Heritage in Action Finland Special 2017

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#Heritage4Europe #Europe4Heritage

EUROPA NOSTRA welcomes and supports the

EUROPEAN YEAR OF CULTURAL HERITAGE 2018 EUROPA NOSTRA represents a rapidly growing citizens’ movement for the safeguarding of Europe’s cultural and natural heritage. Our pan-European network is composed of 240 member organisations (heritage associations and foundations with a combined membership of more than 5 million people), 140 associated organisations (governmental bodies, local authorities and corporations) and also 1100 individual members who directly support our mission. TOGETHER, • we form an important lobby for cultural heritage in Europe; • we celebrate excellence through the European Heritage Awards organised by Europa Nostra in partnership with the European Union; and • we campaign to save Europe’s endangered historic monuments, sites and cultural landscapes.



The New Bertelsmann: Higher Growth ⋅ More Digital ⋅ More International ⋅ More Diversified Bertelsmann is a media, services and education company that operates in about 50 countries around the world. It includes the broadcaster RTL Group, the trade book publisher Penguin Random House, the magazine publisher Gruner + Jahr, the music company BMG, the service provider Arvato, the Bertelsmann Printing Group, the Bertelsmann Education Group and Bertelsmann Investments, an international network of funds. The company has 116,000 employees and generated revenues of €17.0 billion in the 2016 financial year. Bertelsmann stands for creativity and entrepreneurship. This combination promotes first-class media content and innovative service solutions that inspire customers around the world.

The 2017 European Heritage Congress and the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards Ceremony are under the patronage of Sauli Niinistรถ, the President of the Republic of Finland.



By Plácido Domingo, President of Europa Nostra indeed be perceived as a perpetual engine, a perpetual melody for our future: an energizing and inspiring perpetuum mobile for Europe!

It is a great pleasure for me to introduce this Finland Special of the Europa Nostra magazine Heritage in Action. At the very moment that Finland is celebrating one hundred years of its independence, I am delighted we can share some exceptional Finnish heritage sites and stories with you. Finland’s history, of course, goes much further than the century of its independence. From the Ice Age to the Atomic Age, Finland has always had to find a delicate balance between man and nature, between the East and the West, between the bright light of summer and the darkness of winter. The Finnish people have managed to incorporate these contrasts into a unique culture, which is reflected in their languages, their food, music and architecture, and even in their political life. Finland’s heritage is indeed very much alive; it forms part of the every-day life and environment of Finnish people and it inspires their local community spirit and engagement. Finland’s communities and citizens are all very proud of their heritage and are keen to share it with the rest of Europe. We are especially grateful to the City of Turku for kindly hosting our large European family of heritage professionals and volunteers during the annual Europa Nostra Congress and European Heritage Awards Ceremony on 11-15 May 2017. Turku is a perfect example of a city where heritage and modernity, nature and history seamlessly and harmoniously work together for the benefit of its inhabitants. Our Heritage in Action magazine also explores other Finnish heritage treasures: from mysterious prehistoric sites to the stunning beauty of the Turku Archipelago with its thousands of islands; from a 19th century paper mill to the 20th architecture of Alvar Aalto; from the far north to the fertile south. However, when a country has over 180,000 lakes and almost as many islands, it is impossible to do justice to all those beautiful vistas and panoramas which Finland has to offer. Therefore, our magazine contains only a representative sample of Finland’s exceptional - and often surprising - heritage achievements, many of which have received one of our European heritage awards. From Finland’s history, we can learn that although times can be difficult and seemingly without hope, we can always find new solutions and create new opportunities. With hard work and perseverance, often with a dedicated community effort, many of the Finland’s (industrial) heritage buildings have been transformed into innovative and profitable cultural heritage treasures. These examples confirm that cultural heritage can

Let this serve as an inspiration for all of us as we are invited to get more actively engaged in shaping the future of Our Europe, this at a time when Europe is challenged by so many political, social and economic divisions and inequalities, but also at a time when EU leaders seem to be determined to revive the European project and to reduce a dangerous gap with EU citizens. This was confirmed in the Rome Declaration signed on 25 March 2017, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome, a Declaration which - among others - stresses the EU leaders’ commitment to a “Union which preserves our cultural heritage and promotes cultural diversity”. Europa Nostra applauds this recent positive development and stands ready to work with EU Member States and Institutions to further enhance the vital cultural dimension of the entire European project. With the European Year of Cultural Heritage just around the corner, I remain strongly convinced, as President of Europa Nostra and as an artist, that cultural heritage is a precious though still underused - resource for Europe’s sustainable, prosperous and peaceful future. I am pretty sure that many of our members and partners share this conviction. I am also encouraged by similar thoughts and commitment by leaders of EU Institutions who kindly accepted to give their exclusive interviews for our Magazine: Antonio Tajani, President of the European Parliament who comes from Italy; Tibor Navracsics, EU Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport who comes from Hungary; Markku Markkula, President of the European Committee of the Regions who comes from Finland, and with Owen Bonnici, Minister for Justice, Culture and Local Government, who comes from Malta, a country that holds the Presidency of the European Union in the first semester of 2017. This publication would not have been possible without the dedication of our dear colleagues and friends from Europa Nostra Finland, as well as the key Finnish supporters of our Congress 2017 in Turku - the Finland 100 organisation and the City of Turku. We also wish to acknowledge the vital on-going support of the EU’s Creative Europe Programme and our corporate partners Banque Pictet and Bertelsmann SE & Co. KgaA. Their support has enabled Europa Nostra to develop its activities on many fronts, including this Magazine. Tervetuloa Suomi ! Welcome in Finland !

Plácido Domingo, President Europa Nostra

Leaders on the 2018 Year 30 European of Cultural Heritage Interviews with Antonio Tajani, Tibor Navracsics, Owen Bonnici and Markku Markkula to Last 46 Build The Medieval Castles of Finland

54 100 Years of Finland Aalto 64 Alvar The Human Touch


Where the Sea Meets the Sky The magical touch of the Turku archipelago


Legacy of 26 The the Flying Finn


16th century church




of Faith 14 Leap 21 century art in a


a 19th century villa on Ruissalo island his family home


Painter’s Paradise 06 AFinland’s modern artist Kaj Stenvall made




Dreaming in Style Finnish heritage hotels


Rest in Peace The Grotenfelt burial chapel


Adopt a Monument




Jean Sibelius Music for a Nation

Malmi Airport 7 Most Endangered





Hot Habits The sauna heritage of Finland is much more that a cultural tradition, it is a way of life.



Articles on community projects are marked with

Keeping It Simple The Timeless Fashion of Marimekko / 10

Then & Now / 86

A Place to Come Home To / 130

Panorama / 102

Rural Restorations / 132

Nokia – Reconnected / 18

Deep Sea Diving on Land / 136

Back to the Stone Age / 22 Knock on Wood The miraculous survival of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Old Rauma / 60

Santa’s Home / 110 Pulp Faction The Verla Groundwood and Board Mill is a red brick miracle of World Heritage / 118

It’s a Moomin’s World / 76

The Simple Life / 126

A Towering Success / 138 Europa Nostra Finland / 142 Wiki Loves Monuments 2016 / 146

country dreams


A Painter’s Paradise Finland’s famous modern artist Kaj Stenvall (1951) made a 19th century villa on Ruissalo island his family home.

Ruissalo But the sun will rise again, spring will turn to flower again, She led me down a little path, through the fields of wood anemones. Villa Roma Historical picture of the villa

Written by poet Viherluoto (alias Harry Etelä)

It was Tsar Nicholas who decided that the quiet rye fields and white beaches of Ruissalo would be the ideal place to wile away the endless Finnish summer evenings. Soon, well-to-do residences were built along the coastline of this island paradise, a safe distance away from the hustle and bustle of Turku’s harbour and factories. Today, the island is within easy reach by car but it has not changed much since the 19th century, with its quiet atmosphere and its historic summer villas hidden in the deep green forests on either side of a winding road. It is a tranquil place of inspiration, perfectly suitable for an artist’s home. Although...along the way, massive trucks are busy, moving heavy machinery and material around on a large field; the preparations for Finland’s oldest and by far loudest rock festival ‘Ruisrock’, a favourite


gig for some the world’s biggest acts. For a few days, the earth trembles and shakes with roaring decibels and headbanging crowds from across the globe, but afterwards, normal life takes it course once again. Villa Roma was built in 1851 as the summer home of Turku’s cultural icon Nils Henrik Pinello. Pinello was a writer and journalist with Italian roots and one of the founding fathers of the Åbo Svenska Teater in Turku, the oldest theatre of Finland, founded in 1839. In the 20th century the villa was famous for its produce of corn,

flowers and strawberries. The owner was the father of another artist, Otto Mäkilä (1904-1955), who grew up in the house. The artistic credentials of Villa Roma are therefore wellestablished.

Design drawing of the original watchtower The watchtower today

The restored storage building The storage building in the 20th century

country dreams


Above, one of the storage sheds A frequent visitor to the estate

Kaj Stenvall in front of the main building

Kaj Stenvall bought the large, two hectare estate in 2003. The collection of charming wooden buildings fit well within its natural surroundings. “It is sort of in the middle of the island, not too close to the road and not on the beach,” Stenvall explains while walking through the spring garden towards an octagonal building, nestled between the oaks and pines. “This is a new structure, our wedding hall. We decided it would be a good idea to facilitate weddings and for many people it is a very attractive location.” The paradise-like property with its small creeks, little bridges and garden houses are a haven for animals and wild flowers. In one of the buildings he is planning to open a café or lunchroom. The old wooden structure is now completely restored and ready for summer

use. Its attic is a perfect place to store his paintings. The main building of the estate has undergone some important changes, mostly as the result of bombing during the war, in which the romantic watchtower was destroyed. Stenvall shows me the staircase to the tower, which now leads nowhere and ends abruptly at a ceiling. The spacious living quarters are divided over two floors. Combined with the homely

bedrooms, the modernised kitchen and the pleasant winter-garden, all with wooden floors and panelling, it make the house an ideal family home. The distinctive wooden motifs on and around the windows and doors can already be seen on old photographs. Living in a mid-century summer villa can be challenging at times. The harsh Finnish climate can be hard on maintenance and keeping warm in winter is not


always easy, Stenvall explains. This is no longer just a summer residence, the Stenvalls live here permanently, all year round. Kay Stenvall paints in his atelier on the third floor overlooking the lush gardens. The room is stacked with paintings, which are often strongly anchored in actuality. From the floor Angela Merkel looks at us with sad eyes, on the other side of the room we see Hollywood celebrities sharing a canvas and even Donald Trump – a recent Stenvall fascination – shows up, ordering his poor fellow Donald (Duck) to take a picture. Stenvall’s paintings stand in the tradition of Finnish surrealism but he is mostly known for his paintings of ducks. Ducks? Yes, ducks. He discovered more than 25 years ago that Donald Duck and ducks in general live on the edge between the comical and the dramatic. If you place a duck in a serious role, the painting immediately takes on new meaning. It challenges traditional authority and pomposity, and pokes fun at the powerful. Stenvall is very interested in American popular culture and gives its familiar themes depth by mixing them with classic art traditions. His narrative canvasses, often with clever titles, use the ducks to enter your brain easily, but then they start to ask unexpected questions and raise philosophical issues. His work takes trusted and familiar imagery and shows how thin the layer of reality can be. His paintings of melancholy, thoughtful ducks in what could be interpreted as a typical Finnish landscape

quickly became an international sensation, and he has since hosted more than a hundred solo exhibitions across the globe. Donald Duck’s relationship with Finland was already very strong. Aku Ankka’s magazine, as the duck is called in Finland, has been a success since the 1950s and most Fins, including Stenvall, grew up with the adventurous stories of Donald Duck and the inhabitants of Duckburg. Many Finns learn to read with Donald Duck. Sanoma,

the Finnish multinational of the illustrious Erkko family with an annual turnover of over 2.5 billion Euros, holds the European publishing rights for Disney. So in Finland it makes perfect sense to find inspiration in ducks to express your inner feelings and communicate your ideas. The lush gardens and idyllic historic setting of Villa Roma on Ruissalo island are a perfectly natural place for the ducks to still inspire one of Finland’s most beloved artists.

“The Visitor”

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The photograph is from the cover of the Sports Illustrated issue of 26 December 1960, a few weeks before J.F.K. would officially take office. He was promoting healthy living, and the fashion perfectly fitted the new and young power-couple, a far cry from the old-fashioned look of their predecessors, Mamie and Dwight Eisenhower. Marimekko became instant vintage in the 1960s and it is Finnish fashion heritage pur sang. But like all products successfully encapsulating the elusive spirit of the time, it is not always easy to keep a good thing going. How do you stay relevant and avoid losing yourself in a 21st century markets with such different rules, celebrities and styles? Marimekko started innocently enough as a small clothing company, officially founded in Helsinki in 1951. It was supposed to be a textile factory, but founding designer Armi Ratia (1912 – 1979) had higher hopes and wanted to create a brand based on idealism and passion. She increasingly viewed

Keeping It Simple The Timeless Fashion of Marimekko

John and Jacqueline Kennedy on the cover of Sports Illustrated

It is a holiday photograph of one of the most famous couples of the 20th century. They are on a yacht. He is wearing a traditional blue polo, but she is wearing a light red summer outfit. It is a posed, sophisticated, natural look. The woman is Jacqueline Kennedy, the brand is Marimekko.

Quality control

Armi Ratia in 1959

Marimekko as something more than fashion. In her eyes Marimekko was a way of life, a sort of Utopian, unisex dream, a cultural force which would encompass all aspects of daily living. The striking patterns and vivid colours of her and her artists’ fashion designs should be suitable for young and old, big or small, man or woman,

for clothes and dining tables, for couches and wallpaper. She even dreamed of her own village in which all these ideas would come to fruition. Her vision was a perfect match for the ideals of modern living and the social revolution of the 1960s. Armi Ratia was initially not keen on flower motives,

but Unikko – an abstract representation of poppies by one of her artists, Maija Isola – was simply irresistible. The ‘poppy power’ made the brand beloved by the lifestyle magazines of the world – People, Time, Elle and Vogue to name but a few – who embraced Marimekko as a fresh breath of air.

Unikko (abstract poppy design) is still being made in the Marimekko factory in Helsinki (middle photo)


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Lapponia and Pretty Earth For years, another Finnish design company has been a strong supporter of Europa Nostra. Jewelry company Lapponia supported Europa Nostra with a percentage of the proceeds of their Pretty Earth necklace. Danish sculptor and jewelry designer Poul Havgaard wanted to express his feelings towards conservation and created this necklace in the shape of the earth: a perfect example of the more than 50 years of Lapponia’s craftsmanship and jewelry design. Denis de Kergorlay, Executive President of Europa, said of the cooperation between the Finnish company and Europa Nostra: “Pretty Earth symbolizes the importance of Cultural Heritage in preserving and enhancing the beauty and the soul of our European cities and countryside.”

Classic Marimekko designs, Spring 2017

However, passion alone cannot always pay the bills, and enthusiasm cannot replace profit. By the end of the 1960s the brand was in serious trouble. It would not be the last time. Armi Ratia’s stream of consciousness style of management mixed brilliance with ever looming bankruptcy. She believed in spending money to achieve great things. “Throw the money out of the window so it will come back through the door,” she used to say. The seesaw of the world economy and the roller-coaster ride of international taste continued to be a challenge. Once again after Armi’s death and in the 1980s, the brand was sailing through stormy weather and almost lost sight of a safe harbour. The modern building on the outskirts of Helsinki has a company restaurant (where everything from plates to tablecloths is Marimekko) and a popular store where Japanese tourists are buying anything from coffee cups to shower curtains. There is however a real factory

behind the welcoming façade, where Marimekko fabrics are still being produced in a highly innovative, automated and specialised process. The endless rows of brightly painted materials move from the printing to the drying and are continuously checked by quality supervisors, who watch the fabrics like hawks to make sure the dyes stay where they are supposed to stay. Since the 2000s Marimekko is playing on its strengths and once again is keeping it simple. The company is successfully rediscovering its classic designs and in the 2017 spring collection we can discover many familiar patterns and colours. Armi Ratia would be proud.



Leap of Faith 21st century art in a 16th century church It had been a labour of love; the restoration of the charming St. Olaf’s church in Tyrvää on a peninsula on Lake Rautavesi, between the cities of Turku and Tampere. But disaster was looming.

Tyrvää Church


Since a new village church had been built in 1855, the old Tyrvää church had been used only sporadically. Nevertheless, the local community had always felt deeply connected to it and on special occasions the early 16th century building would still be in use. The solid stone church was built of indigenous granite rocks and decorated with bricks, which were considered a luxury. The roof was high and covered with aspen shingles in diamond-shaped patterns, as well as in layers of protective tar. The location on a peninsula in was not accidental. It had been a pagan place of worship since the 4th century. The natural surroundings and the exterior of the Tyrvää church were impressive, but the interior was truly magnificent. The 17th century decorated pulpit and the wooden interior which was covered in paintings by Andreas Löfmark from the 1780s were a rare visual extravaganza in a country that was not used to

Wood after the fire

much religious decoration. In 1997 the old roof was in such a state that the community jumped to action to restore the tens of thousands of shingles. For weeks and weeks the local volunteers – the oldest over 90 years of age - worked to repair Tyrvää church, sometimes on shaky ladders dangling dangerously in the breeze. The whole village was involved, assisted by volunteers from the whole region and experts from the government.



(from left to right) Osmo Rauhala, Ulla Rahola, two of the volunteers who worked on the project, vicar emeritus Osmo Ojansivu Interior with Osmo Rauhala’s paintings Interior with work by Kuutti Lavonen (top) and Osmo Rauhala (bottom)

Instead of working towards a reconstruction of the original paintings, modern artists would be approached to capture the traditional biblical stories in completely new light. Art should remain a centre piece of the Tyrvää church. Three weeks after the festive re-opening, the church was reduced to ashes by a local, mad arsonist. With only the stone walls still standing, the new roof, the wooden interior and all the paintings were lost. The tight-knit community was of course devastated and downhearted, but soon a decision was reached to restore the church to its former glory. The National Board of Antiquieties took the responsibility for the restoration and made plans to repair the walls and reconstruct the roof. ICOMOS Finland organized two discussions concerning the interior reconstruction and a steering group for the interior design was nominated. Architect Ulla Rahola was approached with the tall request “to restore the unique atmosphere of the original interior.”

Rahola worked for many years to repair the heavily damaged monument. Together with the local community and craftsmen, the shingles as well as the underlying roof construction were restored. Everybody working on the project felt that this was much more than a restoration – the church was living heritage and a part of the community. More than a thousand volunteers participated in the reconstruction works between 1997 and 2003. The 18th century wooden interiors were rebuilt using mostly new wood. The result was a fresh and clean church, but something was missing: the paintings. Some wanted to keep the church in its empty and serene wooden form, but after many discussions a bold decision was reached.

Two, very different, Finnish contemporary artists were selected to find a 21st century creative solution between the 500 year old walls, Kuutti Lavonen (1960) and Osmo Rauhala (1957). Each would be responsible for part of the church. They worked on the project for five years, during which the church was mostly closed to the public. Although they had artistic freedom, they often wanted to discuss their ideas and concepts with various experts involved in the restoration. The circumstances in the church were often challenging with temperatures ranging from -20 to +20 as well as a destructive humidity. The artists had to test materials and paints. Lavonen and Rauhala respected one another’s space and rarely worked in


the church at the same time. They decided however that they would cooperate on the painting of one of the columns. The original art works of Andreas Löfmark could still be studied on photographs, but the artists did not want to try to re-create the 18th century interior. They wanted to use the same themes and the same surfaces but create a truly 21st century interpretation of devotion. Their individual approach to the subject-matter was however very different. Kuutti Lavonen is clearly inspired by Europe’s cultural heritage and the artists of the Renaissance and Baroque. He made sketches, which he and his assistants then painted directly on the wood panels, an unforgiving and challenging way to work. He worked on 29 panels, from the Stations of the Cross and the Last Judgement to the Apostles and the Evangelists. His paintings show raw emotion and capture real suffering in striking reds and intense imagery.

Osmo Rauhala – who divides his time between New York and his family estate in the nearby village of Siuro – has a very different, more cerebral approach to painting. His work has an almost calming, meditating effect after the direct impact of Lavonen’s paintings. His wooden panels covered subjects such as the Creation and the Birth of Life. He does not show human figures and his highly symbolic works of art are almost like puzzles with hidden meaning. Every aspect, from the capture of the movement of the wing of a dove and the all-seeing eye to large elephants, forbidden fruits, DNA and scientific discovery is important. Rauhala admits he sometimes had to adjust his colours to bring them in line with the intense colour pallet used by Lavonen. In 2009 all the hard work was completed, and now the Tyrvää church is once again truly living heritage, a proud and active member of the local community with a new roof, a new interior and contemporary art that will easily withstand the test of time.

St. Mary’s Church in Sastamala A short drive away from Tyrvää church we discover the St. Mary Church of Sastamala which, in its present form, dates back to the 15th century. In the 19th and 20th century the church was largely abandoned but now it has found a new future as a popular location for summer activities. It is exceptional to see a traditional floor of sand as well as the small but impressive collection of early artifacts.

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Nokia – Reconnected How would the Spanish composer Francisco Tárrega (1852-1909) feel, had he known how much anticipation, anxiety and happiness his music would bring to hundreds of millions of people? A fragment of his Gran Vals is one of the world’s most – often grudgingly – listened to melodies. In 2013, more than a billion people heard it every single day.

Francisco Tárrega (1852-1909)

The famous ring-tone is just one of the many interesting stories that connects Nokia to our European heritage.


Tehdassaari Factory Island

Nokia village in 1912 Knut Fredrik Idestam Advertisement rubber boots

Nokia is not a city somewhere in Japan or Korea, as some originally thought, but an industrial town with foundations firmly grounded in the industrial revolution and the history of Finland. But what is the link between this pleasant and green town between the Finnish lakes, close to Tampere, and the iconic brand that for more than a decade dictated the rules in the global phone industry? For that, we have to go back to the 19th century, when Europe was in need of paper and cardboard. Knut Fredrik Idestam (1838-1916) was eying the Emäkoski rapids close to the old Nokia farm, a small rural community surrounded by an endless pine forest. Idestam’s family was already well established in nearby Tampere, but the young entrepreneur looked for a new location to make his mark on the world. The free energy of the rapids and the

abundant space to grow was ideal for his pulpwood factory. He would become the father of the Finnish paper and pulp industry. The ramshackle collection of wooden sheds and mills of the early years quickly grew into a large industrial complex, riding high on the waves of the industrial revolution. The steamboats docked from 1881 and the first train arrived in Nokia in 1893. The beating heart of the town was Tehdassaari Factory Island where the main factories and offices were located. In 1908 the new headquarters of the Nokia Corporation opened, a classic building designed by architect Birger Federley.

Other industries started to join in the success of the paper and pulp industry, such as a cable making company and a rubber factory. While the First World War brought disaster to Europe, the Nokia rubber factory did business as never before. With Russian competition out of the picture, their famous galoshes and tyres were in high demand.

Nokia rubber shoes

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Tampere rapids with the Museum Centre Vapriikki on the left Redeveloped factory buildings in Tampere

Nearby Tampere was an industrial city before Nokia. The Tammerkoski rapids had an enormous potential for industrial development. Today many of its old factories have been dismantled and are being reused as homes, restaurants or museums. The only factory still working by the rapids is Tako board mill. The power-stations on the rapids are still generating abundant amounts of green, clean energy. Most of the town however had to find a new future and Tampere today is a town transformed. The Museum Centre Vapriikki used to be part of the Tampella factory but now the 14.000 square metre building houses the Pirkanmaa Provincial Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Media Museum, the Mineral Museum, the Finnish Hockey Hall of Fame, the Doll museum, the Postal Museum and the Finnish Museum of Games. That is quite a lot of Finnish heritage to enjoy before relaxing on a terrace overlooking the still impressive industrial landscape of the rapids.

The industries of Nokia were much more than just factories, they were communities in which the company was everything. With working days of 14 hours, there was not much else in people’s lives than the factory, and the owners built complete villages with all the facilities a community might need, creating more of a dependent family than a workforce. The factories of Nokia became as intertwined as their communities and by the 1960s the paper, cable and rubber industries were essentially one company. The Nokia


Nokia’s iconic phone is the Nokia 3310. It was the most popular phone in the world. It has already become part of our collective industrial and cultural heritage. Now the new Nokia company is bringing back their classic design, hoping that the old silhouette combined with today’s technology will bring Nokia back to the front line of the telecoms industry and back into the limelight.

Corporation had become a conglomerate of businesses, which made toilet paper, rubber boots and tyres, cables and electronics as well as maintained forests and owned power-stations. But times were changing. The head office moved to Helsinki in 1972 and many of the properties and companies were sold off. The depression, which started in 1975, only sped up the process and by the 1990s the Nokia Corporation only owned the Nokia Manor and some houses and landed

property. The Nokia name however stayed and the cable, electronics and phone company that would conquer the world with their mobile technology still officially traced their history back to Knut Idestam, who started the Nokia story with his mill on the Emäkoski rapids. The town of Nokia has gone through difficult changes but is now reinventing itself. Industry is no longer the main employer of the city although the rubber factory

is still successful. Now the green city is making use of the natural beauty that surrounds it. The historical buildings of the Tehdassaari Factory Island are being redeveloped with new industries, run by young entrepreneurs, who help to reconnect the city of Nokia once again to the world.

Above Paper Machine halls from 1885 Nokia villa on Tehdassaari Factory Island

Finland also brought us another revolution of the phone industry. As one Finn described it: “It is not as personal as a phone call, but not as impersonal as an email. It was just the level of intimate communication people felt comfortable with, like Whatsapp today.” The sms (short message service) was created by the Finnish engineer Matti Makkonen (1952-2015) in 1984 when he was working for the national Telecoms and Postal Agency. It seems a lifetime ago but the first sms was only sent in 1992.




The scenery would have looked very different to a stone age family, making their way along the archipelago and the lakes. Most importantly, Finland as a whole would have been substantially lower and the sea and lake levels remarkably higher. As a result, this reality had less land, but more water and ice. The climate would have been warmer, with oak and linden trees covering the shores. Nowadays, standing on the slope of the UNESCO World Heritage Bronze Age burial site of Sammallahdenmäki, you can walk down a rather steep hill to the shore of a swampy lake and bird paradise stretching out before you. In ancient times this hill would have been a cliff situated directly on the coastline of the Gulf of Bothnia, with dotted islands visible on the horizon. The more than 30 burial cairns, stacked with local granite boulders, were not built in the middle of the forest, they were built within easy reach of the boats and could be seen

Back to the Stone Age The earliest inhabitants of Finland left impressive monuments and art behind which still mesmerises scientists and inspires visitors. View towards the lower march lands from the burial site


from a distance. The view from this large prehistoric graveyard would have been impressive. However, very few human remains have been found on the site and even objects such as sherds of pottery, burned animal bones and artefacts are rare. Sammallahdenmäki lies just north of Rauma and is the largest burial site from the Scandinavian Bronze Age (1500-500 BC). According to scientists, the large graves are indicative of a new, sunworshiping religion and the beginnings of a farming community. These ‘islands’ of stone situated in a lush, green environment give the burial site a wonderful meditative atmosphere, a unique combination of nature and man-made structures.

A large quadrangular cairn, locally knows as the ‘Church Floor’, is an especially remarkable monument. Everywhere you look, lightgreen reindeer lichens cover the ground between the old pine and spruce trees. The

relatively remote location of Sammallahdenmäki has been a blessing in disguise. Although the site is fully protected under national legislation, the local agricultural community is also closely involved to keep the monuments maintained and protected. Here it is easy to imagine how prehistoric man would have brought their leaders to their final resting place, overlooking the endless seas under a summer sun that would hardly set.


Rock with a fungi pattern

The Kastelli at Linnankangas, Pattijoki is one of the tens of rectangular ramparts built – according to legend – by giants over 4,000 years ago in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Bothnia. They are also on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage



The huddled figure at Astuvansalmi Close up of the face of the rock The smooth rock-face of Astuvansalmi Female warrior

Astuvansalmi Rock Paintings It is a foggy fall morning as guide Helena Partanen, marketing coordinator Emmi Eronen and museum director Matti Karttunen stand waiting at a small jetty in Mikkeli to take me to the mysterious rock-face, first discovered in 1968 on the River Vuoksi. As with many fall mornings in Finland, the watery sunlight at first hides the deep arctic cold underneath the early,

barely warming rays. The lakes are featureless dark pools with only the waves made by our motorboat disturbing the placid surface. In the mist the yellow birch trees catch the morning light and reveal a few log saunas on the lake-shore. Not much has changed in this landscape over the last few thousand years, except that there would have been a lot less land and much more water. The quiet beauty of the lakes, and

the pine-covered islands that rise from them, has been preserved in its natural state. At first glance the 30 metre rock looks like any other large boulder, so typical of this region. But then, as the boat turns to come about, the image of a huddled figure with an immense stony face with bulging eyes, a large nose and protruding lips is clearly visible. It is not hard to imagine


Kierikki, photo by Estormiz

Kierikki The Stone Age Village reconstruction of Kierikki lies 50 kilometres north-east of Oulu. Kierikki is both a museum and a touristic centre and was opened in September 2001. It has a massive exhibition building which is the largest modern time log building in Finland. From 5,000 BC onwards, people lived on the sandy banks of the river Iijoki near Kierikki. The reconstructed buildings were created based

why prehistoric man would have immediately been taken by this site. Astuvansalmi, as the location is now mainly known, is on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage. The site is reachable by foot and by boat. From the jetty, the rock-face is impressively large. It used to be a place of sacrifice and was used over a long period of time. The paintings in red

ochre date from 3800-2200 BC, but prehistoric man did not stop worshiping here until the beginning of recorded time. Looking up along the 17 metrehigh smooth surface we can make out several human figures and even three female figures, of which one or maybe even two could be warriors. There are elks and boats and hand impressions. They are well preserved, thanks to a natural, transparent coating of silicate oxide, the result of minerals in the rock which have dissolved over time. Besides the paintings themselves, there is not much to go on to explain why hunter-gatherers decided to paint what they painted. Were there shamanic, religious motives or

on research data obtained from archaeological excavations. The centre brings the stone age to life and teaches children and adults stone age skills such as how to use a bow and arrow and paddle a log boat. You can also try to be an archaeologist in public excavations with help of British students. The project was a recipient of a 2002 EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards.

Hamd impression Elk

more practical reasons? An amber pendant and some arrow heads from later periods were discovered in the water below the boulder, but hard facts are hard to come by. The Astuvansalmi paintings were included among in the international RockCare project funded by the Raphael and Culture programmes of the European Union in 2000, but scientific research is still ongoing.

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Paavo Nurmi entering the Olympic stadium in Helsinki in 1952 Paavo Nurmi publicity photo

The Legacy of the Flying Finn Paavo Nurmi not only inspired a generation of runners, he also became a strong national symbol of the new Finland after its independence from Russia. Paavo Nurmi (1897 – 1973) was much more than a running sensation. True, he set 22 official world records, won 9 gold and 3 silver medals at the Olympic Games in Antwerp (1920), Paris (1924) and Amsterdam (1928) and was unbeatable during his

career at the 10,000 metres. However, it was his impact on the young Finnish republic that would make his legacy so enduring and endeared him to Finns then as much as today. Nurmi was a working-class hero who forged his way out


of poverty and claimed that working hard as a poor youngster helped him to develop the strong muscles that would catapult him on his way to success. His talent for running, which manifested itself at a young age, brought him worldwide fame. He travelled to the USA, hung out with Hollywood celebrities of the day, such as Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford, and even met President Coolidge. The newspapers called him ‘The Flying Finn’ and the “Phantom Finn,” names that stuck for the rest of his life. His dream of ending his career with a marathon-win during the Olympics of 1932 in Los Angeles was shattered by a dispute about his amateur status and he retired from running two years later. When he ran, twenty years later, into the stadium holding the Olympic torch during the 1952 Olympic Games in Helsinki, 70,000 people welcomed him with a standing ovation. More than 40 years after his death, Nurmi’s name still has a magical quality. In Turku, the town of his birth, the Paavo Nurmi Legacy works to preserve Paavo Nurmi’s sport- and cultural heritage by activities

Poster Paavo Nurmi Paavo Nurmi running in the Olympics

such as the Nurmi School Tour which has reached over 10,000 children - in the age-group of 6 to 13 - in more than 100 schools. The multilingual Paavo Nurmi website - in co-operation with the Sport Museum of Finland - keeps his digital heritage alive and relevant.

The Olympic torch from 1952

Paavo Nurmi was so famous in the USA that it was good publicity to be related to him. Hollywood star Maila Nurmi (1922 – 2008), better known as Vampyra, was born Maila Elizabeth Syrjäniemi but took on Nurmi’s name. She was of Finnish descent, but later claimed to have been born in Petsamo, Finland, and to be Paavo Nurmi’s niece.

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School-group Paavo Nurmi Legacy project

In a sense, there was not one Flying Finn, but at least two. Hannes Kolehmainen (1889 -1966) was a four-time Olympic Gold medallist and a world record holder in middleand long-distance running. He was a star of the 1912 Olympic Games and a major inspiration to Paavo Nurmi. Yet the vegetarian (a rarity in those days) Finnish runner still won under a Russian flag, much to his own chagrin.

Paavo Nurmi Marathon Paavo Nurmi Junior Games Stadium during Pavoo Nurmi Games 2016

An annually broadcast Paavo Nurmi documentary, the Paavo Nurmi home museum and his burial site are other aspects which the project’s executor, PN Turku Ltd., brings attention to the wider public. The Paavo Nurmi Legacy is part of the successful Paavo Nurmi

Festival organised since 2013 with the Paavo Nurmi Games, the Paavo Nurmi Marathon, the Paavo’s Sports Day for children and the Paavo Nurmi Junior & Master Games. The activities and plans of the Paavo Nurmi Legacy are not running out of steam any

time soon as a lasting tribute to Finland’s most famous athlete and national treasure. It is no wonder that their activities won the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards 2017 in the category Education, training and awareness-raising. paavonurmi.fi/en

Welcome to the oldest city in Finland.




Creating bridges thanks to emphasis on common cultural heritage Interview with Antonio Tajani, President of the European Parliament

European parliament leaders during a meeting in Norcia, Italy, next to the San Benedetto Basilica which was heavily damaged in an earthquake. Benedetto is the patron saint of Europe. The EU will fund the restoration of the Basilica.

On occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March, EU leaders adopted the ‘Rome Declaration’ for the future of Europe in which they commit to work towards “a Union which preserves our cultural heritage and promotes cultural diversity.” Sneška Quaedvlieg-Mihailović, Secretary General of Europa Nostra, had the pleasure of meeting Tajani in Rome on that occasion. What was your personal impression of this historic day? On 25 March, more than ever, I realized how important the European unity is, and what we could achieve thanks to it. The celebration was more than just a formal event to mark what have been the best 60 years in the history of a free Europe. It was also a grave, solemn moment, because it was obvious to everyone that the EU would need to be changed. And that it would

be our responsibility to make sure that it is strengthened, and not weakened. All the institutions need to work harder to find the answers that Europeans are looking to us to provide. The only response to populism is to demonstrate by means of practical achievements that we are working together for a Europe that produces results. Your home country Italy now plays a leading role internationally in building momentum for heritage: the Italian G7 Presidency initiated the first ever G7 Ministerial meeting on Culture in Florence at the end of March. How can civil society and the European Parliament work together to sustain this momentum? The European Parliament’s DNA is about creating bridges towards the people in Europe, in particular thanks to emphasis on common cultural heritage. You can count on me and on the

M. Antonio Tajani has been Member of the European Parliament since 2014 (and previously 1994-2004) and was elected President in 2017. Prior to this, he was Vice-President of the European Commission responsible for Industry and Entrepreneurship (20102014) and for Transport (2008-2010). Antonio Tajani previously worked as a journalist. He holds a degree in Law from La Sapienza University in Rome and speaks Italian, French, English and Spanish.


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of cultural objects, or mere neglecting.

Tajani and other European leaders signed the Rome Declaration, marking the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome in the Capitole’s room of the Horaces and the Curiaces

The day after, the youth takes the place of the European Leaders in the Capitole’s room of the Horaces and the Curiaces

European Parliament to stress the importance of it.

as European citizen, what do you expect from the Year?

Together with civil society organisations like Europa Nostra and the European Heritage Alliance 3.3, the European Parliament also played a key role in the decision to declare the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018. Both as President of the European Parliament and

I hope that this initiative will raise awareness of European history and strengthen a sense of European identity. I also hope that it will draw attention to the fragility of our cultural heritage, which is often threatened by environmental pressure, illicit trafficking

Thanks to the efforts of your colleagues from the EP Culture Committee, the budget for implementing the Year at European level has been increased compared to the initial proposal. Much depends now on EU Member States to promote the Year and provide for additional funds at national level. How can we ensure that the Year receives adequate funding to match its high ambition and high expectations? What role could be played by the EP to enhance the political significance of the Year, both from the European dimension and the global perspective? As you already mentioned, the European Parliament played an important role in ensuring a proper budget for implementing the European Year of Cultural

With Sneška QuaedvliegMihailović, Secretary General of Europa Nostra in Rome

Heritage. With the support of the EP Culture Committee, the Parliament is committed to stress the political significance of cultural heritage, including in EU external relations such as conflict prevention, post-conflict reconciliation and rebuilding destroyed cultural heritage. Cultural heritage has a significant and substantial positive impact not only on our economies but also on society, culture and the environment – as demonstrated in the report ‘Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe’. Given your vast experience, among others as former EU Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship, what is your view on how this should be reflected in future EU policy priorities and more importantly in future EU funding programmes? While it is not easy to quantify the power of our cultural heritage to improve the quality of our lives, we know, in our hearts and minds, that policies and investments are necessary to sustain our heritage. Culture is also an important drive for growth and jobs. Just think how many tourists come in Europe to visit our incomparable cultural heritage. Many heritage treasures like the Basilica of San Benedetto in Norcia were destroyed or damaged by severe earthquakes in your home country Italy. Europa Nostra welcomes that the EU confirmed its financial support for the reconstruction process of the San Benedetto Basilica

in Norcia. Yet, through our ‘7 Most Endangered’ programme Europa Nostra receives many calls for support to endangered heritage sites, often due to simple lack of funding, but also due to unsuitable and unsustainable development. Could we make use of the European Year of Cultural Heritage to set up a ‘European Heritage Fund’ to save endangered heritage sites in Europe? In the framework of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome, the Conference of Presidents, accompanied by Members of the Bureau of the

European Parliament, visited, upon my proposal, the destroyed Basilica of San Benedetto. I personally support any initiative to raise awareness on endangered heritage sites in Europe. To end, which heritage site in Europe do you consider as a true embodiment of the European spirit? The Capitole’s room of the Horaces and the Curiaces, where the signature of the Rome’s treaties by the governments of six Member States took place 60 years ago.




Cultural Heritage: A Bridge between our Past and our Future Interview with Tibor Navracsics, Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport

Commissioner Tibor Navracsics and his team face a full plate of responsibilities every day. The job at hand in an everchanging European landscape is a challenge for any commissioner, but many of the aspects of his portfolio have a direct and important impact on people’s lives - from identifying how to modernise Europe’s education systems to creating more interaction between universities and economic innovation,

from promoting cultural diversity and helping Europe’s artists and creators, to using culture as a catalyst for innovation, economic growth and new jobs for young people of all social and cultural backgrounds. How does the heritage world and the wider world of culture fit into all of these ambitions? And what opportunities does the coming European Year of Cultural Heritage offer?

You have worked hard – together with civil society representatives such as Europa Nostra and other heritage organisations – to make 2018 the European Year of Cultural Heritage. 2018 will be the European Year of Cultural Heritage thanks to the enthusiasm and dedication of a number of players: Member States, the European Parliament and organisations from the cultural and creative sectors.

When I presented the European Commission’s legal proposal to make 2018 the European Year of Cultural Heritage in August of last year, I knew that I could count on them in making this project a reality. The mobilisation of Europa Nostra and its network

will discover it for the first time thanks to the activities planned for 2018.

Thirdly: What do you expect from Europa Nostra and our members? How can we help?

Secondly: When is the Year a success for you? What is the message for the Europeans you want to share with the Year?

I count on Europa Nostra, its wide network, and other cultural heritage organisations, to bring cultural heritage closer to people

was one of the keys to convincing political actors to go ahead.

I believe that cultural heritage is a crucial part of our identity, a valuable resource from the past which can and must help us look to the future together. This is my key message for the Year and I am particularly keen on creating this bridge from the past to the future, focusing on future generations: children and young people. Getting them involved and interested in finding out about their roots and what these roots mean for the future will be a great challenge for the Year – and one measure of success.

Firstly: Was it a difficult initiative to get support for? As I said, there is broad support for this initiative. Many Europeans have an emotional connection with our European cultural heritage, want to see it protected and enjoy it in all its forms. Therefore I regard the Year as a truly European project. The European Parliament and Member States are very committed to it. And the support of Europa Nostra, the members of the 3.3 Alliance and other organisations has – from the very beginning – been remarkable. The Year will be implemented at European level by the Commission, in cooperation with all institutions, starting with the European Parliament which has been so supportive. But most importantly, the Year will happen on the ground, in local communities. It will depend on and be for people – from heritage professionals to those who are already interested in our patrimony to those citizens who

More broadly, success means creating a legacy. This should not be a one-off project, finishing on 31 December 2018. If we can show that the Year has contributed to more efficient management of cultural heritage resources across Europe in the long run, greater awareness of the value of cultural heritage and the risks it is exposed to, and better protection of tangible and intangible testimonies from our past, then we can say that we have been successful.

and to help us to implement the Year at grassroots level. This will be vital in achieving the goals we have set ourselves for the Year. This year we celebrate 100 years of Finland – one of the reasons the Europa Nostra is holding its annual congress in Turku. Can you tell us what you – as Commissioner – are looking forward to in this year’s ceremony for the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards, especially in Finland? Every year, the ceremony for the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards is a major event in the cultural heritage calendar. It is the ideal occasion to demonstrate the remarkable achievements of the winners. At the same time, it is an excellent opportunity to highlight the significant role of cultural heritage in society,


Liszt Academy, Budapest (Grand Prix Winner EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards 2015) with Maestro Plácido Domingo, President of Europa Nostra



and to promote participation in heritage protection. One element of the prize and the ceremony that is important to me is the fact that it focuses on what people are doing together; it celebrates the way people in Europe respond to the challenge of preserving their cultural heritage and how they invest in the next generation. I am glad to see the Congress held in Finland this year as a tribute to the centenary of Finnish independence and the country’s rich maritime heritage. And I hope that this year’s ceremony will add to the discussions and exchanges to be held during the Congress by showcasing some remarkable heritage initiatives that Finland has seen over the past few years, such as “Adopt a Monument” which gets citizens involved in managing cultural heritage. I am also confident that the Congress will inspire and prepare the ground for discussions on creative ways to engage more citizens in the preservation of cultural heritage, providing a stepping stone for many organisations to start preparations for the European Year of Cultural Heritage in 2018.

Veszprém castle (photo by Csendesmark)

For a few years now, under your leadership, heritage sites have

been selected for the European Heritage Label. Could you tell us about the selections this year and what impressed you the most? The European Heritage Label is definitely on the up. This year, 19 Member States have proposed sites they have pre-selected for addition to the European Heritage Label list. That is a 70% increase on the last selection process in 2015, and I am impressed to see so many Member States involved. The 25 sites they have pre-selected range from the sixth century to more recent examples. Proposals include the Maastricht Treaty and the village of Schengen, as well as memorial sites from the two World Wars and the Communist era, religious sites, industrial sites and much more. I wish them all the best of luck; and let’s see what sites our panel of experts will select to be put on the list at the end of this year. The European ideas and ideals are under attack from many sides. Are your colleagues now more susceptible than before to give culture a try as the heart of the Union? Culture is at the heart of the European project. The celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome is a poignant reminder of this. And the European Commission remains committed to the goals it has been working towards for a long time: promoting cultural diversity, protecting cultural heritage, easing the mobility of cultural professionals, and supporting the cultural and creative industries. The cultural and creative sectors

have an important role in socioeconomic development. Let me nevertheless underline that culture is not just a means to economic growth. Culture plays a significant role in our lives and in our society too. We need culture to better understand each other, to strengthen the bonds between our countries and our people, to help us fight and prevent violent radicalisation and stand together against common threats. And it can also strengthen diplomatic relations and help the EU build stronger ties with its partners across the globe. One of the aspects you have stressed is the growing importance of cultural diplomacy in the framework of EU’s enlargement and external relations policy. Could you tell us why you think cultural diplomacy is gaining momentum? There is growing recognition of the important role that culture plays in EU international relations. The Joint Communication “Towards an EU Strategy for International Cultural Relations”, which I presented with the High Representative Vice-President Federica Mogherini last June, is proof of it. We want to put cultural cooperation at the centre of the EU’s diplomatic relations with countries around the world. Because cultural diplomacy is about conservation, innovation, education, security, and human development. This is an important achievement in the long process of strengthening the role of culture in the EU’s external relations. And it is a new beginning as it paves the way for further action in this field.


What is important now is that we bring this strategy to life with concrete instruments and projects. For example, a Cultural Diplomacy Platform was launched last year with the aim of enhancing the European Union’s engagement with nonEU countries and their citizens. This two-year project, financed with a grant of more than EUR 900,000, is designed to help the EU engage even more effectively with audiences and stakeholders in other countries through cultural diplomacy activities. Moreover, the European Year of Cultural Heritage will contribute to the recognition of cultural heritage as an important element of the EU’s international relations and as a key field of cooperation with our partners worldwide. Indeed, heritage was one of the subjects discussed at the recent meeting of G7 culture ministers I attended – the first of its kind. This makes me very confident that this important topic will stay high on the political agenda. Over the years many different commissioners have shown interest in cultural heritage, often from very different perspectives; from DG Connect to Regional Development, from Agriculture to the Erasmus Programme. We sometimes wonder if there is enough

communication between the different DG’s on sharing the important results. Well I do not entirely agree with you here. I am impressed by the great level of interest in cultural heritage that exists across Commission services. In 2014, the Commission presented a policy document calling for an integrated approach to cultural heritage. This means that as an institution, we are determined to implement coherent policies together, taking into account cultural heritage concerns across policy areas – from environment, energy, agriculture to research, social and industrial policies. And I believe we have been quite successful. There are so many EU funding programmes supporting heritage that my services issued a guide to map them all and help stakeholders find their way! The Year will help us make the EU’s cross-sectoral commitment to cultural heritage more visible. Moreover, the declaration adopted by Heads of State and Government on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome recognises and celebrates the importance of cultural heritage for Europe. Europa Nostra believes that one of the important messages of the European Year of Cultural

Heritage is to show that almost all our heritage is multidimensional and the result of many different cultures over time. Can you give us an example – maybe from your own home country Hungary – of heritage that is a clear example of this multi-layered history? Cultural heritage represents our history and our identity, our past, our present and our future. When people refer to cultural heritage, what often comes to mind is the idea of a single society and the communication between its members. However, our European heritage brings together elements of numerous and different cultures. In Hungary we have many examples of this multi-layered history, such as the banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue, the Synagogue in Pest and the Turkish baths in Buda, the Christian Necropolis of Pecs and the Iseum in Szombathely. A place that is particularly important to me is a viewpoint in the castle area of my hometown Veszprém. It is often referred to as “The end of the world” because, from the top of a hill, it offers great views over the city in which you can find many cultural influences apart from Hungarian-Austrian and Ottoman in particular.

Iseum Szombathely (photo by Sudika)



Cultural heritage is one common language which all countries can understand Interview with Owen Bonnici, Minister for Justice, Culture and Local Government from Malta. Malta holds the Presidency of the European Union in the first semester of 2017.

Owen Bonnici, Minister for Justice, Culture and Local Government, Malta

This year, Malta has been holding the EU Presidency for the first time since its accession to the EU. Your Presidency coincided with the Rome Summit which has marked the 60th anniversary of the signature of the Treaty of Rome. Europa Nostra has strongly advocated the need to include due reference to our shared cultural heritage in the Rome Declaration and was very pleased to see this reference included in the final text of this important Declaration. The Maltese Presidency has certainly played a key role in recognizing the cultural dimension of the entire European project? The European Project is indeed a great example of how uniting and working together achieves greater and more fruitful results. The world is currently being faced with many new challenges which have called upon the need to recognize the importance of culture to improve relations between people, building mutual understanding and partnerships, fostering openness and building tolerant and peaceful societies. The Maltese Presidency has recognized how instrumental culture is not only because it is one of the country’s strongest resources but also because we believe that it is a key element of the European project. During its term, the Maltese Presidency has been working on a number of important files which further give culture the important role which it deserves. Indeed, the Maltese Presidency has been instrumental in reaching a provisional agreement on the

proposal for a European Year on Cultural Heritage happening during 2018 - a file which it also endeavours to bring to a close. The Maltese Presidency also worked on taking the Joint Communication titled ‘Towards an EU strategy for international Cultural relations’ forward by means of Council conclusions which will provide the needed framework for the next steps in the field of cultural diplomacy in full cognisance of EU and Member States’ spheres of competences. You have always shown a great interest in culture and the environment and you feel strongly connected to Europe. What are your expectations for the European Year of Cultural Heritage - on which the final decision has been taken by the Council and the EP during the Maltese Presidency of the EU – as well as for the celebration of Valetta as European Capital of Culture 2018? How are the Maltese government and the City of Valletta preparing for these great challenges? Following the approval of Malta’s application for Valletta to be Europe’s Capital of Culture in 2018, the Maltese government has set up and is effectively implementing a strong and varied programme of activities in order to attract and actively involve all possible audiences. More importantly, since this is not being considered as a one-off event, a number of specific projects, such as a new community art museum (MUZA) managed by Heritage Malta, have also been taken in hand in order to improve the


local cultural infrastructure, which is then to be left as inheritance for generations to come. The same can be said for the European Year of Cultural Heritage. The Maltese Presidency has given a strong emphasis to the value of cultural diplomacy and has given an example by promoting and signing a “5+5” agreement to promote cultural cooperation between the countries of the North and South shores of the Mediterranean. How can we use our shared cultural heritage to promote intercultural dialogue and re-

build trust and mutual respect in the Mediterranean Region? Rather than a barrier, the Mediterranean has often been a very effective means of communication throughout the centuries. This has resulted in

(from left to right) Owen Bonnici Sneška QuaedvliegMihailović, Secretary General of Europa Nostra Simone Mizzi, Board member of Europa Nostra Guy Clausse, Board member of Europa Nostra and former Dean of the European Investment Bank Institute (EIBI)



Reception held on 17 March at Fort St-Angelo on the occasion of the Europa Nostra Board visit to Malta (from left to right) Owen Bonnici Sneška QuaedvliegMihailović, Secretary General of Europa Nostra Europa Nostra’s Executive President Denis de Kergorlay Simone Mizzi, Board member of Europa Nostra

countries in the Mediterranean basin having a lot of common traditions and history, apart from a long story of social, political, commercial and cultural exchanges. Although languages may differ, therefore, cultural heritage is effectively one common language which all countries can easily understand. Moreover, it is a language on which all countries agree. It would therefore be very short sighted not to use such common denominator as a vehicle by means of which to bridge other aspects which may be perhaps more problematic.

Since its accession to the EU, back in 2004, Malta has made ample use of EU structural funds for large-scale projects with regard to heritage restoration and revitalisation. Could you tell us about some of them and what these projects have meant for the Maltese and Gozitan communities? I think I can safely say that this has been a veritable success story for Malta. Successive administrations have invested considerably in this sector and ensured that such funds are utilized to the full and

with maximum effect. Just to mention a few: the restoration of major stretches of the fortifications, Fort St Angelo, Fort St Elmo, Tarxien Temples, Ggantija Temples, St Paul’s Catacombs, the Hypogeum, and others. This has resulted, among other, in better quality of life for residents, employment, increased services and facilities for the local communities, and increased economic opportunities in general through increased visitor numbers and all the associated spill-over effects, apart from the pride of Maltese citizens in

seeing such important cultural sites receiving the much desired attention. However this is not enough, and more projects are being currently implemented in the 2014-2020 funding programmes. There has been quite some controversy about some development projects (and especially skyscraper projects) due to their negative (visual) impact on priceless cultural heritage sites in Malta, including the World Heritage City of Valletta. Also, Malta’s traditional vernacular architecture and rural landscapes are very much threatened by over-development caused by mass tourism and real-estate business. What are your concrete plans to tackle this situation? The trick in such instances, such as in so many others, is finding the right balance. While we cannot live in a time capsule which would render us insignificant, we have to ensure that any actions implemented safeguard all our cultural assets. I believe that the recently introduced legislation regarding the Planning Authority, the Environment and Resources Authority, the Lands Authority, and the current revision of the Cultural Heritage Act will put our minds at rest on this front. Europa Nostra strongly believes that our cultural heritage is very rarely one-dimensional but is instead the result of many cultural influences and interactions over time. Which heritage sites do you feel is the most representative of such

cultural and historical layering in Malta? Nothing exists in isolation. There are a number of sites in Malta which can fit this description perfectly well, such as Mdina or the Citadel in Gozo. In actual fact, however, Malta in itself and in its entirety is a prime example of this multilayering and heterogeneous cross-influence across time. All successive waves of occupants and visitors have left their own particular influences in all sectors of life, architectural, language, cuisine, traditions, literary etcetera. Over time these have moulded together into what today can be defined as ‘Maltese’; however this is also constantly always changing, through other contacts and influences, in a constant state of flux. The Maltese and the whole world are still in mourning following the recent collapse of the Azure Window on Gozo. What message can we learn from such a sad loss of an iconic natural or cultural heritage site? The collapse of the Azure Windom was a natural phenomenon about which effectively not much could have been done to control an irreversible natural process. In any case, however, we have to keep firmly in mind that heritage sites, be they natural or cultural, can never be taken for granted, and that we all carry a huge responsibility to forward to our children what our forefathers have in turn forwarded to us. It is our obligation to do so for many


reasons – cultural, historic, social and also economic. We are so much poorer and meaningless without our heritage. Which heritage location in Malta is especially important to you personally? Considering the very high concentration of cultural heritage in Malta, I am quite spoilt for choice. If I really had to choose one, however, I would say the recently restored Fort St Angelo. Its place at the very centre of Malta’s Grand Harbour and of Malta’s history,

with all its significance to the people of Malta, makes it difficult to beat. And finally, can you also give us an example of heritage outside of Malta that has a special place in your heart? This is a rather difficult question. Having to choose, however, I would say Rome’s Coliseum. Its imposing architectural magnificence, created to host impressive dramas for human consumption, has left an indelible mark on me.

Photo by Sneška QuaedvliegMihailović



Cultural heritage is a powerful driver of local and regional development Interview with Markku Markkula, President of the European Committee of the Regions (CoR) As President and long-standing member of the European Committee of the Regions, you have helped to make the voice of Europe’s regions and cities heard in the EU decision-making process. What is the message of regions and cities for Europa Nostra?

Lifelong learning based on cultural heritage is a cornerstone of local, regional, national and European identity, as well as a powerful driver of local and regional development. On average, subnational authorities are responsible for two thirds of public expenditure for cultural activities.

We share the same passion and drive for the preservation and development of cultural heritage and the promotion of cultural diversity. Europa Nostra has an impressive cultural activity and a well-established track record in these fields. The European Year of Cultural Heritage in 2018 constitutes a valuable


opportunity to raise awareness of these topics. Europa Nostra had the pleasure of meeting you on 25 March 2017, when you celebrated the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome together with citizens, politicians and civil society organisations in Rome. What is your personal birthday wish for the future of Europe? First of all, we should be proud of what we have achieved. These 60 years have brought peace and prosperity to Europe. If you look back in the history, that was not something we could take for granted. However, we must make sure that those who are in power listen to citizens’ concerns. People want to see that most decisions are taken as close as possible to them – this means in our regions and cities. We need to encourage bottom-up movements – cities catalysing and enabling new innovative solutions in tackling societal challenges. The European Committee of the Regions has launched an initiative called Reflecting on Europe, which includes town hall debates in around a hundred EU regions and with the aim of offering a space for local and regional authorities and for citizens to present their thoughts and ideas about the current situation and the future of Europe. This way we are hoping to engage citizens in the European project. My wish is a Europe where people have not only national, but also a strong local, regional and European identity. Europa Nostra strongly believes that culture and cultural heritage

are one of the most important cohesive forces that bring European citizens together – uniting them across borders. In March 2017 – shortly after the Rome celebrations – , the G7 culture ministers gathered for the first time. Do you see a momentum for culture to play a larger role in politics?

Promoting culture and cultural heritage is essential in order to strengthen identity and democratic values in Europe and to contribute to social and economic cohesion. This is particularly important among children and young people. Therefore we have recommended including in school curriculum elements of European art, music, theatre and film education. Intercultural dialogue and better knowledge of Europe’s cultural heritage can also play a key role in the integration of migrants. These topics will be further elaborated in two seminars that the SEDEC commission of the European Committee of the Regions will organise this year: the first will take place in Sofia in May and the second in Timisoara in September.

With Sneška QuaedvliegMihailović, SecretaryGeneral of Europa Nostra, during the March for Europe in Rome, also with Professor Paolo Vitti, Member of the Scientific Council of Europa Nostra



Markku Markkula is a member of the European Committee of the Regions (CoR) since 2010 and was elected President in February 2015. He is a member of Espoo City Council and of the Board of Helsinki Regional Council in Finland. From 19952003 he was member of the Finnish Parliament. Markkula holds a Master of Science in Technology in Industrial Management from Helsinki University of Technology. He has been the CoR rapporteur on many topics related to innovation, including Horizon 2020 and Closing the Investment Gap.

Culture and learning must also receive a stronger role in the EU’s international relations. It is important to develop cultural diplomacy in the European Union and thus to enable it to compete with the new emerging powers at all levels on the world stage. This means promoting a positive image of Europe and its Member States. The ultimate aim should be creating a more distinctive, pluralist, European cultural identity that will be recognised both internationally and within the EU by the people of all the Member States. The current EU research programme Horizon 2020 has funded substantial heritagerelated projects. However, Europa Nostra has heard that cultural heritage might no longer be one of the priorities in the successor programme. Given your experience in EU research policy, what would you recommend to policy makers in Brussels who are currently

drafting the future research programme? Our message is clear: it’s essential that heritage-related research continues to receive substantial funding from the future research programme, as it contributes to the conservation, development and promotion of cultural heritage. Multidisciplinarity is important – integrating heritage-related research and innovation to other fields. Combatting climate change and preventing natural disasters is obviously vital for the long-term future of our cultural heritage. Digitisation and new technologies can make cultural works more accessible to everyone and help to preserve them for the future generations. In general, more resources need to be made available to cultural and creative sectors. Given that culture has more than just economic value, new ways of financing conservation of the Europe’s immense cultural

heritage must be sought. It remains essential to maximise synergies between European funds and programmes so as to ensure their effectiveness and efficiency. We should also encourage the involvement of private capital. Many heritage-related projects have also been funded through the EU Structural Funds. How can civil society and regional authorities work together to ensure that these projects are implemented in line with the highest professional standards in the field of heritage? Cities and regions, especially rural areas, need to pay more attention to cultural heritage in their smart specialisation strategies and involve all stakeholders in the planning and implementation phases. This includes the civil society, but also businesses and educational institutions. We need to look for innovative solutions for cultural heritage preservation, implemented more than so far through public-private-people partnerships. We are also hoping that the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 will create a momentum to increase the funding available in the COSME programme for small and medium-sized enterprises related to cultural tourism. Europa Nostra has the honour of welcoming you during the European Heritage Congress in May 2017 where heritage volunteers and professionals will gather in Turku, Finland. For many, this will be their first occasion to discover Finnish cultural and natural heritage.


If you were to name but one, which heritage site embodies Finland for you and why? First of all, I warmly welcome all our visitors to Turku, which is the oldest city in Finland and our former capital. It was the seat of the country’s first university and used to be our gateway to the European civilization. The city also hosts some of the most remarkable historic buildings in Finland, such as the Turku Castle and the Cathedral of Turku. However, if I had to pick just one site in my country, it would be Suomenlinna, a sea fortress built on a group of islands across Helsinki. I do have my personal links to this: one of my former staff members – an expert in continuing engineering education – is serving as a head of maintenance of this masterpiece. The landscape and the architecture of the fortress have been shaped by key events in Finnish history. It has served to defend three different sovereign states: the Kingdom of Sweden, the Russian Empire and most recently the Republic of Finland, we are celebrating our hundred years of independence this year. The fortress, which consists of six islands and is one of the most visited tourist sites in Finland, is also a natural site which provides amazing views over Helsinki and the surrounding island landscape. In 2018 we will be celebrating the European Year of Cultural Heritage. Europa Nostra believes that the European dimension of our shared cultural heritage holds a strong positive message for citizens. Is there another

heritage site in Finland or beyond that is your personal ‘shared heritage’ favourite? In a way, we can consider the Acropolis of Athens as the cradle of the European civilisation and (local) democracy. So I guess that would be a fairly obvious choice. However, we need to look at the European cultural heritage in all its diversity. Therefore we are supporting the creation of a European Network of World Heritage Cities, as these cities are the common heritage of all European citizens. Specific measures are needed to preserve them and raise awareness about their existence.

The UNESCO World Heritage site Suomenlinna is one of Markkula’s favourite places in Finland



Build to Last The Medieval Castles of Finland

In many European countries, castles are shape-shifters, adapting to ever changing times, transforming from the stern and solid strongholds of the Middle Ages, to the comfortable palaces of the 18th century with madefor-show turrets, over-the-top towers and unnecessary frills.

Turku Castle inner courtyard

Finland does not have many castles that have survived up to the present day, but the castles it does have make their raison d’être very clear. They are made to impress, to establish power in the region and to show who is in control, without much patience for needless distractions.

Turku Castle seen from the river

Turku Castle in the 19th century

The Finnish ‘linnas’ rise from the surrounding rocks like massive, grey mountains of stone, completely at ease within their harsh environment and constructed with giant, nononsense boulders. They are impressive monuments with stories to tell that leave little room for fairy-tale style romance. A few of them, such as Kajaani Castle or Kuusisto Castle, are in a ruinous state, but others have retained most their original charm. Of the just five medieval castles which have survived more or less intact, Kastelholm Castle on Åland (between Finland and Sweden) and Raseborg Castle are still very much recognisable in shape and form, but the real medieval treasures are St.Olaf’s Castle, Turku Castle and Häme Castle. The medieval Viipuri Castle, a famous stronghold in Finnish history, is now located across the border in Russia.

Turku Castle Turku Castle, located on the outskirts of town, is a remarkable collection of heritage buildings. Seen from the river, it looks like something that could have been designed by a child, with a massive square

tower in the middle and huge house-like structures on either side. Its form is probably based more on an ancient Roman army camp than on a ‘modern’ medieval design. Within its high walls, Turku Castle keeps surprising the visitors with huge




Children receiving a knighthood Architect Erik Bryggman (1891-1955) from Turku designed the museum’s famous attic.

courtyards and stunning, stony vistas of long corridors and massive defensive structures. The castle is a very popular tourist attraction and the dedicated staff, many dressed in medieval attire, guide the tens of thousands of visitors per month through the museum, with its period furniture, prison cells and impressions of everyday castle life. Children are of course still knighted on a daily basis. The castle was built in the 13th century on an island to maximise its defensive capabilities. The Swedes were consolidating their hold over the east by making their way along

the Åland sea to Turku. The castle was constructed to protect their interests but also to be used as an administrative centre for the whole of Finland. In 1556 King Gustav Vasa made his son John Duke of Finland. To make his castle more comfortable John added the beautiful Renaissance halls. Turku – then the capital of Finland - found itself on the receiving end of many internal conflicts within the Swedish kingdom, but the castle escaped these skirmishes without much damage. In 1614 however, during a visit of

King Gustav II Adolf - the king who made Sweden into European power-house – the wooden structure of the castle was completely destroyed by fire. The castle was abandoned and for a while simply used as a large storage room. It would not be the last time the castle burned. In the summer of 1941, soon after the Continuation War had begun, a fire bomb hit the castle with devastating results. In the 1950s large scale restoration works began and nowadays the castle has regained much of its former glory and it is one of Finland’s most popular destinations.


Häme Castle Häme Castle is built to impress. Walking along its outer walls you slowly discover how massive the structure really is. At the heart of the fortifications is a relatively modest, square brick building resting on granite boulders. Brick was an unusual building material and the stones were probably manufactured on the spot by German craftsmen. The central keep has surrounding curtain walls with gatehouses, storage rooms, battlements and gun towers. Built in the middle of the Finnish countryside under Swedish rule, 14th century Häme Castle had a turbulent start as

part of the eastern defence line against the Novgorod Republic. After new borders between Finland and Novgorod were drawn at the peace treaty of 1323, Häme was suddenly at a safe distance from the enemy. It became a Swedish administrative centre for the middle regions of Finland. The castle later served as a prison and in the 1950s Häme Castle, just like Turku Castle, became the subject of large scale restoration works. Since the late 1980s the castle has re-opened

its gates to the general public. In the nearby 19th century Russian barracks the Museo Militaria - The Artillery, Engineer and Signals Museum of Finland has found a new home.

Museo Militaria Inner keep



St. Olaf’s Castle If there ever was a competition for the most beautiful location for a castle, St. Olaf’s Castle would probably finish at the top of the list. Standing on a rocky outcrop in the middle of the stunningly beautiful Saimaa lake system, it is easy to understand why founder Erik Axelsson Tott picked this spot for his new castle, built around 1475, then just 5 miles from the Russian border. It was the first Finnish castle which was suitable for cannons and guns with its massive round towers of which three have survived until today. Tott had to hire foreign masters from Talinn in Estonia to lay the bricks. As St. Olaf’s Castle was on the border between east and west, it often changed hands. In 1714 it was Russian, the Swedes got it back in 1721, and in 1743 it was once again back in Russian hands. When the Russian army finally left, the castle stood empty for a while before being transformed into a prison. Cinders from passing steamboats in 1868 proved to be more dangerous than all the war and conflict, and


the castle was severely damaged by fire. Due to its unique location St. Olaf’s Castle was an early tourist magnet. Soprano and first Finnish diva Aino Ackté would, in 1912, give it the legacy which would last until today: opera. The grand opera festival in St. Olaf’s Castle is still one of the most popular international classical festivals in Europe and it lasts the whole month of July. There is however one draw-back to this tremendous musical

success. Finland has short summers and maintenance work on the castle has to be performed on a regular basis. The summer months are taken up by the preparations, the concerts and the dismantling of the stage and stands. That leaves limited room for restoration. In September and October the experts and builders move in en-mass to enthusiastically do as much work as they can in the fast fading sunlight and increasingly lower temperatures.

Opera diva Aino Ackté dressed as Salome



Suomenlinna The UNESCO World Heritage site (since 1991) of Suomenlinna, or Sveaborg as it is also known, is just a short boat trip from the centre of Helsinki and can easily be seen from town. It is not just one fort on one island, it is a huge collection of defensive structures on several, sometimes interconnected islands at the entrance of the harbour of Helsinki. It covers an area of 210 hectares with 200 buildings and 6 km of defensive walls over six separate islands.

Suomenlinna from the air Landscape architect Pia Kurki and architect Tuija Lind

Landscape architect Pia Kurki and architect Tuija Lind have been working for quite some time to help restore the massive fortifications. It is a pleasant walk from their offices to the shore line where they are in the process of restoring walking trails. The site of a massive historic canon offers a spectacular view of the archipelago of Helsinki with islands sharply silhouetted against the sun. The ongoing restoration works on Suomenlinna can be a challenge. The sheer number of bastions, bunkers, barracks, casemates and all the related structures such as storage facilities, 18th century residences, accommodations for soldiers and officers, a church, a dockyard, water basins, factories, and even a hangar for planes, is a serious, almost overwhelming issue. The fact that the islands are visited by close to a million visitors a year, almost exclusively in the summer periods, takes its toll on the continuity of the maintenance work. Suomenlinna – literally the Castle of Finland – is also home to a half-open prison with smartly designed


living quarters. The prisoners are not just idly biding their time, they are actively contributing to the restoration works on the fortifications. It is a successful rehabilitation programme in which the inmates are learning new skills and knowledge which prepare them for a life outside the island’s confines. It is a excellent example of how cooperation and a sense of community spirit can lead to innovative ways of dealing with largescale restoration and maintenance works. Suomenlinna was built in the second half of the 18th century, in accordance with the principles of the French military leader and engineer Vauban. Some have called it ‘The Swan Song of Swedish Military Power’. It has defended not only the Kingdom of Sweden but also the Russian Empire, and since 1917 the Republic of Finland.

The fortress played a central role in the history of Finland and for instance, during the Crimean War, the Anglo-French fleet bombed the fortress for three consecutive days. For most of the 20th century the Finnish army was responsible for Suomenlinna, but the upkeep of historical architecture was not a priority. The vast fortress was turned over to civilian administration in 1973. The goals were and are ambitious. The Masterplan – the capital letter is welldeserved – of the Governing Body of Suomenlinna (GBS) aims to preserve the cultural heritage and the memory of its remarkable history, develop the islands as residential areas as well as facilitate the growing number of visitors and day-tourists. One of the main elements of the plan is the reuse of the many different buildings. An artists’ residence

programme has been set up for instance, and there is a hostel, a shop, restaurants and cafés as well as several museums (he first Suomenlinna museum, later the Ehrensvärd museum, was established already in the 1920s). Preserving the inhabited, reused and heavily visited monuments while at the same time respecting the natural tranquility and history of the islands is a fragile equilibrium. This means understanding the value of the different monuments, the needs of the 850 inhabitants and tenants, while being aware of the interests and demands of the visitors and tourists. The redevelopment of the Suomenlinna sea fortress is a true balancing act. In 2000, Suomenlinna was awarded a medal by Europa Nostra for the quality of its restoration and revitalisation of the fortress.

Entrance to the fortress



100 Years of Finland


“The century-old desire for freedom awaits fulfilment now; The people of Finland step forward as a free nation among the other nations in the world.” The Declaration of Independence, 15 November 1917 The birth of the Finnish nation, exactly one hundred years ago this year, makes the country one of Europe’s younger states. The period around the First World War was a time when Europe’s destiny changed quickly and dramatically, with the old-world order ripped apart in a vicious tug of war. A clash of political and social ideas took place amidst the quest for self-determination in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. Meanwhile, countries also emerged from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, while the Ottomans lost their last foothold in Europe. It led to the autonomy of Albania (1912), Hungary (1918), Austria (1919), Bulgaria (1918) and former Yugoslavia (1918-2006). Yet to truly understand Finland’s struggle for independence, we have to travel further back in time. In 1809, as a result of the Finnish War, Finland had become a part of Russian Empire. As an independent Grand Duchy, the legislative assembly (the Diet of Finland) could already establish some freedoms for the Finnish people. For instance, since 1860 Finland has had its own currency, and in 1906 universal and equal suffrage was introduced, making Finland one of the first countries

in the world to allow women to vote. In 1917 – after the Russian Revolution – all efforts came to fruition and formal independence was declared. Geo-political trouble, however, was brewing. Up to the First World War, Finland had already been part of many conflicts, but the first half of the 20th century would be extremely hard on the new country. The Finnish Civil War of 1918 was in a sense part of the Eastern Front of the First World War. The power struggle, which quickly evolved between the different Eastern factions and the German ambitions, put Finland in the thick of it. The Civil War would leave deep wounds within Finnish society for generations. Several cities were destroyed and the battles between the Russian-influenced Reds and the German-influenced Whites would make independence more bitter than celebratory. The Second World War would bring even more hardship. As a reluctant neighbour of the USSR, the Finns defended their country against a Russian invasion in the Winter War (1939–1940) and together with the Germans they fought the Russians once again in the Continuation War (1941– 1944). In the Lapland War (1944–1945) the Finns fought against the Germans.

The difficult geographical position between the West and East continued to influence the politics of Finland even after the Second World War. It is hard to understand Finnish history and independence without learning about the pivotal role of Baron Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (1867-1951). From the Finnish Civil War until after World War II, no other politician was as influential. His former home in Helsinki, on a hill overlooking the bay, tells the story of a man who could not escape his responsibilities.

The National Museum of Finland in Helsinki

56 feature

Carl Gustaf Mannerheim in 1941

Mannerheim’s home in Helsinki

possible. Kekkonen became the embodiment of neutrality and stability during the Cold War Era. His 1975 Helsinki Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe helped to defrost the relationships between the USSR and the West. He was in power for such a long time that the Finns used to joke that they democratically elected a President and his name was always Urho Kekkonen. With such a turbulent history under their belt, it is maybe no wonder that most Finns are now strong advocates for peace, stability and European cooperation.

Urho Kekkonen in 1962

Studying his photographs taken during the Winter and Continuation War – he was already in his seventies – it is hard to shake the feeling that he was a man haunted by his destiny, dealing with Hitler, Stalin and the Allied Nations to keep Finland’s independence secure. This balancing act in Finnish politics continued to

cast a long shadow in the postwar years, particularly during the 25-year long presidency of Urho Kekkonen (1900-1986). As an experienced skier, he managed to slalom around the most sensitive and difficult political issues, always keeping the Russian bear at arm’s length, while simultaneously trying to stay as neutral as

To learn more about the Finnish national identity, we have to look beyond politics and military conflicts, and revisit its clearest symbols. Some, such as athletic sensation Paavo Nurmi, architect Alvar Aalto and composer Jean Sibelius, we can discover in other contributions to the Heritage in Action magazine. In this article, we take a look at Finnish epic poetry from the Kalevala and encounter some of Finland most influential thinkers and artists.

Sources of the Kalevala included people similar to the Karelian poem brothers Poavila and Triihvo Jamanen (photo from 1894) Bust by Emil Wikström of Mikael Agricola in the Turku Cathedral

From the 18th century onwards, the idea of an independent Finland had been seriously discussed. The country had always been wedged between very different cultures, on the east the Russian influence, on the west the Swedes and the Danes. But what made Finland truly Finland? What did it mean to be Finnish? The 19th century Fennoman movement tried to find answers by putting Finnish culture at the heart of the discussion. Swedish (official language until 1892) was the language of the educated intelligentsia and Finnish was the language spoken by the common folk. This early interest in Finnish culture was therefore the work of an often Swedish speaking group of people who had their own ideas of what was ‘Finnish’ and what could be considered ‘authentic’. They made it a point to speak and read Finnish and sometimes even Finnicised their names. One of the most famous Fennomans was Johan Vilhelm Snellman (18061881) who stated: “Swedes we are no more, Russians we cannot become, therefore Finns we must be.”

In the late 19th century, Finnish gained its status as an official language. Written Finnish already existed since Mikael Agricola (1510-1557) had translated the New Testament into Finnish. To be able to do so, the passionate bishop of Turku had to construct a written Finnish language from scratch. However, up to the 19th century most Finnish texts would have been religiously inspired, not literary. That all changed in the 1830s, when the Finnish language would take centre stage in the Finnish national Romantic Movement. Elias Lönnrot (1802-1884) started researching and collecting Finnish and Karelian folklore, especially the Kalevala metric poetry, the “perculiar and beautiful folk songs of the country.” From his work, which took eleven field trips, he created a unified storyline for the Kalevala (first published 1835), which later gained the status of the Finnish national epic. Still today, Kalevala Day and Finnish Culture Day are celebrated on 28 February, the date of its publication.

The present day standard edition of the Kalevala was first published in 1849. In the Kalevala, Lönnrot combined different themes and oral poems into a coherent story which depicted heroes and their deeds as representatives of the Finnish people and their history. This Kalevala narrative – Kalevala being the name of the native land of the heroes in the poetry – is in atmosphere much like the stories of the ancient hero Orpheus.

100 Years of Finnish independence is celebrated the whole year round with many activities for everybody. The theme of Finland’s centenary year is “Together.” Be a part of it at suomifinland100.fi




The house in which Elias Lönnrot grew up Interior Elias Lönnrot A kantele, a Finnish zither

One of Finland’s most famous sculptors Emil Wikström (18641942) also frequently referred in his work to the Kalevala. He made sculptures of Elias Lönnrot and Johan Vilhelm Snellman. His villa is a picture-perfect example of Finnish romantic ideals, with a castle-like main building and traditional wooden log buildings amidst gardens overlooking a lake. The restoration of the museum won a EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards in 2004. The museum also shows work of his grandson, the cartoonist Kari Suomalainen (1920-1999).

Hero Väinämöinen has the magical power of song and music. He invented and played the kantele, a Finnish zither, made from the jawbones of a great pike. The Kalevala is a grand story with creation myths, complicated relations and epic adventures. The stories include giants and mysterious beasts, supernatural powers, as well as a magical artefact called Sampo, which brings riches and good fortune to its owner, and let’s not forget a firm doses of love and passion, slavery, incest, suicide, murder, rage and revenge.

It is no surprise that such a rich canvas of stories would inspire artists around the world. The book has been translated to over sixty languages. Behind the curtain of J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings we can easily discover the dark shadows of the Kalevala. Many of composer Jean Sibelius’ best-known works are influenced by the Kalevala and the works of Finland’s most celebrated painter Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1865-1931) are often directly depicting scenes from the poetry. In the National Museum of Finland you can discover

“Aino” triptych, painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. National Museum Helsinki

Väinämöinen defending the magical artifact Sampo. “The Defence of the Sampo”, painting by Akseli GallenKallela from the National Museum.

how much the Kalevala has influenced Finnish culture and the Finnish identity. After one 100 years of independence, the Finns have a lot of history to come to terms with but have also proven that adversity can be overcome and

wounds can be healed. Or to quote the Kalevala: Bring anew the harp of joyance, Bring again the golden moonlight, Bring again the silver sunshine, Peace and plenty to the Northland.

(Left) The warrior Lemminkäinen has been murdered and hacked to pieces. His grieving mother has put him back together and looks for a bee with magical honey from the god Ukko, which could bring him back to life. “Lemminkäinen’s mother”, painting by Akseli GallenKallela.

Kullervo is an orphan with supernatural strength. After a life of hardship and committing unspeakable acts, his story descends into a spiral of revenge. “Kullervo cursing”, painting by Akseli GallenKallela.


Knock on Wood



The miraculous survival of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Old Rauma

Typical Rauma street

There was a time when Scandinavia had many market towns and harbours almost exclusively made of wood. Over the centuries however, many of these medieval wooden treasures went up in smoke, were rebuilt and then burned down again. Cities such as Turku, Naantali and Tammissaari only have small areas left where the old atmosphere of the historic town can still be experienced. But one town on the Bothnian coast, north of Turku, escaped this vicious circle of fire after the 17th century and survived mostly intact into the 21st century.

Old Rauma is one of the best and most expansive examples of a traditional northern European wooden settlement. Markus Bernoulli was one of the first Finns to join the Europa Nostra Council and is actively involved in preserving his beloved town. Rauma used to be a harbour-

town, but due to land uplift it is now a few kilometres from the sea. “One of the most important aspects of Rauma,” Bernoulli explains, “is that the city is alive. It is not a museum. Almost all the buildings in Old Rauma are privately owned and that makes all the difference.”


City Hall and market square

Bernoulli’s own house is a beautiful example of Rauma’s fairy-tale charm, with a lush, green inner courtyard and a collection of wooden structures. Entering the main residence feels like stepping back in time with its wooden floors and walls, and its traditional, tiled hearth. This used to be a house not just for one family but for at least two, including children, newly-weds, grandparents and other visiting relatives. Times have changed. Now about 700 people live in the 600 colourful, wooden residences, often behind beautifully decorated gates, along the romantic cobble stone streets. Most of the Old Rauma buildings have been technically updated and modernised. Rauma is not a poor city living from hand to mouth, it is a successful tourist destination and a regional business centre. On the opposite side of Bernoulli’s courtyard we discover another familiar feature of Rauma architecture: doors.

There seems to be an endless supply of them and – reminiscent of that old TV-show – you cannot help but wonder what is behind door number 3. It could be the sauna (a basic Finnish need) or a storage room. It may turn out to be an office, a garden shed, an old stable or a craftsman’s repair shop. Bernoulli smiles at the idea and points to a remarkable initiative of the townspeople; the building material exchange or bank. The communal building is laden with a variety of doors, wooden gate-elements, old windows and even metal door handles. The project helps the local owners to restore their houses in a traditional way. The use of these old building materials and techniques in maintenance and repairs also helps to preserve the cultural historic spirit of Old Rauma. Bernoulli points to the clearly visible foundations of the houses. “This is typical example of an older style building. The boulders

on which the wooden residence is built are rough and in their natural state, just cemented together. In the newer houses, you see that the foundation stones are precisely hewed and measured. It makes the houses look much more uniform in appearance.”

The many doors of architect Markus Bernoulli’s courtyard The building material ‘bank’ of Old Rauma A collection of door handles One of the many colourful houses of Old Rauma



Typical inner courtyard of a Rauma house The green belt around the old town Spending the long summer days with your friends

The retired architect is proud of his town as we make the grand tour of his World Heritage city. The original street plan of the medieval town has been wellpreserved. Two main streets cross the city with shops and businesses. The busy Market Square is the heart of the city, with the large yellow City Hall built around 1775. The medieval church is another important landmark. Almost all brightly coloured houses are just one storey high and this adds to the feeling

of a harmonious historic environment, built over centuries with different historic layers visible. The ship trading of the 19th century had brought some wealth to the town and during that period many of the residential buildings got a facelift with new decorative panels in Neo-Renaissance style. Maybe even more important is that the town has retained its genuine local character with a famous local dialect which adds a sense of humour and authenticity to daily life in the city.

For Markus Bernoulli, who seems to know everything and everyone, Old Rauma is much more than a heritage treasure, it symbolises how heritage preservation should ideally work, keeping history alive and relevant together with your friends and a dedicated local community. With volunteers and experts such as Bernoulli to safeguard it, the World Heritage city of Old Rauma can face the future. with confidence. Knock on wood.

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Alvar Aalto The Human Touch

Alvar Aalto (1898-1976) was Finland’s most successful and influential architect. For him, designing the building itself was not the main goal. The architecture was ‘just’ a part of a total art concept, a true Gesamtkunstwerk. His ambition was to include all elements of life in his work, which makes his modernism so intensely human. “We should work for simple, good, undecorated things, but things which are in harmony with the human being and organically suited to the little man in the street,” he said in a speech in London in 1957.

The human touch also makes many of his surviving national and international buildings so contemporary in look and feel. For instance the harmonious retreat he built for Harry and Maire Gullichsen in Noormarkku in 1939 or the house he designed in 1956 for

Southwest Finland Agricultural Cooperative building

the French art dealer Louis Carré, an attractive combination of architecture which merges with the surrounding landscape and which interior is designed for beauty as well as daily use. This same approach can be seen in the villa he built for composer Joonas Kokkonen in 1969. In

this article we make a tour along some of Aalto’s lesser known creations in Finland. Alvar Aalto’s buildings cannot easily be overlooked. They are not neutral. Although they usually are a perfect fit for their environment and firmly in sync with their local roots, they cannot help but to stand out in a crowd. The Southwest Finland Agricultural Cooperative building in Turku is still built in Aalto’s understanding of 1920s Nordic classicism. Aalto had won the competition to design this building and moved with his wife, designer Aino Marsio, in 1927 to Turku. The five floor corner office, which is now mostly an anonymous hotel, immediately draws the attention away from the other

The back of the Tapani Apartment Building Turun Sanomat Newspaper Building

buildings in the street. These elements are less obvious in the Tapani Apartment Building (1927). The Turun Sanomat Newspaper Building (1928) is an example of Aalto’s move to functionalism. It is clear that Aalto is developing the basic elements of his signature style during his time in Turku. In 1929 Aalto won another competition, this time to build a sanatorium in the middle of a pine forest. The Paimio Sanatorium was completed in 1933 and immediately drew international attention. The main reason was maybe that a lot of thinking had gone

into the design. Aalto must have reasoned that people suffering from tuberculosis probably had enough problems to deal with to also suffer bad architecture. The design is adapted to the needs of the patients and the staff. The pleasant and light patient rooms are all facing south and their sunny, colourful balconies offer ‘healthy’ views of a green ocean of pine trees. The various wings of the building are situated around a central axis, so the internal routing was simple. Aalto and his wife

Aino also designed all the furniture, so a perfect harmony between exterior and interior was accomplished. The so-called Paimio chair never went out of style and is still in production today.

Paimio Sanatorium, patient wing




Paimio Sanatorium, veiw from the sun-deck Paimio Sanatorium, bed and chair in the staircase

The sanatorium was converted into a general hospital in the 1960s and now functions as a rehabilitation centre for children. The site has been nominated for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage list. The Viipuri Library, located nowadays in Russia, was completed in 1935. Again, it is clear that Alvar and Aino

Aalto had a clear eye for the needs of the people who would use the library. The light and sunny reading rooms, the use of natural materials and warm colours as well as the wave-like ceiling to improve acoustics, made the library an architectural triumph. Aalto’s reputation grew internationally and in 1938 an exhibition of his designs was organised at MOMA in New York.

The Viipuri Library suffered during the Second World War, but even more from a large-scale, badly executed restoration in the late 1950s to early 1960s. When Aalto visited the building in 1962 he lamented: “The building exists but the architecture has gone.” Recently, in a major restoration project in close Finnish/Russian cooperation, the original architecture was restored using the original drawings and designs from the Alvar Aalto Foundation. In 2015 the restoration won an EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards in the category conservation.

Viipuri Library (photo by Ninaraas) Reading room of the Viipuri Library (photo by Ninaraas)


Villa Mairea is still privately owned and not open to the public

The Aalto stool is one of Aalto’s most popular design£s, seen here in the Helsinki Design Museum

Villa Mairea seen from the forest

Villa Mairea was meant as an experiment. Harry and Maire Gullichsen had asked Aalto to build a villa for them in Noormarkku and to do whatever he wanted. It was to become one of its most celebrated designs and many of the ideas he had honed in Paimio and Viipuri were integrated in this total work of art. He redesigned the house several times before he felt he reached the right balance in the large amount of rooms the Gullichsen wanted. The exterior design had to be in perfect harmony with its forest environment and the

interior design, the furniture, the textures, the lighting and even the glassware all had to be complementary to one another. The House of Culture was originally designed by Aalto for Finnish Communist cultural organizations. He worked without pay (although some of his project architects may have charged their normal fees) and could work in complete freedom. Up the 1/3 of construction work was done by volunteers, who worked on the building for three years. It was completed in 1958. It is one of Finland’s House of Culture

Hospiz Betel

Åbo Akademi University Library When Alvar and Aino Aalto moved to Turku they soon befriended architect Erik Bryggman. Bryggman had an important influence on the city development. He restored Turku Castle, designed the famous Resurrection Chapel, created the Åbo Akademi University Library and built the Hospiz Betel (1929, now a hotel). Together with Aalto he designed the Turku Fair buildings and architectural structures. He was one of the few people in Aalto’s long career with whom the architect really collaborated. Bryggman however never received the same international recognition as Aalto. Aalto moved in 1933 to Helsinki. bryggman.fi/english/homepage

68 feature

Medal in the category conservation.

Villa Tammekann

Villa Kokkonen Villa Kokkonen seen from the garden Lamp designed by Aalto and fence with Alvar Aalto’s initials

youngest protected monuments. Unfortunately, many of the original elements, such as the café and the cinema, had been seriously changed over the years. Architect Tapani Mustonen, who is Chairman of Europa Nostra Finland and now working on the restoration of Aalto’s Suoja Building in Jyväskylä, was also responsible for the large-scale restoration of the House of Culture in 1990s. Mustonen explains: “The aim of the restoration was to revive the original expression and atmosphere of the building which had faded over the years and to combine necessary new technical requirements and functions with the original design. But we wanted to keep

the restoration as gentle and low-key as possible.” Tapani Mustonen was also in charge of the restoration of another of Aalto’s masterworks, this time in Estonia, the Villa Tammekann. The building is owned by one of Europa Nostra’s most loyal members in Finland, the Turku University Foundation. Aalto designed the house in 1932 for Professor August Tammekann and his family. The Turku University Foundation bought the property from his children in 1998. During the restoration many of Aalto’s original designs were renovated and repaired and even reconstructed. In 2002 the Villa won a Europa Nostra

In 1969 Alvar Aalto designed another villa, this time for composer Joonas Kokkonen, on the shore of a lake in the small town of Järvenpää. Villa Kokkonen was once again designed with the end user in mind. The acoustics were excellent and the house was designed in such a way that the rooms could be made smaller or larger. The living-room could easily be turned into a decently sized concert-hall. The large garden had an infinity pool and of course a sauna. After the death of the composer, the unique villa and all its specially designed furniture were brought to auction, but luckily the city managed to buy the house. The wooden residence is recently restored, the garden cleaned and its musical heritage protected. The house is now the home of pianist Elina Viitaila and opera singer Antti A. Pesonen who have opened the villa to guided tours. They also organise concerts and special events in line with the ideas of Kokkonen and Aalto. The villa is once again living heritage. villakokkonen.fi


The unique City of Naantali invites you discover and experience the authentic historical and natural charm of the idyllic wooden old town and our breathtakingly beautiful archipelago. Welcome to Naantali!

Please contact Visit Naantali | tel. +358 2 435 9800 | info@visitnaantali.com

country dreams


Where the Sea Meets the Sky The Magical Touch of the Turku Archipelago



Harbour Örö Sailing between the islands is a popular Finnish pastime

The Baltic Sea between the Åland Islands and mainland Finland is home to one of the largest collection of islands in the world. To the north we find Kvarken National Park (UNESCO World Natural Heritage) and to the south, close to Turku, the Archipelago Sea National Park (UNESCO MAB Biosphere Reserve). The Turku archipelago is a magical water-world of uncanny beauty and heritage. Some islands are barren, grey coloured islets, scraped clean by thousands of years of ice sheets, while others are lush, green gardens in a watery labyrinth of brackish creeks and wide

Hotel on Örö in a restored Russian barrack

open canals. Finland’s landmass is firm bedrock, but since the Weichselian Glaciation the country has been steadily rising up, maybe as much as 10 metres, a geological speed record of some sort. Islands were surfacing by

the thousands from the seabed of the Baltic Sea, lakes became smaller and the land between them grew in size. Looking out over the vast expanse of the archipelago is quite literally an uplifting sight.

country dreams


Hotel room The 12 inch gun

Harbour café, Örö Bengtskär lighthouse (photograph by Janke)

Architect and Europa Nostra’s eminence grise Benito Casagrande is passionate about ‘his’ Archipelago National Park and explains the deep, historic connection between the city of Turku and its island paradise with enthusiasm. His selfdesigned house and gardens are situated on one of its quiet waterways, not far from town. This private oasis of tranquillity is the starting point of a boattour along some of the highlights of the archipelago. Casagrande has a point in talking about ‘his’ archipelago as he and his family bought close to a hundred uninhabited islands, not to develop them, but to secure their natural beauty and protect them

from potential harm. The first plants to arrive on these islands would have been sea buckthorn, lichens and glasswort, later to be followed by sea kale, for instance, with its strong smell of honey. These hardy plants were followed by juniper trees, sea asters and, of course, pines. On the rocky outcrops cormorants, gulls, geese and even grey seals can be spotted. The untouched landscape of Casagrande’s uninhabited islands, some no larger than a few granite boulders, still capture the atmosphere of the archipelago before humans settled here. Life could be tough for the first settlers, who would make a living fishing and hunting seal to sell

the blubber, pelts and bones. It was a time when ships were made of wood and the men of iron. It was far cry from paradise, with the ever present chance to become shipwrecked in the dangerously shallow waters and treacherous ice flows, not even mentioning the heavy workload, the meagre pay, and the loneliness. Now the islands face different problems. Automated lighthouses make the necessity to stay on the islands during winter less pressing. The government puts in a lot of effort to preserve jobs, keep up transport connections and provide a decent amount of


A subtle warning

Baltic herring with horseradish

services to keep the more remote islands inhabited year round. First stop is Örö, part of a former military zone. Since 2015 the island has been open to the public and the tourists have embraced this new destination in the archipelago with enthusiasm. From the charming little harbour the island can easily be explored on foot. Most of the cobblestone streets and army barracks date from the Russian period in the early 20th century. Many of the buildings have recently been redeveloped into restaurants and even a hotel. One impressive piece of military heritage is a 12inch artillery canon. It is a scary battery beast which eats shells weighing 500 kilograms, and can easily shoot them 45 kilometres away. Originally there were four canons, but only one remains in place today. On the far horizon, you can see the lonely Bengtskär lighthouse, constructed on a small stony island. Standing at 52 metres, it is the tallest lighthouse of the archipelago. In 1906, 34 men, women, and children lived there. In 1941 the lighthouse was the scene of a fierce battle, when the Russians unsuccessfully tried to invade it.

A few words on Finnish Cuisine Let’s be honest. When thinking of haute cuisine, Finland is not the first country that springs to mind. For many centuries, due to the harsh, unforgiving Finnish climate and the short growing season, food was often more about quantity than quality. Taste buds were still undeveloped and culinary efforts concentrated more on how to safely preserve food to last through winter. However, in recent years dedicated foodies have not only rediscovered and reinvented old traditional recipes, they have also reinvigorated the culinary industry. Their passion has not only spread to the restaurants of cities such as Helsinki, Espoo and Turku, but also to the countryside, where many restored heritage buildings have now found a new future as restaurant. Finland has four Michelin star restaurants and everywhere you go, you can find magnificent food, firmly rooted in Finland’s culinary heritage. The Turku archipelago is deliciously famous for its organically grown fresh food directly harvested from the sea or the countryside. From Baltic herring to Karelian pasties, muikku, lörtsy or kalakukko, Finnish food has a lot of tasty surprises on offer. The first mention of Karelian pasties, or as they are known in Finnish, karjalanpiirakka, dates from 1686. The filling could be made of a large variety of ingredients from rice to barley, carrots, mushroom or turnip. The dough is usually made from rye, water and a pinch of salt. The pasties are so special they have received a ‘certificate of specific character’ from the European Union.

Typical archipelago food

Muikku (photograph wiki commons)


Muikku comes in many varieties, but is usually a deep-fried collection of small fish in a special spiced batter. Kalakukko is a perfectly formed rye bread with a big surprise of white fish and sometimes bacon waiting inside. Lörtsy is pastry folded in the form of a half moon and mostly filled with apple or meat. It is a pure delight to watch the quiet, slow summer sunsets from one of the archipelago island villages, in the company of some thinly crusted karjalanpiirakka or Baltic herring sushi. www.tasteoffinland.fi


country dreams


Utö Aspö


Lighthouse Utö Church Utö on the first floor of the lighthouse

Back on the ship, Casagrande talks about how the landscape changes with the seasons, for instance when the first warm rays of the sun in spring slowly breaks the ice. On this summer day, the freezing, dark days of winter seem a lifetime away. The archipelago looks friendly and welcoming, but even in this warm weather the sea can be treacherous and choppy as soon as you hit open water. Casagrande has to keep his hands steady on the wheel and a close eye on the instruments to stay on course to the next stop, Utö. Utö is the most remote island of the archipelago, a 90 km from

The solid, square lighthouse doubles up as church. Utö is not only a bird watcher’s paradise, it is a popular tourist destination. Life can be a bit challenging in winter when the ferry sometimes cannot make it all the way to the island. But it still has a shop, hotel, and a school. The sense of community is the small, permanent island population is strong, but it helps if you – as some Finns do – long for a little solitude now and again.

Maarianhamina, capital of the Åland Islands. It is a remarkable heritage island, with a large collection of attractive, red coloured wooden houses.

On the way back, we make a stop at Aspö, a charming island with a long history. The Vikings, the Russians and the Germans all used its small harbour for military purposes. Now it is one



of the most enchanting islands of the archipelago with a small cafĂŠ and shop and a 1950s stone church on the same location where the faithful already gathered in medieval times. The Archipelago Sea National Park is a remarkable treasure of natural and cultural heritage. In another 2,500 years, this whole area will have risen so much, that the open seas will have been replaced by a large, shallow swamp. Yet for the time being, the archipelago is still an island paradise, untouched by mass tourism and sensational in its own quiet, reserved way.

Benito Casagrande on his estate close to the archipelago




“It was one of those lovely warm afternoons full of the scent of flowers and the humming of bees, and the garden was brilliant with the deep colours of late summer.” Tove Jansson, Finn Family Moomintroll

“We’re alike, you and I,’ he thought. ‘We understand each other, we only care about beautiful things.” Moomintroll, Moominpappa at Sea

Tove Jansson’s beloved creatures captured the Finnish soul and opened it to the world. It happens only once in a blue moon that a spark of imagination captures our hearts and refuses to let go. Maybe it is magic, maybe it is sheer luck, but we can be absolutely sure it is not the result of cold calculation or market research. Without it, the world would be a slightly colder place. Without Alice, Harry and Winnie, Cinderella or even Hamlet, our lives would lose some of its colour, and maybe even some of its wisdom.

It’s a Moomin’s World “Isn’t life exciting! Everything can change all of a sudden, and for no reason at all!” *

The Moomins of Finnish writer and artist Tove Jansson (1914-2001) are deeply beloved by the Finns and around the globe. They are a close knit family of white trolls who live with and around an array of other creatures. They are quite a good-natured, tolerant and bohemian bunch, enjoying food and company, adventure and curiosity. The stories can have a stream of consciousness and a dreamlike fluidity in which wisdom, silliness and strangeness harmoniously melt together. Reading a Moomin-book can be a mind-altering experience and part of their enduring popularity * Moomintroll in Moominpappa at Sea


is their ability to be entertaining for children as well as adults. The Moomin books and comics, originally written in Swedish – which is one of Finland’s official languages – have not only been translated into fifty languages, they have also resulted in TVseries, animation-series, museum exhibitions and even a real theme park. Tove Jansson grew up in an artistic family and even as a child it was clear that she would be an artist. She had success as an illustrator for magazines and books long before the Moomins entered her life. Her book Small Trolls and the Great Flood from 1945 was a first step, but did not have a large impact. Maybe the Moomins were not quite ready to take on the world. Success came with Comet in Moominland (1946) and Finn Family Moomintroll (1948). She would go on to write many more Moomin books, including hilarious comic strips in which her brother Lars

“It would be awful if the world exploded. It is so wonderfully splendid.” Snufkin, Comet in Moominland

Puppet-series Moomin

Jansson was heavily involved. Later she also wrote books and articles geared towards an adult audience, including the very successful The Summer Book. During her studies, she met her lifelong partner Tuulikki Pietilä. Pietilä was a successful artist in her own right and together they worked on many of the Moomin projects, including the Moominhouse, the cosiest house

“People respected one if one didn’t talk. They believed that one knew a great many things and led a very exciting life.” Tove Jansson, Tales from Moominvalley

ever envisioned. The original can be seen in the Moomin Museum in Tampere, but the real life-size house can be visited in Moominworld on Kailo island, close to the city of Naantali. The house is filled with props from the puppet TV-series from the late 20th century. The island theme-park was the brainchild of television producer Dennis Livson (1946–2013) and of course approved of by Tove Jansson.

“The world is full of great and wonderful things for those who are ready for them.” Moominpappa, Moominpappa at Sea

“I love making journeys! There are hardly any unnecessary things, I think. Only eating porridge, and washing…” Moomintroll, Comet in Moominland



om transition fr “The quiet a ot n is r te in w autumn to e for m ti a ’s all. It ings bad time at th ng d securi protecting an sure you’ve g in you and for mak y supplies as got in as man gather together e to can. It’s nic close u possess as yo ng hi up everyt e or st ssible, to to you as po thoughts ur yo d an th your warm a yourself into fety and burrow re of sa co a , de si t is deep hole in n defend wha where you ca precious and and important n.” ow ry ve ur yo valley in on, Moomin Tove Janss November


Moomin Museum in Tampere

Tove Jansson and Tuulikki Pietilä spent most of their summers on Klovharu, an island in the Pellinki archipelago in the south of Finland. It is clear that its natural beauty and relative remoteness was the inspiration behind many of the Moomin stories and definitely The Summer Book. Maybe when there is very little to distract you – they stayed in the only house on the tiny island – the mind can open up to great possibilities and even greater dreams.

79 Interior Moomin house

“She started thinking about all the euphemisms for death, all the anxious taboos that had always fascinated her. It was too bad you could never have an intelligent discussion on the subject. People were either too young or too old, or else they didn’t have time.”

Harbour of Naantali

Tove Jansson, The Summer Book

Postage stamp with Tove Jansson 2014

He was also the man behind the Japanese animated series created together with Tove’s brother Lars. Moominworld is not just a little family magic, it is also located on one of the most beautiful parts of the archipelago, close to Kultaranta, the summer residence of the Finnish President. It is somewhat fitting that in the surreal world of the Moomins, while Moomintroll is giving children free hugs, Russian President Putin is flying overhead in a heavily armed helicopter. The Moomins have not conquered the whole world, yet. Although they are extremely popular in some countries, for instance Japan and Scandinavia,

their endearing qualities are still waiting to be discovered by some European countries. Steps are taken to remedy that. One of the comic strips, Moomins on the Riviera, was recently made into FinnishFrench movie. And a new television series is in the making which is overseen by the creative director of the Moomin Characters company Sophia Jansson, the daughter of Lars. The family connection is essential because in essence, the Moomins are about family in the widest meaning of the word: that no matter who you are, what you look like, or where you are from, everyone deserves to be treated with respect. It is a message which is still as important today as it was when Tove Jansson first put it to paper in the 1940s.

Street of Naantali

Naantali The town of Naantali is within easy reach of Turku and a heritage treasure perfect to wile away the long summer evenings. The wooden heritage buildings which line the streets are all built around a central harbour, with cafés and restaurants as well as one of Finland’s oldest churches, dating back to 1443. The city is known as a spa town and besides the 230.000 visitors of Moominworld, 200.000 visitors enjoy the traditional spa culture. The charming city is also an important gateway to exploring the archipelago and the Gulf of Bothnia.

lıvıng herıtage


Hot Habits The sauna heritage of Finland is much more that a cultural tradition, it is a way of life.

Sauna on a lake


The word ‘sauna’ will inadvertently pop up in most conversations in Finland. If you are new to the country, it is probably a wise idea to make the sauna your first stop on the way to integration and acceptance.

Entrance Rajaportti-sauna

Sauna in Helsinki (1913)

lıvıng herıtage


Sauna of the Finnish Sauna Society in Helsinki

Sauna by painter Pekka Halonen (1865-1933)

At the Finnish Sauna Society in Helsinki

Finns were already enjoying smoke saunas a few thousand years ago, and although the sauna is extremely popular in all Nordic countries, Finland is most proud of its heritage.

Sauna is of course a Finnish word, and Lasse Viinikka of the Finnish Sauna Society in Helsinki thinks there may be as much as one sauna for every two Finns. The Society also has

its own sauna of course, which is beautifully located on the sea shore. A wooden pier leads you towards the water to cool off.


Most Finnish homes have an in-house sauna or a separate wooden log cabin. Even apartment buildings have private saunas, if not, surely a communal one. Sailing along the Finnish islands and lakes, it is easy to spot a sauna at almost every turn, nestled between the pines trees in close proximity to the water for a wintry dive. Sitting in temperatures between 80 and 100°C and then jumping into a freezing lake is obviously not everyone’s cup of tea, but for the Finns it is a normal affair. A Finnish sauna is first and foremost a place to be together; with family, with friends or even colleagues. People talk and discuss and most Finns would be horrified if someone would ask for silence. It is a place to relax, to socialise, have a couple of drinks and invigorate both body and soul. Everywhere in Finland you can find historical saunas.

Home sauna in Old Rauma

However, the Rajaportti-sauna in beautiful Pispala near Tampere claims to be the oldest working public sauna, dating back to 1906. The collection of stone and wooden buildings is owned by the municipality but the Pispala Sauna Association is an enthusiastic group of volunteers who run the sauna and make sure this living heritage is kept in prime condition.

For 25 years Urho Kekkonen (19001986) was President of Finland. He was a great sauna enthusiast. He was even born in one. It was often whispered that the sauna was an underestimated aspect of his political balancing act between the USSR and the West. ‘If you cannot stand the heat, get out of the sauna,’ he must have thought many times of pivotal moments in Finnish politics. There was a famous sauna at Kultaranta, the summer residence of the Finnish President, where many international politicians found themselves sitting in the hot seat. Also, his residence in Helsinki had a large sauna where, allegedly, many heated debates during the Cold War took place in high temperatures.

Kekkonen’s sauna in Helsinki

lıvıng herıtage


One of the volunteers of the Pispala Sauna Association

Rajaporttisauna Red iron tower from 1908

The location of the sauna has probably had an influence on its survival. Pispala is one of the most appreciated areas of Tampere. Many artists were inspired by the high ridge between two lakes on which the town is located. Nobel Literature Prize winner Frans Eemil Sillanpää for instance, situated his novel Hiltu ja Ragnar (1923) here. The bohemian inhabitants of the town were probably regular visitors of the Rajaportti public sauna. The area has a long industrial history as well and one of the industrial heritage landmarks, a red iron tower from 1908, has been lovingly restored by a local volunteer organisation. The Rajaportti-sauna is located in the green heart of old Pispala. The charming place with a nostalgic, friendly atmosphere

still has most of its authentic, historical elements intact and is fully functional. The saunas themselves are simple spaces with separate rooms for men and women. The fires are still lit almost every day in a large traditional stove. An outside café, to relax even more after an already relaxing sauna, is

an oasis of flowers and plants. Sauna culture is an essential part of being Finnish; or as one visitor said: “It consoles the soul and heals the body, it brings warmth to the heart and peace to the community.” sauna.fi rajaportti.fi/index.en.php

then & now


Then & Now Heritage is more than just stones and mortar, concrete and iron. Our heritage give us an anchor in these fast, ever changing times. The more things change, the more we want things to stay the same, but maybe nothing ever really remains unchanged. No heritage building has survived its journey through time unscathed, and that is probably a good thing. We do not need relics of bygone ages or dead reminders of what used to be, we need heritage that has a relevance and a contemporary meaning. For natural, moving, and built heritage to survive, we and every generation after us have to fall in love with it all over again. Let’s look at some of Finland’s most beloved heritage, especially in Turku, and see if and how they have changed over time.


(Above left) Medieval festival Turku Painting of the Turku fire of 1827 (Above right) Buildings restored by architect Benito Casagrande

Turku (Åbo in Swedish) was already an important market town in the 13th century. It was the first capital of Finland and for centuries its most populous city. Yet tragedy has struck Turku many times in its long history. In 1827 almost 75% of the town went up in flames. It was an unbelievable disaster and it would change the landscape of the city dramatically. In the city center only stone buildings like the Cathedral and the Academy building were saved from fire. Architect Carl Ludvig Engel, who was the author of the master

plan to bring the city back to life, realised that most of the city had to be rebuild from scratch. At the end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century many art deco and modernist houses were built that give part of the town an international grandeur. In the 1950s and 1960s the city was, like so many other cities across Europe, on the road towards modernity, and many of the old wooden houses and historical areas were demolished to make way for cars and new apartment buildings – a decision still regretted up to today.

The recession in the 1980s had a negative impact on the livability of the city, but it also offered opportunities. Architect Benito Casagrande from Turku explains: “The city centre was in a really bad shape. The waterfront of the river Aurajoki was a disgrace. People have already forgotten this, but at that time the river was dirty and stinky. There were cars everywhere and even a gas station in front of a historical portico on the Cathedral side of the river. Today, the portico is part of a popular restaurant, Pinella. On the opposite side,

Casagrande shows the apartment buildings, offices and restaurants he has built or restored. The site of a medieval church was found in the excavations during the construction project. As a result of Casagrande’s personal engagement, the underground ruins of the Holy Ghost Church from the 1500s were restored into an ecumenical Chapel of the Holy Spirit. It is now a favourite wedding location. The gas-station next to the Cathedral is now a restaurant, the buildings along the river are now completely renovated


Street in Turku centre

Chapel of the Holy Spirit (restored 1986)

Turku river now Turku river then (1910)

Pinella Restaurant

the so-called Julin quarters next to the city library were not an attractive area either. The buildings were waiting for demolition, the riverfront itself was neglected. I decided to act and do something about it. It was not easy, but now I feel very proud of what we have accomplished. Turku is today one of the most charming cities I know.�

but still show their medieval roots in the dining- and meeting rooms. Part of the city centre is car-free and there are many festivals that keep the city centre an exciting place to be yearround. The embankment is now a green belt along a clean river which is once again a living part of the city. The old villa of the tobacco manufacturer Rettig has been turned into a restaurant

Restored street Turku

Flower market square with the 19th century Orthodox church now

then & now


Flower market square with the 19th century Orthodox church then

Luostarinmäki Handicrafts Museum now (photo wikicommons)

Luostarinmäki Handicrafts Museum then

and modern art museum, Aboa Vetus & Ars Nova. In the cellar, we also discover medieval walls and streets. A small district, just outside of Turku’s centre, still has a few, beautifully restored streets of 18th and 19th old wooden houses, which now house the Luostarinmäki Handicrafts Museum. In 2011 Turku, together with Talinn in Estonia, was

designated European Capital of Culture. The library that was opened in that year, is a fitting, modern addition to the historical centre of the city. In 2017 the Europa Nostra Congress, the largest get-together of heritage professionals and volunteers in Europe, as well as the

award-giving ceremony for the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards, was held in Turku, in the presence of Europa Nostra’s President Plácido Domingo and EU Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport Tibor Navracsics.

Turku library (2011)

Cathedral of Turku (now)

Cathedral of Turku Dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. Henry, the Cathedral of Turku is one of the most famous landmarks of Finland, its chimes have been heard on national radio since 1944. The 700-yearold Cathedral was heavily damaged in the Turku fire of 1827. The cupola dates from this period. It is a magnificent

(From left to right) Cat’s paws Cathedral interior Cathedral in 1889

building with many stories to tell. A curious cat, for instance, left its paw-prints centuries ago in the then wet floor tiles.

St. Michael Church The neo-gothic church stood alone in an empty field when it was finished in 1905. First the church, then the homes, the architect of the St. Michael Church, Lars Sonck, must have thought. Many of its original

colourful stained glass windows were destroyed during the Winter War in 1939. Nowadays the thoroughly restored church is one of Turku’s most popular wedding locations. In May 2017, the church was the location for the award-giving ceremony of the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards, hosted by Europa Nostra’s President Plácido Domingo and EU Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport Tibor Navracsics.

St. Michael Church now St. Michael Church then


then & now


(From left to right) Architect Pekka Vapaavuori on his famous Logomo stage Offices Logomo Suomen Joutsen now Suomen Joutsen then

Maritime Museum

Turku Music Conservatory

Forum Marinum The new Forum Marinum is a large and sometimes controversial redevelopment project in the old harbour area of Turku, not far from Turku Castle. If we look at the whole redevelopment area we discover many heritage treasures such as factories, workshops and storage facilities, which have found a new destiny.

Logomo is located next to the rail depot and was originally built in 1876 as an engineering workshop. It is a significant collection of buildings in terms of cultural history, the Turku cityscape and railway history. It was in use until 2002. Now it is Turku’s most popular and largest event location. It is also a place where young and

innovative entrepreneurs have found a new home. The top attraction is the movable stage which can cater to varying crowd sizes by moving the walls. It was a very complicated engineering and architectural puzzle that they managed to solve, explains architect Pekka Vapaavuori. The Swan of Finland (Suomen Joutsen) is a 100-year-old, three mast training frigate in the harbour of Turku. It is now part of the new Maritime Museum at the heart of the Forum Marinum. Practically next door, we find the Turku Music Conservatory, which is housed in an old factory building. It is one of the locations in the Europe Nostra 2017 Heritage Congress and was a winner of a Europa Nostra Award in 1995.


Viri Teppo-Pärnä, Chairman

Rakennusperinteen Ystävät The Association of Heritage Tradition is housed in a charming, restored farmhouse on a green hill in the centre of Turku, not far from the central station and surrounded by Jugendstil apartment buildings and villas.

The association, with more than 2,400 members, is active in sharing their knowledge of traditional Finnish building methods. Viri Teppo-Pärnä, Chairman, shows us the old wallpapers, the different colour-schemes and traditional

methods of building walls and windows in their headquarters and museum. Their popular magazine Tuuma is a welcome and practical source for anyone interested in restoring and repairing their homes.

then & now


Porvoo riverfront now Porvoo riverfront then

Porvoo Porvoo is a town east of Helsinki in the south of Finland. Old Porvoo is a carefully restored heritage city with narrow streets lined with wooden heritage buildings. In 1995 the conservation of the Old Town, the repaving of the old streets, and the restoration of the riverfront foundations, as well as the free advice given to the owners of the roughly 250 heritage homes, received a Europa Nostra Award. The plaque commemorating the Europa Nostra Award can be found on the wall of the Old Town Hall building, which is also home to Porvoo Museum. The pictureperfect houses along the river have been victim to fires many times, but were always rebuilt.

Kaleva Church This modern monument is one of Tampere’s most famous landmarks. It was built in the 1960s by architect couple Raili and Reima Pietilä. Beautifully located on a hill, the impressive mountain of white concrete houses a surprisingly serene interior.


Kaleva Church now

Kaleva Church then

Tampere today

Tampere Tampere is Finland’s first largescale industrial town formed on the banks of Tammerkoski rapids. Former weaving mills, foundries and engineering workshops now house museums, cafes, restaurants and offices. The Ministry of Environment has declared the rapids and the redbrick milieu of factory buildings lining it one of Finland’s national landscapes.

Tampere after the Civil War 1918

Tampere suffered greatly during the Finnish Civil war of 1918. Many buildings in the centre went up in flames. Many of

them were restored to their original splendour and walking to the city today, it is hard to imagine how extensive the destruction was.

then & now


Turku Art Museum now Turku Art Museum then

The massive, grey granite building of the Turku Art Museum looks almost like a medieval castle. The creation by architect Gustaf Nyström was

completed in 1904 and houses one of Finland’s largest art collections. In the same area, we can discover many other attractive buildings from the turn of the 20th century.

rally sport has grown into a national sensation and the annual Finnish Rally, or Rally of the Thousand Lakes, is a wild and high-speed adrenalin ride with countless jumps, tricky corners and fountains of

gravel at every turn. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Jyväskylä, right in centre of Finland’s lake district, to watch the spectacle. If you want to have a chance of winning, you really need to know and understand the terrain – no wonder the rally is usually won by a Finn.

Turku Art Museum

Juho Hänninen (photo by McKlein Hyundai Motorsport) Timo Makinen in his Mini in 1965

In it to win it Maybe it is the vast stretches of country roads available, or maybe it is something in the Finnish psyche, but rallysport has particularly captured Finnish hearts. Since the 1950s,


Helsinki train station now Viipuri train station

Helsinki Railway Station The train station in the centre of Helsinki is a real signature building of the capital, designed by architect Eliel Saarinen and inaugurated in 1919. It is considered to be one of the most beautiful railway stations in the world. Saarinen had successfully tried his modern style in the Viipuri train station (Viipuri is now in Russia), which he designed together with Herman Gesellius

and was opened in 1913. The Viipuri station would probably have been an equally important monument, were it not for the fact that it was blown up by the retreating Soviet troops during the Continuation War in 1941. An important aspect of the popularity of the Helsinki station are the gigantic human shaped sculptures of Turku born artist Emil Wikstrรถm (1864-1942).

Sculptures Helsinki station

country dreams


Dreaming in Style In the Finnish Lake District, traditional heritage buildings and heritage towns are using their history to find a new future. Some historic buildings have (re)discovered their potential as luxury heritage hotel.

Imatra Valtionhotelli

Detail of a cat on the roof

The Imatrankoski rapids today Famous names etched in the boulders

A viewpoint with a rickety cable car crossing the raging river

Imatrankoski It was a sensation. Peoples travelled in droves to holiday at the Imatrankoski rapids in the east of Finland. The white, wild foaming lake water rushed through a narrow corridor with ear-shattering noise. Empress Catherine the Great of Russia was one of the first celebrities to view the natural spectacle in 1772, but many would soon follow in her footsteps. The rich and famous etched their names for posterity on the large boulders along the ridge. The remote Finnish rapids were on many 19th century bucket lists. In a historic photograph, we can even see a rickety cable car crossing the raging river for a better view. The Crown Park (Kruununpuisto Park), covering the area around Imatrankoski is Finland’s oldest nature park. It was established in 1842 by Tsar Nicholas I, a frequent visitor to the rapids. There was serious money to be made from all these affluent tourists, and in 1903 the Grand Hôtel Cascade, designed by architect Usko NystrÜm (1861-1925) opened its doors.

The Jugendstil castle, which is now known as the Imatra Valtionhotelli, has recently been completely restored and brought back to its original turn-of-thecentury splendour.

was the construction of the Imatrankoski Power Plant in the 1920s. The 24 metre fall of the rapids was seen as an irresistible potential for the generation of electricity. It was an engineering miracle, but the tourists stayed away. There was nothing very exciting about looking at water trickling through a concrete dam.

The hotel had gone through less glamorous times in the 20th century. It was used as a field hospital, and in the Winter and Continuation Wars it functioned as Nowadays the floodgates are once the Finnish military headquarters. again open for daily shows during the summer periods and for a few One of the reasons the hotel and magic moments the rapids are back the rapids had lost their appeal in their full glory.

The viewpoint today The restored interior of the Imatra Valtionhotelli


country dreams


Hotel Punkaharju entrance Saimi Hoyer in front of her Hotel Punkaharju Hotel Punkaharju

(Right page) A hotel room Design lamp in the dining room The veranda The stairs to the tower room

GLOW hotel, Helsinki

Hotel Punkaharju She is one of the most famous faces of Finland. Supermodel Saimi Nousiainen worked with Burberry and Givenchy. She catwalked in London, New York, Paris and Tokyo. She was photographed for fashion magazines such as Elle and Vogue. After her modelling career, she became an editor and television personality. Yet outside the spotlights

something was amiss. While she was surrounded by the glamour and glitter of the fashion industry, the unhappiness in her heart grew. She made a drastic decision to rediscover her roots and re-find her happiness and her passion for life. She returned to the Finnish Lake District where she grew up. Being back in Finland’s nature with its forests and lakes, now with a family of her own, helped her to

Elsewhere in Finland heritage buildings are also finding a new future by becoming hotels or restaurants. The capital Helsinki is no exception. The GLO hotel Art looks more like a granite, medieval granite castle than a hotel, The art nouveau building in the National Romantic Style offer a fairy-

tale setting in heart of modern Helsinki. Even if you have done nothing wrong, you can still enjoy the hospitality of Hotel Katajanokka, situated in a historic former prison in Helsinki. The luxury hotel is a far cry from the solitary confinement of olden days, and spending a night in jail was never

reconnect to who she once was and now wanted to be again. Saimi Hoyer’s (she is now known under her husband’s name) love for cooking and especially for all kinds of mushrooms lead to a successful book (in Finland you have right to walk and pick berries and mushrooms everywhere as long as you do not disturb the owners). And the abundant, natural beauty of the region of her youth

quite as comfortable. Suomenlinna Fortress, which can be easily reached from Helsinki (see the article on Finnish castles in this magazine), also offers the possibility to stay the night. Staying on these now peaceful islands full of military heritage monuments is a unique experience.

Cultural heritage as a resource in Mikkeli by Kirsti Kovanen, Secretary General of ICOMOS The town of Mikkeli introduced a new way of integrating cultural heritage as a resource into the administration and citizens’ activities. The idea was to widen the knowledge basis was with new research and especially on the under-represented fields of history writing. A prerequisite of the work was to listen to the citizens and to find their priorities throughout the project. The tool taken was to prepare a program for this in a 5-year project which was subsequently executed in 2008 – 2013 from the viewpoint of the town. The first notion of the work to be done was to raise awareness of one’s own heritage on all levels, firstly of those working in the municipal administration and of school children, and enlarging then the target groups to all citizens. The objectives of the program were defined as reinforcing the knowledge on heritage as a resource for the citizens, enterprises and the municipal administration. The range of activities were arranged in four pillars: systematic inventories and programming, built environment and town-planning, heritage education and heritage brands and tourism. Both, the tangible and intangible heritage, were included in the activities.

inspired her to dream big. When she found out that the Punkaharjun Valtionhotelli, the oldest Finnish State Hotel, was up for sale, she decided to take a leap of faith. The hotel was originally built in the time of Tsar Nicholas I as a ranger’s lodge with a tower overlooking the surrounding forest and nearby lake. Later the building was extended and it became a famous hotel. The steamboats would moor not far away from the main wooden building. When Hoyer bought the traditional hotel, it was not in a good shape. The rooms and facilities were outdated and the buildings were in desperate need of an overhaul. In a very short space of time Hoyer and her

designer friend Petri Salmela managed to completely renovate the buildings, the kitchen, the terrace and gardens as well as the bed- and dining rooms and made the hotel ready for 21st century guests. The result is a stunning heritage hotel in which style and gastronomy go hand in hand. The process was far from easy and Hoyer spent many long, restless nights dealing with building permits and plumbing regulations. But in the summer of 2016 the new Hotel Punkaharju opened her doors. The work is not yet completely over. Work on a villa in the gardens and a new tower room are still ongoing, but Hoyer feels certain that the Hotel Punkaharju will once again be one of Finland’s finest historical hotels.

The notion of heritage and heredity lead to a frame-work, where information was produced by the citizens – as understood as producers of culture – and experts – as understood as producers of systematic surveys - as well as artists. Citizens’ understanding and opinions on heritage were sought for in special events, and in survey monkeys. All the information collected from various sources was worked out in 6 themes that could well present the heritage of the people and of the area. What was achieved? The results present a data bank including series of inventories and histories, education material for all the levels of teaching from day-care upwards. Microhistories and inventories were prepared on some properties of commercial use and research on the intangible heritage resulted in books on local food traditions and on the peaceful relations between the local inhabitants and the Russians. Books were published in print and in ebooks, all material was published on a wikipedia platform, and includes interactive parts. The over-arching cultural heritage program outlined the focuses of historic timelines and their messages as well as priorities for decision-making and for the daily administrative work and was adopted in 2013. Moreover, new permanent information on the intangible heritage, methods of inventorying in use of town-planning, material for tourism purposes (for ex. in the form of a number of routes), continued cooperation of school and museum authorities, enhanced awareness among culture sector, coordination group for the municipal administration and many practical processes in improving archiving and use of the existing material were established.


country dreams


Hotel rooms of Tertti Manor Tertti Manor shop Entrance Tertti Manor restaurant

Tertti Manor restaurant

Tertti Manor The main buildings of the Tertti farm, not far from Mikkeli, were built at the end of the 19th century. Now its original countryside charm has been restored. The heritage hotel, grand café, delicacy shop and gastronomy restaurant are still part of a working farm. The harvested produce goes straight from the land to the kitchen. The restoration of the estate is ongoing. The next challenge is to restore the vegetable and fruit gardens. The regional produce around Mikkeli is excellent as the many restaurants of the city prove. In the surrounding forests and lakes the hunter-gatherer in all of us is also rewarded, as lake fish such as vendace or perch can easily be caught at a warm, sunny spot when the ice starts melting. And nature also provides us with mushrooms,

herbs, roots and berries. We can enjoy kalakukko – a fish slowly baked into a rye bread – and maybe a blueberry pie to round it off. Like many of the heritage hotels and restaurants in the region, Mikkeli is reinventing itself. The Mikkeli Heritage Project is a strong example of this. Kirsti Kovanen is Secretary General of ICOMOS, one of Europa Nostra international partners in the field of heritage.

ICOMOS is a global nongovernment network of experts promoting the application of theory, methodology and scientific techniques to the conservation of architectural, archaeological heritage as well as landscape- and other forms of cultural heritage. Kovanen is also a passionate promoter of the preservation of Mikkeli’s heritage. Together with Pia Puntanen, an expert in military history, she wants to capture Mikkeli’s long and interesting history, for instance by preserving the military headquarters of Baron Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, the famous Marshal of Finland, as a centre of war and peace. sodanjarauhankeskus.fi

University of Turku

“FROM FREE PEOPLE TO FREE SCIENCE” The academic heritage of the city of Turku dates back to 1640 when the first university in Finland, the Royal Academy of Turku, was established. The University of Turku is the first Finnish-language university in the world, founded in 1920 – just after Finland gained its independence in 1917.

Bengtskär Lighthouse Island - the tallest lighthouse building in the Nordic countries

Villa Tammekan designed by Alvar Aalto in Tartu, Estonia - Europa Nostra Medal in 2002

Vanhalinna Mansion in Lieto - with history dating back to the Viking Age

Today, the University of Turku is an active academic community of 24,000 students and employees. It is the most international university in Finland and ranks among the best 1 % of universities in the world (THE Ranking 2016, QS Ranking 2016). The University is located in the centre of Turku, a bustling student city in Southwest Finland. The main campus, designed by architect Aarne Ervi, is a true masterpiece of the functional Finnish architecture of the 1950s. In addition to the campus area, the University and the University Foundation cherish Finnish cultural and scientific heritage with unique estates in Southwest Finland and Estonia.

Island of Seili in the Turku Archipelago Sea - with the Archipelago Research Institute



Panorama Finland

There are few countries in the world where darkness and light, as well as sea and soil, meet one another more dramatically than in Finland.


There are over a hundred thousand islands – some as small as a heap of pebbles fighting to stay above water, others as large as granite giants dramatically rising from the seabed. There are hundreds of thousands of lakes from tiny placid mirrors to large and treacherous bodies of water reaching for the horizon. In some parts of the country, the sun loses

its grip for more than six months in winter, but that same sun never leaves the skies during endless summers. The Finns have perfected their balancing act with nature over thousands of years and it has become part of who they are. With only 5.5 million Fins, it is still one of the least populated

countries in Europe and the resulting appreciation of wide open spaces and solitude is deeply embedded in Finnish culture. Although you can walk through rugged pine forests or sail along the coastal islands without encountering another soul for hours or even days, the cities are bustling with regained energy and cultural activities the year round.

Korvatunturi, the home of Santaclaus in summer (photo by Eusa)

Autumn lake





Hiihtomaa (photo by Tiia Monto)




Jean Sibelius (1865-1957) Music for a Nation Ainola entrance Portrait of the young Sibelius by Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1865-1931)

Standing at front door of the Ainola estate, named after Sibelius’ wife Aino, it looks like a modest summer house on a pine forest hill. Only when you walk around to the back you discover that the residence is substantially larger than expected. Finland’s most celebrated composer had this dream house designed by architect Lars Sonck in the early 1900s.


It is easy to imagine how inspirational the estate with its lake views as well as the house with its romantic, countryside interior must have been for the Sibelius family. It looks like a home for a recluse but, again, the first impression would be wrong. The idyllic shores of Lake Tuusula in Järvenpää, half an hour’s drive north of Helsinki, were far from empty. It was a thriving enclave of creative

minds and thinkers with writer Juhani Aho and artists such as Pekka Halonen and Aino’s brother Eero Järnefelt living nearby. Still, Ainola was a quiet and restful place, perfect for a restless man with music to write. Sibelius had given the architect no specific demands, except for a green tiled fireplace, an undisturbed view of the surroundings and a minimum of plumbing to avoid clunky pipes. Architect Lars Sonck, who was working at the Neo-Gothic Tampere Cathedral at the time, did not work for free and Sibelius had to go out on a tour to help cover the costs. But in 1904, at age 38, the house where he and his beloved family would live the rest of his life was ready. The late 19th century, when the composer was making a name for himself, was a time when Finland was retracing its roots and working towards more and

Ainola seen from the lake side Green tiled fireplace

more independence from Russia. Sibelius – who came from a Swedish speaking background – embraced his Finnishness with enthusiasm and literally gave it a voice. Finnish history and Finnish identity became a key inspiration for many artists at the time with Finland’s national epos the Kalevala as the main source and Sibelius was no exception. He was so inspired by the melodies of



The Villa of Pekka Halosen on Lake Tuusula, built in 1902 Sauna, designed by Aino Sibelius

Karelia, the heartland of the Kalevala legends, that he even honeymooned there, and his Kullervo symphony and the Lemminkäinen suite (with the famous Swan of Tuonela), for instance, all musically retold the Kalevala stories. His most famous work Finlandia (1899, revised 1900, words by V.A. Koskenniemi in 1941) was written as a protest against the increasing censorship from the Russians. Sibelius was a sensitive man, who sometimes suffered from depression and drank and spent too much. He struggled with feelings of insecurity. The music did not always come easily. He reworked and revised his compositions. His health seriously started to suffer under the creative stress, and the smoking and drinking did

nothing to help the situation. In 1908 a life threatening tumour was removed from his throat. His survival lead to a burst of musical energy and a healthier lifestyle, at least temporarily. Like most restless people he enjoyed travelling, but he also needed the quiet and peaceful family life at Ainola, where he could spend

hours watching the swans and cranes on Tuusula lake. The music that emerged from all these sometimes conflicting emotions – from the symphonic poetry of his younger years to his symphonies of the early 20th century – would capture the Finnish soul and embody what


but later noted that he was more calm and his mood had improved. the Finnish identity would sound like. Sibelius’ music was very much appreciated in Finland but also in in the rest of Europe and America. Over the years he was composing less and less, despite his international success and national adulation, as well as the

respect from fellow composers such as Debussy. Protecting his image for posterity he decided to not to publish some of his compositions. And 1945 his wife Aino accidentally walked in on him while he was throwing a basket full of manuscripts into the open fire. She quietly left the room

Sibelius lived in Ainola until his death in 1957, while his widow continued to live there until her death in 1969. They are both buried at the estate. By 1974 the house was a museum. 8 December, his birthday, is the official Day of Finnish Music.

Interior Ainola Jean and Aino Sibelius on the estate in the 1930s The grave of Sibelius on the estate

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Mr and Mrs Claus in Finland (photo by Anssi Koskinen)

Santa’s Home


The Americans believe Santa Claus lives on a secret location on the North pole, but due to global warming, that would probably mean that by now his home is slowly sinking to the bottom of the sea. The Dutch believe that their Sinterklaas is living in Spain, but with the growing number of tourists, that would mean it is becoming unlikely he can continue to keep his global operation a secret. The Finns believe that all this is nonsense. They know for certain that Santa Claus comes from Finland. His real name is Joulupukki, the Yule billy-goat, who is strongly linked to the pagan Midwinter celebrations. The Joulupukki uses a sleigh pulled by reindeer and usually wears a red outfit with animal fur. His home is hidden on a lone mountain in the far north, in Korvatunturi to be precise, on the border between Finland and Russia. Conveniently this remote wilderness knows no roads, so it hard to check the facts. All joking aside, Christmas is a serious Finnish heritage treasure. Rovaniemi is the Christmas

Reindeer ride (photo by Timo Newton-Syms) Hattifatteners snowmen, inspired by the Moomin books. Photo by Miika Silferberg

Santa Claus Village in Rovaniemi (photo by Timo Newton-Syms)

capital of the world with Santa’s village, a real ice hotel, and celebrations that lure tens of thousands of people to the far north in the midst of winter. Even if you do not believe in Santa Claus it is it a magical

place when, if you are lucky, the Northern Lights light up above the Christmas trees in the quiet polar nights. Rovaniemi is not the only Finnish city strongly associated with Christmas. Since 1996, Turku is the official Christmas City of Finland. The reason is a very old tradition, which dates back to the 1320s: the reading of the Christmas peace declaration on the Old Great Square in the centre of the city. Since 1886, the speech has been read from the balcony of the historic Brinkkala House. The special moment starts at midday with the bells of the cathedral. Then the declaration, wishing peace and prosperity to

The balcony of the Brinkkala House

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Northern Lights (photo by the Finnish Tourist Board)

Santa Claus Village (photo by Tyg 728) Skiing at the Riisitunturi National Park (photo by Matkailuneuvo)

all mankind, is read in Finnish and Swedish. The public sings the Finnish national anthem in both the Finnish and Swedish version. To end the official procedures, the March of the Pori Regiment is played and the Christmas season has officially begun. Nowadays the Declaration of Christmas Peace is viewed live via the internet and watched by millions around the world. Finland’s seasons are extreme and the Finns have found joy and happiness in winter as well as summer. Many Finnish children can hardly wait to make snow angels or snowmen. Winter – with temperatures up to minus 30 degrees – is as much part of Finnish heritage as summer and

quite a few Finns yearn for the days that the reflection of the snow lights up the dark skies once again. Besides rolling through the snow after a Finnish sauna, there are plenty of other wintry activities with a long history, from reindeer sledding to ice-fishing on the frozen lakes. Or you can do some cross country skiing and explore the bizarre landscape of frozen trees that look like surreal sculptures of a mad artist. And a glass of Glögi, a traditional Christmas glühwein with raisins and nuts, can help to get your temperatures right back to normal.

The Declaration of Christmas Peace Tomorrow, God willing, is the graceful celebration of the birth of our Lord and Saviour; and thus is declared a peaceful Christmas time to all, by advising devotion and to behave otherwise quietly and peacefully, because he who breaks this peace and violates the peace of Christmas by any illegal or improper behaviour shall under aggravating circumstances be guilty and punished according to what the law and statutes prescribe for each and every offence separately. Finally, a joyous Christmas feast is wished to all inhabitants of the city.

You can’t buy heritage.

The historic buildings around Åbo Akademi University are more than a physical setting for academic studies and scientific research. They are manifestations of the passion and engagement shared by our founders. That is why our heritage is our most valuable asset.

The Åbo Akademi University Foundation was founded in 1917 through a donation by 35 private individuals. The main role of the foundation is to provide financial support to Åbo Akademi University as well as to support scientific research and cultural activities in Swedish speaking Finland.

Åbo Akademi provides an open, Swedishspeaking university environment for quality research and studies with a Nordic and international anchorage. Our campuses in Åbo and Vasa host 5 500 students and 1 200 employees.



country dreams


Rest in Peace The wooden, beautifully painted burial chapel of the Grotenfelt family was completely restored to its former glory.

Joroinen cemetary

“Our wooden burial chapel was built in 1776 next to the village church in Joroinen. The reason was that burial under the church floor was no longer allowed. So from then on my family was buried in a vault under this wooden chapel,” Karl Grotenfelt explains in the traditional café Ursula in Helsinki. “Then, in 1902, the church council decided the chapel was no longer welcome and had to be dismantled. The family decided to take the log building to the ridge behind our family estate, not far from Joroinen.”

Karl Grotenfelt is the 11th generation to live in Järvikylä Manor and the history of the family is very important to him. “When the log walls of the burial chapel were dismantled, serious mistakes were made and some damage was done to the paintings inside.” At the beginning of the 21st century, the family decided that the chapel should be restored to its original state. They also decided that a small family graveyard should be made next to the chapel. “Maybe the idea of lying next to a busy road in Joroinen was not very appealing to me,” Karl Grotenfelt explains

(main photo) The chapel and the ‘new’ family graveyard on the ridge behind the manor Ceiling of the chapel The altar of the chapel Some of the wall paintings

with a smile. “We worked for four summers to rebuild an old stone wall from the forest on the ridge. We carefully covered the low stone fence with green moss and already now, a few years later, it looks like the graveyard has been here for centuries.” Arriving at the family estate in Järvikylä to look at the restored chapel, you first pass an impressive yellow wooden manor house with a free panoramic view over the valley and a distant lake. Walking to the top of the ridge behind the estate, we discover an octagonal, wooden building. You

have to bend your head to enter the single entrance door. There is no floor, just sand. The benches are simple and functional, the altar tiny. There is nothing to distract attention away from

the walls and ceiling, which are all spectacularly painted in rich colours and inspirational texts from the bible. The flower and tree patterns are painted with enthusiasm and craft on a thin

Järvikylä Manor


country dreams


Interior Frugård Manor

Frugård Manor Items in the family Frugård ‘museum’

surface layer, which is attached to the walls with tiny wooden pins to keep it in place, creating a large, diorama-like canvas. Some of the painted texts are hard to make out. Karl Grotenfelt had explained in Helsinki how they spent a lot of time and effort in researching the bible quotes and the flora that adorns the walls. “It is still a bit of a puzzle. We have not been able to figure out all texts. Yet,” he had added with hope in his eyes. It is clear that the restoration of the Grotenfelt burial chapel was a labour of love. Although the coming generations of Grotenfelt’s will not be buried in the chapel itself but in the adjoining graveyard, it is a reassurance that the long history of the family is never far away.

The Grotenfelt family is one of Finland’s noble families. They are traditionally very active in agriculture with their company Famifarm, which grows herbs and lettuce and is one of Finland’s leaders in the field of quality and sustainability. They, for instance, closely cooperate with multinational Philips to innovate lighting conditions in the greenhouses in the oftenchallenging Finnish climate. Other family members live nearby. Professor Anna-Maria Åström and her partner live on the beautiful Frugård estate on lake Saimaa. Their traditional 18th century house is a beautiful yellow wooden building in a green sloping landscape.

A herd of sheep are grazing lazily along the lake shore where the traditional family sauna is situated. Åström sees it as her duty to keep the family’s rich history alive and their home is filled with mementos from the Grotenfelt family. The attic is almost a museum. Here we find very personal belongings, from underwear and hats to antique, illegal distillery equipment from the prohibition period. It is a remarkable heritage collection of items reflective of the many stories associated with the Grotenfelts. In 2009 the Grotenfelt Burial Chapel restoration received the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards.


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Pulp Faction Verla Groundwood and Board Mill

The Verla Groundwood and Board Mill is a red brick miracle of World Heritage. The Verlankoski Rapids are located in a beautiful valley in southeastern part of Finland. On one site of the river we find the historical residential area for the community of workers who were once employed at the relatively small Verla mill which lies on the opposite site of the rapids.

The wooden estate and gardens of the former owners

The Verla Mill and all its buildings, including the wooden estate and gardens of the former owners, are now a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the 19th and 20th century, wood-pulp was the main ingredient for


Machinery for pressing the sheets

cardboard, carton and paper. As an answer to the ever-growing demand, milling factories were springing up across the globe. Finland was one of the biggest suppliers in Europe, mainly because it combined cheap energy from water-power with what seemed to be an endless supply of trees. The Verla Groundwood and Board Mill is a prime example of this industrial heritage for a very special reason. As you enter the valley, you are immediately struck by the perfect harmony between the buildings and their natural environment. But the real surprise can be found inside the red brick buildings themselves. The factory is so well-preserved it looks like it is frozen in time, a ghost town of industrial activity.

Heavy machinery

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Weighing the sheets Machinery to remove the tree bark Sheets are still drying since 1964

The workers seem to have just stepped out for a quick bite or a smoke. The machines look like they could restart at any minute, the big sheets of board are still in the drying house and bulky packages are ready to be shipped to no longer existing clients. The administrative office still has documents on the desk with bills to be paid, a calendar fixed on the wall. You almost expect the phone to ring or a cup of coffee to be lukewarm. An empty office

The Makkarakoski powerplant in Noormarkku was built in 1914 and renewed in 2004. It is Finland’s oldest operating power plants.

Although the power plant is still used, nobody has worked the

machinery since 1964. By 1972 the Verla Mill had become an industrial museum. The property consists of almost 50 buildings and its equipment, installations and surrounding landscape have remained almost intact. The many stories of the

wood-pulp mill have now become part of Finland’s history and industrial heritage and thanks to the excellent state of the buildings and its equipment, the Verla Mill is once again flourishing, as a museum.

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Adopt a Monument Maybe at first glance there is not much to see. We are looking at the remains of a stone stacked wall in a forest on the outskirts of Tampere.

The restored wall


The wall on an old photograph

Yet the surrounding area has been cleared and the monument has been restored by a team of volunteers and experts who have ‘adopted’ this historic structure. The wall was the result of a long forgotten feud between communities, who went so far that an actual wall was built to separate ‘them’ from ‘us’. Now thanks to the adoption programme, the local history of the area is once again visible. In nearby Pispala, we examine the high ridge between two bodies of water. It is a popular, bohemian district with charming, wooden villas and great views over the lake. This ‘hill’ is actually an esker, an

Working with the whole family

ice-age phenomenon whereby a mountain of material was pushed up on the side of a glacier. In the 19th century, the ridge was an obstacle to moving large amounts of logs from one side of the hill to the other and various ways were used to solve this problem. You could pull them over with horses or man-power, or you could dig a tunnel and push them through. Some physical remains of these historical techniques are still visible today and have been adopted or are still up for adoption. ‘Adopt a Monument’ is grassroots project, facilitated by the

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The old way to pull logs over the ridge A new potential ‘adoption’ project, the tunnel under the ridge

September 2016: Ceremony for the Grand Prix of the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards in the Museum Centre Vapriikki, Tampere

Pirkanmaa Provincial Museum, which encourages citizens to ‘adopt’ monuments of cultural and historical significance in their own neighbourhood. It is not just about restoration, it is also about taking responsibility for its upkeep and regularly monitoring its condition. As the monuments’ adoptive parents, they also have to raise awareness in their communities about local heritage.

The ‘Adopt a Monument’ movement has been a great success with new monuments being added on a regular basis. Other areas of the country have expressed an interest in the scheme and even internationally the project has drawn media attention. An interesting aspect of the adoptions is the inclusion of asylum seekers. The project provides meaningful, shortterm activities and gives an opportunity to learn about Finnish history and work together with Finns towards a common, useful goal. The volunteers do not work in isolation, but are supported by professionals from the museum and more monumental restorations of buildings are aided by conservation

professionals. Despite its modest budget, Adopt a Monument has helped to promote active citizenship and to encourage the commitment of the local communities to their local heritage. In 2016 the ‘Adopt a Monument’ programme won a Grand Prix in the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards in the category Education, training and awareness-raising. The jury noted that “‘Adopt a Monument’ helps the protection of smaller, unprotected buildings. The wide array of structures that are ‘up for adoption’ are from many different periods in history and shows the inclusive nature of this programme. The project is sustainable and its potential to be applied across Europe is evident.”


ANTOINE PALLOC, PIANO 15.8.2017 19:00 CONCERT HALL, TURKU, FINLAND 43,00 / 28,00 €, www.ticketmaster.fi

“Ms. Yoncheva is the one I’d seek out, not matter what she does.” – New York Times

“She is the most brilliant Violetta since Maria Callas.”


– Die Welt



The Simple Life A Russian Emperor’s Holiday Home The man has a well-groomed beard, kind eyes and a satisfied smile playing on his lips. He is standing on rock overlooking a wild running river, watching some men fishing for salmon. He has been cutting wood for the fire place, his axe in hand. His wife is standing on the veranda of their wooden log building with the children, calling out. Lunch is ready. It is fresh, homemade fish soup.

For a few too short summers this was the fantasy Alexander III, Emperor of Russia, and his consort, Danish-born Empress Maria Feodorovna, lived out in the unspoiled beauty of Langinkoski. The estate was built along an estuary of the Kymijoki river, near Kotka, when the Grand Duchy of Finland was part of the Russian Empire. For the couple, it was an escape to a simpler life, far away from the complexities and intrigues of St. Petersburg’s golden palaces and the strict etiquette of the Russian Imperial court. Here they could pretend to be normal folk, taking the kids to the forest to find berries and mushrooms or sitting in their country-style living room drinking tea from a traditional

samovar. Here they could have dinner at an informal dining table made of birch and pine and sleep in locally made wooden beds, positioned head to head in a small bedroom upstairs. The basic kitchen was equipped with a simple stove where the Empress could cook her family a meal which the Emperor might even pretend to have caught himself. The long salmon pan and the napkins were of the best quality and monogrammed with the Imperial coat of arms, because there were some standards one could not ignore, of course. And washing the dishes and cleaning the house was left to the servants – there were limits to this going-backto-basics idea, obviously. Nevertheless, it was a scandal at the Russian court that the Imperial family would choose to live as commoners. Alexander had discovered their getaway paradise in the 1880s when he was still the Russian Crown Prince.


He was smitten by the beauty of the rapids where the fish would literally jump out of the crystal-clear water. He was not the first person to discover the abundance of fish in this part of the river. The fishing grounds had been the property of the monastery in Vadstena, Sweden, founded by St. Bridget. Later, the rights were transferred to the Valamo Monastery in Karelia. In the 19th century they even built a small orthodox chapel on the grounds, which still stands and functions today in the summer months. In 1887, Alexander, by then Emperor of Russia, took his consort and children on a scouting trip to his salmon river. The grounds and the fishing rights were transferred to the Emperor and the idea to build a relatively small, traditional fishing lodge was born. The lodge was planned by three Finnish architects, Sebastian Gripenberg, Magnus Schärfbeck and Jacob Ahrenberg and built by Finnish carpenters. The Imperial family oversaw its construction in 1888 and on

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of rain and snow. Some of the furniture was shipped out, the silverware disappeared. But the Kymenlaakso Museum Society and their leader Gösta Winterbäck knew that this unique heritage should be preserved for posterity and started to do anything in their power to safeguard the house and the grounds. Already in 1927 they wanted to turn the property into a museum. In 1933 they got the official permission.

15th July 1889 the Langinkoski Fishing Lodge was ready. It was only a short sailing trip for their yacht Tsaverna from St. Petersburg to Kotka, and they had invited some friends to celebrate their new summer house, such as the Queen of Greece and the Duchess of Edinburgh. They even toasted to Finland. The fishing lodge was the only building owned by the Imperial family outside of Russia. For six summers they stayed at Langinkoski, where they felt safe and happy. After their stay in 1894 disaster struck and history caught up with them. He died in his Palace in Crimea a few months later. Empress Maria Feodorovna would never

return to the fishing lodge. Their son Emperor Nicholas II shortly visited the lodge in 1906 with his daughters. Little 5 year old Anastasia even wrote a big letter A in the guest book. Empress Maria Feodorovna gave Langinkoski for use to the Russian Red Cross in 1915 and 16. The Empress was one of the few royals who escaped the Russian revolution and she lived out her life in Hvidøre House in Denmark. Only in 2006 was she reburied in St. Petersburg to be reunited with her Alexander. For a few years after Finland independence, Alexander III’s fishing lodge lay forgotten in the pine forests and fell prey to the unforgiving natural elements

Presently the museum is run by the Langinkoskiseura Society, which continues the work of Kymenlaakso Museum Society. Museum curator Hannu Saarinen proudly shows the beautifully restored buildings and grounds of the estate. Even the gate and the bridges have been reconstructed based on old photographs. It is a wonderful, picturesque place to visit, which combines history, heritage and nature harmoniously. Saarinen explains how the society managed to trace the lost beds and furniture to Kultaranta, the summer house of the Finnish president. They were returned to Langinkoski in 1956. The 1880s silverware turned out to be safely in the hands of the Finnish government and the society had replicas made. The main house has not changed much since the Imperial family vacationed here. The wooden palace of modest size, more a home than a castle, was precisely what Alexander III hoped the place would be. The museum also commemorates one of the largest salmons ever caught in Finland, weighing 35.6 kilograms, caught after a long fight by the legendary fisherman Aukusti Hintikka in 1896.





This original tour combines a trio of the loveliest historic cities in Northern Italy with a number of exclusive visits to private homes.

A festive few days, staying at the famous Bayerischer Hof and enjoying cultural visits and the hospitality of our Munich hosts.

11– 17 OCTOBER 2017

5 – 8 DECEMBER 2017

Specialtours is the acknowledged leader in exclusive tours combining private visits to historic houses, art collections and gardens with excellent accommodation. In co-operation with Europa Nostra, privileged access to unique properties is obtained thanks to a network of contacts established over many years. Contact Specialtours to make a booking or to find out more about the Europa Nostra tours for 2018: Scotland in May, Switzerland in September and Genoa in October. SPECIALTOURS IS HONOURED TO BE THE PROVIDER OF EUROPA NOSTRA HERITAGE TOURS

+44(0)20 7386 4690






cıty dreams


A Place to Come Home To

The Second World War had a devastating effect on the young Finnish republic. Of the hundreds of thousands of men and women who fought in the wars, many did not return, while others came home seriously wounded or disabled for life.

Veteran houses in Oulu, 1950s

For many there was no home to come back to. Tens of thousands of orphans and widows were in dire straits and over half a million people were were evacuated from the areas annexed by Soviet Union or had lost their homes. The government decided that something had to be done and asked architects to come up with a quick and efficient solution. The foremost Finnish architects such as Alvar Aalto, Woldemar Baeckman, Aulis Blomstedt, Erik Bryggman, Aarne Ervi, Marianne Granberg, Jorma Järvi, Eva Kuhlefelt-Ekelund and Yrjö Lindegren worked on the plans. The result was a series of simple house designs to achieve the best results with less material; a uniform, wooden, often


two-storey box on a concrete base with a pitched roof and a chimney dead square in the middle. The detached houses had a small surrounding garden in which traditionally apple trees would be planted. The houses were built with state loans. Some areas were built entirely uniform with only one or two types of houses, in other areas the residents could choose from several similar types. The houses were not just for one family, often the second floor was a home for another family.

The veteran houses can still be found in all major cities of Finland. Of course, they are no longer lived in by war veterans, widows, and orphans, but their traditional, efficient, no nonsense design is nowadays very popular with young families looking for a

solidly build home. The residences may be more brightly coloured than ever before and their apple trees may have grown taller than the house itself, but the veteran homes have now become a much loved and permanent part of Finnish heritage.

lıvıng herıtage


Rural Restorations It is a misty, autumn morning as we drive around the countryside of Joensuu in the eastern part of Finland. We are looking for some of the buildings restored thanks to a very special community project, better known as “Work and restoration expertise in the rural areas of Joensuu 2009-2012.” First stop, a red wooden log building at the edge of a birch forest. The restoration of this classic, small-hold farm was one of the early successes of

the programme. Close by, along the meandering country roads, we encounter a collection of wooden log buildings between the freshly ploughed fields adorned with large wheels of

straw, in preparation for the Finnish winter. On the side of one of the sheds, the old dark logs have been replaced by new, hand-chopped pine. It is another successful example of the training project. It may be a small restoration on a relatively small building, the long-term effects are evident and all these restorations combined slowly change the face of the Finnish countryside. Another good example of this is found on a larger farm nearby, which slowly emerges from the misty fields.


A red-painted storage facility with a white fenced balcony was also restored through the project. Next to the building we find a Finnish mare with her foal. The Finnish horse is the only horse breed native to Finland and are multi-purpose,

friendly creatures of remarkable strength, speed and resilience. They can plough, they can pull, and you can of course, quite comfortably ride them. The idea of the project was to combine necessary restoration

work with an informal exchange between experts, homeowners and volunteers. It gave the opportunity to pass on virtually forgotten log building repair techniques and expertise to the next generation.

lÄąvÄąng herÄątage


Even more importantly, the project increased the appreciation for these often small and unnoticed heritage buildings. Collectively all the barns and farms, the boat houses and storage sheds are vital ingredients in keeping the Finnish countryside alive as well as attractive. The project also provided employment and much needed vocational qualifications for long-term unemployed men and women, and taught them renovation skills through work-based learning methods.

In 2012 the project won a EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Award in the category Education, training and awareness-raising. The jury was impressed by the results and recommended not only the exemplary cooperation between the voluntary and public sector, as well as owners and educational institutions, but also believed that this approach could be a successful in heritage conservation in rural areas across Europe.

the best in heritage

The Best in Heritage is taking place in Dubrovnik every year at the end of September ...

... in the charming ambience of neo-baroque “Marin Držić” theatre and surrounding venues ...

... featuring 44 handpicked laureates from all over the world ...

... accompanied by rich cultural and social programmes provided by the host ...

... which all make this conference an unique opportunity to meet the best amongst us.

dubrovnik, croatia 28-30 september 2017 with IMAGINES





Deep Sea Diving on Land The Vrouw Maria Underwater project is an example of innovative research, which makes underwater heritage accessible to all.

Maritime Centre Vellamo

Interior Maritime Centre Vellamo Trying out the interactive experience

Exploring the wreck of the cargo vessel Vrouw Maria, which sunk in 1771 close to Turku, would not be an easy undertaking. After having to laden yourself with heavy equipment and diving 41 metres into the cold water, you probably would not be able to see anything interesting in the murky, dark waters. You would also be fined as the Finland’s Archipelago National Park is a restricted diving zone, and the wreck is

under additional protection from the Finnish Antiquities Act. Taking a dive without getting wet and improving the accessibility to the wreckage was what the Vrouw Maria Underwater project - led by the National Board of Antiquities and funded by the Ministry of Education and Culture - set out to do. The Maritime Centre Vellamo is an extraordinary designed building on the outskirts of the

old harbour city of Kotka. The interactive museum shares the stories and adventures from Finland’s maritime history. It has also, since 2015, been the permanent home to the end result of the Vrouw Maria project, which started in 2009 and was worked on by a team of experts for three years. In collaboration with Aalto University’s Media Lab, a 3D virtual simulation of the ship’s wreckage and its surroundings

was created. The museum visitors can explore the ship from all sides and swim virtually around and in the ship. Some of the artefacts raised from the wreck have also been digitised. When the merchant vessel Vrouw Maria left Amsterdam in 1771, it was fully loaded with the inheritance of Dutch merchant Gerrit Braamcamp, which was bought at auction by Empress Catherine the Great of Russia. Captain Reynoud Lorentz was confident to deliver the large collection of furniture, paintings and other luxury items safely to St. Petersburg. The Vrouw Maria had made that journey already several times – but this time he would not be so fortunate. The fatal journey of the Vrouw Maria is well-documented, as the logbook is preserved in the

Turku City Archives. The ship’s cargo was also registered by the Danish custom authorities, which show that the ship carried large quantities of sugar, dye, wood, cloth and zinc. Everything went according to plan, until they reached the waters near Turku in stormy weather. The treacherous waters caught up with them during prayer hour and before they fully

realised what had happened the ship had lost its rudder and had sprung several leaks. The crew decided to abandon ship, row ashore and come back the next day. The logbooks give us a detailed account of everything that happened next. The crew tried to salvage as much as they could and kept returning to the ship. But it became soon clear that the precious cargo could not be saved. The Vrouw Maria was not going any further. The ship sank to its present location at 41 metres depth in rock-infested waters. In the 18th century, expertise in salvaging ships at this depth was virtually non-existent and even pinpointing its exact location proved impossible. Empress Catherine the Great was not amused, and became

personally involved to secure her vulnerable and precious paintings and furniture. The exchange of urgent letters between the different countries and their representatives have also been preserved. But in the end, it made no difference. The crew of the Vrouw Maria was safe, but its cargo lost forever. The modern search for the wreck by the Pro Vrouw Maria


Association, consisting of several wreck and maritime history enthusiasts, was successful in the summer of 1999. The Vrouw Maria had spent several centuries under water but was still in decent shape. Thanks to information in the archives in Amsterdam, the team knew the precise measurements of the ship and were sure that they had found what they had been looking for. It still contained its cargo but raising it would prove difficult and very expensive. Salvaging the cargo is also not an option as the ideal preservation techniques cannot be ascertained. The fact that at such depth divers can only work for 15 minutes at the time, is also complicating any potential salvage operation. The state of Catherine the Great’s precious cargo will remain a mystery for some time longer. Luckily, thanks

to the Vrouw Maria project, we can at least explore the wreckage digitally in the Maritime Centre Vellamo in Kotka and that is already a great accomplishment. The Vrouw Maria Underwater project received a Special mention in 2015 in the category Research and Digitisation of the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage/Europa Nostra Awards

The deck of the ship on the computer screen Entrance Maritime Centre Vellamo Dutch cargo objects from the collection



A Towering Success The Kesälahti bell tower, in the east of Finland close to the Russian border, was lovingly restored by a team of experts and volunteers over many years.

Kesälahti tower after restoration


On this cold September afternoon, the little, wooden tower of Kesälahti looks a somewhat out of place next to the concrete 1950s church, designed by Aili and Niilo Pulkka, as if it somehow accidentally ended up there. The monument, dating from 1836, is the sole survivor of an air raid bombing in 1941, in which the accompanying wooden church was completely destroyed. In the 1990s, part of the upper section of the bell tower had been repaired, but the rest of the building was very much still in its original state. The majority

builders. The bell tower was mainly used as a storage room and maintenance had been kept to a minimum since the war.

of the shingles on the roof had not been replaced for 170 years, demonstrating the real value for money and a testimony to the craftsmanship of the original

Around the year 2000 it became clear that the shingles and the underlying birch-bark needed to be urgently restored. But how to repair the intricate pattern of all those individually hewed pieces of wood, project leader Hannu Piipponen must have wondered? Research and traditional skills were necessary. Who would be able to make hand-hewn shingles and individually forged iron nails in the 21st century? The roof

The roof before restoration



Birch forest Finding the right wood Cutting with an ax

needed more than 200 square metres of birch-bark and the wood needed to be tarred with a mature pine-tar, a complicated and lengthy process. Piipponen and his team of experts decided that a restoration would necessarily have to be combined with a training project. Carbon dating proved that the wood for the roof had been felled many years before it was actually used, further proof of traditional craftsmanship as wood needs to dry out to settle. The nails were very carefully hammered in,

saving just enough space to deal with the variety of temperatures and changing weather conditions. It would be a challenge to make a roof of the same quality with the same lifespan. The builders needed to study examples of other churches with a similar construction and learn from the best. Funding of the long-term project proved a difficult and tedious process but in the end, everything fell into place. The parishioners also stepped in as volunteers and reinvigorated the old tradition of community work.

The old roof of the Kesälahti bell tower survived unchanged for 170 years. The new roof has been holding out perfectly for more than 8 years and the prospect for the coming 162 years looks promising. In 2009 the restoration of the Kesälahti bell tower won one of the seven Grand Prix of the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards in the category Conservation. It included a cash prize of € 10,000.


The European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards has just launched a brand new website. You can access it from your mobile phone, tablet, laptop or desktop computer. Read about all the award winners, including detailed pages with descriptions, jury citations, photos, videos and locations. The award winners are searchable by year, country and category. Everything you need to know about the ‘Oscars’ of Europe’s heritage at your fingertips.

142 partner

Europa Nostra Finland

Markus Bernoulli, Irma Casagrande (also a founding member of Europa Nostra Finland), Benito Casagrande, Anna-Maija Halme and Tapani Mustonen

This year, Europa Nostra Finland co-hosts the European Heritage Congress and the ceremony of the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards in Turku, the old capital of Finland. We had time to catch up with the people behind the organisation, to find out more about the Finnish heritage world and its connection to Europa Nostra. Former President Markus Bernoulli was there from the beginning. The architect and heritage professional clearly remembers his first contact with Europa Nostra. “That was in Heidelberg in 1988. Europa Nostra had member organisations in Finland, but no

Finn had actually ever visited the congress. I was the first. It was Europa Nostra’s silver jubilee and I was invited because of the restoration work we had done for the re-use, enlarging and renovating of the wooden houses in Old Rauma (now a UNESCO World Heritage site ed.).” “In those days in Finland they thought that ‘a happy family lives in a brick house’ and the historical wooden buildings were threatened and being torn down to be replaced by all these brick things. So, that was my first contact with the organisation and Europa Nostra President Hans de Koster even asked me to speak during the congress.”

How did Europa Nostra Finland come about? “It started for pure administrative reasons, just as a contract of the Finnish Local Heritage Federation and the Finnish Association of Architects. In 2011, The Finnish Local Heritage Federation called all Finnish Europa Nostra members together to develop new activities, and the other members got very excited about the idea. Only few months after that meeting Europa Nostra Finland was founded, and the association has been very active ever since.” In what area did Europa Nostra Finland really make a difference?


Europa Nostra member Museum Centre Vapriikki The 7 Most Endangered expert mission to Malmi Airport

“What springs to mind is the work we have done on endangered heritage in Finland. When Europa Nostra started their 7 Most Endangered Programme, we needed to find a way to nominate sites from Finland. So, we started the Most Endangered Heritage site of Finland and it was an enormous success. The media widely reported on the nominations and all the sites got a lot of publicity. Malmi Airport in Helsinki, one of Finland’s most endangered heritage sites, is now on Europa Nostra’s 7 Most Endangered list and we are still actively campaigning to save this unique aviation history.” What can the European heritage world learn from Finland? “We have very good rules and regulations in place which may inspire other countries. We are concerned about the fact that

Members of Europa Nostra in Finland The Association of Castles and Museums around the Baltic Sea Finnish Association of Architects SAFA Finnish Local Heritage Federation (Suomen Kotiseutuliitto) Finnish Museums Association Turku University Foundation Kierikki Stone Age Centre Finnish Cultural Heritage Foundation House of Nobility (Ritarihuone) Association of Cultural Heritage Education in Finland Nordic Association of Conservators, Finnish Section Museum Centre Vapriikki

there seems to be less and less money available for heritage in Finland, but this may be an European trend. Having said that, I think one of the things that Finns can teach Europeans is the idea of ‘talkoot’. It is difficult to translate but it is a form of voluntary community work and it helps to get things done. Our Grand Prix winner ‘Adopt

a Monument’ for instance (see article elsewhere in this magazine ed.) is based on ‘talkoot’. We restore and repair buildings together under ‘talkoot’. In Old Rauma, we created a bank of historical building materials, which is now in every city in Finland. All done under ‘talkoot’. You know Finns love to ski but over the last few years there was

Markus Bernoulli next to a traditional Finnish tiled heater



Hilla and Linnea Sarviaho with their mother Mari The European Heritage Congress is not the only large-scale heritage event in Finland this year. The European Heritage Days, always held in on the second weekend of September, bring together 50 European countries to celebrate heritage across the continent. The Days are very popular in Finland, especially a competition called Cultural Heritage-makers, a Finnish innovation which has now spread all around Europe.

Europa Nostra member Kierikki Stone Age Centre

not enough snow in Rauma which is on the coast. So under ‘talkoot’ we came together and created a snowy ski-slope for all to use. What do you expect from the Congress in Turku?

The Singer sewing machine In 2015 the theme of the competition was Industrial and Technical Heritage, to motivate children and young people to explore their personal links to industrial heritage. The winning entry from Finland was created by Hilla and Linnea Sarviaho from Siuntio. Their story of a Singer sewing machine brought across the border from Karelia to Finland and their family’s roots in the village of Tyrjä, won the competition and the prize of € 500. The panel of judges – with representatives from the Ministry of the Environment, the National Board of Antiquities, the Finnish National Board of Education, the Finnish Local Heritage Federation and the Association of Cultural Heritage Education in Finland – was impressed with the strong, emotional and story-driven project, inspired by their mother Mari Sarviaho. She taught her daughters that your identity is something you work on every day, your own actions are a continuation of your family’s living history. europeanheritagedays.com rakennusperinto.fi Europa Nostra was, for many years, the coordinator of the European Heritage Days

“It is wonderful that the congress is now in Turku and we are very grateful to the city of Turku for supporting this with so much enthusiasm. They understand the importance of the congress and are really helping us wherever they can. I am glad that the congress is also open for Finns who are not members, yet, and I hope that many come and learn about Europa Nostra and its activities. I am still a member of the organisational committee, but all the hard work is done by the President of Europa Nostra Finland and my former student Tapani Mustonen, Secretary Anna-Maija Halme and, our Vice President Benito Casagrande, who knows everybody and everything in Turku, and the Board Member Johan Grotenfelt who took the responsibility of arranging the Maritime Heritage activities of the congress.

Tapani Mustonen adds: “This is Europe’s most significant annual cultural heritage event, and we are very pleased to organise it in Turku after Amsterdam, Lisbon, Athens, Vienna, Oslo and Madrid.” “The event will be one of the highlights of Finland’s centennial anniversary: thanks to the City of Turku, as well as local companies and foundations,” states Benito Casagrande, Vice-President of Europa Nostra Finland. Also congress manager Sari Ruusumo and Head of International Affairs Mika Akkanen are excited about the event taking place in Turku. “Turku was already a European Capital of Culture and now we have once again the opportunity to share Finland’s oldest buildings, the Cathedral and the Turku Castle, as well as the architecture of Alvar Aalto and Erik Bryggman,”says Akkanen, pointing out that in recent years, Turku has become one of Finland’s leading congress towns with up to 70 international events every year.

europanostra.org Europa Nostra, the leading heritage organisation in Europe, has just launched a brand new website.You can access it from your mobile phone, tablet, laptop or desktop computer.

Photo by Araldo de Luca

• Read about our work: Policy, Campaigns and Awards • Find information about our annual European Heritage Congress and the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 • Read the latest news, press releases and events • Get involved: join and donate in easy steps • Access our membership map • Access all our publications and social media channels • Join our Heritage Tours

heritagetimes.eu Heritage Times is a website where stories about Europe’s cultural heritage are shared by a team of volunteers. This is an initiative run by Europa Nostra and European Heritage Volunteers Would you like to become a social media volunteer for heritage? Go to www.heritagetimes.eu/apply




Wiki Loves Monuments 2016 by Stephen LaPorte, member of the international team of Wiki Loves Monuments and others

District court of Berlin (Germany) by Ansgar Koreng

Royal Albert Hall (United Kingdom) by User:Colin

As a lawyer, Mr. Ansgar Koreng spent a lot of time in the District Court of Berlin. After careful planning, Mr. Koreng took a series of photos of the beautiful vaulted ceilings, double staircases, and red tiles in the entrance hall of the building. His photo ended up being selected as the international winner from over 277,406 photos submitted to Wiki Loves Monuments in 2016. A growing group of volunteers around the world are collecting photos of all the world’s monuments. Wiki Loves Monuments started in 2010, and since became the world’s largest photography competition. The competition is organized annually, by a federation of national teams around the world who collect lists of monuments and host events to collect photos. Anyone is welcome to submit their photos of monuments in September, with a condition that they release the photo so anyone can use it, for example under a Creative Commons license. The photos are used to illustrate Wikipedia articles and more. In 2016, more than 10,000 people from 42 national competitions submitted photos. In each country, the top ten photos are selected by a jury, and from among these finalists an international jury selects the top photos for the year. The winners from 2016 included Mr. Koreng’s photo of the court entrance hall in Germany, a concert hall and lighthouse in the United Kingdom, a castle in sunset in Italy, a Buddhist temple in Thailand, and many more samples from built culture around the world.

Perch Rock Lighthouse (United Kingdom) by Richard J Smith

Wiki Loves Monuments, like Wikipedia, is built on a philosophy that everyone can participate. Thousands of people -- from casual tourists to expert photographers -- accepted this invitation to discover,


Lights at sunset - Castle of Torrechiara (Italy) by Lara zanarini

document, and share the built cultural heritage around them. In addition to an annual photography competition, Wiki Loves Monuments is an opportunity to do more than one thing to improve free documentation on monuments. People can write articles on Wikipedia, curate information on Wikidata, and organize events to showcase the competition. Wiki Loves Monuments is an annual collaborative effort that has expanded the digital record for monuments from around the world, and a community of people who are passionate about making this possible. Wiki Loves Monuments will return in 2017, and everyone is again welcome to contribute. Although many monuments are well-documented, the effort is still far from complete. Along with the photography competition, in 2017 we will focus on expanding the international database of monuments that is freely available on Wikidata. This data can be used to make the photo competition easier, or to build new tools to help people learn about monuments. Our eventual goal is to gather the world’s largest free database of built cultural heritage.

Wat Arun Ratchawararam Ratchaworamaha Wihan (Thailand) by BerryJ

Join us by exploring the beautiful interiors and exteriors of monuments, and while you are there, consider taking a photo and submitting it to Wiki Loves Monuments in September 2017.


Pakistan Monument (Pakistan) by Muhammad Ashar



Ready for Take Off? A new future for the endangered Helsinki-Malmi Airport?

The airport in Malmi, on the outskirts of Helsinki, has been placed on the list of the 7 Most Endangered in 2016. This programme initiated by Europa Nostra, together the European Investment Bank Institute, draws attention to the most endangered heritage sites in Europe. I meet up with architect Tapani Mustonen, Chairman of Europa Nostra Finland, and with Malmi enthusiast and architect Simo Freese at the airport’s white and round terminal, built in 1938. Helsinki-Malmi Airport is a rare surviving example of pre-World War II aviation architecture, built just in time for the 1940 Olympic Games, which were scheduled

to be held in Helsinki but which were eventually cancelled due to the war. It is wonderful place to explore and experience. Looking at the small airplanes taking off and arriving brings you as close to the romantic idea of aviation as you can possible get. As Mustonen and Freese explain, Malmi Airport, complete with its original hangar (1936-1937),

Architect Tapani Mustonen, Chairman of Europa Nostra Finland, next to the Cessna

terminal and runways, is still in use with about 40,000 landings per year. It is the only freeschedule city airport for light traffic in the capital region. The area has been declared a cultural environment of national significance by Finland’s National Board of Antiquities. Its open meadow has considerable biodiversity and makes the nature path encircling the site very popular among locals. The authorities however want to close the airport, keep the modernist buildings largely intact and build a large, new residential area around them. Malmi Airport would be no more than a memory and its living heritage would

disappear forever. What makes this threat to Malmi Airport even more incomprehensible is the fact that there seems to be plenty of unbuilt forest and fields around it which could be used with a lot less effort. The airport and its surroundings can of course best be seen from the air, so I have to ignore my fear of flying and get into a 60-yearold Cessna in windy weather, in order to look at the runways from above. It is worth some anxiety to see this unique 75-year-old airport the way it is meant to be. Flying from Helsinki back to Malmi, dangerously swinging in the wind like a kite, captures the true spirit of flying much more

directly than any modern plane or airport ever could. It would truly be a pity if it was lost. It is hard to imagine this inspirational and exciting heritage, which captures the dream of flying as few other sites can, would be turned into a rather dull residential area. So, what happens now? The airport has been put on the list of the 7 Most Endangered, which was suggested by Europa Nostra Finland, supported by the Friends of Malmi Airport (FoMA). The civil society organisations want to keep the historic airport as it is and are preparing to propose the site for the UNESCO World

Inside the aircraft hangar




Malmi airport from the sky

Stairs inside the main building

Heritage List. This line of action seems also the most promising to the team of experts of the 7 Most Endangered Programme, who visited the site in 2016. They stressed the importance of the airport as living heritage and stated that “the modernist buildings at Malmi airport are of outstanding international value, offering not only an excellent example of preserved modernist aviation architecture, but bearing witness also to the extraordinary progressive period between the two world wars. Following heritage legislation in other European countries, the buildings should be protected in their full context, that is to say the entire airport landscape of the flying field with its runways. This means keeping the airport in use.”

It is not over yet. Helsinki’s new General Plan proposes to fill the airport with apartment blocks to be constructed in the early 2020s and the state will withdraw – or by the time of printing has withdrawn – all its operations from the airport. All aircraft should officially leave the hangars by 16 May 2017. The Friends of Malmi Airport are still actively protesting to keep their cause alive. This nonprofit civic association

The 7 Most Endangered Programme All over Europe, monuments and heritage sites are in danger. Some due to lack of resources or expertise, others due to neglect or inadequate planning. To find a sustainable future for these important sites, Europa Nostra teamed up with the European Investment Bank Institute and launched the 7 Most Endangered Programme, with the Council of Europe Development Bank as associated partner. It is a new way to draw attention to threatened European monuments and sites. It helps communities by bringing

public and private partners together and by generating creative ideas and sustainable solutions. In short, the aim is to use cultural heritage as a generator for positive change. The closing date for new nominations for the 7 Most Endangered List 2018 is 30 June 2017. The 7 Most Endangered Programme has received the support of the Creative Europe programme of the European Union since 2014, as part of Europa Nostra’s network project ‘Mainstreaming Heritage’.

(see malmiairport.fi/en) has filed a complaint against the City’s new General Plan in the Administrative Court and its application for protecting the whole airport based on the Act on the Protection of Buildings is pending in the Uusimaa Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment. A citizens’ law initiative, Lex Malmi, for protecting the airport and its aviation use, is now in Parliament after reaching the required minimum of 50,000 supporters in record time. Private citizens are also joining the fight. Designer Jutta Kuure, for instance, has just launched a collection of bags and cushions using photos of the airport and has sent the cushions to Michelle Obama, John Travolta, Tony Robbins and even Harrison Ford. Maybe if Han Solo lands his Millenium Falcon on Malmi Airport, the authorities will finally be convinced to let the airport and its important heritage fly off to a new future. Check out the latest developments and all the other sites on the 7 Most Endangered list by going to 7mostendangered.eu

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In 2018, the European Heritage Awards Ceremony will take place in Berlin, in June, as a highlight of the European Heritage Summit which will be jointly hosted by Europa Nostra (www.europanostra.org) and its key German member organisation, the Prussian Heritage Foundation (www.preussischer-kulturbesitz.de) along with the German Cultural Heritage Committee (www.dnk.de), which is acting as the national coordinator of the European Year of Cultural Heritage in Germany (www.sharingheritage.eu).

In 2018, the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards will be used to promote the key objectives of the European Year of Cultural Heritage. The adapted Call for Entries 2018 will be posted on 1 June 2017 on our new website dedicated to the Awards: europeanheritageawards.eu The deadline for submissions is 1 October.

Published by EUROPA NOSTRA The Voice of Cultural Heritage in Europe European Cultural Heritage Review (May 2017) ISSN:1871-417X President

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Special Thanks

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Europa Nostra Finland Anna-Maija Halme Benito Casagrande Tapani Mustonen Sneška Quaedvlieg-Mihailović

Rauf Kösemen


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Executive President

Elsa Court Anna-Maija Halme

Denis de Kergorlay Secretary-General Sneška Quaedvlieg-Mihailović Editor in Chief Wolter Braamhorst Concept TV Culture


Coordination Damla Özlüer Periodical Design Tülay Demircan, Banu Y. Ocak Page Layout


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TV Culture Wiki Commons (except where noted)

Technical Controls Harun Yılmaz Paper and Printing Painotalo Digital Plus

Lange Voorhout 35 NL - 2514 EC The Hague T +31 (0) 70 302 40 50 F +31 (0) 70 361 78 65 info@europanostra.org This publication is co-funded by the Creative Europe programme of the European Union

Co-funded by the Creative Europe Programme of the European Union

All rights reserved. No part of either publication may be reproduced in any material form, including electronic means, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Europa Nostra. The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders of old material. Where these efforts have not been successful, copyright owners are invited to contact the editor.

The New Bertelsmann: Higher Growth ⋅ More Digital ⋅ More International ⋅ More Diversified Bertelsmann is a media, services and education company that operates in about 50 countries around the world. It includes the broadcaster RTL Group, the trade book publisher Penguin Random House, the magazine publisher Gruner + Jahr, the music company BMG, the service provider Arvato, the Bertelsmann Printing Group, the Bertelsmann Education Group and Bertelsmann Investments, an international network of funds. The company has 116,000 employees and generated revenues of €17.0 billion in the 2016 financial year. Bertelsmann stands for creativity and entrepreneurship. This combination promotes first-class media content and innovative service solutions that inspire customers around the world.


#Heritage4Europe #Europe4Heritage

EUROPA NOSTRA welcomes and supports the

EUROPEAN YEAR OF CULTURAL HERITAGE 2018 EUROPA NOSTRA represents a rapidly growing citizens’ movement for the safeguarding of Europe’s cultural and natural heritage. Our pan-European network is composed of 240 member organisations (heritage associations and foundations with a combined membership of more than 5 million people), 140 associated organisations (governmental bodies, local authorities and corporations) and also 1100 individual members who directly support our mission. TOGETHER, • we form an important lobby for cultural heritage in Europe; • we celebrate excellence through the European Heritage Awards organised by Europa Nostra in partnership with the European Union; and • we campaign to save Europe’s endangered historic monuments, sites and cultural landscapes.



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