the Great Egyptian Pyramids and The Tomb of Mausolus (present Bodrum, Turkey), we can say without hesitation, that death was, is and will be as important as life. A large number of cemeteries are included in travel tours for a long time. Among memorial famous routes are the cemeteries of Pere Lachaise, Montmartre, Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Batignolles (Paris, France), Basilica di Santa Croce (Florence, Italy), Arlington national cemetery (Washington, USA), Greenwood (New York, USA), Alexander Nevsky Lavra (Saint Petersburg, Russia), Glasnevin (Dublin, Ireland). As an example, in New Orleans, USA, there are specific tours to the places destroyed

after hurricane Katrina, which is called «Hurricane Katrina Tour» or excursions called «Cemetery & Gris-Gris», which include the most famous cemeteries of the city. The magazine «Weismann Travel Reports», one of the most popular sources of information for 6,000 travel agencies worldwide, asserts that cemeteries are the most visited places in the world. “Undoubtedly, a necessity for people to visit cemeteries exists. In fact, the monuments and the art of necropolises not only serve for people to admire, but also to feel the triumph of glory and the merits of buried people, to join the collective gratitude that is expressed in architecturally artistic form”, the magazine remarks [11, 12]. The statistics of this magazine show the most visited cemeteries around the world: 1. Valley of Kings (Luxor, Egypt). On the banks of the river Nile, near Luxor there is the famous Valley of Kings, where 64 tombs were found, one of them belonging to the well known pharaoh Tutankhamen. This is the most visited excursion for tourists that traveled to Egypt. 2. «Merry cemetery» (Sapinta, Romania) – one of the most incredible displays of folk art in Europe. The cemetery is situated in a small village called Sapinta, close to the Romanian-Ukrainian border. And it’s not a joke that here one can find the “happiest and most cheerful”tombstones, decorated with bright illustrations of scenes from the daily life of the buried citizens. The “comic strips”reflect their life with all kind of details, telling whether he or she was an alcoholic or a womanizer. Now this cemetery has been included in the list of the World Heritage of UNESCO. 3. «Hanging graves» (Sulawesi, Indonesia) – situated in the village called Londa (6 km from Rantepao). The tombs have been hanged with lianas in ravines up high. Due to the fact that the limestone cliffs create a special microclimate, the buried have turned into mummies. Some of them are quite old. The “Hanging graves”are unique for its tau-tau – colourful figures, which personify the buried there. One can find them on the rocky balconies and terraces of the cliff. It is very spectacular in the early morning, when the sun rises defining the

silhouette of the mountain and colouring those figures. 4. Père Lachaise Cemetery (Paris, France) – has been visited by thousands of tourists every day. Here they want to feel closer to the bohemian atmosphere of the times of 100 years. This cemetery is famous for the outstanding people buried there: Honoré de Balzac, Oscar Wilde, Sarah Bernhardt, Amadeo Modigliani, Isadora Duncan, Jim Morrison, Frédéric Chopin, Édith Piaf. Tourists can even have a virtual tour on the official website. 5. Arlington Military cemetery (Arlington, state Virginia, USA) – the most famous cemetery in the USA, which has been visited by 4 million people every year. 230,000 veterans, who took part in the most important American conflicts are laying here. Even the president John Fitzgerald Kennedy and his wife Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis were buried in this place. 6. Cemetery of Key Underwood Coon Dog Memorial Graveyard (Colbert County, Alabama, USA) is a cemetery for pets, a fact that is quite unusual. 7. Cemetery of Copán (Copán, Honduras) with its pyramidal tombstones and pagodas, occupying 12 square miles. 8. The cemetery of Highgate (London, United Kingdom) – opened in 1839, is included in the list of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries of London, with striking beauty of gothic burial vaults, mausoleums and tombstones. Excursions here have become quite popular, so it's possible to book a tour every weekend except during the winter months. The most famous guest here is the grand grandfather of communism Karl Marx. 9. Foreign cemetery of Yokohama (Japan) – an old cemetery for the foreigners who were killed in the country of the “rising sun”, situated on the slopes of the hill Yamate. It is so old, that you will never see here any inconsolable relatives crying. But under every stone with almost effaced inscriptions in every language, the fates of adventure’s hunters are hidden. The oldest tomb dates from 1859 and is dedicated to two Russian sailors, that died in Yokohama. 10. Carrowmore cemetery (Ireland) – the biggest megalithic cemetery in Ireland, occupies an area of 4 sq. km, more than 60 burial places were saved with the

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

oldest tomb dating from 4600 B.C. The growing personal interest in the study and the visits to necropolises as a constituent of historical and cultural heritage is an evidence of the creation of a new branch in the geographical science – the geography of necropolises. The study of necropolises of Europe and the rest of the world and using it as an application for proper touristic products (excursions) is the substantial factor of the rising spirituality of a nation and the elevation of its consciousness. But regardless of religions, of the colour of skin or political convictions, all the representatives of the human race, which are buried on the territory of your country are worth of attention and honor, because it is our national history which is needed to be taken care of, valued and studied. As a conclusion I want to add, that the memory of our ancestors and the history is the gauge of morality and spirituality, because our interest in necropolises, as the acquisition of civilization not only of our own country but also of the world, is indisputably a stimulus for the knowledge of the culture and the past of the countries. I cannot tell you the date when I went into this dark topic, but I know for sure that for me the best way to discover the history and traditions of a city or country is by visiting its cemeteries. Sometimes the darkness can be the way to illumination. References: 1. Бейдик О.О. Рекреаційно-туристські ресурси України: методологія та методика аналізу, термінологія, районування. – К.: ВПЦ «Київський університет», 2001. – 395 с. 2. Кальницький М.Б., Малаков Д.В., Юркова О.В. Нариси з історії Києва. – К.; Ґенеза, 2002. – 384 с. 3. Проценко Л.А. Історія Київського некрополя. – К.: Укрбланквидав, 1995. – 412 с. 4. Encyclopaedia Britannica – a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Eleventh Edition Handy Volume Edition, 29 VOLUME SET (Hardcover) Publisher: Oxford University Press; 11th edition (1911). 5. Lennon J., Foley M. Dark Tourism. – Glasgow: Thomson Learning, 2001.

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6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_ tourism 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_ tourism 8. http://www.grief-tourism.com/grieftourism-definition 9. http://www.grief-tourism.com/cemetery-tourism-symbolic-attractions 10. http://www.grief-tourism.com/cemetery-tourism-symbolic-attractions 11. http://www.significantcemeteries. net/ 12. http://ww.e-motion.com.ua/class/ cl_mix/cl_interesting_stories/9056.html


Uncertainty in measurements Application for a GPS bird tracking system Inge Wiekenkamp, University of Amsterdam, Department of Earth Sciences EGEA Amsterdam Based on my Bachelor Thesis “An uncertainty analysis on meteorological data” Every measurement ever carried out by any scientist on any place at any moment contains uncertainties. At the moment climate change is a hot topic in our society. The increased greenhouse effect is seen as one of the most important “problems of the future”. However, Earth’s future is unknown. A lot of scientists are concerned about global warming. By modeling earth’s future behavior they claim human beings cause an increased greenhouse effect. Although, they can never be 100% sure. Uncertainties in meteorological data partly cause uncertainties in these predictions. Introduction Measurements are never perfect. Carrying out measurements implies making choices: it is impossible to continually measure everywhere. As a consequence,

you can never know the future circumstance of every feature/process at any moment: it involves uncertainties. Measurements are therefore always approximations. Uncertainty can be defined as “the estimated amount or percentage by which an observed or calculated value may differ from the true value”[1]. Besides making selections in time and space, choices are also made in measurement equipment: there is a large variety in capability of different equipment. All equipment has a certain accuracy (degree of veracity) and precision (maximum error – see figure 1). Sometimes it is necessary to determine the uncertainty of measurement equipment. Most manuals do give an indication of the quality of the equipment (precision and accuracy), but sometimes these manuals do not give enough information, for example if you would like to know the accuracy and precision of

Figure 6.1: Accuracy and precision, explained for a GPS system [5].

the equipment in specific climatological circumstances. Determining uncertainty in measurements could be difficult. Sometimes all the errors caused by variation in time and space need to be excluded. Especially excluding errors in time is theoretically impossible, since you cannot take two measurements at the exact same time. Errors in time could arise while measuring temperature. Since temperature is changing within time, it’s impossible to say weather a change in temperature is caused by time or caused by an error of the equipment. However, if it is decided that temperature change caused by change in time is inconsiderable, we can address the error to the equipment. Knowing the uncertainty in measurements is essential. An uncertainty analysis directly gives an insight in the applicability of data. This makes it possible to determine weather the data was suitable for answering any research question. In my bachelor thesis the applicability of the data for a 3d-model that predicts the soil surface temperature and calculates the soil heat balance was tested [2]. Unfortunately, it would be too complex to explain the whole analysis, therefore only part of the research – including a GPS accuracy test – is explained. Case study – The bird tracking GPS In this research the uncertainty of place orientation of a bird tracking system was determined. The bird tracking system is a GPS system (see figure 2) developed by the University of Amsterdam. It is a very light and solar powered system, which consists of a base station, relay stations and the GPS itself [4].

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

Figure 6.2: GPS bird tracking system [4] This system has been originally developed for tracking birds. In this research however, the GPS is used to determine the exact location of soil surface temperature measurements (see figure 3). These measurements were taken from a height of 4 meters. With this GPS and a Heinmann radiation meter it was possible to measure both location and soil surface radiation every 3 seconds. In order to check the uncertainty in GPS bird tracking devise, the equipment is placed in an open field (Prins Bernard Park, Amsterdam) executing the exact location for 45 minutes with an interval of 3 seconds [3]. The 900 measurements made it possible to calculate the uncertainty of the GPS bird traking device. Figure 4 shows the positions calculated by the GPS. After calculating the mean GPS location (in the graph. shown as 0, 0), a maximum error for the mean (standard deviation, within a 95% confidence interval) was executed (1.7m). This is the confidence radius. The confidence radius is the radius of a circle in which 95% percent of the points fit (855/900 points). This means we do not know the exact location of the measurement, but we know quite sure that the measurement was taken within a circle with this calculated radius. Concluding remarks and discussion This determined uncertainty on its own, does not say anything. However placed in context, it says a lot. It is known that

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

Figure 6.3: measurement set-up. The rectangular white box is equipped with a bird tracking GPS and a Heinmann radiation meter (measures soil surface temperature). the uncertainty in GPS causes uncertainty in determining the location of a measurement. This causes restrictions in mapping: the pixel size could not be smaller than the confidence radius calculated by this uncertainty analysis (see figure 4). At the end we also know that the measurement (with a probability of 95%) is taken within a circle with a radius of 1.7m. Uncertainty analysis on the one hand gives us an opportunity to evaluate

measurements and could be useful in the development of new measurement equipment. On the other hand it’s also the reason new measurement equipment is developed. One always has the ambition to make new equipment with higher accuracy. However, one should not forget that easier equipment in some cases could be as useful if qualifications of measurements do not need to be that high. Further one should never forget that


none of the equipment that has ever been used is perfect. This directly involves complications in uncertainty measurements: In order to test the quality of a certain “tool”, one needs better equipment to make a comparison. However, this is not always necessary, as seen in this GPS example. References: [1] NIST (2009). Engineering Statistics Handbook. Uncertainty analysis. C. Croarkin, http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/ handbook/mpc/section5/mpc5.htm [2] Gastel,V. van (2009). Modeling the Spatial Variation and Temporal Evolution of Soil Surface Temperature Department of Earth Sciences. Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Bachelor thesis

[3] Brinkkemper, J. (2007). Testing a GPS tracking Device for Earth scientific Research IBED. Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Bachelor thesis. [4] UvA Birdtracking System, University of Amsterdam, “birdtrackingsystem. doc”(manual, version 18) [5] Novatel. (2003). “GPS Position Accuracy Measures.”

Further reading: [1] Bouten, W Kampburg, K (2009). “GPS backpack yields unpredicted details about bird behaviour and migration, IBED, http://www.science.uva.nl/ibed/ object.cfm/4A11A91E-D3C1-46B4A49625E9A5FA0B7E/AA56A992-1321B0BE-6846FEE941CC3326 [2] Taylor, J.R. (1997). An introduction to Error Analysis, the study of uncertainties in phisical meassurements. 2nd edition, University Science Books, Sausalito, California

Figure 6.4: Position calculated by GPS.

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Problems with implementation of new, innovative instruments – spatial planning system in Czech and Poland at local level by: Mariusz Matyjaszczyk EGEA Kraków

Spatial development policy is one of the main task for national, regional and local governments. “Planning tools are instruments to enforce planning objectives and tasks in the territory at the international, regional and local level. The main planning tools are planning materials, planning documentation and planning permission.” (Halasová, Šilarová 2007). Traditionally spatial development strategy was articulated in master or development plans. Coherent strategy implied degree of stability in land use (Koresawa, A., Konvitz, J. 2001). It is to secure sustainable development and encourage local endogenous growth. Koresawa, A., Konvitz, J. named 4 important spatial planning objectives, which appear to be the most critical: 1.) Correction of existing spatial disparities within countries 2.) Achievement of sustainable development 3.) Using spatial planning as a tool to coordinate various sectoral policies in pursuit of common spatial development objectives 4.) Coordination and interaction which enables sub-national governments to shape their owns spatial development policies in conformity with national or even international policy goals, and facilities the regional and local adaptation of national policies But this important objectives are not accomplished in all the countries. The good example are Central European Countries like Czech Republic and Poland, the countries with “socialistic planning heritage”, how called them Lorens in his article. The main goal of this essay is to analyze and show the similarities and differences between Polish and Czech Spatial Planning System. The main part of the analyze is stressed on local plans, which

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are the most important documents, creating the local planning policy. Although both countries have similar history and culture, especially during communists times, the differences between the Spatial Planning Systems are visible. Differences in settlement and administrative system in both countries Municipalities situated in both countries cannot be compare without any doubts. In Poland there is 3 level administration system. The basic element is gmina (commune – local municipality) which are connected to powiat (county – small region) and this regions are connected to województwo (voivodship – regions). In Poland there are 2478 local municipalities. Almost 30% of polish municipalities have an city (urban) or urban-village status. Great majority of these municipalities have more than 1000 inhabitants. The biggest population density we observe in the Triangle of Concentration of Population in Poland (apexes of this triangle are cities: Gdańsk, Wrocław and Rzeszów). In this triangle people are concentrated mostly at south and central part (regions Silesia, Malopolska and Podkarpacie) and in the agglomeration areas of big cities (Fig.1). One of the tasks of local municipalities is coordinating spatial planning process at their territory. Czech Republic is a unitary country. Basic territorial autonomous units are municipalities (obec) and the superior territorial units are regions (kraj). Local administration authorities are entitled by law to execute some state administration powers. In Czech Republic there are 6249 of local municipalities (obec) and 14 administrative regions (kraj). Almost 80% of these municipalities have less than 1000 of inhabitants and 90 %

less than 2000 inhabitants (Kašparová L., Půček M. 2009). Spatial structure of the settlements in Czech Republic is very fragmented and a lot of municipalities aren’t very active in creating and executing local development policy. All the municipalities in both countries have the same self-government competences. Municipality and region authorities execute the town and country planning activity as delegated authority. Municipality authorities provide protection and value development of the municipal territory unless it is entrusted to the scope of activities of regional authorities or affected administrative offices (Halasová, Šilarová 2007). Although the urbanization rate for Czech Republic is bigger than for Poland the size of the municipalities (inhabitants), which better shows fragmentation of the national settlement are bigger in Czech Republic. Follow Halasová and Šilarová municipalities with extended authority have planning offices. Their tasks are: • performs the position of affected administrative office in the planning permission proceedings unless the office itself issues planning permission, • in delegated competence procures local plan, regulatory plan, planning materials (planning study and planning analytical materials and delimitation of the developed area. Municipal assembly in autonomous competence: • decides about local and regulatory plan procurement, • approves specifications, eventually instructions for local plan draft elaboration, • issues local and regulatory plan, • issues built-up area demarcation.


Tab. 1. Similarities and differences between Czech Republic and Polish spatial planning system at local municipality level. Czech Republic

Poland

Local Plans

Obligatory for all of the municipalities and include always the whole area of the municipality. More than 95 % of the municipalities have it

Local plans are obligatory only for areas specified in document “Study of Local Conditions and Desirable Directions of Spatial Development of the Local Municipality” (less than 20% of polish territory). Do not include whole area on the municipality (It cause fragmentation of Land Use Planning and make the Spatial Planning Policy of Municipality harder) Lack of cover by local plans at Polish territory (around 20% and usually for part of the territory)

Study of Local Conditions and Desirable Directions of Spatial Development of the Local Municipality”

Don’t exist in Czech Republic at municipal level

Its obligatory in Poland and specify the main tasks for development for municipality (through very detailed analyze of the conditions and local chances for development)

Strategic Plan

Are not obligatory but a lot of municipalities have it because of use it for applying for EU Funds. Usually low quality

Not obligatory and not connected with Spatial Planning Act but (and doesn’t have a strong law impact of the administrative decisions) have a great influence on creating the spatial planning and development policy of the municipality. Quality depends on local conditions (size, number of inhabitants, budget, local perceive of potential development)

Regulatory Plans

Exist in Czech Republic but there is not so many of them. Create only for special areas (important for local municipality) and have a function to specify some guidelines of local plans

Poland have so many very detailed small local plans that at the moment its not necessary. After bring the local plans for whole territory into the planning system some extra plans for special areas sounds logically

Figure 7.1 Fragmentation of land use planning in Poland the Kraków case. In red and yellow valid, in green in progress Source: http://planowanie.um.krakow.pl/bpp/ The context of spatial planning after transformation in Czech Republic and Poland The socialistic way of development was completely different to nowadays planning standards. The spatial documents made before the transformation (in Poland eg. based on the Planning Act since 1984), were included “the large scale growth model of urbanization, which showed no respect for environmental and economic issues” (Lorens 2006). In 1994 the new Planning Act was accepted by the polish Parliament. This act prolonged the old local plans to 1999 (buffer time to prepare new one base on new act). But some municipalities took the spatial decisions on old plans even to 2003 (Lorens 2006). Almost 15 years after transformation the old socialistic way of development was still using. Results of this socialistic growth connected with functioning of free market made probably irreversible changes to polish urban system, mostly in suburban area and inner part of cities. The same situation took place in suburban areas in Czech Republic (because of lack of local plans after the transformation). National planning system should equal-

ize the differences of development between the regions and municipalities within countries. After the economical and political transformation in Central Europe the local municipalities were brought back to life after few decades of central planning and administration system. They received a lot of privillages and tasks like spatial planning policy. A lot of people are thinking that they were not prepare enough for it. But how Lorens noticed, the municipalities didn’t received extra money for this task, so they left this job to the free market. Only big and reach municipalities with a well prepares for the new reality local government (know how knowledge) were prepared for this task. It was mostly medium size and big cities. The poorer municipalities were collected in some groups to make the development strategies (in Czech Republic e.g.) or spent lack of money of the spatial planning documents. The result is that the quality of this documents is very various. What is more, most of the municipalities are not using strategies in their planning policies (sometimes they don’t even know what is inside). There is no government monitoring tools if the

regional development policy is connected with the strategy. However these documents are “helpful in using or biding for national and EU grants (Sýkora 2006). Czech Republic is in a little better condition than Poland because more that 95% of its municipalities have local plans, which are local law. In Poland having this document is very expensive, the spatial procedure is long and challenging for the local government and some municipalities are not interested in having it because of some corruption aggravations (if there is no plan the local government can take a administration decision about the localization of some invests). This situation cause that poorest municipalities concentrated in some regions of each country has a huge problems in developing, and the differences between the regions are rising. Spatial planning policy should gather a lot of goals from other development policies, optimize it and fit to the local spatial conditions, remembering about sustainable and social development, cultural heritage and urban system management (Objective 1 and 2 in Introduction). Unfortunately “there is no explicit national urban policy and plan-

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ning in the Czech Republic and no integrated national government framework or approach toward cities and their problems” (Sýkora 2006). In Poland the Regional Development Policy is changing almost so often as the government. Good example is the Planning Act which changed twice after transformation and now the new one is in preparation. Although the Planning Act since 2003 is valid many municipalities expect and wait for new guidelines. That creates huge uncertainty for everyone (Lorens 2006). Polish spatial planning system at local level There are two important spatial planning documents in Poland at local level. First one is general planning document: Studium Uwarunkowań i Kierunków Zagospodarowania Przestrzennego Gminy (Study of Local Conditions and Desir-

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able Directions of Spatial Development of the Local Municipality). This document is base for more detailed spatial documents (some framework). All the municipality aspects of the local municipality are analyzed (good database). Its obligatory documents and always including whole area of the municipality. It also shows for which areas local plan is obligatory. Last but not least it help in coordinating whole Land Use Planning in the municipality. Second, more detailed document is Miejscowy Plan Zagospodarowania Przestrzennego (Local Land Use Plan). Its deeply connected with law (the spatial decisions base on this documents) and telling strictly what can or cant be build on particular areas. Document is obligatory for some special areas and don’t need to include whole area of the municipality. The last function of this document is arranging the destination,

ways of spatial management and condition of building of the areas. Strategia Rozwoju Gminy (Strategic plan of the Municipality) is enacting for some period (usually 7 to 10 years) and sometimes including timetable of tasks for sooner and later future (more and less important) and sources of founding. The main role of this document is supporting the Local Development Policy of the Municipality The Study of Local Conditions and Desirable Directions of Spatial Development of the Local Municipality in the end of 2005 had 98% of the polish municipalities (a lot of poor quality) and in 17 % of them lasts updating. 18% of Polish territory should have Local plans obligatory and 9% facultative (together 27%). But only 20 % of polish territory have it (usually not this obligatory part). Cover by local plans at municipality level is too differentiated so the analyze must be


started at least at regional level. Spatial planning system in Czech republic at local level Into local planning documents in Czech we can include: local plans, strategic plans and regulatory plans. Local plans contains especially: •b  asic conception of municipality development and protection of its values, • a rea and spatial layout (map of spatial management directions) • c oncept of landscape disposition • c oncept of public infrastructure development concept • s pecify built-up areas, areas for further development and areas for public works. •e  very 4 year report about the plan implementation (decision after it about presumptive changes) Strategic plan in Czech Republic are obligatory only for regions. The local municipalities are not covered by it. They are binding for local and regulatory plans and its specifying planning objectives and tasks. Regulatory Plans (not obligatory for regions) are creating only for areas smaller than municipality (e.g. district). These plans specify some guidelines of local plans in areas like: city centre, brownfields, nature protection areas. suburban areas. Similarities and differences between Polish and Czech spatial planning system. Conclusions and solutions. Potential changes which could improve the planning systems Disregarding Polish local plans should be obligatory and should include the whole territory of municipality if its not to big or complicated in designing like municipalities with differentiated local conditions and elaborating urban system (don’t fragmentize it if its not necessary. This will reduce fragmentation of the local plans and simplify the spatial planning process as well as planning policy of the municipality. Its really good practice in Czech Republic that they enacting the local plans for a whole territory and that these kind of document are obligatory. Poland should improve the cover of local plans in the territory. ¼ of territory which should

have these plans is to less in my opinion to protect the area from uncontrolled sprawl of built-up areas. Study of Local Conditions and Desirable Directions of Spatial Development of the Local Municipality is a document which provides a good constructive knowledge about possible ways of development of the municipality. Because this document does not exist in Czech Republic there is lack of good database at municipal level. Without it there is a big problem with understanding for upper level the local conditions and possible ways of development. There should be some strategic document at municipal level in Czech Republic. Because of fragmented Czech settlement system the municipalities could gather in some groups (connected with for example with dominating function) but not to many, and create these documents for themselves. This process should be coordinated at regional level. The regional municipalities should receive extra money for spatial planning and should support the poor municipalities in creating spatial planning documents on organizational, personal and financial aspect. Only then it will reduce dependence quality of spatial planning documents on positions of the municipality in the hierarchy of national or regional settlement system. There must be a defined scheme and monitoring of spatial planning at the municipal level. Although the methodology of creating the local plans is very good develop in both countries, its really poor at the analytical documents being basic database for Land Use Planning. The monitoring of spatial planning influence on the territory is extremely weak in Poland at all and in Czech Republic it works only due to local plans. If we really want to develop some areas (the main goal of spatial planning) we should really control the effects of functioning the spatial planning documents in particularly areas. Without it its not planning anymore but start to be gambling. Also the accessibility for creating these documents should be reduce to specialists. Then these very important documents should really have positive influence on local and regional development. Although the Czech Republic have

much worse conditions in creating local plans because of the urban structure of the country, it should be example for polish municipalities how to deal with the obstacles. The problem is that some of local governments are not interested in making new and updating the old local plans. As I mentioned in the area which doesn’t have a local plan work administrative decisions so some of the local “actors” (who can easily corrupt councilmen) can feel more comfortable. On the other hand if Czech Government would like to continue the national development and cohesion policy should work at creating some fundaments for it as analytical and strategic documents on local municipality areas. Free market rules after transformation collide with spatial planning documents based on old planning acts and thanks to long planning procedure (long time to make new documents base on new planning acts) has changed the spatial pattern before the new spatial planning system start to work. That caused irreversible changes in a lot of areas and create “Postsocialist-capitalist city”. The main goal for spatial planning on both counties is to stop the undesirable impact of capitalist economy on spatial structure in the most valuable areas and try to reduce the worst changes of it after transformation. Only it that way we can create the sustainable development policy and start to change our neighbourhood to more friendly direction.

and Development. OECD Publishing. pp. 14-19. d.) Lorens, P. (2006): Trends and problems of contemporary urbanization processes in Poland. In: Altrock, U.: Spatial Planning and Urban Development in the New EU Member States: From Adjustment to Reinvention. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 95-113. e.) Sýkora, L. (2006): Urban Development, Policy and Planning in the Czech Republic and Prague. In: Altrock, U.: Spatial Planning and Urban Development in the New EU Member States: From Adjustment to Reinvention. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 113-141. f.) Śleszyński P., Bański J., Degórski M., Komornicki T., Więckowski M. (2007): Stan zaawansowania planowania przestrzennego w gminach (The Progress of Spatial Planning in Gminas/ Municipalities). PAN (Polish Academy of Sciences), IGiPZ (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization), Prace Geograficzne no. 211, Warszawa (Warsaw).

References a.) Halasová H., Šilarová V. (2007): Town and Country Planning in the Czech Republic 2007, Ministry for Regional Development of Czech Republic- Institute of Spatial Planning, Grafex spol. s r.o., Brno. b.) Kašparov á L., Půček M. (2009): Cohesion Policy: Settlement in the Czech Republic. Urban-rural Partnership, Ministry for Regional Development of Czech Republic, Regional Policy and Strategy Development Department, www.mmr. cz, Prague. c.) Koresawa, A., Konvitz, J. (2001): Chapter 1- Towards a New Role for Spatial Planning, part 2- Strategic Objectives of Spatial Planning. In: OECD: Towards a New Role for Spatial Planning. OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010


Turning our roofs into green by Marek Szponik University of Economics in Poznań, EGEA Poznań “When one creates green roofs, one doesn’t need to fear the so-called paving of the landscape: the houses themselves become part of the landscape.” Frederich Hundertwasser. As in the forest Imagine walking down the busy street and breathing air as fresh as in the forest at the same time. Imagine relaxing on the roof of your house with unusual view for green skyline of your city. In the past few years Green Roofs – a living surface on the top of a house – became a huge industry. There is no other way for future urban planning. Looking inside Both Ecoarchitecture and Green Roofs require a fusion between technology and nature. The existing model of installing plants on the buildings must become more advanced in order to reduce costs for everyone who decide for a green twist and maximize its availability. Improving systems of particular layers by using smarter designs or technologies will help to achieve balance between ecosystem, conservation, public health and quality of life. Green roofs are similar but not the same. We can divide them into two groups: extensive and intensive. Extensive type is light and has a very thin soil layer. But on the other hand there is limitated choice of plants. They do not need much maintenance, because they are rather draught tolerant and are often used on pitched roofs. Whereas intensive types look like ordinary gardens, their soil layer is very thick. Whole construction is heavy and they require a lot of maintenance. But on the other side they can give us much more joy and we can easily recover there and recharge our batteries. Unlimited benefits One of the most important effects of green roofs is their potential for retaining and delaying rainwater during storms. It can prevent pure stormwater from being mixed with sewages. Thanks to the possibility of rainfall harvest from green roofs we can reuse it. It is firmly

connected with innovative technique of LID (Low Impact Development) based on stormwater management in a small cost-effective Integrated Management Practices (which can be e. g. rooftop). Another advantage is a significantly lower need for air conditioning in the summer and insulation during winter. In the long run we can save lots of money on the electricity (or heating) bills. the sound barrier of green roofs is a significant feature especially when we think about ecoarchitecture in a city or town. Sound waves are absorbed, reflected or deflected (the difference is approximately 25 dB). The most obvious effect of installing green roofs in the cities is quality of air, which is filtrated from CO2, dust, toxic pollutions and loaded with oxygen – roof of 15 m2 produces sufficient oxygen for 10 people [note: A lecture of Paweł Kożuchowski – a member of ‘Laboratorium Dachów Zielonych’, SGGW, Warsaw 2009]! What is more, green surfaces multiply biodiversity, providing refuges for rare invertebrate populations. Except from many pragmatic reasons, green roofs are becoming more and more popular thanks to artistic and aesthetic aspects. It’s easy to judge which view is more eye-keeping – severe, piled and flat roof or colorful and differentiated one. Wisedom of Babylons reused in XX century Paradoxically, even first green roofs were invented hundreds years ago, their benefits were known already in ancient world already, although there were no problems with air pollution, greenhouse effect or smog etc. Semiramida’s Gardens – one of the seven ancient Miracles of Nature – had 2 000 m2 and complicated water connection with Euphrat river [note:. A lecture of Paweł Kożuchowski – a member of ‘Laboratorium Dachów Zielonych’, SGGW, Warsaw 2009]. After ancient times people focused on building conventional roofs and the idea of buildings covered with plants came back at the beginning of 20th century.

One of the greatest architects in the history – Le Corbusier, recommended installing green roofs in every modern building as an additional living green space in urban area. Another famous architect – Frank Lloyd Wright also had a significant role in Green Roof Movement. He claimed that human-made houses should get on well with natural surrounding. A breakthrough in green roof creation took place in the ’30 of 20th century and this tendency lasts till now. Nowadays it’s mostly present in USA, Canada, Germany, UK or Switzerland but challenge of transforming architecture of our cities into eco-architecture is being undertaken by many other countries. It is clear that green roofs are useful for their owners, but the benefits for the rest of society and environment are even bigger. Firstly, it can considerably reduce the level of heat emission to atmosphere. It is important to mention that nowadays cities struggle with problem of The Urban Heat Island Effect. It is caused by all concrete, asphalt and stone surfaces that absorbe heat during the day and release it at night. Not only an increase in demand of air conditioning is caused but people start suffering from sleeplessness and asthma as well. Research in Tyndale Centre for climate change suggests we need a 10% increase in green space in our cities to combat climate change [note: http:// www.tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/ t3_18.pdf, www.livingroofs.org/livingpages/greenroofbenefits.html]. The solution is simple – turning concrete surfaces into green ones. As a result they give a shade, also absorbing heat but not releasing it at night and transpire moisture into the air what helps to cool it down. It is impossible to stop expansion green roofs in the world. Cities like Toronto, Chicago or London have already created distinct green policy to encourage the uptake of green roofs. A marvelous example of this kind of city is Bazilea in Switzerland. A year after European Year Of Environment Protection the government of canton undertook green campaign calling special fund of 1 mln CHF (4% of electricity bill of every inhabitant). Everyone, who decided to create a green roof could get a subvention of

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20 CHF/m2. After that Bazilea gained 80 000 m2 of green roofs and saved 4 mln kWh at the same time. That was not the end. In 2002 government introduced a law that ordered addition of green roof on every new building in the city. Since 2005 subventions for new green roofs have risen to 30-40 CHF/m2. Now Bazilea can boast that 23% of all roofs in the city are green ones [note: A lecture of Paweł Kożuchowski – a member of ‘Laboratorium Dachów Zielonych’, SGGW, Warsaw 2009]. The milestep event in the Green Roof Movement was a conference organized in October, 2009 in Toronto called ‘Citiesalive’. Architects, landscape architects, developers, construction professionals, researchers and other green infrastructure representatives and stakeholders took part in this congress to debate on how cities can use their potential to stop climate changes. They all claim that Green Architecture is an inevitable investment to win this fight. “Green infrastructure is increasingly recognized as an effective way to reduce emission that contribute to climate change, and help cities cope with the impacts of extreme weather,”said Steven Peck Founding Board member of World Green Roof Infrastructure Network. Good Green Investment The goal, which is a healthy city and a healthy society, can be easily reached by turning our roofs into green ones. That is not just a movement, it is an innovative way to help our endangered environment and to create an additional green living space in crowded urban areas. One of the biggest advantages of green roofs is a fact, that it is not extremely expensive and complicated method. Everyone can be a part of this beneficial project. The only thing we have to do is to make up our minds and make an effort into investing some money in purpose to profit from the results afterwards. Green roofs are our huge chance to end up with monotonous, dull buildings and come back to nature. References: • A lectures of Paweł Kożuchowski – a member of ‘Laboratorium Dachów Zielonych’, SGGW, Warsaw 2009, avail-

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able on site of ‘Laboratorium Dachów Zielonych’ (www.dachyzielone.pl) • Administrator 10/2008; ‘Dachy zielone – najstarsza nowoczesna technologia’, Paweł Kożuchowski; 12/2008 ‘Zazielenianie dachów w Polsce i na świecie’, Paweł Kożuchowski; BUDEXPO, Warsaw. • Living Architecture Monitor, 11/3 2009, Green Roofs For Healthy Cities, editor: Steven W. Peck, Toronto • www.greenroofs.org (02.11.2009) • www.citiesalive.com (02.11.2009) • www.greenroof.se (02.11.2009) • www.livingroofs.org (02.11.2009) • www.dachyzielone.pl (02.11.2009)


Prospective estimation of water consumption in the former USSR

long-term forecasts and scenarios it is necessary to have accurate homogeneous hydrological, water management, socio-economic, and other data. It is sometimes impossible for the following reasons: • transfer of indices from one category into another; • changing the way of calculation and estimation; • stations’ relocation or annihilation; • irregular or imperfect measurement methods and observation; • rejection of observations or imprecise estimates.

by Tatiana Bibikova EGEA Moscow Scenario development becomes one of the most important problems in environmental forecasting and in geography as well. Nowerdays it’s necessary to develop several scenarios because of the uncertain future economical situation as well as the situation with natural resources. The problem of forecasting as well as long-term scenario development gets more and more important for water management. According to different es-

timations more than milliard people on earth don’t have access to enough clean water and this number probably will increase due to the population growth in the developing countries. On the other hand in the developed countries water is often over-consumed. Under the conditions of contemporary economic development and forthcoming climate warming, evaluation of possible changes in water resources including water consumption is of primary impor-

tance. Forecasts of water use along with long-term estimation of water resources change are necessary for sustainable water supply in the near and distant future, raising living standards and preserving the environment. Most of all existing water management forecasts are based on different scenarios of economical development and population growth and any change in these fields makes several forecasts wrong. All this becomes particularly significant for the post-Soviet states. All water resources change scenarios and forecasts of water consumption in the former Soviet Union were based on stable economic growth assumptions. Since 1990 great changes in political and socio-economic spheres have affected the state of water resources. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector after the collapse of the Soviet Union which has not been fully overcome until present time – despite economic growth in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused considerable changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future. This predetermines the necessity of developing long-term water resources and water consumption change scenarios, based on fundamentally novel approach. For the future assessment of water resources change in the new formed post-Soviet states, it’s necessary to take into consideration the following main peculiarities. First of all, there have been perceptible changes in the mean annual runoff and water resources quality caused by the changes in climate and economic activity in recent decades. During the last 10-15 years the rise in river runoff was close to 5%. Secondly, due to crises in economy in the early

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90th, reduction of water consumption in all these states has been observed. It concerns both water withdrawal and water usage. The largest reduction was in Ukraine due to the high water usage in irrigation systems and in agriculture where the greatest setback in produc-

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tion and water consumption after the collapse took place. Besides that, in all states there is lack of long-term socioeconomic development strategies including those for water sector that makes long-term forecasting difficult. Moreover, for adequate short- and

For example since the end of 80th hydrologic network density in Russia has decreased by more than 30%, moreover some remote parts of Russia has been less studied until now. Lack of or imperfection of instrumentation is one of the most spread reasons for inauthenticity of data in the former USSR, especially it concerns precipitation measurements. Homogeneity can be sometimes distorted also by management decisions, e.g. at the end of 80th it was decided


to transfer conditionally clean waters into the category of contaminated and therefore the volume of polluted waters in Russia increased. So the considerable obstacle to international water resources research and management co-operation is the difference in water resources classification and water quality evaluation. Among economical problems one of the most important is lack of qualified administrative and scientific staff. Suggested methodology of long-term forecasts is based on several years’ studies of Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. For development of long-term scenarios of water consumption several blocks should be considered: different scenarios of population and economic development changes; different ways of water use and water protection taking into account various water pollution prevention technologies, water conservation measures, energy and water saving technologies; influence of climate change on water consumption. Scenario development for water use includes two stages. First or preparatory stage implies assessment of water resources current state and its relation to water use, development of calculation algorithm, selection of forecast operational units, determination of main tendencies in agriculture and water resources development in recent decades. On the second or predictive stage different available scenarios of population change and development indices for major industries are analysed, it also concerns unit water requirements taking into account drastic measures for preventing qualitative depletion of water resources, application of water saving technologies, measures for conserving and protecting of water resources; verification of scenarios with water utilization balances is held. The scenario development for water resources change and water management should consider the impact of two main components: environmental and anthropogenic. Each forecast trend should represent 3 variations: average, minimum and maximum. Among the major scenarios, the one which is based on assumption of sustainable environmentally sound economic development and water management providing a high standard of living, is considered.

Such an analysis is illustrated by the results of the scenario development for several river basins of Russia, which show the necessity of reduction of unit water requirements for solving water problems. First of all it concerns water loss control and maximum use of advanced technologies in water management which could reduce the level of anthropogenic impact in the future with a much higher level of welfare.

Some approaches to measure the landscape aesthetics in the Votkinsk region (the Eastern European part of Russia)

References: 1. Bibikova T. Regional features of water resources change under the climate effect on the territory of the former Soviet Union. Isvestia RAS, Ser. Geogr. 2007, №5. 2. Bibikova.T. Water resources change under the climate effect and the man’s impact in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus after the break-up of the Soviet Union. Congress report of the Western Regional Congress “Water – resource of life”, EGEAMainz, Germany, 2009, P. 15-18 3. Koronkevich N. Zajtseva I. Information barriers in hydrologic research. Collected papers. New geographic knowledge and innovative research, Kiev, 2006, P.274-278. 4. Koronkevich N. and others. Scenario development for water resources planning by the example of Lena River basin. Collected papers, Strategic problems of water consumption in Russia, Institute of water problems RAS, Moscow, 2008, P.351-360. 5. Water resources of Russia and their use/Ed. by prof. I. Shiklomanov. – St.Peterbourg: State Hydrological Institite, 2008. – 600 p.

Now the aesthetics of landscapes has become a burning research trend in the sphere of landscapes. There are a few reasons for it. First of all, the beauty of the nature is becoming a deficient aesthetic resource. Secondly, the research of landscape aesthetics and its assessment have become indispensable and actual, as it has definite practical use, for example, it improves the community viability, it increases tourism assets and visitation. It enhances recreation. High quality scenery, especially scenery with natural-appearing landscapes, enhances the people’s lives and benefits the society. It increases support of land management plans. It enhances the restorative effects of landscapes. As a result it improves the quality of life. If we want to know how to use aesthetic resources rationally and practically it is very important to learn how to evaluate and save high-quality scenery for future generations. We should have some knowledge about, how to analyze, identify the values in the landscape, how to make inventory and work out classifying criterions. I have investigated this issue in connection with my region of the Udmurt Republic which is located in the Eastern European part of Russia. The Udmurt Republic consists of 25 small regions, but I have chosen the Votkinsk region for the investigation of the aesthetic values in the landscape, because the territory is interesting from geological and geographical point of view and is characterized by a high degree of partition. Besides, there are also water objects like the Siva river, the Votkinsk water reservoir. How is it possible to assess landscapes? Now there are some approaches to measure the landscape aesthetics. According to K. Eringis and A.R.Budrjunas we can estimate the landscape with the help of quantity

by Aino Kirillova EGEA Izhevsk

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

Figure 10.1: Siva river.

and quality indicators. As important factors they suggest the componential analysis of the general impressiveness of the landscape, the general approach to the landscape and a spatial variety of vegetation and other parameters as well as the careful analysis of all the components. Aesthetic perception of the landscape is many-sided. Each organ of sense brings the mite to the general emotional perception of the landscape. The complex range of colours, tones, outlines, smells and sounds draws up the complete artistic image of the landscape. Another approach was suggested by A. Nikolaev. He suggests the method of expert estimation, survey and the structural-informative analysis. It is possible to say, that the landscape can be classified as aesthetic if it provides not only the picturesque relief, but some cognitive, problematical feature, novelty. It is necessary to say, that not all methods are possible to be used for my region because territories differ from place to place (for example, the area of Russia differs from the area of Lithuania)

To sum up all mentioned above it is more effective to select out some particular research methods to estimate the Udmurt landscapes. Let’s start with the method of quantityquality estimation, where the criteria of the selection are: • Presence of many-sided view • The points of the landscape view: I. The narrow (slot-hole) view with the angle less than 30º; the landscape prospect opening from such points, is called “vista”in the landscape architecture; II. Points of the sector view – 30-115º III. Panoramic Points – 120-240º IV. Points of the circular view – more than 240º • Conditions and the character? of vegetation • Diversity of the visual view is important in the assessment. The panorama is more effectively observed where there are some plans (see picture 1). Special beauty diversity and contrast of landscapes, the variety of vegetative types creating circles and differentiation of


Hi = – Σ pi Log2 pi, where pi is probability of individual natural complexes. The degree of a specific variety of structure of sites Hj is calculated with the formula: Hj = – Σ pj Log2 pj, where pj is probability of natural complexes types. Also having calculated the value of the difference of the general and a specific variety with the formula: J = Hi – Hj, it is possible to calculate the proportion of the actual variety (general and specific) to the highest possible level of it (Hmax) at the given number of the constituents: Figure 10.2: Votkinsk water basin in summer season. colours (see picture 2). Aesthetically attractive landscapes and scenery are certain constant, consequent, seasonal variations, they don’t influence the degree of appeal of the landscape. • Wildlife habitat, water elements •Q  uality of human activities The significant features are the relief (absolute heights and relative excess), steepness and exposition of the slopes, the degree of vertical and horizontal partition, The most attractive are the points of the panoramic and circular view because the main source of sensual perception is contemplation. There is an approach according to which «nearness» and “landscape”are distinguished. «Nearness» is a natural complex which is perceived by all organs of sense, including hearing, smell and even touch. It is something local, limited with the natural boundaries. “Landscape”is the regional unit covered with the general sight from distance, it is perceived from afar, mainly, visually only. As a result of practical research it was found out, that research routes were on the brow of the slopes of water-separated spaces and a ledge of a coastal line from which the widest panoramas open, the views are more panoramic. The axial part of a watershed interferes the

review of a radical slope. The separate high-altitude point and the hill don’t have aesthetic value, only if it’s geomorphological or geological a monument, interesting object for studying of territory. It’s considered that the most aesthetically attractive features are glacial forms, possibly there are other features, like nivation cirque in the investigated space, but they are hidden by dense veil of fir forests that interfered with the review of geomorphological object. It has been found out, that two separate routes can be possibly allocated for this area: land and water ones because water objects are not seen from land. The water routes run along the Siva river (look picture 3, 4) and the Votkinsk water reservoir (look picture 5, 6, 7), cognitive also are picturesque, since it is possible to observe soil layers of coast, river meander, talus. In my opinion, it’s essential to use at least one more objective method in a research, usually a mathematical one. I take the calculating method, which figures out the degree of the landscape variety. This method calculates the area probabilities of individual natural complexes within the limits of each site. The general variety of landscape structure of sites is defined with the formula:

Ki = Hi/Hmax; Kj = Hj/Hmax Hmax =log2n, where n is the quantity of the areas (individual and specific) of the natural complexes. Two different sites in the Votkinsk region of the Udmurt Republic were chosen to estimate their aesthetic landscape potential, within them there were allocated. The constituents. According to the maps made it is possible to assume visually, that there are more constituents at site1 than at site 2 as the degree of horizontal and vertical relief partition is higher and there is a nivation cirque there. The maximum possible general landscape variety of structure is 4 whereas it is 3,18 (only 0,82 is left to reach the maximum) at site 1, and it is 1,97 at site 2 (2,03 is left to reach the maximum). Hence site 1 has the closest parameters to the maximum possible general landscape variety at the given number of t the constituents. The degree of the maximum possible specific variety constitutes 2,59 whereas for site 1 it is 2,08 (the difference between actual and the maximum possible makes 0,51), and for site 2 it is 1,35 (the difference between actual and the maximum possible is 1,24), it testifies that the site 1 has a higher degree of the specific variety, than site 2.

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

Figure 10.3: Votkinsk water basin in winter season. The general variety of landscape structure, and also the degree of the specific variety of structure of a site №1 exceeds considerably the parameters of a site №2. The specific variety of a site №1 is the closest to the maximum possible exponents and the variety of landscape structure of a site №2 is the farthest from the maximum possible. The higher the degree of specific and general variety the more attractive the landscape is. Thus, site 1 has the higher aesthetic potential, than site 2. Having applied the calculation method I make the conclusion that the two chosen sites in the Votkinsk region differ considerably from each other. Each of the sites has the aesthetic potential which can be compared with the maximum possible at the given constituents. The more various the landscape structure and the specific variety of structure are, the higher the aesthetic potential of landscapes is. The area researched has the aesthetic potential, the value of it differs from place to place, from site to site. The greatest possible variety value is not reached though they are rather close to it what testifies the richness of the landscape variety of the sites. The estimation of aesthetic potential of landscapes made according to my selection of methods reveals that the

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

natural complexes and some routes in the Votkinsk region are having high aesthetic potential, are attractive and can form the basis for the further development of some new recreational activities in the region. It can be used for recreation more effectively for example, to create tourist ecological routes. It is also possible to create routes for aesthetic pleasure or with some informative purpose because it is vitally important nowadays to know and investigate the place, where you live, and to save and guaranty the high-quality scenery. The final aim of my further research is to create the catalogue of aesthetically attractive landscapes of the Votkinsk region to provide the people of the region with the unique information about the tourist potential of the region, new recreational activities and the data for educators and tourist managers. References: 1.Колбовский К. Ю. Ландшафтоведение: учебное пособие для студ. высш. учеб. заведений. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2006. 2. Эрингис К.И., Будрюнас А.Р. Сущность и методика детального эколого-эстетического исследования пейзажей//Экология и эстетика ландшафта.- Вильнюс: Минтис, 1975.- С.

107-159. 3.Николаев В. А. Ландшафтоведение. Эстетика и дизайн. – М.: Аспект Пресс, 2003. 4.Калашникова О. В. Проблемы геологии и географии Сибири. Материалы научной конференции Вестник ТГУ №3, 2003. – С. 90-93. 5.Летягин Л. Эстетика ландшафта как образ действия. Материалы научной конференции. 26-27 сентября 2000 г. Тезисы докладов и выступлений. СПб.: Санкт-Петербургское философское общество, 2000. С.85-87. 6. Ликутов Е. Ю. О связи динамики и эстетики рельефа. Материалы иркутского геоморфологического семинара. Тезисы докладов. – Иркутск, 2004. 7.Николаев В. А. Эстетическое восприятие ландшафта.//Вестник Московского университета, сер.5, география, № 6. – Москва, 1999. 8.Чочиа Н. С. Практикум по ландшафтоведению. – Л.: Изд-во ЛГУ, 1973. 9.Дмеймс П., Мартин Дж. Все возможные миры (история географических идей). – М.: Прогресс, 1988 10.Джонстон Р. Дж. География и географы. – М.: Прогресс,1987.


Agenda EGEA Activities (January – May 2010)

Master in Spatial Development and Analysis

March 8th -12th: North and Baltic Congress 2010 Diversity: the Northern Dimensions Helsinki, Finland Organized by: EGEA Helsinki Contact: egea-hallitus@helsinki.fi Homepage: http://www.egea.eu/congresses/nbrc10/index.php

– Master académique –

March 12th – 14th: BeNDeLux weekend 2010 Astérix and the Egeans! Oudenaarde, Belgium Organized by: EGEA Leuven and EGEA Brussels Contact: bendelux2010@gmail.com Homepage: http://www.egea.eu/congresses/bwe10/congress_contact.php April 6th – 11th: Western Regional Congress 2010 Living in the Alps, challenges and solutions for a vulnerable world Tirol, Austria Organized by: EGEA Wien Contact: wrc2010@egea.eu Homepage: http://www.egea.eu/congresses/wrc10/index.php April 16th -20th: Eastern Regional Congress 2010 The challenges of city planning. Individual interests vs collective responsibility Krakow, Poland Organized by: EGEA Krakow Contact: erc2010@egea.eu Homepage: http://www.egea.eu/congresses/erc10/

FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, HUMANITIES, ARTS AND EDUCATION

Crossing borders!

April 23rd – 25th: Batavierenrace EGEA’s sport event of the century Nijmegen, the Netherlands Organized by: EGEA Nijmegen Contact: egeabata@gmail.com Homepage: http://batavierenrace2010.intropagina.nl/

Learn about sustainable planning strategies in Europe Study at the University of Luxembourg

May 10th- 14th: Euromed regional Congress 2010 Sustainable development – opportunity, challenge and future Croatia Organized by: EGEA Zagreb Contact: thepatuljak@gmail.com Homepage: http://www.egea.eu/forum/topic/7480/all

The concept

The programme

• A high standard of academic education in

• A two-year full-time course (120 ECTS)

European spatial development, spatial analysis

• Interactive and problem-oriented courses

and planning for sustainability

• Internship during the 4th semester

• Educating experts in European planning

• Individualised teaching

• Insights into research, into different planning

• Courses taught entirely through English

cultures and soft skills including project management and international teamwork

May 28th – 30th: Germany weekend Spreewald, Germany Organized by: EGEA Berlin and EGEA Hannover Contact: maikemetzkow@web.de

• French and German required for students opting for a regional case study in the 2nd year

• Qualitative and quantitative approaches

The advantages

Requirements for application

• Proximity to European institutions

• A Bachelor‘s degree or equivalent (at least 180

• Tuition by academics and practitioners • An international, multilingual learning environment • Student exchanges

More information about EGEA and its activities on the website: www.egea.eu

ECTS) in human geography or spatial planning • Students from related disciplines such as architecture, urban planning, regional economics,

• No tuition fees

urban sociology etc. may be accepted

• Integrated language courses

• Good knowledge of English

• Multiple career opportunities

www.spatial.uni.lu

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

geo@uni.lu

T. +352 / 46 66 44-6327 / -6625 / -6765


Global sustainability is the big challenge for the future Studying at the faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, is the big challenge for you • Most complete range of Geosciences programmes in the Netherlands • Unique multidisciplinary approach, combining natural and social sciences • International environment in which you can develop a global opinion on environmental issues • Broad international network to offer you a good choice of research projects • One of the world’s leading research groups on sustainability issues: Utrecht University’s Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation

www.uu.nl/geosciences

The European Geographer - 5 - January 2010

European Geographer 5 - Innovative Geography  

Issue 5 of the European Geographer Scientific theme: Innovative Geograpy

European Geographer 5 - Innovative Geography  

Issue 5 of the European Geographer Scientific theme: Innovative Geograpy

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