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Heritage, Mirror of Intercultural Europe Le patrimoine, miroir de l’Europe interculturelle EUROPEAN CULTURAL HERITAGE REVIEW REVUE DU PATRIMOINE CULTUREL EUROPÉEN


Contents / Sommaire European Cultural Heritage Review - 1 2008 / Revue du patrimoine culturel européen - 1 2008

Dossier: HERITAGE, MIRROR OF INTERCULTURAL EUROPE / Dossier: LE PATRIMOINE, MIROIR DE L’EUROPE INTERCULTURELLE

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A Chorus of Civilisations / Le chœur des civilisations ✒ Olivier de Trazegnies

Intercultural Dialogue - a Pan-European Challenge in 2008 and Beyond / Le dialogue interculturel : le défi européen de 2008 Double interview with Odile Quintin, EU DG Culture, and Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni, CoE ✒ Eléonore de Merode and Laurie Neale

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Round the World in your Own City / Le monde au coeur de notre ville ✒ Rabin S. Baldewsingh

Leaving no one out of Budapest’s development / Ne laissons personne en dehors du développement de Budapest ✒ Gábor Demszky

Heritage - A Powerful Setting for Intercultural Dialogue / Le patrimoine – Une puissante assise pour le dialogue interculturel ✒ Judy Ling Wong CBE

Cultural Heritage and Reconciliation in Cyprus / Patrimoine culturel et réconciliation à Chypre ✒ Costa Carras

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Continuing the Grand Tour / La continuité du Grand Tour

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London to Istanbul Walk / De Londres à Istanbul à pied

✒ HG the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry

✒ Dr Paul Gardner

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Editorial ✒ ANDREA H. SCHULER Executive President of Europa Nostra In a recent Special Eurobarometer survey on Cultural Values1, three quarters of respondents consider that Europe’s cultural diversity is a defining characteristic of Europe, yet still they feel that the continent is united through a shared history. Almost as many consider that people with a different background enrich the cultural life of their country. These are heartening signs. Europa Nostra is inspired by the theme of the 2008 European Year for Intercultural Dialogue which is being celebrated across Europe this year. We have devoted this issue of our European Cultural Heritage Review to showing how our continent’s built and natural cultural heritage mirrors the long history of successive waves of immigrants, invaders and refugees who have settled in our localities, regions and countries, and together have built the truly intercultural mosaic which is Europe. Our cultural heritage is the reflection and most visible expression of cultural diversity and of past and present intercultural exchanges and cooperation, of interaction of people and ideas. By saving and polishing the many facets of the mosaic - by safeguarding and enhancing the many monuments and heritage sites of which Europe is so rich - we honour the many cultures and the many peoples who have lived in and influenced our lands. Intercultural dialogue has an increasingly important role to play in generating awareness and understanding of traditions and differences. Through it people can be brought to see cultural diversity as a factor of cohesion, rather than as a factor of division. Cultural diversity is being ever more recognised as one of Europe’s greatest assets. I would like to introduce our Review with an interview with Europa Nostra’s new President, HRH la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón, who has just completed her first year at the helm of our organisation. Truly a person formed by and at home in many cultures of Europe, she tells us of her ambitions for her tenure with Europa Nostra.

In the articles which follow, we have attempted to show not only the diversity of Europe’s cultural heritage, but also how the influences of history and of peoples of differing cultures have played a role in creating this diversity. We have included articles telling of how sharing one’s cultural heritage can foster mutual understanding and bring people together. Sharing one’s culture and heritage brings pride and opens doors for conversations and true contact. It helps people rise above themselves and overcome past hurts and traumas. Greater awareness and knowledge of cultural heritage therefore leads to a deeper understanding, appreciation and acceptance of other cultures. Where possible, articles have been accompanied by references to past laureates of our awards scheme, the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards, highlighting through the power of example how working to safeguard and enhance our cultural heritage contributes to a sense of European identity. When we care for our cultural heritage, we are caring for the people who hold it dear, from the past, in the present and for the future.

Rubrics / Rubriques

1 Special EB Report n° 278, Sept.07, commissioned by the European Commission in the 27 EU Member States.

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INTERVIEW / ENTRETIEN HRH la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón, President of Europa Nostra S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón, Présidente d’Europa Nostra ✒ Olivier de Trazegnies

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MEMBER ORGANISATIONS / ORGANISATIONS MEMBRES Heritage building sites / Les chantiers du patrimoine ✒ Donatienne de Séjournet ■ The National Trust of Scotland ✒ Lester Borley ■ Union Rempart ✒ Fabrice Duffaud ■ Heritage Conservation Network ✒ Judith Broeker

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NEW LIFE FOR OLD BUILDINGS / UNE NOUVELLE VIE POUR DES BÂTIMENTS ANCIENS Heavenly Bliss or Towering Burden? / Bonheur céleste ou lourd fardeau ? ✒ Herman Wesselijk

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HERITAGE AT RISK / PATRIMOINE EN PÉRIL Appeals from Italy / Appels d’Italie ✒ Giovanni Losavio Tornado hits Sychrov / Tempête sur Sychrov


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Éditorial ✒ ANDREA H. SCHULER Président exécutif d’Europa Nostra Dans un sondage récent du Special Eurobarometer sur les valeurs culturelles1, les trois-quarts des personnes interrogées sont d’avis que la diversité culturelle de l’Europe est une de ses caractéristiques déterminantes, mais elles ressentent néanmoins que le continent est uni par une histoire commune. Un nombre quasi égal considère que les personnes ayant des origines différentes enrichissent la vie culturelle de leur pays. Il s’agit ici de signes encourageants. Europa Nostra a été inspirée par le thème de 2008, Année européenne du dialogue interculturel, laquelle est célébrée dans toute l’Europe cette année. Nous avons consacré ce numéro de la Revue du patrimoine culturel européen à montrer comment le patrimoine culturel bâti et naturel reflète la longue histoire de vagues successives d’immigrants, d’envahisseurs et de réfugiés qui se sont établis dans nos campagnes, nos régions et nos pays et ont construit l’authentique mosaïque interculturelle qu’est l’Europe. Notre patrimoine culturel est la reproduction et l’expression la plus visible de la diversité culturelle, des échanges interculturels et de la coopération, passés comme actuels, ainsi que de l’interaction des individus et des idées. En sauvegardant et en affinant les multiples facettes de la mosaïque, en préservant et en mettant en valeur les nombreux monuments et sites du patrimoine dont l’Europe est si prodigue, nous rendons hommage à la foison de cultures et de personnes qui ont vécu au sein de nos pays et les ont influencés. Le dialogue interculturel a un rôle de plus en plus important à jouer pour sensibiliser l’opinion et stimuler la compréhension des traditions et des différences. Par ce biais, les individus peuvent être amenés à considérer la diversité culturelle comme un facteur de cohésion, plutôt que comme un facteur de division. La diversité culturelle est, indéniablement, de plus en plus reconnue comme en tant que l’un des atouts majeurs de l’Europe.

J’aimerais introduire notre Revue par une interview de la nouvelle Présidente d’Europa Nostra, S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Bourbón, qui vient de terminer sa première année à la tête de notre organisation. Sans conteste une personne formée par les nombreuses cultures de l’Europe et qui s’y sent à l’aise, elle nous parle de ses ambitions pour son mandat à la tête d’Europa Nostra. Dans les articles qui suivent, nous nous sommes efforcés de montrer non seulement la diversité du patrimoine culturel de l’Europe, mais aussi de décrire comment les influences de l’histoire et des individus de cultures différentes ont joué un rôle dans la création de cette diversité. Nous avons inclus des articles qui expliquent comment le fait de partager son patrimoine culturel a le pouvoir de stimuler la compréhension mutuelle et de rassembler les personnes. Partager sa culture et son patrimoine apporte de la fierté et ouvre des portes pour des rencontres et un réel contact. Cela aide les gens à s’élever au-dessus d’eux-mêmes et de surmonter des blessures et des traumatismes anciens. Une plus grande prise de conscience alliée à une meilleure connaissance du patrimoine culturel conduit par conséquent à une compréhension, à une appréciation et à une acceptation approfondies des autres cultures. Dans la mesure du possible, les articles ont été accompagnés de références à d’anciens lauréats de notre concours, le Prix du patrimoine culturel de l’Union européenne / Concours Europa Nostra, mettant en exergue par la force de l’exemple comment le fait d’œuvrer à la préservation et à la mise en valeur de notre patrimoine culturel contribue à un sentiment d’identité européenne. Quand nous prenons soin de notre patrimoine culturel, nous veillons aux personnes qui le chérissent, qu’il s’agisse du passé, du présent ou du futur.

1 Rapport spécial EB n° 278, sept.07, commandité par la Commission européenne dans les 27 États membres de l’UE.

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PRIVATE SUPPORT / SOUTIEN PRIVÉ Saving Portuguese Heritage Abroad / Sauvegarde du patrimoine portugais à l’étrange ✒ Maria Fernanda Matias

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EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT / SOUTIEN DE L’UNION EUROPÉEN Mediterranean Heritage, an opportunity for dialogue / Le patrimoine méditerranéen, une opportunité pour le dialogue ✒ Christiane Dabdoub Nasser

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REOPENED MONUMENTS / MONUMENTS RÉOUVERTS ■ La Cité de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine, Paris ✒ Donatienne de Séjournet ■ Santralistanbul, Istanbul ✒ Donatienne de Séjournet ■ La Venaria Reale, Turin ✒ Ariënne de Bruijn ■ La bibliothèque de l’abbaye bénédictine d’Admont ✒ Donatienne de Séjournet

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EUROPA NOSTRA WEBSITE / SITE WEB D’EUROPA NOSTRA Share your best photos / Envoyez-nous vos plus belles photos

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Le patrimoine comme projet de société Entrevue avec la nouvelle Présidente d’Europa Nostra S.A.R. l’Infante Doña Pilar de Borbón d’Espagne ✒ OLIVIER DE TRAZEGNIES Président du Comité des Publications d’Europa Nostra S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón, a été élue présidente d’Europa Nostra lors de notre assemblée générale de Stockholm en juin 2007, succédant à S.A.R. Le Prince Consort de Danemark. Nous lui avons posé des questions parfois pointues auxquelles elle a répondu dans l’entretien reproduit cidessous. rencontre avec l’histoire et avec la beauté, et b) celui de la construction politique d’une identité ? S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón: De nos jours, le patrimoine doit s’intégrer à un véritable projet de société, tant en ce qui concerne les monuments ou ce qui en fait partie qu’en matière de paysage et d’aménagement du territoire. C’est là où il remplit sa fonction fondamentale : améliorer la qualité de la vie et construire un espace commun dans lequel non seulement nous nous découvrons personnellement, mais sommes en mesure de rencontrer les autres.

S.A.R. la Infante Doña Pilar de Borbón d’Espagne élue Présidente d’Europa Nostra lors du Congrès annuel de Stockholm en juin 2007. S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón of Spain was elected President of Europa Nostra during the Annual Congress in Stockholm in June 2007. photo: Mark Snethlage

Quelle est la motivation première qui l’a poussée à prendre en charge la présidence de notre association ? Je me suis toujours intéressée à l’art, à la culture, à la nature et à l’environnement. Quand on m’a donné l’occasion de me rendre utile pour défendre ces valeurs, j’ai accepté avec beaucoup d’enthousiasme la présidence de cette organisation prestigieuse. Y a-t-il des aspects sur lesquels l’Infante a l’intention de mettre l’accent ou des réalisations concrètes qui lui tiennent à cœur ? Renforcer la prise de conscience de ces valeurs de la société civile européenne, en particulier chez les jeunes et les citadins qui apportent des notions d’identité nouvelles à notre continent. D’un abord très humain et chaleureux et d’une conversation aussi charmante que malicieuse, l’Infante personnifie à la perfection – avec beaucoup de tact et de finesse – la majesté royale. Depuis de nombreuses années, elle s’est engagée personnellement dans des activités en rapport avec l’environnement, sachant allier une grande qualité d’écoute à une autorité sereine et souriante. Sa parfaite connaissance des grandes langues de notre continent et ses relations familiales en font un modèle de personnalité européenne chez qui les échanges interculturels sont inscrits au cœur des gènes. Et ce d’autant plus qu’aucune civilisation n’est allée aussi loin dans le mélange des cultures que l’Espagne médiévale.

S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón est la fille aînée de Don Juan, comte de Barcelone, troisième fils et successeur d’Alphonse XIII, et de la princesse Marie de Bourbón Siciles. L’Infante est de ce fait la sœur du Roi Juan Carlos. Les Bourbóns d’Espagne sont actuellement la branche aînée et dynaste de la maison capétienne et descendent directement de Louis XIV puisque leur ancêtre Philippe V, roi d’Espagne en 1700, était le petit-fils du Roi Soleil.

Europa Nostra : Comment l’Infante pourrait-elle décrire le rôle du Patrimoine à deux niveaux : a) celui de l’épanouissement de l’individu par sa

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Quel est l’apport spécifique de l’Espagne - dans l’histoire et dans sa législation actuelle - en matière de patrimoine architectural ou paysager ? L’Espagne apporte dans le concert européen un patrimoine culturel dont l’envergure est bien connue, de même que des politiques et des initiatives qui sont essentiellement conçues pour l’accès fructueux à de tels biens, avec des effets bénéfiques sur le tourisme et le développement économique. D’une manière plus générale, l’Infante estime-t-elle que notre combat doit être limité aux frontières de l’Europe (mais où s’arrêtent-elles ?) ou peut traiter de monuments typiquement européens au-delà de sa géographie (ne fût-ce que dans certains territoires d’outre-mer). Dans notre monde globalisé, surtout quand on évoque le patrimoine – richesse commune de l’hu-


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manité – il est difficile de parler de frontières, d’autant plus que le patrimoine culturel de l’Europe a fait fi des barrières en répandant son influence en des lieux divers. D’un autre côté, nous possédons sur notre continent des témoignages très importants d’autres cultures. De ce fait et dans la mesure de nos moyens, Europa Nostra pourrait aussi s’intéresser à ces richesses-là et étendre le «pouvoir de l’exemple» dont nous nous prévalons. L’infante estime-t-elle que des «chartes du Patrimoine» (comme la fameuse charte de Venise, aujourd’hui un peu dépassée) font avancer la protection, la restauration, la promotion des monuments et la prise de conscience par le public de son implication personnelle dans ce processus ? Ou bien pense-t-elle qu’une action moins juridique, mais plus interventionniste, devrait s’imposer ? Le phénomène du patrimoine a tellement évolué et si rapidement au cours des dernières décennies que la législation et les politiques doivent suivre le chemin qui consiste à s’adapter aux réalités nouvelles.

Comment devrait s’exercer, selon elle, le « pouvoir de l’exemple » ? Je pense que le plan d’activités d’Europa Nostra approuvé à Belgrade en septembre dernier va dans cette direction.

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Le Domaine Royal de Drottningholm, pré de Stockholm, un site classé sur la liste du patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO depuis 1991. The Royal Domain of Drottningholm,

Il convient de développer et d’étendre des programmes comme celui des Prix du patrimoine de l’Union européenne / Concours Europa Nostra, de même de soutenir autant d’initiatives de la société civile que nous pouvons, à travers les associations qui constituent l’essence de notre organisme.

outside of Stockholm, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991. photo: Laurie Neale

Son Altesse Royale pourrait-elle rédiger un message particulier à Europa Nostra en ce début de présidence ? Si nous voulons atteindre les objectifs que nous nous sommes fixés dans notre programme stratégique et dans notre plan d’action, nous devons augmenter sensiblement nos ressources financières et recruter de nouveaux membres. C’est une tâche que nous nous efforcerons d’accomplir avec l’aide du président exécutif, des organes de direction et de représentation, celle de notre secrétariat et surtout celle de nos membres.

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Heritage as a Model of Society Interview with Europa Nostra’s new President S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón of Spain ✒ OLIVIER DE TRAZEGNIES Chairman of the Europa Nostra Publications Committee S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón was elected President of Europa Nostra at our General Assembly in Stockholm, in June 2007, taking over the reigns from HRH the Prince Consort of Denmark. We have asked her a number of often pointed questions, which she has answered in the interview reproduced below. Very gracious and easygoing, and a conversationalist who is equally charming and mischievous, the Infanta is the perfect embodiment - with a generous touch of tact and refinement - of royal majesty. She has for many years been personally engaged in activities related to the environment, skilfully combining a keen ear with a serene, smiling sense of authority. Her polished fluency in the major languages of our continent and her family relationships make her a model European figure for whom intercultural exchanges are as natural as breathing. This is all the more so, given that no other civilisation went to such an extent in mixing cultures as medieval Spain.

S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón is the eldest daughter of Don Juan, Count of Barcelona - third son of and successor to Alphonse XIII and of Princess Marie de Bourbón Siciles.The Infanta is thus the sister of King Juan Carlos.The Bourbóns of Spain are currently the senior branch of the House of Capetians and direct descendants of Louis XIV since their ancestor, Philippe V, King of Spain in 1700, was the Sun King’s grandson.

Following the European Heritage Awards Ceremony held in Durham Cathedral (UK) on 12 June 2008, members of the delegation for Stichting Stadsherstel Hoorn, winner of the 2008 Prize in the category of “Dedicated Service”, show S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón

Europa Nostra: Your Royal Highness, how would you describe the role of our Heritage on two levels: a) in terms of a person’s enrichment through contact with its history and beauty, and b) as a political basis for building an identity? S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón: Presently, our heritage must become part of a true model of society, both the part concerning our monuments and the part relating to the landscape and to land management. That is where it fulfils its basic mission: to improve the quality of life and create common ground on which not only can we find out who we are personally, but where we are also able to get to know others.

how restorations they carried out in their home city of Hoorn (NL) have revitalised the city’s historic heart. Lors de la cérémonie européenne des Prix du patrimoine culturel de l’Union européenne / Concours Europa Nostra, qui s’est tenue dans la Cathédrale de Durham

What was your initial motivation for wanting to become President of our association? I have always been interested in art, culture, nature and the environment. When I was given an opportunity to make myself useful in defending these values, I accepted most enthusiastically the Presidency of this prestigious organisation.

(GB), le 12 juin 2008, les membres de la délégation de la Stichting Stadsherstel Hoorn, lauréat du prix 2008 pour la catégorie des « Contributions exemplaires », présentèrent à S.A.R. la Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón d’Espagne l’important travail de restauration et de revitalisation accompli dans le centre historique de la ville de

Are there any aspects that Your Royal Highness intends to focus on, or concrete achievements close to your heart? Strengthening awareness of these values on the part of European civil society, especially young people and city dwellers who are bringing new concepts of identity to our continent.

Hoorn.

What is Spain’s particular contribution - throughout history and in its current legislation - in terms of

photo: Laurie Neale

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architectural or landscape heritage? Spain contributes to the European consensus a cultural heritage whose stature is well known, just as it does policies and initiatives that are basically designed to provide access to such riches, with positive effects on tourism and on economic development. In more general terms, does Your Royal Highness believe that the challenge we have taken on should be limited to Europe’s borders (and where do those end?), or can it include monuments that are characteristically European extending beyond its geography (be that only in certain overseas territories)? In this globalised world today, especially when we talk of heritage - a wealth belonging to all mankind - it is hard to talk in terms of borders, especially given that Europe’s cultural heritage has challenged frontiers in extending its influence to a variety of places. On the other hand, we possess on our continent very significant examples of other cultures. Thus, and within the scope of our resources, Europa Nostra could also take an interest in those riches and expand its role in “leading by example”, which we have made a priority.


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Does Your Royal Highness believe that “Heritage charters” (like the famous Charter of Venice, today a bit outdated) advance the cause of protecting, restoring and promoting our monuments, as well as heighten awareness on the part of the public of its personal stake in this process? Or do you think that an approach that is less legalistic in nature and more interventionist should be adopted? The concept of what constitutes our heritage has changed so much and so rapidly over recent decades that our legislation and policies need to follow a course consisting of adaptations to new realities. How do you think that the “power of example” should be put into practice? I think that the Europa Nostra Activity Plan approved in Belgrade last September is a step in the right direction. We should enhance and expand programmes such as the awards given through the European Union Prize

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for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards, as well as supporting as many of civil society’s initiatives as we can through the associations that make up the core of our organisation.

Durham Cathedral, a masterpiece of

Could Your Royal Highness send a special message to Europa Nostra at the outset of your Presidency? If we want to attain the objectives we have set for ourselves in our Strategic Plan and Action Plan, we must increase our financial resources substantially and recruit new members. This is a mission we are striving to accomplish with the help of our Executive President, and with our Management Committee and Council, along with our Secretariat and especially with the assistance of our members.

La Cathédrale de Durham, chef d’œuvre

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Norman architecture in the United Kingdom, has been a World Heritage Site since 1986.

de l’architecture « normande » en Angleterre élevée au rang de Patrimoine mondial depuis 1986.

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Dossier - Heritage, Mirror of Intercultural Europe Dossier - Le patrimoine, miroir de l’Europe interculturelle


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Le chœur des civilisations ✒ OLIVIER DE TRAZEGNIES Président du Comité des Publications d’Europa Nostra Par sa devise « Unité dans la diversité », l’Union européenne affirme l’importance qu’elle attache aujourd’hui à la diversité culturelle de l’Europe. Véritable vecteur de démocratie et incontournable source de richesse, elle constitue un caractère essentiel de notre continent ; caractère qui s’est forgé, comme nous le verrons, tout au long de son histoire. Les mots de jadis étaient des clous qui fixaient la pensée. Ils se sont affadis de nos jours en laissant la place aux expressions «tendance», mélange un peu vague de concepts où s’ébattent les platitudes. Parmi cellesci figurent en bonne place les «échanges interculturels» dont la plupart des citoyens pensent le plus grand bien sans trop s’interroger par exemple sur l’anthropophagie sacrée des Aztèques qui constituait une des bases de leur culture... C’est que toutes les civilisations ne prônent pas nécessairement les mêmes valeurs. La véritable rencontre des cultures est rare et résulte de circonstances historiques particulières. En dépit des différences formelles, elle suppose un respect mutuel fondé sur quelque chose de l’inconscient collectif qui s’appelle l’harmonie. Jamais les différents exemples repris dans cet article n’auraient pu exister si l’un des protagonistes avait mis au pinacle des sacrifices humains. Autant le dire très clairement : aucun échange interculturel n’est possible en Europe avec l’intolérance et l’extrémisme. Si la première grande expérience de «melting-pot» remonte à l’empire perse des Achéménides qui, loin d’être l’enfer du despotisme décrit par les Grecs, fut un miracle d’équilibre et d’humanité, c’est l’Europe qui nous intéresse et qui peut enrichir nos réflexions. Il y eut tout d’abord l’extraordinaire efflorescence de l’Espagne mozarabe entre le huitième et le treizième siècle. Ensuite l’éclat du Gouden Eeuw (le Siècle d’Or) des Provinces-Unies au XVIIe siècle, dont l’épopée des Wallons de Suède est un épiphénomène, et enfin la profusion d’arts et d’idées de la Vienne impériale peu de temps avant la chute des Habsbourg.

Page précédente: Vue de la Mezquita de Cordoue, Espagne. Previous page: View of inside the Mesquita in Cordoba, Spain. photo: Brandus Dan Lucian / Dreamstime.com

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L’Espagne des Omeyyades Anéanti par Tarik et par les troupes mieux organisées de Musa ibn Musair, le royaume des Wisigoths était définitivement remplacé par une administration arabe dès 714. En janvier 750, le calife Marwan II, vaincu par les Abbassides fut massacré à Bagdad avec tous les Omeyyades. Seul un de ses neveux, Abdar Rahman parvint à s’enfuir. Après une vie d’errance et pas mal d’aventures, il gagna l’extrémité des Etats de sa famille et fut reconnu par ses lointains sujets d’Espagne. Le génie de ce bel homme aux cheveux blonds lui permit de créer ce qui allait devenir le plus éclatant Etat du Moyen Age. Son descendant, Abdar Rahman III, qui régnait à Cordoue, prit en 928-929 le titre de amin al muminin, c’est-à-dire de commandeur des croyants, pour marquer définitivement que son nouveau califat devait supplanter celui des Abbassides.

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Il fut un des souverains les plus fastueux que le monde ait jamais connu. L’or, le marbre et les fontaines firent de son palais de Madinat al-Zahra une sorte de paradis sur terre dont le souvenir allait hanter les imaginations arabes1. La prospérité de son empire résultait d’une extraordinaire mosaïque de peuples et de croyances qui coexistaient en parfaite symbiose. Pour bien comprendre l’enchevêtrement des populations et des religions en présence, il faut les définir : Les Cristianos sont des Chrétiens, mais ils deviennent les Mozárabes quand ils se trouvent sous domination musulmane. S’ils se convertissent à l’islam (comme le fut la dernière reine de Grenade, mère de Boabdil, qui était née Isabel de Solis), on les surnomme les Elches. Sans surprise, si vous croisez des Moros, ils sont musulmans, et s’ils tombent à genou devant la Sainte Vierge en embrassant le christianisme, vous avez affaire à des Moriscos. Quant aux Mudéjares, il s’agit de musulmans vivant en territoire chrétien (soit au nord de la Péninsule) et autorisés à pratiquer leur religion moyennant un tribut. Les Judios (qui l’aurait cru ?) offrent toutes les apparences d’être juifs, mais les Conversos sont leurs congénères qui ont dû se convertir au christianisme (souvent par la force). Tout le monde connaît les Marranos, ces apparents fils de la Sainte Eglise, mais qui continuent à pratiquer en secret la religion hébraïque. Ce petit monde s’entend bien mieux qu’il ne le fera jamais par la suite et mélange allègrement les familles dans un œcuménisme aujourd’hui tout à fait étrange. Ne dit-on pas que les plus illustres maisons de l’aristocratie espagnole (comme les Mendoza) descendent de Conversos et que sainte Thérèse d’Avila était elle-même d’origine juive (sépharade bien sûr)? La conquête du royaume nasride de Grenade en 1492 sonnera le glas de cette étonnante civilisation, déjà bien malmenée par la Reconquista. Isabelle la Catholique expulsera les Juifs d’Espagne et son arrière arrière-petit-fils, Philippe III fera de même avec les derniers Moriscos, considérés comme peu fiables. Il en sortira – mais à quel prix ? – l’Espagne du Greco et de Zurbaran.

1 Il avait fait transporter 4.313 colonnes enlevées à des temples antiques, dont 1.013 en provenance de Carthage. On sait que Louis XIV fit amener pour Versailles de nombreuses colonnes de Leptis Magna en Libye et que la chapelle palatine de Charlemagne à Aix-la-Chapelle comporte plus d’éléments romains que francs. Les barbares qui ont détruit l’architecture antique ne sont pas ceux que l’on croit.


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Le siècle d’or néerlandais Quand les Provinces-Unies, révoltées contre Philippe II, décidèrent en 1579, par l’Union d’Utrecht, de proclamer la déchéance de leur souverain héréditaire, elles oublièrent totalement de songer à un gouvernement. Leur chef charismatique, Guillaume le Taciturne, jouait de son prestige pour soutenir la Révolution, mais cette indépendance de sept comtés était surtout animée par la haine de l’Inquisition. D’où de nombreux remous intérieurs et des épisodes parfois sanglants pour diriger un Etat qui n’était qu’un conglomérat d’intérêts divers. La Hollande prit une part telle à la prospérité d’un pays «où il n’y avait que de l’eau et des prairies», selon le mot de Richelieu, que son nom finit par déteindre sur la confédération. L’absence d’un pouvoir central bien organisé permit l’alternance d’épisodes autoritaires sous l’égide des Nassau et de longues phases plus démocratiques. Il reste que la prospérité de ces remarquables commerçants, servis par la première marine du monde, fut surtout le fruit d’un certain manque de réglementation. La pesanteur espagnole avait engendré une grande soif de liberté qui se manifesta par le sens civique. Devenue la métropole financière de l’Europe au détriment de Gênes, Amsterdam sembla le carrefour de tous les peuples et de toutes les religions. C’est là que de nombreux Juifs, comme le philosophe Spinoza,

fuyant la rigueur ibérique, découvrirent un univers de tolérance. Les imprimeurs hollandais, n’étant soumis à aucune censure, se firent la voix de toutes les frustrations issues des monarchies absolues qui tenaient alors le haut du pavé. Les Protestants accueillirent avec une grande générosité leurs confrères que persécutaient différents souverains catholiques. Petit bémol cependant : tout comme dans l’Angleterre élisabéthaine, la peur d’un complot permanent des «Papistes» causa pas mal d’ennuis aux Catholiques dont un grand nombre fut forcé d’émigrer vers le Sud, à l’instar de leurs coreligionnaires anglais qui rallièrent les PaysBas espagnols. En somme, la tolérance néerlandaise était due aux circonstances plus qu’à une mentalité moderne. Il reste que jamais auparavant un coin d’Europe n’avait connu un tel espace de liberté. Le vide créé par un pouvoir empirique fut également à l’origine d’un nouvel essor du capitalisme. Véritable Babylone du commerce et de la banque, la grande ville des bords de l’Amstel, austère en son architecture, mais grouillant de vie, d’intelligence et d’initiatives nouvelles, vit l’éclosion de la première économie internationale.

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Vue de la Mezquita à Cordoue qui tout au long de son histoire fut partagée entre sa vocation d’église et de mosquée. Bâtie sur les vestiges d’une ancienne église wisigoth par les Maures, elle devint une importante mosquée (VIIIe - Xe s.). Elle fut ensuite consacrée comme cathédrale après la reconquête de Cordoue par Ferdinand III de Castille en 1236. L’intérieur révèle la magie de cette alliance des styles omeyyades et chrétiens. View of the Mezquita in Cordoba which during its long history vacillated between being a Christian Visigothic church (7thc.) to being taken over by Muslims and becoming the “Aljama Mosque” (8th-10thc.) and after Cordoba was captured by King Ferdinand III of Castile in 1236, the mosque was re-consecrated a Christian church.The decorative Renaissance style of the cathedral is in stark contrast to the

L’épopée des Wallons de Suède L’épopée des Wallons de Suède est directement liée à ce contexte. Elle fut l’œuvre de différents protagonis-

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graphic rhythms of the older mosque colonnades. photo: Cordoba Local Tourist Board

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Rue du Long Marché à Gdansk (PL). L’homogénéité de ces maisons qui datent pour la plupart de la fin du XVIe et du début du XVIIe siècles rappelle l’architecture des Pays-Bas. Long Market Street, Gdansk (PL).The uniformity of these houses which date mostly from the end of the 16th and the start of the 17th centuries reminds one of architecture of the Low-Lands. photo: ©Eva Ciszeuska/Gazeta/Vu

Typique vue d’Amsterdam, le long des canaux dont le style caractéristique des façades fut très influent durant et après l’Age d’Or des Pays-Bas. Characteristic canal view of town house facades along the Reguliersgracht in Amsterdam. Dutch architectural styles became very influential during and after the country’s Golden Age. photo: Laurie Neale

tes parmi lesquels se distingua Louis de Geer (15871652), un Liégeois calviniste dont les parents avaient émigré à Dordrecht. Lorsqu’il s’intéressa à la Suède, Louis de Geer était depuis longtemps un des plus riches brasseurs d’affaires d’Amsterdam. Ses prêts au royaume scandinave lui donnaient un ascendant irrésistible sur des élites parfois réticentes à voir un si gros poisson s’installer au cœur de l’Etat.

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L’idée de base des grands financiers hollandais était simple : très riche en matières premières (cuivre et fer), la Suède, engagée dans la Guerre de Trente ans qui exigeait une énorme production d’armes, devait dépenser des sommes folles pour faire traiter ses minerais en Allemagne avant de les rapatrier à des fins militaires. Installer une sidérurgie avancée en Suède était évidemment la solution du bon sens. Parallèlement, la principauté de Liège, enclavée dans les possessions espagnoles connaissait une grave crise économique en raison du contrôle des armes qu’y exerçaient les Habsbourg de Vienne et de Madrid. Un chômage élevé sévissait dans une classe ouvrière où se trouvaient les meilleurs spécialistes européens en la matière. En effet, les vallées de la Meuse et de certains affluents, grâce à l’énergie hydraulique et à un savoirfaire qui remontait au Moyen Age (le mot houille est d’origine liégeoise et les hauts-fourneaux avaient été inventés dans cette ville industrieuse), se trouvaient à la pointe du progrès. En personnage avisé, Louis de Geer, dont la famille était originaire de la région2, eut tôt fait d’envoyer des centaines d’agents recruteurs qui promettaient à des gens dans une situation précaire un avenir fait de sécurité et d’avantages sociaux. C’est ainsi que, surtout à partir de 1626 quand Louis obtint d’immenses concessions minières dans l’Uppland au nord de Stockholm, plus d’un millier d’artisans spécialisés, suivis de leurs familles, émigrèrent, 2 Il était d’ascendance noble, issu d’un rameau bâtard des puissants sires de Hamal.


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parfois pour toujours, dans un pays dont ils ne connaissaient rien.

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Un des grands marteaux de forge, actionné autrefois par l’énergie hydraulique, situé à Gimo, autre bruk

Arrivés sur place, ils recevaient un terrain à bâtir et des prairies où leurs épouses pouvaient installer un peu de bétail. Toutes les dépenses de construction leur étaient avancées par un système de financement avec remboursement échelonné qui préfigure déjà celui qu’Henry Ford inaugura dans ses usines. Ils bénéficiaient d’un contrat et d’avantages sociaux remarquables et, du fait de leur langue wallonne, étaient au départ coupés des autorités locales, ce qui favorisait la mainmise de la direction sur cette société ouvrière d’élite. En quelques années, la nouvelle sidérurgie liégeoise renfloua les caisses de l’Etat, permit la création d’une flotte et fit de la Suède la nouvelle grande puissance du Nord. Quant aux descendants de Louis de Geer (qui alla jusqu’à posséder un huitième des revenus du royaume), ils s’intégrèrent à la plus haute noblesse de Suède. Les Wallons, restés très homogènes par un système d’endogamie, furent rapidement considérés comme les plus beaux partis du prolétariat et de la bourgeoisie naissants. Curieusement, leur système d’apartheid, pratiqué au début de leur séjour suédois, eut à terme un effet des plus stimulants sur de véritables échanges interculturels. C’est l’exemple de gens qualifiés et pauvres, devenus l’aristocratie du prolétariat suédois, qui, par un effet d’entraînement, d’alliances recherchées et de bonne éducation, engendra avec le temps une véritable classe moyenne locale et une amélioration du sort d’un peuple, jusque-là destiné aux fonctions de paysan ou de soldat. De très

des barons de Geer. One of the large ironworks hammers, then operated by hydrolic power, situated at Gimo, another bruk built by the Geer Barons. photo: Olivier de Trazegnies

nombreuses familles contemporaines sont fières de porter un nom qui, parfois déformé avec le temps, rappelle cette époque héroïque. Vienne avant la Première Guerre mondiale Les périodes de centralisme et de régionalisation ont perpétuellement alterné dans l’histoire de la Monarchie des Habsbourg. Après le triomphe de l’Empire sur les Turcs et les victoires du Prince Eugène au début du XVIIIe siècle, l’obsession de Charles VI était de constituer un Etat stable et fort. Les circonstances obligèrent sa fille Marie-Thérèse à un gouvernement bien plus respectueux des particularismes locaux, puis tout faillit exploser à cause du despotisme éclairé de Joseph II. Quand, à la suite du Congrès de

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Vue du village d’Osterbybruk dans l’Uppland (SE), une des premières cités minières construites par les Geer. Bruk signifie « village industriel ». View of the village of Osterbybruk in Uppland (SE), one of the first mining settlements built by the Geer Barons. Bruk means ‘industrial village’. photo: Olivier de Trazegnies

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Véritable emblème, le Palais de la Sécession à Vienne réalisé d’après les plans de l’architecte autrichien Joseph Maria Olbrich à l’aube du XXe siècle. True icon, the Secession Palace in Vienna was designed by the Austrian architect Joseph Maria Olbrich at the dawn of the 20th century. photo: Josef Muellek / Dreamstime.com

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Vienne, l’Europe fut partiellement sous la coupe de Metternich, de tels mécontentements apparurent que la Monarchie fut bien près de disparaître en 1848. Le jeune François-Joseph, remis en selle par l’intervention du Tsar, commença son règne de manière absolutiste. Mais les tensions internes étaient trop fortes. Pratiquant une Realpolitik que bien peu lui reconnaissent, l’Empereur présida en 1867 à la création de la «double monarchie», exemple original de deux Etats indépendants - l’Empire d’Autriche et le royaume de Hongrie - unis seulement par un même souverain, par une armée et par une diplomatie communes. Ce modèle finit par disparaître en 1918, mais il annonçait déjà notre actuelle tentative d’unification européenne. Alors que, sur le plan intérieur, la Hongrie, qui avait du retard à rattraper, ne fut pas tendre à l’égard des minorités, l’Empire d’Autriche, quoique dur avec les Slaves, évolua lentement vers une monarchie constitutionnelle. Quand il mourut en 1916, le vieil empereur ne différait pas beaucoup de ses confrères de Belgique ou d’Angleterre en qui concernait la réalité de ses pouvoirs. Le symbole de l’unité impériale était Vienne. C’est ainsi que cette ville fut durant une cinquantaine d’années un terreau fécond de rencontres entre populations venues des différentes régions d’Etats rassemblés sous la bannière impériale et une sorte de Florence de la pensée contemporaine. Grâce à un fantastique essor économique et au développement des banques, Vienne passe de 898.000 habitants en 1869 à plus de deux millions en 1910. Le décor urbain est complètement rénové, tandis que son université exerce un rayonnement extraordinaire en Europe. Toutes les langues se parlent dans les rues, même si les autorités veulent imposer l’allemand. Que l’on pense à des courants nouveaux comme la

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Sécession, à des peintres comme Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele ou Oskar Kokoschka, à des architectes de la trempe d’Otto Wagner, d’Adolf Loos ou de Josef Hoffmann, tout bouillonne en ce lieu où se brassent tant de courants intellectuels. Avec Bruckner, Mahler, Richard Strauss et bientôt Schönberg ou Alban Berg, nous sommes loin de la valse viennoise. Mendel énonce les lois de l’hérédité. Sigmund Freud crée une révolution copernicienne dans l’histoire de l’esprit humain avec la psychanalyse. En littérature, Arthur Schnitzler, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Rainer Maria Rilke ou Stefan Zweig, même après l’effondrement de l’Empire, en maintiennent l’atmosphère. Il faut aussi rappeler que les Habsbourg, et particulièrement l’Empereur Charles, se considèrent comme les garants personnels de l’épanouissement des Juifs. Alors que les pogroms ternissent la Russie de Nicolas Ier et qu’un sinistre Autrichien créera un peu plus tard l’holocauste, cette disposition d’esprit montre que l’apport de toutes les traditions représente au plus haut niveau de pouvoir l’essence même de l’équilibre miraculeux qui permet un tel déploiement intellectuel. Le patrimoine, miroir de l’Europe interculturelle Ces quatre exemples, radicalement différents dans le temps et dans l’espace nous indiquent la voie à suivre. La richesse d’une civilisation réside dans l’ouverture à la diversité. En revanche, le repli misérable du nationalisme annonce généralement son effondrement prochain, un peu comme les pharaons qui se mariaient entre frères et sœurs, parents et enfants, pour ne pas ternir l’éclat de leur race. La nature exige le mélange des gènes. Si ce n’était pas le cas, pourquoi aurait-elle inventé la séparation des sexes ? Il en est de même en matière intellectuelle. Seul un immense creuset des esprits et des mentalités ouvre la porte au progrès.

A Chorus of Civilisations Through its motto of ‘Unity in Diversity’, the European Union affirms the importance it places in cultural diversity in today’s Europe. Certain “trendy” expressions, however, having been overly used for a wide variety of purposes, have become hackneyed, resulting in a rather vague mixture of connotations bordering on clichés. Somewhere near the head of this list, we find ‘intercultural dialogue’, which nevertheless since the dawn of our civilisation has contributed much through its effects to enrich the diversity of our respective cultural roots and foundations. Thus we find that the first instance of such an exchange took place in the Persian empire of the Achemenides, offering us a fine case study of balance and human interest. Europe throughout the course of its history, also proves to be rich in emblematic examples. First, we have the extraordinary flourishing of Mozarabic Spain between the 8th and 13th centuries, whose prosperity stemmed from an amazing mosaic of peoples and beliefs that co-existed in perfect symbiosis. One thus finds there Cristianos, Mozarabs and Elches (Christian converts to Islam), the Morisco and Mudjar Moors and the Jewish conversos, who all lived according to a harmonious ecumenism. Later, the radiance of the Golden Age of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces in the 17th century also showed evidence of great

tolerance, the fruit at that time not only of there being no central government over the seven districts, but also due to substantial prosperity. Amsterdam, a veritable Babylon of business and banking, seemed to be a crossroads for all the people fleeing the rigours of Iberia and persecution by various Catholic sovereigns. Never before had such freedom been witnessed in Europe. Dutch printers, for example, were not subject to any censorship whatsoever. The saga of the Swedish Walloons derives directly from this context. It was the work of various protagonists, including the Calvinist, Louis de Geer, from Liège, one of the richest business dealers in Amsterdam. Having obtained immense mining concessions in the Uppland north of Stockholm, he put to good use the Walloons’ knowledge of steel-making by sending many families to settle in the Scandinavian kingdom. There followed an extremely lively crosscultural exchange. Lastly, the profusion of art and ideas from Imperial Vienna just before the fall of the Hapsburgs was also the fruit of fertile meeting grounds among peoples harking from the many regions of States gathered under the imperial standard, and where many schools of thought cross-pollinated.

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Intercultural Dialogue - a Pan- European Challenge in 2008 and Beyond Double interview with Odile Quintin, EU DG Culture, and Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni, CoE ✒ ELÉONORE DE MERODE, former European Policy Officer at Europa Nostra LAURIE NEALE, Co-editor and Communications Officer at Europa Nostra

Mme Odile Quintin, Director General for Education and Culture at the

Throughout 2008, intercultural dialogue is being promoted by both the European Union and the Council of Europe as a key tool for harnessing the potential of Europe’s cultural diversity. In this double interview, Mme Odile Quintin, Director General for Education and Culture at the European Commission, and Mrs Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni, Director General for Education, Culture and Heritage, Youth and Sport, and Coordinator for Intercultural Dialogue at the Council of Europe, set forth the philosophy behind, and the goals for the 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue, and provide an overview of the principal actions undertaken by the European Institutions in view of achieving these ambitions.

European Commission Mme Odile Quintin, Directrice Générale de l’Education et de la Culture à la Commission européenne photo: European Commission

Europe is a continent of great cultural diversity. Its landscapes are varied, changing within small distances. Its peoples, with their varied languages, culture and heritage rub shoulders in close proximity of each other. The enlargement of the European Union, migration flows, greater mobility within and across borders, opening of labour markets, and progress in ICT and globalisation have brought European citizens increasingly in contact with people with different backgrounds, languages, beliefs and habits, and have increased the multicultural character of our societies. Increasing cultural diversity gives rise to new social and political challenges. On one hand, it often triggers uncertainty, fear and rejection – potentially leading to xenophobia, racism, intolerance and discrimination– threatening peace and stability within our communities. On the other hand, cultural diversity is being ever more recognised as one of Europe’s greatest assets.

Mrs Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni, Director General for Education, Culture and Heritage,Youth and Sport, and Coordinator for Intercultural Dialogue at the Council of Europe

“Together in Diversity” - 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue 2008

Mme Gabrielle Battaini-Dragoni, Directrice Générale de l’Education, de la Culture et du Patrimoine, de la Jeunesse et du Sport, et Coordinatrice

On 8 January 2008, the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue (EYID) was officially launched in Ljubljana, Slovenia with an international conference entitled “Intercultural Dialogue as the Fundamental Value of the EU”. Participating were European and national political leaders and some 300 stakeholders representing the EU Member States, as well as civil society representatives from the cultural and social sectors. Throughout the year and throughout the continent, festivals, debates and projects are taking place to celebrate Europe’s rich and varied makeup and history. “Together in Diversity” encapsulates the spirit of

du Dialogue Interculturel au Conseil de l’Europe photo: Council of Europe

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the 2008 EYID. Indeed, it is only together that European citizens can transform the challenges posed by cultural diversity into Europe’s unique advantage. Fifty years ago, the idea of uniting the various peoples of our continent within one body, the European Union, appeared out of reach. Since then, much has been done to achieve this goal. Odile Quintin tells Europa Nostra about the European Commissions ambitions for the Year: Europa Nostra: What value do you attach to cultural heritage as a field for promoting intercultural dialogue? ODILE QUINTIN: Cultural heritage has enormous value for intercultural dialogue. Knowing more about our cultural heritage not only helps us to understand our cultural background and to comprehend how society has developed over time, but it offers us real evidence of the richness and variety of Europe’s cultural diversity and how this diversity has shaped our existence into what it is today. Looking back over its achievements, I think we can conclude that Europe - the European project - has been remarkably successful in economic, legal and social terms. But Europe is not a defined, finite piece of work. As society continues to evolve, so our policies must evolve with it. The next stage of the European project will be to transform our multicultural societies into intercultural ones, where our plurality of cultures joins in dialogue and in sharing responsibility. Culture - including cultural heritage - has a crucial role in this process. European heritage - which I take to be our long and fruitful history of interaction and cross-fertilisation between different cultures, from Europe and abroad - is a real resource when it comes to responding to contemporary challenges in a globalising world. Culture is not an abstract concept. It is part of our daily life, and our perception of our culture and the world around us determines who we are and how we


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communicate with others. Throughout the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue, therefore, we are highlighting and promoting intercultural communication through a whole host of cultural projects, European, national and local. One of the main conclusions of the international conference “Intercultural Dialogue as the Fundamental Value of the EU” was that the greatest benefits of the year would come from grass-roots activity. In your view how can the European Commission and Europa Nostra cooperate to encourage such activity? Theoretical discussions amongst policy makers and professionals about increasing public awareness certainly have their value, but at the end of the day it is what happens on the ground that matters. Where intercultural dialogue is concerned, what we are aiming at is to promote a process of dialogue and intercultural awareness whereby everyone living within the EU can handle the diversified and complex cultural environment we find in our daily lives in an open and natural way. We want to raise awareness, among young people especially, about the importance of developing a sense of European citizenship which is active and open to the world, showing respect for cultural diversity and reflecting our common European values. The Commission has set up a Civil Society Platform to act as an interface between the European institutions and the people involved in the initiatives planned during the Year. The Platform has brought more than 200 organisations together – each with their own rich experience in the field of intercultural dialogue.

Sarica Church, Cappadocia (TR) (EU/EN Awards 2006 Prize for Architectural Heritage) A restoration project of 6th to 8th century Christian heritage in the heart of Turkey, the Jury rewarded the

Given Europa Nostra’s position as a member of the Civil Society Platform and as a registered partner, we believe that the Year is a great opportunity for your organisation, along with the Commission and other cultural organisations, to highlight Europe’s rich cultural diversity, our common heritage and the common threads that link the various ways of life within the Member States of the Union.

impressive rescue, stabilisation and conservation - by private initiative - of this dilapidated rock-carved church threatened by climatic erosion and the provision of visitor infrastructure in a region of huge cultural significance. L’église de Sarica en Capadoce (TR), magnifique exemple de l’émergence du

How will you measure the success of the EYID in at the end of the year, and how will you integrate the dimension of intercultural dialogue in the activities to implement the European Agenda for Culture? We have commissioned an external, independent evaluation to measure how successfully we meet the objectives of the Year, for example, in spreading good practices throughout the EU, impact of the information campaign, promotion of Community programmes and actions, and we will publish a report assessing the results. My expectation is that we will raise awareness not only at grassroots level, but that we will also succeed in reaching policy makers - and their purses! Many, many policies - employment, integration, migration, fight against radicalization, external relations, minorities, multilingualism, education, culture, youth, media, etc - have intercultural issues running through them like a vein of ore, and we want to bring that ore to the surface. I expect to see a real change and a

Christianisme en Turquie au cours des Ve et VIIIe siècles, primée en 2006, Prix UE/EN, pour le sauvetage impressionnant, la stabilisation et la conservation – sous initiative privée – d’une église rupestre délabrée, qui était menacée par l’érosion climatique, et par le développement touristique d’un lieu situé dans une région de grande importance culturelle.

much stronger focus on intercultural dialogue in these areas as a result of the Year. Building on the results of the Year, the long-term priority for the EU is to develop a sustainable strategy for

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the future. This means the issue has to be seriously addressed both at European and at national level. This is one of the major objectives of the European Agenda for Culture proposed by the Commission in May 2007 and endorsed by the Council in November. The newly launched open method of coordination in the field of culture opens up opportunities for Member States to exchange views and experiences on intercultural dialogue, on what is working in their countries. Building on this process as well as on the debate which the Year will trigger, we expect new political recommendations to emerge which will contribute to our long-term aims: to integrate intercultural dialogue not only in our European Agenda for Culture but also in many more Community policies.

Omeriye Ottoman Baths, Nicosia (CY) EU/EN Awards 2005 Prize for Architectural Heritage.The Jury rewarded the safeguarding of the authenticity and adaptation to contemporary needs of this distinctive landmark of the walled city of Nicosia and the sensitive treatment of an Islamic architectural element in a multicultural context. (see also article page 34) Bains ottomans de Nicosie (CY) primés en 2005. Prix UE/EN. pour la sauvegarde de l’authenticité et l’adaptation aux besoins actuels d’un

The 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue

point de repère remarquable de la ville fortifiée et pour le traitement adroit

The 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue has been organised by the European Commission around a large scale information campaign and funding to realise studies and research, and to co-finance 27 national projects (one per Member State) and seven flagship projects at European level, on the theme of intercultural dialogue. Debates have been organised in Brussels each following a specific theme or approach, such as the media, arts and heritage, the workspace, inter-religious dialogue, education and youth, as well as migration and integration. The 2008 EYID aims to raise awareness among Europe’s citizens, particularly young people, and to encourage all to explore the benefits of our rich cultural heritage and active civic participation in European affairs, thereby strengthening the sense of belonging to Europe.

d’un élément architectural islamique dans un contexte multiculturel. (voir aussi article page 34)

The website of the information campaign (www. dialogue2008.eu), elaborated in cooperation with civil society organisations, aims to promote and to establish the foundations of a sustainable strategy for a common European space for intercultural dialogue. It includes a Partners section which aims to encourage the creation of networks and the exchange of exemplary practices at EU level. To date, it includes the profiles of over 900 individuals and organisations active in the field. The promotion of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue is outlined as one of three key objectives of the “European Agenda for Culture in a Globalising World” endorsed by the EU Council of Ministers of Culture on 15-16 November 2007. The Council of Europe is currently collecting examples of good practice on intercultural dialogue through the Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, a web-based information and monitoring system (www.coe.int/ dialogue).

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“Living Together as Equals in Dignity” – The Council of Europe’s “White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue” As early as 1954, the Council of Europe’s “European Cultural Convention” definedmutual understanding as the central goal of European exchange and cooperation in the fields of culture and education. Initially focused on promoting understanding between its Member States, the Council of Europe (CoE) later committed itself to a new dialogue between Europe and its neighbouring regions - the southern Mediterranean, the Middle East and Central Asia. Intercultural dialogue is a fundamental dimension of many programmes implemented by the CoE such as the “Regional Programme for Cultural and Natural Heritage in South East Europe” and the “Cultural Routes”, thematic touristic routes which demonstrate in a visible way how the heritage of the different countries and cultures of Europe represent a shared cultural heritage. In 2005, the fundamental role played by cultural heritage in the promotion of meaningful dialogue between cultures was recognised in the CoE’s “Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society” (Faro, 2005) and in 2006, the Committee of Ministers launched the preparations for the “White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue”, including a broad consultation with a vast array of stakeholders. This important document, published under the title “Living Together as Equals in Dignity”, was recently adopted in May 2008 during this European Year of Intercultural Dialogue.

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Cultural Heritage without Borders (SE) (EU/EN Awards 2005 Medal for Dedicated Service) The Jury rewarded the group’s great dedication to the reconstruction of heritage in an area ravaged by war and their sustained contribution to

Europa Nostra asked Gabriella BattainiDragoni about the Council of Europe’s beliefs regarding intercultural dialogue within the greater Europe:

intercultural dialogue, social cohesion and reconciliation between various ethnic groups in the Balkans. La Fondation suédoise pour le

What are the principal policy recommendations of the White Paper? Broadly speaking, everything the Council of Europe is doing—and has done since its creation in 1949—is directly or indirectly related to the management and promotion of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue. Our mandate is to defend and extend across our 47 member states the values of freedom and human dignity for every individual, regardless of his or her nationality, ethnic origin, cultural background or religious beliefs. And these, of course, are all vital preconditions for a thriving, culturally diverse society, in which people live with each other and not against each other.

Patrimoine Culturel sans frontières (SE) primée en 2005, Prix UE/EN. pour le dévouement exceptionnel dans la reconstruction du patrimoine d’une région ravagée par la guerre et pour une contribution durable au dialogue interculturel, à la cohésion sociale et à la réconciliation entre divers groupes ethniques des Balkans.

Intercultural dialogue can only thrive if all stakeholders are engaged; therefore the White Paper addresses not only public authorities at all levels, but also civil society including minority and youth organisations, religious communities, the social partners, the media and many more. Secondly, looking at the various policy areas, the White Paper argues that to advance intercultural dialogue, the democratic governance of cultural diversity should be adapted in many areas, such as the teaching and learning of intercultural competences, and the creation of more easily accessi-

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Common Cultural Heritage (GR/TR) (EU/EN Awards 2005 Diploma for a Study).The Jury rewarded this remarkable civic initiative that uses architectural heritage as a basis for developing cross-cultural understanding and cooperation between Greece and Turkey. « Patrimoine culturel commun » (GR/TR) primé en 2005. Prix UE/EN. pour une remarquable initiative civique qui utilise le patrimoine architectural comme base pour développer la compréhension et la coopération interculturelle entre la Grèce et la Turquie.

ble common spaces for intercultural dialogue. It also makes recommendations concerning democratic citizenship and participation. Finally, the White Paper makes recommendations on how to take intercultural dialogue to the international level. On all these aspects, the Council of Europe also commits itself to a number of flagship programmes in the years to come.

The European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards programme raises awareness, and encourages through the “power of example”, of the successful initiatives in the field of cultural heritage. Numerous winning projects have been based on intercultural and cross-cultural cooperation as displayed here in this selection. (See the Europa Nostra website for more information.)

What connection can be made between interreligious dialogue and intercultural dialogue? Quite frequently we have the tendency to regard different religious identities as the real source and trigger of cultural conflict in modern societies. However, the White Paper argues that religion as such is not the problem; rather, if religion is abused for political or other non-religious purposes, or if religious affiliation is used as a stigma, then it may appear to some as if problems connected to cultural diversity and social cohesion are rooted in religious beliefs.

Le Prix du patrimoine culturel de l’Union européenne / Concours Europa Nostra récompense et encourage des réalisations exemplaires et des initiatives réussies en faveur du patrimoine culturel. Plusieurs projets lauréats aux dimensions interculturelles et transfrontalières ont été ici sélectionnés. (Pour plus d’informations à ce sujet, consultez le site d’Europa Nostra)

The Council of Europe has always recognised that there is an important religious dimension in cultural identities. Hence, intercultural dialogue should address religious aspects too, for instance, in schools through the teaching of religious facts. After all, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and other faiths with all their internal differentiations are an integral part of Europe’s identity and history. In a situation of growing cultural diversity in virtually every European society, religious communities themselves can contribute significantly to the promotion of intercultural understanding and peaceful conflict resolution. One important aspect of that task is the exchange of ideas with other religious communities, in other words inter-religious dialogue. The Council of Europe, like all public authorities, is com-

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pletely impartial in all matters of religious dogma and frequently appeals to religious communities to speak to each other in order to search for common ground. The European Heritage Days is one of the flagship programmes of the Council of Europe in the field of Heritage. In this context, a number of countries have cooperated on a shared theme by encouraging their citizens to visit neighbouring regions. How can the European Heritage Days be further developed to promote intercultural dialogue? The idea behind the European Heritage Days was to raise the awareness of the general public to the interest and value of local heritage and also the need to ensure its conservation, which is a shared responsibility not only for public authorities but for society as a whole involving associations and private initiatives. The “Open Days” organised in the member countries was also aimed at presenting the history of the places to school pupils and young people. We are now going towards a more international concept of our work in this area. With the preparation of the Framework Convention on the value of cultural heritage for society (Faro, 2005), the Council of Europe has initiated a reflection on the understanding and meaning of cultural heritage in our globalised world characterised by massive migration with people living in new places and in particular in major cities. The way to explain heritage in such a context should be different from traditional approaches which emphasised the national dimension of cultural heritage. This new trend has inspired the updating of the European Heritage Days programme which is being carried out at the initiative of the two partners, the Council of Europe and the European Commission.


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We have prepared for 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue, a major Forum on “Heritage and Dialogue” (Brussels, 23-24 October 2008). The Forum is being organised jointly by the four different Belgian communities - a good example of intercultural dialogue in itself. This Forum is the first in a new series on different aspects of communication and interpretation of the cultural heritage - with special attention paid to the intercultural interpretation of different topics related to the heritage.

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Cooperation between the Council of Europe and the European Union The promotion of intercultural dialogue is one of the shared priorities and focal areas of cooperation in the Memorandum of Understanding that was recently signed between the two European institutions. In particular, the Council of Europe and the European Commission are jointly operating a number of very relevant initiatives, in particular: ■ The Intercultural Cities Project, which will assist cities across the continent to excel as spaces of intercultural dialogue; ■ The annual celebration of the European Heritage Days, which raises awareness amongst European citizens of the great wealth of Europe’s common heritage; ■ A Europe-wide anti-discrimination campaign together with networks of media professionals devoted to the promotion of diversity; ■ The opening of the European Resource Centre on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Intercultural Education in Oslo in 2008.

At the same time, we should not forget that the European Heritage Days were from the beginning an outstanding opportunity to promote heritage through the media. The Council of Europe Secretariat is discussing with publishers and TV producers the possibility of initiatives illustrating heritage topics highlighting themes related to the heritage that we find in different parts of Europe and show the exchanges that have taken place throughout history. I would like to draw your attention, in this context, to our publication “Dividing lines, connecting lines Europe’s cross-border heritage”. The “border journey” this book proposes, involves us in taking a new look at a concept which, far from being fixed, is itself a work

in progress.” In several of our member States, TV programmes on heritage already exist and I dream of a programme once a year during the period of the European Heritage Days which would be presented by several different TV channels one evening on themes related to our common heritage. We would try to offer completely unexpected but exciting aspects of this common heritage.

Le dialogue interculturel : le défi européen de 2008 La diversité culturelle de l’Europe ne cesse de croître. L’élargissement de l’Union européenne, l’ouverture des marchés du travail, l’intensification de la mobilité et la mondialisation ont accru le caractère multiculturel de beaucoup de pays auquel s’ajoutent les langues, religions, groupes ethniques et cultures présents sur le continent. En conséquence, le dialogue interculturel a un rôle de plus en plus important à jouer dans le renforcement de l’identité et de la citoyenneté européenne. Afin de promouvoir cette diversité culturelle unique que connaît l’Europe et d’encourager les citoyens à en explorer les avantages ainsi qu’à s’ouvrir aux différentes traditions culturelles, l’Union européenne et le Conseil de l’Europe lui ont consacré cette Année européenne 2008. Inaugurée le 8 janvier à Ljubljana, cette Année du dialogue interculturel se ponctue de manifestations, de débats et d’activités organisés à travers tout le continent et tout au long de l’année. Aux projets phares d’ampleur européenne, s’ajoutent les actions nationales de chaque Etat membre ainsi que tout un programme partenaire visant à mobiliser la société civile. L’ensemble de ces initiatives qui reçoit le soutien de l’Union européenne, s’attache à mettre en évidence l’interaction entre les cultures, à approfondir les relations entre les nationalités et les religions et à favoriser, par le dialogue, un renforcement de la compréhension, de la tolérance, de la solidarité et du sentiment de communauté entre les citoyens européens de tous les milieux. Selon Mme Odile Quintin, Directrice Générale de l’Education et de la Culture à la Commission européenne, l’Europe est aujourd’hui confrontée à un nouvel enjeu. Elle ne peut plus se satisfaire d’une société où les cultures et les groupes culturels se contentent de coexister. Elle doit aller au-delà d’une société multiculturelle afin de

devenir une société interculturelle au sein de laquelle les échanges et les interactions entre les cultures se déroulent de manière constructive et responsable. Comme cela a été souligné lors de la conférence d’inauguration « Le dialogue interculturel: valeur fondamentale de l’UE », l’engagement de la société civile est essentiel à ce changement. Véritable interface entre la population et les institutions européennes, ces organisations reflètent les pratiques et les valeurs culturelles de l’Europe, tout en contribuant, mieux que quiconque, à favoriser le dialogue entre les cultures. Mais cette année 2008 qui a mis en exergue la nécessité du dialogue culturel et en a jeté les fondements, est appelée à se poursuivre en devenant un des objectifs majeurs de l’Agenda culturel européen. En mai de cette année, le Livre blanc « Vivre ensemble dans la reconnaissance de l’égalité de chacun » a été adopté par les 47 États membres du Conseil de l’Europe. Mme Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni nous explique qu’il représente un document stratégique de la politique générale du Conseil de l’Europe. Destiné aussi bien aux décideurs qu’à tous les échelons de la société civile, il servira de document de référence et de ligne directrice à la promotion du dialogue culturel en Europe et entre l’Europe et ses voisins. Construit sur base des valeurs fondamentales de l’Union européenne et des droits de l’homme, le livre traite aussi bien de la protection des minorités, de l’éducation que du rôle des médias. La dimension religieuse dans l’identité culturelle et historique de l’Europe ainsi que le rôle des dialogues interculturels et interreligieux comme source d’enrichissement mutuel sont également soulignés. Mais la Coordinatrice du dialogue interculturel au Conseil de l’Europe tient également à ajouter l’importance du patrimoine ainsi que des Journées européennes du Patrimoine dans l’accomplissement de ce nouveau défi européen.

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Round the World in your Own City Encounter between cultures in The Hague ✒ RABIN S. BALDEWSINGH Deputy Mayor of The Hague,The Netherlands, with the portfolio Citizenship, Decentralisation, Liveability and Media European cities have for centuries offered sanctuary and opportunities to peoples from elsewhere, bringing immigrant populations into close contact with the local and longstanding inhabitants. For equally long, these new neighbours have been greeted with varying degrees of welcome or antagonism, and have integrated with varying degrees of success or resistance. In The Hague, the local authorities have taken the lead in facilitating interaction, and thus understanding between all sections of the population, through offering opportunities for sharing each other’s cultural heritage, both tangible and intangible. Deputy Mayor Rabin Baldewsingh opens the Wereldreis door Eigen Stad Day in The Hague, a festival of encounter between fellow citizens where the traditions and cultural heritage of the city’s numerous ethnic, religious and cultural communities are proudly shared. L’adjoint au maire Rabin Baldewsingh inaugurant la journée Wereldreis door Eigen Stad à La Haye, un festival de rencontre concitoyenne où .traditions et patrimoines des différentes communautés culturelles, ethniques et religieuses de la ville sont mis à l’honneur.

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In Europe today most major towns and cities are home to people from all corners of the world. The presence of more than a hundred nationalities, and even more languages and cultures in the city in which you live is no longer unusual. The challenge now for city authorities is to create a strong and vital urban community encompassing so many different cultures. Assimilation, as is becoming increasingly clear, is no longer the answer. Most people are proud of their own identity and do not want to lose it. The option that would appear to be the most promising is the “mosaic city”: a city in which the many cultures retain their individuality and form a meaningful whole, a whole which is more than the sum of its parts. This

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means giving the various communities the freedom to develop in their own way, while at the same time building a social foundation shared by all the members of an urban community, and creating ties to their town or city and to their follow inhabitants. The challenge of The Hague How does The Hague regard this concept of cultural heritage? We regard historic buildings and monuments, customs, traditions and ideas as entities in their own right, but also as a means of helping people to determine their place in today’s society and to make choices for the society of tomorrow. Culture can be used to exclude people. This happens,


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Active participation during The Hague intercultural events builds interest, understanding and tolerance for society in the future. Here children take part in a lesson of Barath Natyam, classical Indian dance. Une participation active des citoyens au cours de cet événement interculturel de La Haye contribue à construire, pour l’avenir, une société basée sur l’intérêt, la compréhension et la tolérance. Leçon de dance indienne classique, Barath Natyam.

The Old Catholic Parish church of Saints Jacobus and Augustinus was built in 1722 with a fine Baroque interior, in an era when the independent Old Catholic congregation had to worship “underground”, away from the notice of the Calvainist authorities.

for instance, when the local cultural identity and cultural heritage are presented as something unique and to which outsiders will never really have access, or if people declare their own culture and their own traditions superior to those of others. On the other hand, culture can also be used in an inclusive way: by emphasising what people have in common; by developing an understanding of things that at first seem distant and strange; by encouraging dialogue and cross pollination; and above all by recognising that our cultural heritage is not something that comes from the original Dutch population alone, but also from the many migrant communities which have contributed to this city from their own cultural heritage and will continue to do so.

own city. The trip includes several different religious buildings, amongst them a Sikh temple, a Hindu temple or mandir, a mosque, a synagogue, a Catholic convent, a church belonging to the Old Catholic congregation, the building of the Sufi congregation and

L’ancienne église catholique de St Jacques et St Augustin, construite en 1722 à l’insu des autorités calvinistes, révèle encore aujourd’hui son bel intérieur baroque.

Actions and events In The Hague we are making every effort to encourage cross-cultural contacts. One of the oldest and best known means is The Hague’s Wereldreis door Eigen Stad or the “Journey round the World in your Own City” event. This was first organised sixteen years ago on 21 March to coincide with the United Nations International Day against Racial Discrimination. Since then it has been repeated each year and has now become an established Hague tradition and part of the cultural heritage of our city. On a Sunday afternoon in the beginning of spring, The Hague residents can take a free bus ride past a number of world sites in their

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Encounters between people of different cultures and of different generations all make up part of The Hagues’programmes of intercultural dialogue. Ces journées à La Haye sont l’occasion de rencontres et d’échanges aussi bien entre les cultures que les générations différentes.

The Mescidi Aksa Mosque was originally built as a synagogue in 1844 and served as such until 1975 when the Jewish community was no longer of sufficient size and the building became a religious and community centre for the Turkish Islamic community in The Hague.Two minarets were later added to the façade. La Mosquée Mescidi Aksa construite en 1844 comme synagogue. En 1975, la communauté juive, devenue trop peu importante, cède le lieu à la communauté Islamique turque de La Haye. Deux minarets sont alors ajoutés à la façade.

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diverse African churches. The itinerary also includes secular amenities which express the diversity of our city, such as a hammam (Islamic bathhouse) and exotic restaurants. At each of these sites visitors are given an introductory talk and tour within the theme of that year. This year, the theme of the day was “Music”, with participating organisations showing the role of music in their culture and religion. Everyone responds to music on an emotional level even if the words being sung are not understood. The World journey is a unique and undemanding way for all residents of The Hague to meet each other. The event obviously meets a need because about 12.000 people participate each year. For many in The Hague, going on this trip is the first time, or the first time in years, that they have visited a district with a multicultural population and have engaged in dialogue with fellow citizens from different cultures. In October 2007, a children’s “Journey round the World” was organised involving an exchange programme between primary schools in multicultural districts and those in primarily Dutch districts. The children related their experiences in a separate “Journey round the World” newspaper. Another event celebrated each year in The Hague is the Haagse Ontmoeting or “The Hague Encounter”, a week in September when a variety of activities is organised to stimulate contact between different cultures and generations. Here too there is a theme: this year it was “The Hague Mosaic City”, in 2007 it was “Young and Old”. Activities included a special naturalisation ceremony, social sofas along a central park, the Hofvijver, the presentation of the Haagse Burgerschapsprijs (The Hague Citizenship Prize) and a huge banquet. Each of the eight city districts hosted exhibitions and organised activities. With over 500 people professionals and volunteers - involved in the preparations this year, participation far exceeded the more

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than 13,500 people who took part in the only one day long 2007 Haagse Ontmoeting. The Citizenship prize is given for the best initiative from The Hague residents for building bridges between cultures. An independent jury chooses three top projects from those submitted and the citizens of The Hague vote on the prize winner. The first Citizenship prize, in 2007, went to a project submitted by a residents’ association in the Laak city district, where a whole week was devoted to introducing all 3100 children in the twelve primary schools of this multicultural district to different kinds of western and non-western art and culture. This year the prize has


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gone to Stichting Jongeren4You(th) (Young people 4 You(th)), a group of 50 young people between 15 and 27 years old who volunteer their time and skills to the benefit of their neighbourhood district. Where possible, the media are engaged. A few local broadcasting companies in The Hague make sure that people are able to follow events from home or at work. Many of these local broadcasting companies focus on immigrants and broadcast in other languages than Dutch. In this way residents of The Hague who do not yet speak Dutch, or not very well, can also be reached. “The Hague Encounter” event has all the signs of becoming a powerful institution and a fundamental part of the cultural heritage calendar of the City of The Hague.

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themselves and each other. An inextricable part of citizenship is being proud of one’s city and of the contribution one can make to urban life as an individual and as a member of the community. Encounter and dialogue are indispensable elements of this citizenship. Only through these can we ensure that people do not just live alongside each other, but that they also live and work together. In this way, our citizens of diverse origins help each other to create the living cultural heritage of the multicultural City of The Hague The Beth Jehoeda Synagogue’s formal façade takes its place between 18th century patrician houses on the Prinsessegracht in The Hague, but its entrance is discreetly hidden in the

Another project, De Haagse Schatkist or “The Hague Treasure Trove”, invites all residents of The Hague to tell their own story about the city. The project encourages people of all ages, those who have been living in the city all their lives, and newcomers alike, to share their stories through a special website. A number of them has been published in the local press. By collecting the personal stories of residents, pictures and memories of their past, their own street or of special corners in the city, a complete picture of The Hague’s history and culture is created. All the stories are kept in the Municipal Archives since they are, after all, part of the city’s history. Stories from immigrants and young people telling us how they perceive The Hague today, are just as important as those of older people who look back on how The Hague was in the past.

street behind. It was built by the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in 1726. La “Synagogue Beth Jehoeda” fut construite en 1726 par la communauté juive espagnole et portugaise de La Haye. Tandis que sa façade formelle prend place parmi les demeures patriciennes du XVIIIe siècle de la Prinsessgracht, son entrée est dissimulée dans une ruelle arrière.

Encounters, dialogue and respect are essential conditions for citizenship. This is a central concept of city policy in The Hague. For us, citizens are not just the bearers of rights and obligations, but above all people who are actively involved in, and who want to share ownership of the city and to accept responsibility for

Le monde au coeur de notre ville - Rencontre entre les cultures à La Haye L’Europe d’aujourd’hui doit faire face à de nouveaux défis. La plupart des grandes villes rassemblent des peuples venus de tous les coins du monde. Il n’est plus inhabituel d’y croiser plus d’une centaine de nationalités, voire encore plus de langues et de cultures différentes. Si le principe d’assimilation ne semble plus une réponse adéquate, comment les villes doivent-elles gérer cette diversité culturelle afin que chacun puisse conserver son individualité et y trouver sa place ? Depuis plusieurs années, la ville de La Haye aux Pays-Bas, s’est penchée sur la question en organisant une série d’actions qui permettent à chacun de partir à la rencontre de l’autre par le biais du patrimoine culturel. De la manière dont ils sont approchés, les édifices importants et les monuments emblématiques d’une ville peuvent jouer un rôle essentiel dans la compréhension d’une culture qui paraît parfois si différente et si difficile à aborder. S’attarder dans ces lieux permet aussi de découvrir que la culture locale s’est souvent enrichie d’influences étrangères. Ainsi, partir à la rencontre du patrimoine est également une façon d’ouvrir la voie du dialogue, de l’échange, de l’intégration et de la tolérance entre tous les habitants d’une ville.

Chaque année, une initiative comme celle d’une journée « autour du monde dans notre propre ville » remporte, depuis 16 ans, un grand succès à La Haye. Coïncidant avec la journée internationale contre la discrimination raciale, elle invite les habitants à découvrir en bus les différents temples, églises, mosquées et synagogues de la ville ainsi que leurs fidèles. Mais le tour comprend également des lieux aussi divers que des hammams ou des restaurants exotiques. Un autre événement interculturel guidé à chaque fois à partir d’un thème, est dédié à la « rencontre » entre les générations et les cultures différentes. Cette année le thème était « La Haye, ville mosaïque ». Un nouveau prix, initié en 2007, a été donné afin de récompenser la meilleure initiative qui tisse de nouveaux liens entre les cultures à La Haye. Il a été attribué à une association d’habitants dont le projet vise à sensibiliser près de 3.000 enfants à l’art occidental et non occidental. Citons encore, cet autre projet qui encourage les gens à raconter leur propre histoire sur la ville à travers un site web: une belle manière également d’ouvrir le dialogue entre tous ceux qui prennent part à la vie de la cité.

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Leaving no one out of Budapest’s development ✒ GÁBOR DEMSZKY Mayor of Budapest Budapest is a city with a long history dating back from the Celts, Romans, Magyar nomads and Turkish Ottomans, and from the Austro-Hapsburgs and Communists, to the present. The city has a large Jewish community dating back to the Middle Ages and is home to a sizable Roma population. All have left their mark on the city; all are part of its heritage. With the fall of Communism and Hungary’s accession to the European Union, investment money is flooding the city as it is elsewhere in Central and Eastern Europe. The Mayor of Budapest has the daunting challenge of directing the rejuvenation of his city, all while respecting and protecting its past heritage, creating high quality “new heritage”, and engaging all sections of society so that none are excluded from the developments and enrichment of the city. Great care and considerable energy and resources have ensured that the architectural traces of the different ages of Budapest have been saved to continue the architectural “conversation” which characterises historical cities; equal support for the various communities within the city is ensuring that intercultural conversations can also continue on a human level. Restoration of the city’s rich cultural heritage plays an important role in both these goals. Europa Nostra listens to the Mayor’s message.

Mr Gábor Demszky, Mayor of Budapest M. Gábor Demszky, Maire de Budapest

After the fall of communism, a previously unimaginable development began in Budapest. Thanks to this, the capital of Hungary has today become one of Europe’s most influential regional centres. Nevertheless, I consider the greatest achievement of the liberal municipal leadership of the last years to be that the less fortunate, poorest sections of society have also been involved in the growth of Budapest, and that we are striving through voluntary measures to prevent disadvantaged people from permanently falling behind.

The Gellért Bath, built in 1918, with its magnificent Art Nouveau interior. Le bain Gellért construit en 1918 et son magnifique intérieur Art Nouveau.

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Creating the foundations for growth On 23 October 1989, on the 33rd anniversary of the “Fight for Freedom” which marked the beginning of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the acting President of the Republic, Mátyás Szürös, stood at one of the windows of the House of Parliament and declared a new Republic of Hungary. This monumental building, however, witnessed this event marking a change of era in Hungary, in a rather poor condition. Although the House of Parliament, a Viennese Neo-Gothic style


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building by the brilliant architect Imre Steindl, had been used for decades as a permanent backdrop for major state celebrations, the State during the communist years did not devote sufficient funds for its maintenance and it had seen better days. Upon the creation of a democratic constitutional state, not only did the infrastructure of the capital lay in ruins, but so did public affairs. At the time of the change of political system, the citizens of Budapest were once again able to breathe the long awaited air of freedom, yet the more sober-minded already began to perceive in unclouded moments of happiness, the myriad problems the city faced in catching up with time. The task of putting the historic Neo-Classical and Art Nouveau buildings that largely form Budapest’s distinctive image in order, has fallen to the Municipality of Budapest. The face of the city today was fashioned in the eclectic and Art Nouveau periods at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. At this time, a major thoroughfare of European significance was built in Budapest: Andrássy Avenue which converges on Heroes’ Square. Also, the Millennium underground, the first metro in continental Europe and second only to the London underground, was constructed. Numerous imposing witnesses to Hungarian Art Nouveau have survived: although the buildings of the capital have to coexist with some monstrosities of the 20th century, the Gellért Hotel and Spa on the bank of the Danube, the Great Market Hall, the Museum of Applied Arts, and the Academy of Music, all still majestically look on the dynamic changes occurring now in the city.

The renovation of protected and old buildings is a matter close to our hearts. Inhabitants of Budapest are particularly proud of the fact that the streets, squares and artworks of our city abundantly display the heritage of the beginning of the last century. For this reason, after the first democratic elections, the Municipality of Budapest set about the restoration of buildings and streets representing our cultural heritage: the original beauty was restored to the architectural masterpieces of true Hungarian Art Nouveau in the Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden, the Millennium underground, the majority of buildings on Andrássy Avenue and several hotels that were also in need of repair. A few years ago, the Gresham Palace, considered in some international surveys as the best hotel in the world, was also renovated. We are proud that a number of these renovations have over the years won Medals or Diplomas from the Europa Nostra Awards and later the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards.

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The Hungarian Parliament Building was built in Gothic Revival style, inaugurated upon the country’s millenium in 1896. Major restoration work is returning it to its former glory. Le parlement hongrois, de style néogothique, inauguré lors de la commémoration du Millénaire du pays en 1896. Un important travail de restauration lui a redonné toute sa prestance.

The unique eclectic and high quality architecture make Budapest a gem in Europe, a fact recognised by UNESCO in 1987 when it included the capital on the World Heritage List. In order to preserve the significance of the city, and indeed to steadily increase it, the preservation of our cultural heritage is indispensable. For this reason I consider the gradual rehabilitation of the capital’s buildings and public spaces to be a high priority. However, we would be turning our back on Budapest’s rich past if by some means we endeavoured to prevent the current changes affecting the

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Heroes’ Square at the end of Andrássy Avenue.The millennial monument was built in 1896 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of the arrival of Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin, the founding of Hungary. La place des Héros au bout de l’avenue Andrássy. Le monument du Millénaire fut érigé en 1896 pour célébrer le millième anniversaire de l’arrivée des Magyars dans le bassin des Carpates et la fondation de la Hongrie.

future of Europe from happening in the city. Budapest intends to live and develop, and that is why we must build, naturally starting from the features distinctive of the city, to realise its potential as fully as possible. A good example of this is the rejuvenation of former industrial areas just beyond the historic centre along the Danube shoreline, especially important from the aspect of cityscape. As part of this project, new life will be injected into the buildings of the former Public Warehouses. This building complex erected at the end of the 19th century and long disused, will within a few years house a large new cultural centre. I hope that at the end of the works due to start shortly, we will see how the traditions of a city can fuse with the most up-to-date architectural procedures to form a harmonious whole. We foresee that the conversion of the Public Warehouses will fill its surroundings with new life, as have other cultural centres built in recent years. We are confident that it will do so, as the project fits in with the series of other developments aimed at the full revitalisation of the area. These include the recently completed new building of the Corvinus University in the vicinity of the Great Market Hall, itself a protected building, and the new building of the Palace of Arts next to the National Theatre, finished two years ago. Important is providing sufficient infrastructure in the form of the new metro line being built in the city which will have a stop there. This comprehensive development concept is being elaborated bearing in mind the features of the city and with sensitivity to real needs. We need each other to develop! As Mayor of Budapest, I believe that, in addition to the creation of transparent conditions, the main task of a responsible municipal leadership is to clearly indi-

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cate development goals. Accordingly, it is our obligation to support the development of the citizens’ creativity by all means available. In this the European Union’s resources also provide considerable help. Budapest currently produces 35-40% of Hungary’s GDP, and the flourishing of the capital depends on the endeavours of its citizens who feel responsible for both themselves and others. At the same time, it should not be forgotten that many find it difficult to direct their lives and book achievements through the sudden freedom after 40 years of suppression. For this reason, we are endeavouring to create chances through comprehensive programmes which make all citizens, irrespective of their origin, feel that this city is theirs. We are striving to continuously involve hitherto neglected residential areas in the development of Budapest. Our aim is to begin reconstruction processes in selected areas which will lead to an increase in the value of the given neighbourhood. Restorations of buildings are being combined with appropriate new construction projects, maintaining the character of the areas and the sense of place of the citizens. The changes will have a ripple effect, and sooner or later the broader environment will also start to develop and become attractive for private investors. Spectacular results have already been achieved in some districts, for instance the completed reconstruction in the Ferencváros area is a prime example of the capital’s urban rehabilitation programme. One block of buildings prepared in the course of the project won the Prix d’Excellence of the International Real Estate Federation (FIABCI). A detailed action plan has also been prepared for the entire renovation of one of the capital’s most neglected areas, Józsefváros. In the Magdolna quarter of


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Budapest Awards Laureates: Over the last years since the fall of Communism, Budapest has won one of the highest number of times the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards of any European city for exemplary restorations of its architectural treasures. (See Europa Nostra website for more details) Durant ces dernières années qui ont suivi la chute du Communisme, Budapest a remporté plus que toute autre ville européenne de nombreux prix UE/EN pour ses restaurations exemplaires et ses richesses architecturales. (Pour plus d’info consulter le site web d’Europa Nostra) Former Arany János Theatre, Medal - 1997 Europa Nostra Awards

Villa Barabás, Medal - 2003 EU/EN Awards

Ancien Théâtre Arany János, Médaille – 1997, Concours Europa Nostra

Villa Barabás, Médaille – 2003, Prix UE/EN Awards

Merry-Go-Round, Diploma - 1997 Europa Nostra Awards Manège de chevaux en bois, diplôme – 1997, Concours Europa Nostra

Elephant House at the Zoo, Medal - 2000 Europa Nostra Awards Le pavillon des éléphants au Zoo, Médaille – 2000, Concours Europa Nostra

Uránia National Film Theatre, Diploma - 2005 EU/EN Awards Théâtre - cinéma national Uránia, Diplôme – 2005, Prix UE/EN New York Palace & Café, Medal - 2006 EU/EN Awards New York Palace & Café, Médaille – 2006, Prix UE/EN

photo: City of Budapest

Metropolitan Ervin Szabó Library, Diploma 2002 EU/EN Awards

New York Palace & Café, interior view New York Palace & Café, vue intérieure

Bibliothèque métropolitaine Ervin Szabó, diplôme – 2002, Prix UE/EN Terminal 1, Ferihegy Airport, Medal - 2006 EU/EN Awards Terminal 1, Aéroport de Ferihegy, Médaille – 2006, Prix UE/EN Millennium Exhibition and Event Centre, Diploma - 2002 EU/EN Awards Centre d’exposition et d’événement du Millénaire, Diplôme – 2002, Prix UE/EN

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The main building of the Corvinus University, located in Pest on the left bank of the Danube. Le bâtiment principal de l’Université Corvinus située à Pest sur la rive gauche du Danube.

Józsefváros, the number of disadvantaged families and the ratio of Roma population are particularly high. Sure signs of social problems are that the rate of unemployment in the capital is the highest here, and educational achievements are far below average. We cannot reach our goals until this quarter becomes able to receive people with a different cultural and social background, and to keep them in the area through the promise of an attractive future. We wish to make this an attractive area with an individual image, safe living spaces and a lively economic life. The local school’s educational programme will be expanded and a new community space, reinforcing cultural and social relations, will be created in the heart of the quarter. The other parts of the district will not be left out of the renewal either. Soon the first section of the Corvin promenade will be completed, which will give a considerable push to raising the role of the area. In Central Europe’s largest urban development project, 2,500-3,000 homes will be created along a landscaped inner promenade, and the new, multi-functional city

centre will also operate as a cultural and retail trade centre. After vegetating for years, the reconstruction of this residential quarter through the widespread restoration of its existing architectural heritage, supporting local initiatives and giving it a new attractive role in the life of the city, brings new colour to the everyday life of the community. Perhaps even more important is that a well-thought through project is able to return the lost self-confidence of citizens often treated with suspicion by the majority of society. Our urban restoration and rehabilitation programme helps stop segregation, reduces disadvantages accumulated over generations, and enables people to rise above the stigmatising world of poverty. Budapest is a city of acting solidarity, in which each resident can find his other own role in the revived localities of the city. The city’s dynamic development demands, while we continuously create new assets for our city, that we protect our existing assets of our city’s rich cultural heritage.

Ne laissons personne en dehors du développement de Budapest Plus que toute autre ville européenne, Budapest a puisé sa force, sa beauté et sa personnalité de la rencontre des civilisations. Celtes, Romains, Magyars et Ottomans y ont laissé leur empreinte au même titre que l’Empire austro-hongrois ou la période communiste. Une importante communauté juive présente depuis le Moyen Age contribua également à cet enrichissement culturel de la ville. Après la chute du Communisme et l’adhésion de la Hongrie à l’Union européenne, il devenait essentiel pour Gábor Demszky, maire de Budapest, de s’attaquer au développement et à la revitalisation de la capitale. Cet objectif ambitieux allait s’accompagner d’un vaste programme de développement immobilier. Mais celui-ci ne pouvait se réaliser qu’en tenant compte de la richesse de son patrimoine qui illustre de manière brillante l’histoire de Budapest. Tandis que le Parlement, construit dans le plus pur style néogothique, témoigne d’évènements majeurs, de nombreux édifices Art Nouveau ont contribué à l’image de la ville. D’autres réalisations comme la place des Héros et son impressionnant monument, le métro, l’un des pre-

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miers du continent, l’Hôtel Gellért et ses célèbres bains ou encore les halles sont tout aussi significatives. Budapest, avec les rives du Danube, le quartier du château de Buda et l’avenue Andrássy, est du reste classée Patrimoine mondial de l’Unesco depuis 1987 pour la beauté de son paysage. Mais l’important travail de restauration, de conservation et de réaffectation déjà accompli fut à plusieurs reprises primé notamment par Europa Nostra. Préserver le passé de cette capitale tout en assurant son avenir s’accompagne, selon son maire, d’un engagement de toute la société qui n’exclut aucun citoyen. Pour cela une série de programmes ont été mis en place. Le quartier de Ferencváros est un bel exemple de réhabilitation réussie qui allie, dans le domaine du résidentiel, rénovation et construction nouvelle. Mais des projets dans des quartiers plus défavorisés comme celui de Józsefváros ont également démarré. Au-delà de la réhabilitation de l’espace urbain, ces projets englobent un programme éducatif et social destiné à renforcer le dialogue culturel.


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Heritage - A Powerful Setting for Intercultural Dialogue ✒ JUDY LING WONG CBE Director of Black Environment Network, UK The integration of immigrant populations is high on the European public agenda, though immigration is nothing new: waves of migrating peoples have influenced the history of Europe since the beginnings of time. In the United Kingdom, the Black Environment Network promotes a groundbreaking and inclusive approach to integration through exposing minority groups to natural and heritage settings, and involving them with innovative projects which foster a sense of belonging and ownership. All our histories Our history and everything around us illustrate the stories of movement and of interactions of peoples across the earth. There is no such thing as a completely unique culture. Groups disperse, fall into isolation under particular circumstances, meet, clash or join with others, constantly evolving their cultures through their impact on each other. All cultures are combinations of different multicultural elements, set against the particularity and the potential of a particular area’s landscape and people. Our built and natural heritage connects us with our personal and national identity in the context of our relationship to the world. Who we are and what we can achieve depends on how we see ourselves against the enormous pressure of how others see us. Across the world, no community can feel this more than the Muslim community at present, subsequent to the events of September 11, 2001. But issues of social exclusion and cultural identity are not just for embattled minority groups. They are set within the urgency to move towards social cohesion as the basis for a democratic society, within which the work of social inclusion is only a part. Threats to identity, among the supposedly “secure” and dominant mainstream population, are also deeply felt. Indeed, it is the clarifying of what cultural identity means in our time - for everyone - that will allow a multiplicity of minority cultural identities.

Exploring history through play and activities, Barnardos APNA Services at Stirling Castle, Scotland. Découverte historique à travers jeux et activités organisés par le Barnardos APNA

BEN The Black Environment Network (BEN) is a unique organisation based in the United Kingdom and recognised nationally and internationally as the pioneer working for ethnic environmental participation. BEN was established to promote equality of opportunity with respect to ethnic communities in the preservation, protection and development of the built and natural environment and in the participation in their use. BEN uses the word “Black” symbolically, recognising that the Black communities are the most visible of all ethnic groups. We work with Black, white and other ethnic minority communities. Working for social inclusion is about addressing the two major categories

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Services au château de Stirling en Ecosse.

A visit of the North Wales Chinese Women’s Society to the beautiful surroundings of Penrhyn Castle, Wales. Visite organisée par l’association des femmes chinoises du nord du pays de Galles dans les environs du château de Penrhyn, Pays de Galles.

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Significant examples of intercultural representation and dialogue BEN has partnered with built and natural heritage organisations, museums and galleries, supporting them with training and expert advice to include the social, cultural, environmental and economic contexts in heritage projects. BEN takes the experience of its innovative grassroots work to the tables of many committees on which it sits and makes vital contributions to research projects such as Opening Doors: Learning in the Historic Environment. (www.openingdoorsreport.org.uk) BEN has influenced policies and working practices at governmental and community levels, creating enthusiasm and impetus for imaginatively stimulating new audiences. There is at present a very significant development in expanding intercultural representation and dialogue, giving heritage objects and sites a widened meaning and connecting into the lives of more and more citizens: ■ The project Mediterranean Voices raised acute awareness of the embodiment of heritage within the detail of everyday environments and citizens’ lifestyles. (www.med-voices.org) ■ The National Trust for England and Wales used theatre and arts in their Untold Story Project to actively connect valued objects and sites to people living nearby, stimulating them to reveal hidden stories that were then incorporated into the interpretation of their properties. (www.nationaltrust.org.uk) ■ English Heritage, as part of their contribution to the bi-centenary of the Abolition of Trans-Atlantic Slavery, has published its first National Summary of Historic Places linked to Abolition and Slave Trade. (www.english-heritage.org.uk) ■ The opportunity to have a voice brings in new audiences who enjoy seeing their history made visible: Moving Here - 200 Years of Migration to England is a website with tens of thousands of images, stories, and recordings. It allows people to research their own history or to add to the collection. (www.movinghere.org.uk) ■ BEN partnered with the Historic Houses Association to implement the People and Historic Places project, the first national pilot project connecting ethnic minorities to private historic houses. The report demonstrates how the expansion of new audiences can take place in an atmosphere of excitement and discovery for owners, staff and ethnic minority visitors. (www.hha.org.uk) ■ The Mosaic Project was a groundbreaking partnership project between BEN and the Council for National Parks which connected a range of ethnic groups with the Parks, leading to a second project, the Mosaic Partnership that supports the development of ethnic minority community champions. (www.mosaicpartnership.org) ■ The BEN GLWAD and Curiad Calon Cymru projects in Wales highlighted hidden skills and focused on creating new aspiration by ethnic minorities to become employees within the heritage sector. (www.ben-network.org.uk) ■ Citizenship in a new Europe: one final example shows how we can combine the contribution of ethnic minorities with the expression of identity and the experience of acceptance, enabling them to create new landscapes of cultural meaning. The Sikh community in Nottingham wished to mark the 300th Anniversary of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, by planting 300 British native trees. The planting took place in Bestwood Country Park, as a colourful cultural event. Now all you see are trees. But, for the Sikh community each visit will forever echo with cultural meaning, a strengthened sense of belonging, and the sense of power associated in transforming a space into Khalsa Wood, a new local woodland for everyone. (www.ben-network.org.uk)

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of ethnic minorities - the settled ethnic minorities, and the new arrivals. Significant past mistakes that injured integration include the lack of a welcome to new arrivals. This resulted in a natural human response - groups of neglected new migrants built up their own cultural communities to meet their own needs. All the work of BEN encourages the purposeful inclusion and welcome of new arrivals, including New Europeans, asylum seekers and refugees, so that they experience an early enjoyable introduction to their new country in their journey towards integration into European citizenship. In BEN’s vision of multiculturalism, the representation of cultural diversity is about interpreting the full range of achievements and potential of the one human race, with each unique culture at a point in time, defined as a unique combination of multicultural elements. In practice, it is an exercise in the integration of neglected histories and shared histories, with the mono-cultural official histories of the dominant cultures. This concept encompasses not only ethnic origin but all diverse cultural groups, each with distinct characteristics which we must understand if we are to engage with them successfully, including former mining communities, the rural poor or those who suffer prejudice because of their age, gender, disability or sexual orientation. Environmental agencies pledge to be open to everyone, but until BEN highlighted the issue, ethnic community environmental participation had not been on their agenda. BEN focuses on working with deprived ethnic groups. Many ethnic communities live in some of the countries’ worst environments. Participation can enable them to access the vast resources available in the environmental and heritage sector. In the process they may be empowered through gaining essential skills in self-help, self-representation and self-improvement the effects of which spread into areas of life far beyond environmental involvement.


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Members of the Sikh community in Nottingham planting trees at Khalsa Wood on the 300th Anniversary of Vaiskakhi. Les membres de la communauté Sikh de Nottingham plantant des arbres sur un site rebâttisé Khalsa Wood lors du 300ème anniversaire de Vaiskakhi.

The evolution of heritage presentation and participation It is exciting that the presentation of heritage objects, monuments and sites and their interpretation are changing with the times. Visitors and viewers are increasingly acting as active participants in the experience. Key heritage organisations are leaving behind the exclusive interpretation styles that have traditionally focused on the aesthetic quality of objects and architecture, set within the context of a dominant national culture. In its place, there is a new inclusiveness: giving equal attention to prestigious art objects, “low value” artefacts that are historically meaningful, and intangible heritage such as oral history. BEN consciously maintains a dialogue with those it serves. It has forged a working philosophy for involving ethnic communities that is relevant to their needs. Involving ethnic communities in environmental participation also means bringing forward a vast missing contribution from a significant section of the community to

engage in the conservation, protection, and development of the built and natural environment. The re-thinking of the layers of identity through intercultural dialogue is an urgent contemporary theme as information exchange is accelerated, and the ease of travel and trade relationships becomes more international every day. Our expectations and the thrill of the new, push us evermore into a way of life that is about constant change.

“Social inclusion is not about doing a favour to small numbers of disadvantaged groups. It is about a vision of an inclusive society, of which we can all be proud.” JUDY LING WONG

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We are encouraged to see key heritage organisations and funders enthused, through the impact of work of BEN, to invest in their own initiatives to fuel the unlocking of the power of heritage to provide opportunities for intercultural engagement. The journey has begun. We look forward to more.

Members of the Bangladesh Multipurpose Centre, Birmingham, exploring history during a visit to the historic Tissington House. Page précédente Les membres du Centre polyvalent bengladi de Birmingham à la découverte du passé historique de Tissington House.

Le patrimoine – Une puissante assise pour le dialogue interculturel Aujourd’hui, les questions d’intégration et d’immigration tiennent une place importante dans notre société. Mais, cette préoccupation n’est pas nouvelle. De tout temps, l’Europe a connu des vagues de migrations. Si celles-ci ont influencé le cours de son histoire, elles ont également contribué à forger sa grande diversité culturelle. Dans un esprit d’ouverture et de tolérance, des voies et des moyens différents doivent être continuellement mis en place afin de mieux connaître et de mieux comprendre les traditions et les habitudes culturelles de chacun. Ainsi, en Grande-Bretagne, l’association « Black Environment Network » propose une approche très personnelle et intéressante d’intégration, le patrimoine culturel y jouant un rôle essentiel. Partant du principe que la cohésion sociale est l’une des bases d’une société démocratique, il faut à tout prix éviter l’exclusion des minorités ethniques ainsi que des nouveaux arrivants. Un travail important doit être réalisé au sein de la société afin de diminuer les

préjugés, la méfiance ou encore l’ignorance envers les personnes ayant une histoire, une culture voire une religion différente. Si des rencontres peuvent mener à la connaissance de l’autre, s’engager ensemble dans une action peut aussi contribuer à développer un sentiment d’appartenance. Pour « Black Environment Network », l’environnement et le patrimoine constituent un excellent outil d’intégration. La perception et l’interprétation d’une œuvre, d’un édifice ou d’un site offrent l’opportunité d’un bel échange de connaissances et d’idées. Mais leur sauvegarde peut également entraîner une participation et une contribution actives faisant jaillir les premiers sentiments d’appartenance à une identité nouvelle. Pour cela, l’association développe, en partenariat avec des musées, des galeries et des organismes investis dans le patrimoine et l’environnement, une série de projets, d’animations et de visites guidées à l’attention des minorités ethniques.

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Cultural Heritage and Reconciliation in Cyprus ✒ COSTA CARRAS Vice-President of Europa Nostra When conflicts arise between ethnic communities, the built heritage of the area often falls victim to the hostilities, either through direct attack during the fighting, revenge attacks at a later stage, or through neglect. When populations are trying to put the conflicts of the past behind them, the restoration and revitalisation of this same cultural heritage - now often on the verge of collapse - can play a role in restoring contact and trust between peoples who were neighbours before they were enemies. Europa Nostra actively supports dialogue and cooperation between local communities which are striving to protect their and their neighbours’ cultural heritage. Costa Carras describes through interviews with former mayors and practicing architects from both Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities how safeguarding Nicosia’s cultural heritage is helping bring reconciliation to the people of Cyprus. This story of successful cooperation can also serve as encouragement to the current efforts being undertaken by both Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities to safeguard the Medieval City of Famagusta, with the help of Europa Nostra and other heritage organisations. “The key word behind the successful collaboration in Nicosia after 1974 is “need”. The construction work for the Nicosia sewerage system was under way only in the South and, when the war came to a halt, the treatment plant found itself on the northern side of the dividing line. Ironically the division created the conditions for the mutual need for cooperation. The first phase of the project became instrumental in May 1980.

Mustafa Akinci, the Representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in Nicosia (1976-1990). Mustafa Akinci, le représentant de la communauté cypriote turque à Nicosie (1976-1990)

Lellos Demetriades, the Representative of the Greek Cypriot community in Nicosia (1971- 07/1974, 10/1974-2001). Lellos Demetriades, le représentant de la communauté cypriote grecque à Nicosie (1971-07/1974, 10/1974-2001).

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Once the mutual need created the conditions for cooperation the time was ripe to enter a more challenging area with the help of UNDP. That was the Nicosia Master Plan. Chaotic development was continuing on both sides. I believe its main achievement has been the preservation of the traditional city centre, the walled city which received justified international recognition. Not only buildings were restored but whole neighbourhoods like Arabahmet, Chrisaliniotissa, Samanbahcae.


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An areal view of the divided city of Nicosia showing the “green line” separating the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities. Vue aérienne de la ville de Nicosie divisée par la « ligne verte » de démarcation.

Mutual need –Mutual respect When I look back I can still say “mutual need” was needed to make the start but we also had to exercise proper leadership, show empathy, and try to understand the other. It was also important to have a vision based on the unification of the island and not on partition.” In these well-chosen words Mustafa Akinci, the then Representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in Nicosia, who together with his then Greek Cypriot colleague, Lellos Demetriades, began the process of inter-communal collaboration in Nicosia, sketches that combination of circumstances, mutual empathy and leadership which helped to make the Nicosia Master Plan (NMP) such a constructive example of cultural collaboration in a situation of conflict and partition. Lellos Demetriades, who has shared with Mustafa Akinci a Europa Nostra Medal of Honour (2002) and the Aga Khan Award (2007), adds: “The sense of achievement is surely there. It is a cocktail of many things: conservation, common public utility services, keeping the city ready to be united when the Green Line goes away - many things. But mainly proving to the people of Nicosia and to the Cypriots of both Communities that there is still hope and a lot can be achieved when there is good will and trust between people. Speaking for myself, I always felt that the inspiration for the setting up of the

Master Plan procedure, which is still followed, came to us in Berlin, when Mr. Akinci and myself, having seen the Wall, decided that no such “cemented” partition of the city should be allowed to happen in Nicosia.”

Children Festivities at Büyük Han, a 16thcentury Ottoman building situated within the Nicosia historic walled city and one of the most important NMP projects restored by the

If the old adage be true that it is “for lack of vision a people perisheth” then the people of Cyprus should be doubly grateful to Mustafa Akinci and Lellos Demetriades. Their achievement was both political and cultural. The citation of the Europa Nostra medal accurately recalled “their consistent and successful efforts as Representatives respectively of the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities in Nicosia, in the cause of their common but divided city and all its citizens during particularly difficult times.” The foundation they laid was sound, and their successors have continued their work, making it not just a substantial but long-lasting contribution both to the political and cultural picture in Cyprus. Their shared vision has already given life to whole quarters of their city and they have given hope for renewed life together to members of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. Mutual respect for a culture, simultaneously shared and separate, was the basis of their vision. No-one can walk the quarters of Old Nicosia on either side of the Buffer zone without obtaining a living experience of the separate yet shared, of the challenge to overcome ethnic conflict through a mutual respect which, strangely, ends by becoming

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Department of Antiquities. Festivité pour enfants à Büyük Han, un édifice ottoman du XVIe siècle situé dans la ville historique et l’un des projets les plus importants du PDN restauré par le Département des antiquités.

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Omerye Baths before and after restoration. Bains d’Omerye avant et après restauration.

not just respect of the other but of the better part of oneself. Working together The work Mustafa Akinci and Lellos Demetriades began, outstanding professional architects are now continuing. In some ways their task is easier – since 2003 the Green Line is now open. They can meet; they can together celebrate achievements such as the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage awarded for the fine restoration of the Lala Mustafa Pasa Hamam on the Greek Cypriot side of the Old City; they can even not just hope, but plan, sooner or later to share offices. It is not just hopes they share however but profound concerns. Let us listen to Agni Petridou, a Greek Cypriot architect at the Nicosia Municipality who leads one of the two teams:

Agni Petridou, Greek Cypriot architect at the Nicosia Municipality. Agni Petridou, architecte cypriote

“One of the most important projects has been the restoration of the old baths, because it combined the preservation of the monument and at the same time revival of a traditional use. What we need is a closer coordination, a bi-communal planning strategy for the preservation and regeneration of the city core. The NMP team carried out a detailed architectural survey of all the buildings of the buffer zone. This project has been funded by USAid through UNDP. For many centuries this area has been a focal point of activity and trade. Since the beginning of the medieval period, from the 12thcentury onwards, the famous medieval market extended along the eastwest axis of the walled city. This area being the hub of commercial transactions between Europe and the Near East includes buildings of exceptional architectural value. During the last decades, the area has suffered from an acceleration of the deterioration process. The NMP considers that the preservation of the architectural heritage within the buffer zone is of utmost significance.” And, in his turn, Ali Güralp, Agni Petridou’s Turkish Cypriot counterpart, adds some notes of concern, responding to a question as to whether the conserva-

grecque à la Municipalité de Nicosie.

Ali Güralp,Turkish Cypriot architect and Team leader of Nicosia Master Plan projects. Ali Güralp, architecte cypriote turque responsable de l’équipe du plan directeur de Nicosie.

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tion of the buildings in the Old City leads to an equivalent improvement in the social fabric: “Conservation in the North is still confined to small project areas such as Arabahmet, and in that locality one can notice the improvement of the social fabric. However at other locations the trend is the opposite, where the social fabric is still degrading. Thus the Walled City should be turned into a large project area where the beneficiaries would think it worthwhile to invest. But, yes, whenever there is an injection of a project into a locality, the social fabric starts to improve. The conservation of our Walled City is a very nerveracking business; the Nicosia Master Plan has been trying for more than 20 years to keep the city on both sides economically, socially, culturally and architecturally similar, in low profile (this is important) in spite of the negative political environment. The Nicosia Master Plan is like a pack of seeds ready to germinate for the good of the Walled City waiting for the right environment, the important thing is to keep the seeds vibrant.” If it took leadership by Mustafa Akinci and Lellos Demetriades to begin the process, it requires no less patience and no less statesmanship by architects, engineers and town-planners like Ali Güralp and Agni Petridou, working and waiting, waiting and working, in the hope that the seeds which they plant and tend will be given the opportunity to germinate. They deserve all the support we can give them, wherever and however we can give it. Agni Petridou notes: “The collaboration on joint projects definitely provided opportunities for Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot professionals to meet regularly, to work together and establish relations of friendship and confidence between them. After so many years of collaboration I feel that one of the biggest achievements of the team is the development of an excellent communication and joint decision


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the Parliament! To develop the idea that historical, cultural, environmental and natural heritage is not only ours, but it belongs to all humanity for generations to come. If this vision is created, heritage, be it Orthodox or Muslim, Latin or Armenian, will not differ at all. It will belong to all mankind: this is what we have to work for.”

making by the technical people of the two communities. This constitutes the basis for future cooperation for the benefit of the harmonious development of the city and its people.” Culture as a means for reconciliation and unity Were the outcome certain, there would be less to distinguish the work Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots are together carrying out in the Old City of Nicosia from conservation projects in other countries. It is precisely this uncertainty that gives this work that extra quality of existential heroism which calls not just for our admiration but our active support. The sense of hope and simultaneously of agony for the future both appear clearly in Mustafa Akinci’s words: “The slogan I heard and read during the Europa Nostra Medal of Honour ceremony in 2003, I believe is a very powerful one: “THE POWER OF EXAMPLE”. So, good examples are always there to be followed. But that is, of course, assuming that there are willing followers to follow. Raising awareness must be a continuous work - awareness of those who are at the decision-making level and of the public at large. Continuous education is needed at school and also at

But just in case we take such an outcome as a foreordained certainty, Mustafa Akinci also notes: “The passing of time has served more for the consolidation of division. Demographic structure, besides physical environment, has dramatically changed. If things stay as they are in the coming decade, I am sure the Turkish Cypriots will become a minority in the North as citizens. We talked about the successful preservation of the Walled City, but how about its inhabitants nowadays? The Walled City in the North is semiTurkish Cypriot during day time, at night it is TurkishTurkish. Therefore, not as a politician nor as an architect, but as a humble individual Cypriot, I would suggest that the culture of tolerance, the culture of empathy, the culture of “seeking the solution within the possible” is developed very urgently. Culture and cultural activities, as a means for unity can play a significant role for the future of our island and should be encouraged in all fields, definitely including architecture and preservation.”

In Ledra Street in Nicosia, a new gate was opened in April 2008, reconnecting the Greek and the Turkish Cypriot communities of Cyprus, divided since 1974. “It is like unclogging a main artery in the heart of the city” said Mustafa Akinci. “A symbol of division may now turn out to become a symbol of reunification.” Réouverte en avril 2008, la rue Ledra à Nicosie relie à nouveau les communautés grecque et turque de Chypre séparées depuis 1974. « C’est comme si on débouchait sur une artère principale au cœur de la ville » souligne Mustafa Akinci; « ce symbole de division est devenu l’expression de la réunification ».

No more needs to be said to explain why Europa Nostra remains actively involved with the cultural heritage of Cyprus. It is a valuable part of the cultural heritage of Europe, a cultural heritage which has suffered all the blows ethnic hatred could bring upon it and which yet contributes positively and continuously to make possible a solution which we trust will be the right one, both for the cultural heritage and for the people who are its heirs.

Patrimoine culturel et réconciliation à Chypre Le maître mot qui est à l’origine d’une collaboration fructueuse, entre les communautés cypriotes turque et grecque, est le « besoin » ; le besoin mutuel qui s’est fait sentir dans la nécessité d’établir un système unique d’égouts à Nicosie. Mais le succès de cette collaboration, au cours d’une période extrêmement difficile de conflits, n’aurait pu voir le jour sans la persévérance, l’enthousiasme et la sagesse des représentants des deux communautés, Mustafa Akinci et Lellos Demetriades, primés en 2002 par la Médaille d’Honneur d’Europa Nostra. Ainsi, entre 1976 et 1990, ils ont contribué aussi bien au projet de canalisation, qu’au lancement d’un plan directeur pour Nicosie, dont les objectifs rendaient compte d’une stratégie à long terme qui resterait en vigueur lors de la réunification de la ville. Ce plan englobe d’importantes actions réalisées en faveur de la conservation du centre historique et de quartiers comme Chrysaliniotissa et Arab Ahmet. Mais au-delà de ces résultats, cette collaboration a montré jusqu’où peut aboutir l’action, une fois la confiance établie. Leur geste, qui est à la fois un accomplissement politique et culturel, représente un bel exemple d’espoir pour la population dans un tel contexte.

Si depuis 2003, la « ligne verte » de démarcation est ouverte, les travaux entrepris et supervisés par Mustafa Akinci et Lellos Demetriades, se poursuivent avec la même assiduité par leurs successeurs, l’équipe du plan directeur et des architectes des deux communautés comme Ali Güralp et Agni Petridou. Le prix du patrimoine culturel de l’Union européenne, obtenu en 2005 pour la restauration des bains Lala Mustafa Pacha, un élément architectural islamique situé dans la partie grecque de la vieille ville de Nicosie, montre à lui seul la détermination de cette continuité. La restauration se démarque autant par le choix très significatif du lieu, la qualité élevée de son exécution que par la conservation et la revitalisation de l’usage de l’édifice dans un contexte multiculturel. Aujourd’hui, l’équipe du plan directeur porte son attention aux édifices situés à proximité de la zone frontière, qui durant 30 ans, a séparé la ville en deux. Aire de marché dès le Moyen Age, elle conserve une très intéressante architecture qui a beaucoup souffert au cours de ces dernières décennies. Si l’ampleur du travail reste fastidieux et les moyens limités, cette collaboration réalisée entre les deux communautés aura en tout cas déjà permis d’établir de bonnes relations entre les intervenants de ce vaste projet, un accomplissement majeur pour l’avenir de Nicosie et de ses habitants.

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Continuing the Grand Tour Opportunities and Challenges on our Doorstep ✒ HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH AND QUEENSBERRY President of the National Trust for Scotland For centuries, the young of the aristocracy and the wealthy in the United Kingdom would travel throughout Europe on a “Grand Tour” to deepen their education by absorbing the continent’s history and culture. What is less appreciated is the influence these tours had not only on the travellers themselves, but on the art collections, buildings and landscapes they created upon their return. The cultural heritage of the visited lands was brought back or was recreated, thus generating interest in the heritage of foreign cultures, and inspiration in even those who never left their homeland. H.G.the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, speaking at the Europa Nostra UK conference on “The Grand Tour” in September 2007, told of his father’s and his own passion for sharing his family’s treasures with especially the young visitors to his houses, and ensuring that the estates and their collections remain relevant to future generations. The recent death of my father, the custodian for nearly four decades of the Buccleuch family collections, casts a sad shadow over participation in the Europa Nostra conference in Edinburgh. It remains, however, a privilege to be able to reflect briefly on the wonderful opportunity that private collections, as well as those of the National Trust for Scotland, offer of continuing the Grand Tour here, at home, on our own doorsteps.

His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. Le duc de Buccleuch et de Queensberry.

The influence of several centuries of Grand Tourism continues to permeate the minds and sensibilities of both family descendants and a far wider audience with its infectious power to enrich across generations and continents. My father was a fine example of that; he was a well informed and thoughtful steward of his inherited family collections. Yet he had no formal training, but instead benefitted from the osmosis of knowledge accumulated gradually from living with wonderful pictures and furniture, and from discussing and debating with the constant flow of expert visitors. He was determined to share those collections, establishing charitable trusts dedicated to improving the learning opportunities they provided. He loved meeting visitors to his stately homes, and was deeply saddened by the theft of his Leonardo, not least because it deprived thousands of people of the opportunity of seeing it. Yet he was no cultural snob and thought the heritage should be enjoyed in the round and in all its richness, seeing in the preservation of a fine mixed working landscape as much value as in the restoration of its complex designed counterpart. Travel across centuries Easy travel has changed our approach to the way we explore cultures in Europe, and not necessarily for the better. The three days spent with our 15 year old daughter this summer in and around Siena contrasts with the progress of one of my forebears, James Douglas, later 2nd Duke of Queensberry, who with his brother William, aged barely 16, and their tutor, James Fall, arrived in Paris in October 1680 at the

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start of a three year tour that would take them to Siena, south to Naples and then to Venice. Fall’s diaries do not suggest they were great collectors. They left Venice “after we had bought several curiosities proper to the place” which sounds like typical tourist knick knacks. The Castle at Drumlanrig as it is today was commencing construction at the time, a project spanning 20


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years, but it is hard to see how it might have been influenced by their travels other than in the horseshoe staircase at the entrance with its faint resonance of Fontainebleau. This was in spite of the fact that the travellers joint, for their return journey over the Alps and to Antibes, Louis XIV’s celebrated engineer of fortifications, Monsieur de Vauban. On the other hand, look inside nearby Durrisdeer Kirk, a simple building set in rural isolation in the Southern Upland hills, and you can have no doubt that something rubbed off. The moving tombs of the 2nd Duke and Duchess by Van Nost and their breathtaking marble baldicchino come as less of a surprise when we read the comments by Fall in his manuscript about St Peter’s: “The longer we stayed in Rome and the more we visited this Church, the more we did admire it, till we came to admire nothing else”. My family name is Montagu Douglas Scott, and if we look at the collecting patterns of the English branch, the Montagus of Northamptonshire, there is a much broader link between what we have now and what they saw on their travels. Boughton with its great Versailles style north front with the Mansard roofs was the product of Ralph Montagu’s many years as English Ambassador to Louis XIV and then as semi exile in France and in the Low Countries. Thoroughly English it may seem from other angles, with its pitched roofs, courtyards and Great Hall, but come inside and you will find the influences in all the decorative arts of a host of craftsmen and artists from the

continent led by Daniel Marot. Stars of the tapestry collection which stem from Ralph’s stewardship of the Mortlake workshops are the Acts of the Apostles set, themselves the product of Charles I’s acquisition of the Raphael Cartoons.

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Drumlanrig Castle in Nithsdale in the morning mist, looking from the south to the hills above Durrisdeer. Le château de Drumlanrig à Nithsdale dans les brumes matinales, pris du sud

Jump down a few generations and we have perhaps the most identifiable Grand Tourist in the family: John, Lord Brudenell, later Marquis of Monthermer, who started young, aged 17, but spent nine years away. He brought home exceptional portraits having had himself painted in 1756 in Rome by both Batoni and Mengs, and having travelled right to the very south of Italy, commissioned wonderful views by Antonio Joli, including Paestum to which he was one of the earliest visitors. Venice was not wasted either with a collection of Guardis and he also bought for his parents at home several Italian paintings including a ravishing young man by Caracci.

vers les collines au-delà de Durrisdeer.

It was his premature death that resulted in the inheritance by his sister Elizabeth and her husband, Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, of the Montagu collections. The Scott family had been part of Scottish Border history and lore since at least the 12th century. Their homes had been the familiar small fortresses of the border; the simple peel towers like Newark. Their title had been earned by an act of opportune bravery in saving the life of the Scottish King threatened by a charging stag; an act commemorated many centuries later in a magnificent Garrard candelabra. By the 1760’s they had come a long way from those simple

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roots. Henry had done a different sort of Continental tour, taking as his tutor, Adam Smith, the man later to become the celebrated economist and writer of ‘The Wealth of Nations’. They had had an extraordinary two years criss-crossing France meeting people of influence and thinkers, including their compatriot David Hume, before spending time in 1765 visiting Voltaire in Geneva. Henry’s main home was Dalkeith Palace just outside Edinburgh, built at the start of the century by James Smith, who himself had once been a priest in Rome. In its grounds there is now a fine Adam bridge. In many ways it reflects the influence of travel to Europe and it is amusing to see how it in turn was to influence building on another continent. It was a son of the town of Dalkeith, Robert Smith, who was to emigrate to become one of the leading architects of 18th century Philadelphia, of wonderful churches like St Peters and the historic Carpenter’s Hall.

The Montagu Douglas Scott family have played an important role in the social and political history of the nation over the centuries, and their connoisseurship and enlightened estate management is best illustrated in the three major historic houses and estates which are open to the public during the summer months: 1) Boughton House, near Kettering, Northamptonshire, known as the “English Versailles”, it has been in the Montagu family since 1525. It is managed by an educational charity “Living Landscape Trust” which is restoring its early 18th century designed landscape. www.boughtonhouse.org.uk 2) Drumlanrig Castle, near Thornhill in Dumfries and Galloway, was built by the 1st Duke of Queensberry in 1679 and has descended through the Douglas family. www.drumlanrig.com 3) Bowhill House and Country Park, near Selkirk in the Scottish Borders, has been inherited through the Scott family line. bht@buccleuch.com

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It is from then on that we see future generations increasingly captured by what their forbears had seen and acquired. Walter Francis, the 5th Duke, exemplifies this tendency to add to and fill gaps in the family collection. It was he who acquired the large Canaletto now at Bowhill because it showed Whitehall and the back of Montagu House in London. He continued to expand the 17th and 18th century French furniture collections, and also the porcelain with a spree of Sèvres purchases. Portraiture was almost an obsession, with a particular love of Miniatures, more than 800 of which were acquired. Testimony for the future Such acquisitiveness on a grand scale has long since ceased. Today the focus is on conservation and on how this wonderful inheritance can be better seen, enjoyed and understood by wider audiences. Visitors of all ages are welcomed in as “hands on” a way as possible, whether it is children at our Schools Open days wielding a hammer and feeling what the stone


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trying to understand such heritage. Most of us lack our forebears’ spread of learning, or their inclination to dig deeper into the creative and intellectual processes of artists and patrons in centuries past. In the Drawing Room at Bowhill hang pairs of Claudes and Vernets and a large Ruysdael. Together they can tell a fascinating tale of different styles and changes in taste in various parts of 17th and 18th century Europe, a tale they carried with them to England and Scotland which surely in turn influenced the managing of estates and the commissioning of designs for landscapes. It is only now as we embark not only on the restoration of our landscapes but on the creation within them of visions of our own for the 21st century, that we are coming to see the intellectual forces at work in the past which we must try to match. At Boughton the early 18th century landscape is re-emerging in all its extraordinary and as yet barely understood complexity. To it will be added work by the landscape designer, Kim Wilkie, who has drawn on the Golden Section for guidance for its location and design. Who knows whether our descendants will understand or be interested in that in 200 years time or whether they will just like it for what it is - a sunken pool, grassy banks and a spiralling rill and fountain.

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Portrait by Pompeo Batoni of John, Lord Brudenell, later Marquis of Monthermer, which hangs at Boughton House. Portrait de John Brudenell, marquis de Monthermer par Pompeo Batoni, Boughton House.

The tomb by Van Nost of the 2nd Duke and Duchess of Queensberry, in Durrisdeer Church near Drumlanrig. Tombe du duc et de la duchesse de

mason’s skill involves, or connoisseurs for whom silver is brought out to be individually handled and examined in detail. Whilst huge care must always be taken, the learning by osmosis happens because things are used and lived with. The remarkable Chinese style summer house from the 1740’s now lives indoors at Boughton, but within living memory it was taken outside to the lawn every summer and no doubt was all the more memorable as a result. But with all this I am still conscious of the extent to which nowadays we tend to skate over the surface in

Our opportunities for reliving the Grand Tours of the past are clearly there, but how many of us will be worthy of them? That is the challenge for the future.

Queensberry édifiée par Van Nost dans l’église de Durrisdeer près de Drumlanrig.

This article opens the book, “The Grand Tour, and its influence on architecture, artistic taste and patronage”, proceedings of the Europa Nostra UK conference of the same name, held in Edinburgh in September 2007. For information contact lesterborley@waitrose.com.

La continuité du Grand Tour Opportunité et défi à notre porte Alors que durant des siècles, le Grand Tour effectué par les jeunes gens de la haute société britannique en Europe continentale était destiné à parfaire leur éducation, aujourd’hui encore il se rappelle à nous à travers de très belles collections comme celles des ducs de Buccleuch en Ecosse. Meubles et tableaux rapportés de ces longs voyages réalisés par les membres de la famille depuis le XVIIe siècle conservent toujours ce même pouvoir d’enrichir les connaissances historiques et culturelles de tous ceux qui viennent les admirer. Mais au-delà de l’enseignement, il y a aussi le rôle que ces voyages ont pu avoir sur l’art et l’architecture insulaires. Ainsi James Douglas, futur duc de Queensberry, et son frère William accompagné de leur précepteur James Fall ont traversé en 1680 et durant trois ans la France et l’Italie. Si on ne peut pas affirmer l’impact qu’aurait eu ce voyage sur la construction du château de Drumlanrig qui rappelle en certains points Fontainebleau, il n’y a aucun doute quant à l’influence du passage à Rome du duc de Queensberry sur sa tombe édifiée dans l’église de Durrisdeer.

Le château de Boughton qui porte aujourd’hui le surnom de ‘Versailles anglais’ fut marqué par les aménagements réalisés vers 1690 par Ralph Montagu à la suite de son séjour en France. Quant aux jardins actuellement en rénovation, ils révèlent l’extraordinaire influence que pourraient avoir eu des œuvres aussi différentes que celles de Claude Gellée, de Vernet ou de Ruysdael sur le paysage anglais. Si aujourd’hui, le temps n’est plus au Grand Tour, il est important de veiller à sa conservation et à sa diffusion. Nombreux sont les visiteurs qui viennent contempler de magnifiques portraits ainsi que des peintures de Guardi et de Caracci ramenées du Grand Tour par John Brudenell ou encore les porcelaines et les huit cents miniatures acquises par Walter Francis au cours du XVIIIe siècle. La diversité des acquisitions permet de mieux comprendre et comparer la richesse du patrimoine européen mais elle révèle aussi de façon fascinante combien elle a contribué à l’évolution stylistique de lieux comme Drumlanrig, Boughton et Dalkeith, aujourd’hui ouverts au public.

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London to Istanbul Walk ✒ DR. PAUL GARDNER PhD Graduate from Oxford (UK) currently at The Prince’s Regeneration Trust Whereas in centuries past the Grand Tour was a right of passage reserved for the privileged few, today the explosion of tourism and educational exchange programmes has enabled a much larger segment of the population to explore the cultures of neighbouring or further off countries. Wanting more than a suntan or a run down the slopes, enthusiasts of cultural tourism choose their destinations by weighing the interest of an area’s cultural heritage and the museums available to visit, and they seek out opportunities to interact with local populations. Paul Gardner set off on a journey of discovery and a pilgrimage to Europe’s cultural heritage, and raised a substantial contribution which he donated to Europa Nostra upon his return. Europa Nostra thanks him whole heartedly. The idea to walk across the continent of Europe came to me while reading a couple of books written by two long distance ramblers: Fyona Campbell and Patrick Leigh Fermor. Fyona walked around the globe, crossing four continents on foot in the 1980s & 90s. She demonstrated monstrous stamina and earned a place in the Guinness Book of Records. In the 1930s, Patrick Leigh Fermor walked from London to Istanbul, discovering European history and architecture along the way. His was an intellectual journey across the continent.

Paul Gardner walked 3.280km in 137 days, crossing Europe from London to Istanbul. Paul Gardner a marché 3.280 km en 137 jours, traversant l’Europe de Londres à Istanbul.

Paul Gardner in front of the medieval skyline of Bad Wimpfen (DE) Paul Gardner devant la ville médiéval de Bad Wimpfen (DE).

These two figures acted as two opposite poles of inspiration, laying out two very contrasting styles of crossing a continent on foot. On the one hand, Fyona walked hurriedly across the continents she covered, pushing herself forward through sheer force of will power and bloody mindedness. On the other hand, Patrick set out across Europe at a more leisurely pace. For him the destination was far less important than the journey.

As I walked across Europe, I always tried to find a balance between these two styles. Like Fyona, a large part of the walk was about pushing myself and testing my limits of mental and physical endurance. But at the same time, I wanted my walk to be an intellectual as well as a physical challenge. Walking is a simple and yet meticulous way to explore the world, since you can examine how every detail of the landscape, architecture, people and climate changes as you travel. I wanted to observe the gradual change of the natural and built environment as I passed through it and I knew it was essential to take time to learn about the history of the countries I passed through and to talk to the people who lived there. I chose to walk between London and Istanbul because I thought that it would be interesting to walk out of a city which I know very well – where I feel at home and know my way around – and arrive in a city that I do not know at all. Istanbul is a place that I have always dreamed of visiting, as the ancient capital of two major empires, with endless archaeological and architectural wonders to explore. The Walk and its Physical Challenges Although I decided to undertake this journey on my own as a personal endeavour, I quickly realised that there were many ways in which my walk could have a wider impact for other people and organisations.

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I set up a blog site, which proved to be a fantastic forum for communicating the experiences of my journey through photographs and stories. And I decided to raise money for two charities: The British Heart Foundation, in memory of my father who died in 2001, and Europa Nostra, the organisation that tied together the two passions which had inspired my walk: Europe and cultural heritage.

My backpack was cleverly designed to direct all the weight down vertically through my body onto my hips and down through my legs towards my feet. Climbing hills and slopes was a real struggle due to the weight. In Salzburg, I bought two hiking sticks, which helped by distributing the weight through my arms – as well as my legs. They gave me balance, stability and were invaluable for crossing the Alps.

Starting on the 6th May and arriving on 19th September 2007, the full length of time that I took to cross Europe was 137 days. I walked a total distance of 3,280 kilometres. Taking into account the rest days when I did not walk, this equates to an average of 29 kilometres a day. There were ten days when I walked more than marathon a day. On my longest day of walking from Sofia to Ihtiman, on the edge of the Rila Mountains, I covered 53.5 kilometres.

The final physical difficulty was the tortuous effect of the weather. In the Austrian mountains, I encountered sleet and freezing rain. In southern Hungary, I pounded across the plains in a sweltering 42 degree Celsius: the hottest Hungarian summer on record.

Walking for so long is a curious sensation. After hours of pounding along, you eventually pass through the pain barrier, and the feet go numb. The feet begin to tingle and come back to life when you rest, but as soon as you set on your way again, the pain is excruciating, and the first few paces are covered gingerly, until once again you adjust to the sensation. At the end of a long day’s trek, say 30 or 40k along main roads, the pain from walking is so great that after removing the boots, it feels like someone has been bashing the soles of your feet with a concrete slab all day long. Occasionally the strain from walking was so great as to cause me serious physical difficulties: On one occasion I found myself in a German hospital with my right foot under an X-ray machine. I was in such acute pain that I thought that my little toe had been permanently crushed from over-walking. Happily nothing was broken, and the doctor sent me on my way.

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Cultural and Heritage Dimension of Walk While there is plenty to write about how I endured the physical challenges of my walk, this is actually only half the story. The social interactions and cultural experiences left me with the strongest memories and most interesting anecdotes of my journey. The route took me to some important nodes of European cultural heritage, including several archaeological sites and dozens of historic cities. Amongst the archaeological sites, I visited the prehistoric site of Hallstatt in Upper Austria and the Roman frontiers or “limes” in south-west Germany. The ruined watchtowers and forts that I walked past are part of the far-reaching system of the north-western frontiers of the Roman Empire, which constitute one of the most extensive World Heritage Sites listed by UNESCO. I visited scores of beautiful towns and cities on my walk. These ranged from ancient cities like Plovdiv, with its Greco-Roman monuments, to medieval cities like Worms, with its Romanesque cathedral, to handsome modern European cities, like Novi Sad, founded

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Picture postcard view of Hallstatt (AT) Vue de Hallstatt (AT) photo: Paul Gardner

The central square in Pecs (HU) Place centrale de Pecs (HU) photo: Paul Gardner

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Battle of Mohacs (1526) Memorial Park, near Sátorhely, Baranya (HU) Mémorial de la bataille de Mohacs (1526), près de Sátorhely, Baranya (HU). photo: Paul Gardner

Arriving in the old town of Plovdiv (BG) Entrée de la vieille ville de Plovdiv (BG) photo: Paul Gardner

in the eighteenth century as a Serbian city in an Austrian Empire.

of the Second World War were felt in every corner of the continent.

Several of the cities I visited had been witness to crucial moments in European history. Pecs in Hungary was a battleground between the competing European powers in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Sremski Karlovci, northern Serbia, an important European peace treaty was signed in 1699, temporarily ending AustroOttoman hostilities. In Southern Serbia, a concentration camp in the city of Nis reminds us that the horrors

Many of these historic cities and sites that I visited were major tourist destinations that were bustling with international visitors. But while the modern tourist would have flown to each of these places, or zipped between them on trans-national trains, I travelled between these sites over land by path and road. In some ways, I think that my experience of European travel was perhaps closer to that of the Grand Tourists of the eighteenth and nineteenth century than to the jet-setters and inter-railers of today. There are several parallels between my journey and the Grand Tour. Like me, the aristocrats and gentry on the Grand Tour were embarking on a kind of cultural pilgrimage, with ultimate destinations, usually Rome, Naples and Athens. Both for me and the Grand Tourists, a major goal of the journey was personal development, in particular through cultural education. Another similarity is the speed of travel. Although the Grand Tourists took horse drawn transportation (coaches, carriages, etc.) rather than walking, their journey would still have been painfully slow. For example, it would have taken them a whole week to cover the 183 miles from Calais to Paris. Furthermore the compulsory crossing the Alps to gain entry into Italy would have been a gruelling trek for the eighteen century travellers, as it was for me. The other key parallel is the level of interaction. On my journey, as during the Grand Tours, there were plenty of opportunities to talk to people, get to learn about their lives and even to make friends and acquaintances. I found that the most opportune places for making these acquaintances were tucked away in unknown corners of Europe, well off the beaten track. I had dozens of conversations with people along the length of my path. Taking place in a mish-mash of languages, often communicating through gesture as much as through words, these exchanges were always an occasion for me to try and explain what I was doing and why. In turn, I would learn something about their culture, locale or way of life. Two of my favourite memories are:

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In Surduk, Serbia, on the Danube Bend north of Belgrade, I became the very first visitor in a guest house that had just been opened by a couple of art restorers who worked in orthodox monasteries. I stayed in the welcoming and friendly household to recover some strength. At the time, I was considering giving up the walk through south-east Europe which was proving unrewarding and was an enormous struggle. The break gave me some strength, hope and determination and I pushed on through Serbia, enjoying the openness and hospitality of its people. In Havsa, a sleepy town on the road from Edirne to Istanbul in Turkey, I met a school teacher who ran a local internet café. I remember joining him to break the fast once dusk had fallen on the very first day of Ramadan that year. We talked for hours about religion, philosophy and the journeys people make during their lifetimes.

These exchanges were important both for me and for those I met. Although they amount to only a drop in the ocean, they are part of a broader intercultural dialogue in Europe between people coming together from very different parts of the continent. Interestingly, I think that what I did is part of a growing trend. That summer, I was not the only person walking across Europe: in Belgium, I met a man from Aalst who was walking to Assisi. While I was resting under a tree in Serbia, Mohammed arrived and introduced himself: he was walking from London to the Persian Gulf. And in Niska Banja, Serbia, I met Jose, who was travelling on foot from Vitoria, in Northern Spain, to Jerusalem. I suspect that there are dozens of people criss-crossing Europe every year on foot. The fact that it is such a popular destination for walking pays homage to the fact that it is an inviting and exciting continent, which is open to all different types of travellers. Conclusion The walk was a hugely educational endeavour that taught me a great deal about the history, geography

and culture of Europe. In particular, I learnt that the vast majority of people are willing to help others if they see that they are in need. Also, I learnt the importance of local knowledge. Drawing on this knowledge and assistance was invaluable to my success.

The Selimiye Mosque, Istanbul (TR) La Mosquée de Selimiye, Istanbul (TR) photo: Paul Gardner

As well as gaining a great deal of knowledge and skills, I also hope that I can give something back. One of my objectives was to raise money for charity. Half of the sum that I collected was donated to Europa Nostra. In the longer term, I hope that the deep understanding that I have acquired of European history and culture will inform and guide my future work in the heritage field. I am currently working for a heritage charity that works to find new uses for redundant buildings in all four countries of the United Kingdom. In time, I would like to develop the European aspect of my work. As a pro-European, I am committed not solely to saving Europe’s common heritage but also to demonstrating how it can play both a practical and symbolic role in building a strong and sustainable future for Europe’s diverse communities.

De Londres à Istanbul à pied Durant plus de quatre mois en 2007, Paul Gardner a effectué la traversée de l’Europe à pied. Ce voyage, qui a suscité l’enthousiasme de son entourage, a conduit son auteur à récolter des fonds en faveur de la British Heart Foundation mais aussi d’Europa Nostra. Aujourd’hui, il nous livre ses impressions. Si le compte-rendu de globe-trotters tels que Fyona Cambell ou Patrick Leigh Fermor, a fortement inspiré une telle aventure, celleci trouve également son origine dans le Grand Tour, ce fameux voyage effectué durant des générations par les jeunes gens de la bonne société anglaise. En effet, le désir de Paul Gardner, au cours de cette longue marche, était d’associer à une performance et un challenge physique, une démarche culturelle différente. Sillonner l’Europe à pied permet de poser un autre regard sur chaque ville, chaque village et chaque paysage que l’on traverse, de passer par des chemins que l’on aurait jamais empruntés autrement, d’inciter des rencontres inattendues mais si enrichissantes. 137 jours lui seront alors nécessaires pour parcourir les 3 280 kilomètres qui

séparent Londres, cette ville qu’il connaît si bien, d’Istanbul, cette ancienne capitale de deux empires majeurs qu’il rêvait tant découvrir. Cette expédition, parfois difficile et éprouvante, fut surtout une expérience culturelle et interculturelle forte. Ce fut, pour Paul Gardner, l’occasion de découvrir des sites archéologiques importants, des villes qui ont connu leurs heures de gloire, des lieux qui ont joué un rôle déterminant dans l’histoire européenne, des monuments exceptionnels. Mais ce fut aussi une chance unique de partir à la rencontre de tous ces endroits moins fréquentés par le tourisme mais tout aussi riches d’intérêt, de s’imprégner des différents modes de vie locaux, de prendre le temps de lier connaissance avec tant d’autres Européens. Si aujourd’hui, il lui reste tant de merveilleux souvenirs et de belles images, que ses connaissances en histoire, en géographie et en art se sont tant enrichies, ce fantastique voyage lui a, très certainement, forgé un sentiment d’appartenance européenne encore plus fort.

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Les chantiers du patrimoine Vecteur d’intégration, d’éveil et d’échange culturel ✒ DONATIENNE DE SÉJOURNET Co-responsable éditoriale de la revue Europa Nostra A l’ère de la mondialisation, l’Union européenne s’est fixé, en 2007, un nouvel agenda culturel, destiné à intensifier la coopération. Elle revendique plus que jamais de s’enrichir d’expériences venues d’autres pays et de les partager avec d’autres partenaires qui le souhaitent. Dans un tel contexte, les chantiers de restauration reconvertis en lieu de formation, de rencontre et d’intégration y trouvent leur pleine expression. Mais le témoignage de trois de nos organisations membres nous révèle aussi qu’ils sont une occasion unique d’échange et de dialogue interculturels. Aujourd’hui, on ne niera plus que la culture peut jouer un rôle essentiel dans les processus d’intégration au regard de ses nombreuses implications sociales, économiques et politiques. Dans le cadre du patrimoine, des initiatives telles que les chantiers de restauration dédiés à la formation sont de beaux exemples. En effet, ces dernières années, se sont créées, un peu partout en Europe, des associations proposant des stages de formation, des classes d’éveil ou encore des encadrements sociaux, sur des sites historiques. Ainsi, nous verrons plus en détail que l’association américaine Heritage conservation Network, le National Trust of Scotland et l’association française l’Union Rempart proposent à des milliers de jeunes de passer des vacances différentes en les invitant à participer bénévolement à des chantiers de restauration de monuments historiques situés un peu partout en Europe. Cette sensibilisation des jeunes au patrimoine, essentielle à sa sauvegarde, a fait, cette année, l’objet d’une nouvelle catégorie au Prix du patrimoine culturel de l’Union européenne / Concours Europa Nostra. Parmi, les projets primés, citons en Belgique, l’ancienne Abbaye cistercienne de la Paix-Dieu qui accueille depuis près de dix ans un centre de perfectionnement aux métiers du patrimoine. A travers une série de formations adaptées aux différents métiers du patrimoine, ce centre, géré par l’Institut du Patrimoine wallon, assure,

d’une façon remarquable et unique, la transmission des savoir-faire en matière d’architecture. Tandis qu’une quarantaine de stages mêlant la théorie à la pratique sont dispensés sur différents chantiers ainsi qu’au sein même de l’abbaye, toujours en restauration, des classes d’éveil se tournent vers les plus jeunes afin de les sensibiliser au patrimoine et à la qualité de leur cadre de vie. (www.paixdieu.be) Dans le même esprit, la fondation allemande pour la protection des monuments, la Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz , a créé un programme d’initiation des jeunes au patrimoine culturel de l’Europe. Le Jugendbauhütten consiste en une formation pratique et théorique d’un an recouvrant toutes les disciplines liées à la conservation des monuments. A l’acquisition progressive de compétence, s’ajoute pour ces jeunes une expérience de travail en groupe mais aussi la satisfaction de contribuer à la réussite tangible d’un projet de restauration d’un patrimoine commun. (www.denkmalschutz. de/jugendbauhuette0.html). Egalement primé, le « Centre international de formation à la conservation du patrimoine bâti » de Bontida en Roumanie a déjà formé près de 800 personnes venues de 13 pays européens tout en contribuant à la remise en état du château baroque de Bánffy. ( www. heritagetrainingbanffycastle.org )

Heritage Building Sites Once the domain of an army of skilled craftsmen, restoration building sites are increasingly becoming training centres where heritage skills are being passed onto the next generation before it is too late. As Europe increasingly encourages intercultural exchanges between its citizens, and study abroad for its students, heritage building sites are following the trend and becoming settings where people from all over Europe learn of their neighbours’ cultural heritage, and gain mutual understanding while learning practical skills. Training camps or working holidays are being offered by these three Europa Nostra Member Organisations: the American “Heritage Conservation Network”, The National Trust for Scotland, and the French “Union Rempart”, all offering opportunities for young and old to help restore a part of Europe’s cultural heritage. With participants coming from across Europe and farther afield, new skills are learned which can later be applied at home, and opportunities pres-

ent themselves to meet others in informal setting. Recognising the potential in such intercultural encounters, three hands-on heritage training centres were rewarded in the new category of “Education, Training and Awareness Raising” of the 2008 European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards. The top Prize was awarded to the International Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre in Bontida in Romania, offering theoretical and practical restoration training on the site of the threatened Baroque Bánffy Castle. Medals were awarded to the Classes d’éveil au Patrimoine et à ses metiers, at the La Paix-Dieu centre, a Cistercian abbey founded in 1244 that is undergoing restoration, in Amay, Belgium; and to the Jugendbauhütten of the Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz e.V., both centres where young people learn of Europe ‘s cultural heritage through practical courses on architectural and traditional skills, applied in actual conservation work.

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The Village Bay settlement today. Le village aujourd’hui.

The National Trust for Scotland Vo l u n t e e r s h e l p s a f e g u a r d t h e Wo r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e , S a i n t K i l d a ✒ LESTER BORLEY Former Director of the National Trust for Scotland / Europa Nostra Council Member The National Trust for Scotland (NTS), founded in 1931 and now counting 300,000 members, is the leading NGO in Scotland concerned with the protection of the heritage. It was one of the founding Member Organisations of Europa Nostra in 1963, and its staff and members have since participated fully in the important work of Europa Nostra. The NTS owns over 125 castles, buildings, villages, areas of mountainous landscape, islands, and coastline throughout A 19th century photograph of the “Parliament” which was held each morning in the village street of St Kilda, to determine the collective work for the day.

Scotland, sites which are regularly visited by over 2 million people a year. The National Trust for Scotland has for years sustained a programme of working holidays, known as Thistle Camps, which enable people from all over the world to work together on a voluntary basis, sharing skills and experience and helping the Trust’s priority for conservation of the historic fabric and the cultural landscape of Scotland, and for restoring NTS properties, both landscapes and monuments. These Thistle Camps working holidays offer an opportunity to learn and exchange restoration skills and experiences with others from all over Europe, and indeed from further afield. The most popular of these restoration sites is on the World Heritage Site of St Kilda. St Kilda, a group of islands which lies some 70 kms to the west of the Scottish mainland in the Atlantic Ocean, is a National Nature Reserve and home to the largest colony of seabirds in Northern Europe, including a quarter of the world’s population of Northern Gannets. The majestic scenery plunges into the far depths of the ocean, which teams with carpets of anemones, sponges and other life. This and the extraordinary

Vue du XIXe s. des autorités locales qui se réunissaient chaque matin dans une rue de village de St Kilda afin de déterminer les tâches collectives de la journée.

Le National Trust for Scotland L’île Saint-Kilda Fondé en 1931, le National Trust of Scotland, comme organisation non gouvernementale s’investit pleinement dans la protection du patrimoine tout en rassemblant aujourd’hui près de 300 000 membres. Centré sur la gestion de ses propriétés qui comprennent un grand nombre de châteaux, de bâtiments, de villages et de terres, il coordonne également un programme de chantier de restauration destiné aux bénévoles comme celui de l’île de Saint Kilda qui remporte depuis des années un grand succès.

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Situé à 70 km au large des côtes écossaises, l’archipel de Saint-Kilda a été légué dans les années 1950 par le marquis de Bute au National Trust. Alors que ses derniers habitants, trop isolés, ont été évacués en 1930, l’île est aujourd’hui devenue une réserve naturelle unique élevée au rang de patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO, en abritant une des plus importantes colonies d’oiseaux marins. Chaque année, une vingtaine de bénévoles, forts de leur expérience, viennent séjourner sur l’île afin de participer à la restauration de ses édifices historiques.


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clarity of the water has made St Kilda renowned as one of the foremost dive-sites in Europe. St Kilda was designated a dual World Heritage Site in 2005, for its natural and cultural values. As well it is a European Community Special Protection Area. The cultural importance of the islands comes from them having been occupied for over 4000 years. The development of a form of animal husbandry based on the native Soay sheep, which are among the oldest breed in Europe, was augmented by inshore fishing. The very rich marine life meant that the islands supported enormous colonies of gannets, fulmars and auks, and the harvesting of the fulmar in particular, for its feathers and its meat, also became an important part of the island economy. The sheep provided the material for the traditional woollens which together with the feathers were traded for other essential goods. With the growth of steamship travel in the 19th century, more tourists visited the group of islands, bringing awareness of other ways of life, as well as introducing disease for which the island folk were illprepared. All these factors contributed to the decline of population, to the point where the remaining community of 36 islanders felt unable to continue, and thus sought help to evacuate in 1930. The NTS acquired the islands in the early 1950s from the Marquess of Bute and has since been involved in stabilising and restoring the vestiges of human settlement.

An NTS St Kilda work party maintaining the village street and small houses. Restauration et entretien des rues et des maisons du village de St Kilda entreprises par le NTS.

Each year, NTS organises small boats to ferry parties of twelve volunteer workers to sail to St Kilda from the Island of Harris in the Outer Hebrides. Over the years, volunteer workers have come to help mainly with the archaeology and restoration of the island buildings. Details of participation may be obtained from information@nts.org.uk. ☛ www.nts.org.uk

Le chantier de l’Union REMPART Une expérience du dialogue interculturel ✒ FABRICE DUFFAUD Chargé des relations internationales de l’Union Rempart En quarante années d’existence, l’Union REMPART, union d’associations de chantiers de bénévoles, est devenue un acteur incontournable de la conservation du patrimoine en France. Depuis 2001, l’Union revendique de s’enrichir d’expériences venues d’autres pays ou d’autres continents et de les partager avec les partenaires qui le souhaitent. Une dimension qui s’affirme d’année en année faisant des chantiers REMPART des lieux propices au dialogue interculturel.

Volontaires au travail sur le chantier de Taybeh, Palestine, partenariat avec RIWAQ - Centre for Architectural Conservation - projet soutenu par le programme MEDA de l’Union Européenne et le Ministère français des Affaires Etrangères, été 2007. Volunteers working on the Taybeh building site in Palestine in 2007.The joint project

Le chantier, une expérience de l’autre Centrée sur la pratique du chantier, la dynamique de l’Union REMPART se manifeste par les échanges de bénévoles et de formateurs, les échanges de techniques et de techniciens, la formation réciproque à la méthodologie de projet. En effet un lieu d’échange interculturel, le chantier international l’est par nature : le « faire ensemble » associé au « vivre ensemble » fondent sa singularité d’expérience collective. En plus des temps de dialogue inhérents au travail, les temps de repos et de loisirs sont autant de moments où l’on échange les manières de manger, de rire, de se comporter en groupe. Toutes les expériences sont uniques mais certaines, comme celles menées avec nos partenaires au Moyen-Orient, prennent une dimension

of RIWAQ (Centre for Architectural Conservation) is supported by the MEDA Programme of the EU and the Foreign Ministry of France. photo: Union REMPART

particulière. Dans des régions marquées par les tensions géopolitiques, le chantier de jeunes volontaires est une expérience pacifique et positive. Les enjeux sociaux et culturels y dépassent les enjeux patrimoniaux : le chantier n’est plus seulement un moyen de restaurer un site mais aussi un moyen de valoriser l’image d’une population souvent méconnue ou stigmatisée par les médias.

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Volontaires de l’association Sabranenque, Saint Victor La Coste, Gard, France. Volunteers from the Sabranenque Association, Saint Victor La Coste, Gard, France. photo: Union REMPART

Groupe de volontaires sur le chantier de la Citadelle des Croisés classée au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO à Saint-Jean-d’Acre, Galilée, Israël, partenariat avec ICOMOS Israël, été 2007. Projet soutenu par le Ministère français des Affaires Etrangères.

Le dialogue interculturel : un désir à éveiller Les associations membres de l’Union et les bénévoles qui font le mouvement REMPART sont solidaires des évolutions de la société ; ils aspirent aujourd’hui à construire une Europe citoyenne, culturelle et sociale, à échanger avec des acteurs du monde entier dans le respect de toutes les différences avec pour socle l’idée d’un patrimoine commun. Inciter davantage les associations REMPART à s’ouvrir à des projets de coopération internationale nécessite souvent de les mettre en relation avec d’autres, engagées dans des projets similaires. Les exigences supplémentaires qu’implique l’engagement dans ces projets favorisent aussi plus de dialogue au cœur des structures. Avant le chantier, il faut apporter une attention encore plus importante à la préparation du projet et à la diffusion d’une information adaptée. Pendant le chantier, et alors même que la dimension internationale rend plus complexe la dynamique de groupe, les associations consacrent du temps à l’échange interculturel, et prennent en compte les spécificités de chacun.

En six ans, le nombre de nos partenaires étrangers a doublé (plus de quarante dans vingt-cinq pays), et l’Union est de plus en plus sollicitée pour partager son savoir-faire comme en Israël, en Palestine, au Chili, en Russie. Son action internationale est également mieux reconnue par les pouvoirs publics français et européens. La création d’un réseau international des acteurs de la valorisation du patrimoine par les chantiers de bénévoles, basé sur l’échange et la réciprocité, n’en demeure pas moins indispensable pour mieux développer et faciliter, demain, le dialogue entre les cultures. ☛ www.rempart.com

A group of volunteers in 2007 at the building site of the World Heritage Listed “Citadelle des Croisés”, in St. John of Acre, Galilee, Israel, in a joint project with ICOMOS Israel and supported by the Foreign Ministry of France. photo: Union REMPART

Pour un réseau du dialogue interculturel Au-delà des chiffres qui traduisent l’intérêt des bénévoles tant français qu’étrangers pour les chantiers internationaux - ces échanges représentent un tiers des inscriptions - il apparaît indispensable de créer des outils pour mieux satisfaire ce « désir d’interculturel ».

REMPART heritage building sites - an experience in cross-cultural dialogue In its forty years of existence, the REMPART Union, an association of volunteer-based building sites or camps, has become an essential player in the conservation of France’s heritage. Centred on the principle of a building site, REMPART’s success and dynamism are a result of the exchanges between volunteers and trainers, the swapping of techniques and technicians, and the mutual training in project methods. In addition to the opportunities for dialogue inherent in the work, there are also those encountered during rest and recreational periods that likewise contribute to this unique group experience. Since 2001, the Union has also benefited from exchanges of experi-

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ences coming from other countries and continents, willingly to share them with other partners. This dimension grows stronger with each passing year, making REMPART heritage building sites conducive to cross-cultural dialogue. These exchanges take on an even more special dimension when the partnership is composed of representatives from regions marked by geopolitical tensions, such as in the Middle East where a building site manned by young volunteers has thus become a peaceful and positive experience. However, the ever greater success of these international heritage building sites has today engendered the need to create an international network based on exchanges and reciprocity in order to better develop and promote cross-cultural dialogue in coming years.


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Oplotnica, Slovenia (2006): After

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receiving training from an expert, participants began restoring the decorative paint scheme of a 17thc. chapel in a manor house, now used as the town community center.

✒ JUDITH BROEKER HCN Program Director

Oplotnica, Slovénie (2006): après avoir reçu une formation, les participants

A working holiday with Heritage Conservation Network (HCN) puts history in your hands. HCN is a nonprofit organisation based in Boulder, Colorado USA, dedicated to saving the world’s architectural heritage. Each year, HCN holds a series of hands-on building conservation workshops that bring people and preservation projects together. Volunteer participants of all ages come from around the world to work with local residents under the guidance of an expert, learning practical skills and completing work at historic sites in need. Past projects have seen HCN volunteers slinging mud at walls in Upstate New York, photographing frescoes in Italy, mixing mortar in Ghana, and much more. The immediate result of each workshop is the preservation of an historic building. More importantly, however, each serves as a catalyst, creating a range of benefits from skills training to lowering project costs to supporting heritage tourism. And possibly most importantly, each workshop provides a unique opportunity for intercultural exchange. Review HCN’s website to learn about and register for upcoming projects - then spend a week with HCN and find out why preservation can be a powerful tool for change. ☛ www.heritageconservation.net

entament la restauration de la décoration murale de la chapelle du château, devenu le centre communautaire de la ville.

HCN’s 2009 projects include: Re-Discovering the Soul of Swahili Tradition: Conservation of Swahili-Style Stone House February 8-21, 2009; Lamu World Heritage Site, Kenya Lamu Old Town, where African and Arab cultures converged to form the Swahili tradition, will see HCN and the Lamu World Heritage Site and Conservation Office join forces to preserve a traditional Swahili-style stone residence. Arrive by dhow and travel the narrow streets by donkey to arrive at one of the last historic residences still owned and occupied by a local family. Learn principles of coral rag construction and help spark enthusiasm among local residents for their traditional trades. Saving “Shotguns” – Aiming for a Brighter Future June 7-20, 2009; Cairo, Illinois USA HCN’s workshop in Cairo takes you not to the land of pyramids and ancient tombs, but rather to the southernmost tip of Illinois - a place steeped in U.S. history. As part of a last ditch effort to save this economically depressed region, HCN is partnering with Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and local residents to rehabilitate abandoned shotgun-style houses for use as quality affordable housing. City Center Recover & Conservation Efforts June 27-July 9, 2009; Kumayri Historic District, Gyumri, Armenia Visit one of the oldest civilizations in the world when you travel with HNC to Gyumri, Armenia. Join an ongoing effort to provide much-needed housing by restoring an earthquake-damaged masonry house in the city’s historic center. Take a guided tour of the countryside, and wander through Gyumri’s market, museums and ancient churches.

Kornthal Parsonage, Illinois USA (2007): Participants replace deteriorated wooden elements of a Queen Anne-style porch. Kornthal Parsonage, Illinois USA (2007): participants restaurant les boiseries d’un

Kulle Conservation: Masonry Conservation at an Ottoman-Era Stone Residence September 2009; Gjirokastra, Albania HCN and the Albanian National Trust have teamed up in an effort to preserve the distinctive architecture of the museum city of Gjirokastra. Participants will learn masonry conservation skills while helping to restore an Ottomanera kullë house, and will contribute to efforts toward economic revival through heritage tourism.

portique du style Queen Anne.

HCN - Réseau de la conservation du patrimoine Basée aux Etats-Unis, au Colorado, l’association Heritage Conservation Network (HCN) contribue par son action à la conservation du patrimoine à travers le monde. Chaque année, elle envoie, durant les vacances, des bénévoles de tous âges sur des chantiers de restauration. Accompagnés de locaux et d’experts, c’est l’occasion pour ceux-ci de véritablement tenir, entre leur main, un fragment d’histoire. Mais au-delà, des moyens mobilisés et du travail entrepris pour la restauration d’un monument historique, c’est aussi une

opportunité unique de s’imprégner d’un échange interculturel. Le programme de chantiers est riche et varié. Ainsi, en 2009, il prévoit la restauration d’une maison en pierre swahili au Kenya et d’une ancienne résidence ottomane en Albanie, un projet de revitalisation du centre historique de Gyumri en Arménie ou encore la réhabilitation d’anciens pavillons de chasse dans un quartier défavorisé du Caire en collaboration avec l’Université de « Southern Illinois » à Carbondale.

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Heavenly Bliss or Towering Burden? Opportunities and problems in the reuse of church buildings in The Netherlands ✒ HERMAN E.WESSELINK Extract from his Masters Thesis at the Free University (VU), Amsterdam As the demographics of villages, cities and regions change, the continued use of some building types comes into question. In an expanding area, schools are built to accommodate young families; as the area ages, these same schools get torn down or may be converted into homes for the elderly. The reuse of religious buildings is a much more sensitive issue. Our theme of Intercultural Dialogue can be seen from a broad perspective: how do changing beliefs, values and priorities within a population affect how we use the monuments left to us by previous generations? In rapidly secularising Holland, the question of finding ways to cherish and revitalise emptying churches stirs up strong feelings, and also creative ideas which may offer solutions for this Europe-wide problem. During the past decades, many church buildings in The Netherlands have lost their religious function, thus rendering them redundant. While certain disused churches were demolished, others were given new and, at times, profane functions. This clash between commercial usage and the dignity or symbolic meaning of the buildings has led to reactions of outrage among some church authorities and dioceses. To what extent is the reuse of church buildings unacceptable? The Roman Catholic Church says that all forms of reuse, other than a liturgical one, are no longer an option.1 At the same time, there is a growing interest in society about maintaining disused historical buildings, including churches. In the past fifteen years, some of these have been given well considered new functions, and currently an interesting discussion between religious and secular groups in The former 1920s protestant Julianakerk in The Hague has been transformed into a multifunctional and multicultural neighbourhood social centre. Le temple protestant Juliana de La Haye, qui date des années 1920, a été réaménagé en un centre multiculturel. photo: architectenbureau Rappange & Partners

1 This is the opinion of some conservative dioceses in The Netherlands. Other dioceses do consider some alternative usages of churches as proper.

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our society about the reuse of church buildings is developing: should the idea be accepted or dismissed? Should we demolish redundant church buildings, or should we give them a new future, assimilated to changing needs and mores in society? What are examples of acceptable new functions for church buildings in our culture of today? Church buildings from the period 1800 - present From 1800 onwards, many new church buildings of great architectural or historical interest were built in The Netherlands, due to changing religious and political factors. A new Dutch constitution in 1848 forbade State interference with the Church allowing for the re-establishment of Roman Catholic dioceses in 1853 which led to a booming rate of construction of new churches. As well, due to divisions and splintering


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New Life for Old Churches European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards Laureates: The restoration of religious heritage has long been a staple of the Europa Nostra Awards, but increasingly projects have been winning awards which involve the safeguarding of redundant churches by giving them new uses within their surrounding communities. The jury consistently appreciated in these projects the respect shown to the original structures and that any alterations were made in a fully reversible manner. Below are a number of Award winners from past years: Cadogan Hall, London (UK) - Diploma, 2004 This once place of worship for Christian Scientists, built in1908, has been transformed into a multipurpose arts venue and home base for the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. Catogan Hall, Londres (GB) – Primé en 2004 Première Eglise du Christ Scientiste construite en 1908, reconvertie aujourd’hui en un lieu polyvalent pour les beaux-arts et en un foyer permanent pour un orchestre londonien important. Church and Cemetery of Luz, Mourão (PT) - Diploma, 2005 This 15thc. village church and 19thc. cemetery were relocated, accompanied by a new museum, to preserve and redevelop a sense of identity when the village was relocated because of flooding by a dam. L’ancienne église et le cimetière de Luz, Mourão (PT) - Primés en 2005. Lauréat du Prix UE/EN en 2005 pour leur transformation ingénieuse et respectueuse en un nouveau musée qui préserve et développe l’identité du village. The former Church of Santa Marta, Venice (IT) - Diploma, 2005 Deconsecrated in 1811, this church serves as a conference and exhibition centre after years of disuse as a warehouse. Eglise Santa Marta, Venise (IT) – Primée en 2005 Désaffectée en 1811, cette ancienne église du XIVe siècle, devenue tout un temps un entrepôt, accueille désormais un centre de conférence et d’exposition.

Stift Klosterneuburg, north of Vienna (AT) - Diploma, 2006 This monastery, unfinished dream of Emperor Charles VI, now houses a “Culture and Wine” museum circuit about the area and the 900 year history of the building. Stift Klosterneuburd (AT) – Primé en 2006 Rêve inachevé de l’empereur Charles VI, ce monastère retrace aujourd’hui, à travers un parcours « Vin et Culture », les neuf cents ans d’histoire du site. St Paul’s Church, Bristol (UK) - Diploma, 2006 This Grade 1 listed church, focal point of one of the few 18th c. squares in the city, has been given new life by housing Circomedia, a centre for teaching circus and physical performance. L’église Saint Paul, Bristol (GB) - Primée en 2006 Point central d’une des dernières places du XVIIIe S. subsistant encore dans la ville, cette église abrite une école de cirque et de théâtre.

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ers were not able to realise the full potential of the building. New uses of church buildings included a supermarket, a baby-needs store, apartments and a party centre. The neglect of the spiritual worth and symbolic meaning of the buildings has outraged many church authorities.

within the Dutch Reformed (Protestant) Church, many new protestant church buildings were erected to answer the needs of the new congregations.

St. Lambert’s Church in Maastricht, built between 1913 and 1916. Eglise Saint Lambert à Maastricht,

A century and a half later, starting in the 1960’s, more and more churches lost their original function as a result of growing changes in society and secularisation. Many old church buildings (dating before 1800) were listed and protected by the government; conversely, many important church buildings of great historical value from the period 1800 onwards were not listed2 and were demolished.

construite entre 1913 et 1916. photo: S.C. van Daal

Problems of reuse Amongst the disused churches sold, some were refurbished by their new owners and given a new function. As a result of these changes, often the original church interiors were damaged and the expanse of the interior space could no longer be experienced. Furthermore, some of the adaptations of giving new functions to the churches failed when it transpired that the new own-

Sample of relevant websites: www.2008re.nl (2008 Year of Religious Heritage in NL) www.toekomstkerkgebouwen.nl (Taskforce for reuse of churches in NL) www.altekirchen.de (NGO saving and finding new uses for rural churches in Berlin-Brandenburg, DE)

Alternatives from the past ten years In many places cooperation between parishes, municipalities and heritage trust organisations have led to well accepted forms of alternative usage of empty churches. In the city of Tilburg, a former Roman Catholic church dating from 1911-1913, the St. Antonius van Paduakerk, was bought by a stained glass maker. A former Protestant church from the 1920’s, the Julianakerk in The Hague, was transformed into a new public, multicultural centre thanks to the combined efforts of the municipality and a local heritage trust organisation. These examples show how the successful re-utilisation of a church depends on favourable local circumstances. In the historic centre of Maastricht, a former 13th century Dominican church was transformed into a bookstore. The resulting harmony between the old church, with its original interior space, and the new use as a bookshop is in general highly appreciated, even winning a prestigious interior architecture prize. In some cases, and thanks to the goodwill of parishes, church buildings are transformed into having two parallel functions: the interior space is divided with one part keeping its liturgical function, while the other part is used for lay activities. The church in use as covered cemetery: a good opportunity? Before 1824, it was a tradition in The Netherlands to bury the dead under the floors of churches; in many old churches the monumental graves and tombs underfoot or along the walls bear testimony to this custom. Due to a growing awareness of hygiene and the growing population, this practice was abolished during the reign of King Willem I, and cemeteries were established outside the city limits. However, today traditional churchyards and cemeteries are facing growing pressure for space as well as high maintenance costs. With this in mind, The Dutch Union of Undertakers (NUVU) has supported research regarding internment above the ground. Recent technical and hygienic developments have allowed some undertakers to inter bodies in so-called “grave walls”. In 2005, a local architecture office designed cemetery within St. Lambert’s church, a listed monument in Maastricht (1913-1916). The church was abandoned by the parish in 1985 because of degradation of the building due to sagging foundations. Since then the future of the building has remained uncertain. The new plan of the church to act as a covered cemetery seemed to be well received and could create a new 2 During the 1960’s and 1970’s, only very old buildings (from before 1800) were officially listed by the Ministery of Culture and Education. An inventory of

www.visitchurches.org.uk (The Churches Conservation Trust cares for 340 historic churches in the UK and finds them new community functions)

important newer churches led to a provisional protection of a few hundred church buildings from the period 1850-1940. After the re-establishment of the “Monumentenwet” (Architectural and Urban Heritage Law) in 1988, the most important church buildings from that period were listed by the government.

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and original function and opportunity for redundant church buildings. In general it is felt that this kind of reuse is more proper and thus preferable to that of commercial usage for a formal church building with sacred and spiritual value of its interior space. It could be a solution for both the problems of more church buildings becoming redundant and the increasing problems of space at traditional cemeteries. For this reason it is worth carrying out further research. In short, the successful reuse of redundant monumental church buildings depends on a good coexistence of local circumstances and cooperation between parishes, municipalities and heritage trust organisations. Furthermore the transformation of a church will be acceptable if its new character is in line with the original character of the building and its interior space, and the religious or spiritual intention of the building. In the near future hundreds of church buildings will become redundant, while new religious communities in the cities are growing and needing a proper place of worship. Bearing this in mind, parishes and church authorities should contact and negotiate with each other about good ways of reuse by some new upcoming religious communities. Furthermore, some adapted church buildings are currently serving a more social function as a meeting place as well as a place of worship. In an affluent and individualistic society, social meeting points are essential and this is a function that church buildings are ideally suited to. At present church buildings are being abandoned in ever increasing numbers by the diminishing and greying religious communities, but in fact they were built, to a certain extent, to last for ever. The fact that our societies are becoming more secular should not automatically result in these buildings coming under

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Architect’s proposal for a covered cemetery in St. Lambert’s Church, Maastricht. Projection du réaménagement de l’église Saint Lambert à Maastricht en un cimetière couvert. photo:HVN Architecten

threat. Places of religious worship are usually buildings which act as points of reference or as landmarks in a village, city or landscape and as such help define and create a sense of place for inhabitants and vistors alike. Usually buildings of religious heritage were the pinacle of architectural skill and style where considerable community resources have been invested. The demolition of these buildings, therefore, is a loss for both the social community and the visual fabric of their surroundings, as well as being a deletion in the historical record and continuity of an area’s development. It remains for us to answer the challenge in finding new uses for our valuable religious heritage and to revitalise them so they can continue functioning as new social focal points of dynamic communities, meaningful to our culture of today. The author may be contacted via the Europa Nostra International Secretariat for further information and references.

Bonheur céleste ou lourd fardeau ? Opportunités et contraintes de la réaffectation des églises aux Pays-Bas Au cours du XIXe siècle, suite à certains changements politiques et Ainsi, la prise en compte de tout le potentiel d’un édifice religieux religieux, de nombreuses nouvelles églises ont fait leur apparition va contribuer à la réussite de sa réaffectation. Mais une bonne coldans le paysage néerlandais. Elles sont ainsi venues compléter par laboration entre paroisses, municipalités et services du patrimoine leur qualité architecturale et historique un patrimoine religieux déjà est également essentielle. L’église dominicaine du XIIIe siècle à important et varié. Mais un siècle et demi plus tard, la forte baisse de Maastricht réaménagée en une vaste librairie est un bel exemple. la pratique religieuse a conduit à la désaffectation d’un certain nomLes nouvelles fonctions du bâtiment se sont harmonieusement bre d’entre-elles. Si certaines de ces églises ont été vouées à la démoadaptées à l’espace intérieur d’origine. lition, d’autres connaissent un meilleur sort, celui de la réaffectation. Mais ce changement d’affectation ne se fait pas sans soulever de Depuis quelques années aux Pays-Bas, de nouvelles pistes de réflexnombreuses questions. ion sont également apparues. Ainsi, les églises désaffectées pourraient, grâce à de nouvelles technologies en matière d’hygiène, Si aujourd’hui, la désaffection de la pratique religieuse met en péril abriter des cimetières couverts conservant ainsi la valeur sacrée et la fonction de ces édifices, il ne faut pas perdre de vue leur valeur spirituelle de l’édifice. A l’étude depuis 2005 dans l’église St Lambert patrimoniale. Comme monuments architecturaux, ils font partie de Maastricht, ce projet semble obtenir de bons échos. Mais ces édiintégrante du tissu urbain et rural du pays tout en renfermant un fices pourraient également accueillir de nouvelles communautés travail artistique significatif. Tandis que leur disparition peut boulereligieuses, devenir de nouveaux lieux de rencontre, essentiels dans verser le paysage, un réaménagement inadapté est tout aussi domune société qui tend vers plus d’individualisme. Sans véritablement mageable. D’autres part, leur valeur religieuse, même si l’édifice est rompre avec leur passé, les églises s’ouvrent ainsi à de nouvelles perdésacralisé, reste bien présente. Certaines réaffectations d’églises, en spectives. centre commercial ou en boîte de nuit, ont véritablement choqué les autorités ecclésiastiques.

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Heritage under Threat an Appeal by Italia Nostra ✒ GIOVANNI LOSAVIO National President of Italia Nostra Saving the splendid Baroque towns of the Val di Noto in Sicily In Sicily the many splendid late Baroque towns of the Val di Noto in south-eastern Sicily, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002, are at risk of being irreversibly disfigured by the drilling brought about by a Texan petrol company. The unacceptable interaction of official bodies, politicians and administrators has created a dramatic and opaque situation of disconcerting ambiguity. Italia Nostra appeals for a general mobilisation against this assault on an area of such extraordinary beauty, and of vital historic and geographic importance. The eight towns in the valley: Caltagirone, Militello Val di Catania, Catania, Modica, Noto, Palazzolo, Ragusa and Scicli, were all rebuilt after 1693 on or beside towns existing at the time of the earthquake which took place in that year. These cities represent a considerable collective undertaking, successfully carried out at a high level of architectural and artistic achievement. Keeping within the late Baroque style of the day, they also depict distinctive innovations in town planning and urban building. It would be more beneficial for the area to dedicate its future to cultural tourism, traditional crafts and agriculture, rather than the possible discovery of oil deposits. When a site is declared a World Heritage Site, UNESCO anticipates an administrative policy which favours cultural and artistic interests and which considers only those economic activities which are compatible with these interests. The Regional or the Siracusa Offices of the Environment and of Cultural Heritage need to enforce restrictions according to UNESCO environmental conservation guidelines. At this point, intervention by the National Government and the Protesting to save the Baroque towns in the Val de Noto. Manifestation en faveur de la sauvegarde des villes baroques du Val de Noto.

Ministry of Cultural Heritage is highly desirable, if not crucial. Italia Nostra and Europa Nostra appeal to the citizens and institutions of Europe to save the splendid Baroque towns of the Val di Noto. Combating the destruction of the landscape around Lago di Garda The area around Lago di Garda risks becoming one of the worst possible examples of poor environmental administration due to a noticeable absence of an effective conservation policy. Over the last decade, substantial speculative building projects have seriously compromised the surroundings of the lake. Those entrusted with the protection of the countryside have not been carrying out their duties in a creditable fashion: with regard to the environment, there is no perceptible Regional policy; policy at Provincial level appears to be ineffective; and those responsible for issuing permits for local land use in environmentally protected areas have permitted destruction at a level which has been decried for years by the Brescia branch of Italia Nostra. Particularly unfortunate examples of construction projects can be found in Padenghe, as well as in Moniga and Manerba, and Toscolano and Gargnano: holiday apartments in pseudo-Caribbean style; clusters of houses on the Moreniche Hills; illegal roads cut into the hills; a waterfall placed in a new hotel by the lake; and four-storey high houses built beside a medieval castle. Most flagrant is a boathouse by the lake measuring 33.000 cubic metres and 8 metres high with indoor berths for 300 craft. This building was put up without the approval of the competent authorities and its demolition is urgently required. Of greater concern than private abuses of construction regulations are the public initiatives which are equally shocking. One of the most astonishing examples is the project, financed by the Province of Lombardia, to construct a promenade along the beaches of nine municipalities from Desenzano to Toscolano. This operation, funded by the tax-payer, consists of laying cement along the beaches which will fundamentally damage the shoreline. Italia Nostra directly opposes this destruction, and urgres the Ministry of Culture and the Environment to prevent yet another gross mistake. We ask the public to express their objection by supporting our appeal to protect the countryside of Lago di Garda.

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Open letter concerning plans for public parking on the Pincio in Rome An icon of Rome, and amongst the most beautiful of its kind, the delightful 18th century Pincio Terrace, was designed expressly with no trees to interfere with its role as belvedere over the ancient city. Capitalising on the very absence of trees, the administrators of Rome now have plans to excavate the Pincio Hill and to construct a seven-storey car park with room for 726 vehicles. As a result, one of the most important historic sites in Rome is about to be disfigured for ever. Access ramps to the parking garage will run parallel to the elegant semi-circles which curve around the panoramic design of the Terrace; exits for pedestrians will be incorporated in the Terrace and ventilation grills will be placed in between the existing paving stones. The stated intention of the parking garage is to bar all traffic from the Baroque Tridente area and to turn it

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Cement paths destroying the environmental health of Lago di Garda shoreline. Chemin en asphalte nuisant à l’environnement du Lac de Garde.

The Pincio Hill in Rome La colline du Pincio à Rome

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Photomontage of the proposed tram passing alongside the Duomo and its Baptistery in the heart of Florence. Montage photographique d’un tram passant devant le Dôme et le Baptistère au coeur de Florence.

into a pedestrian precinct. This assertion is clearly neither tenable nor credible. The historic centre of Rome is home to approximately 100 000 inhabitants of whom 30 000 live in the Tridente area. The plan is to sell 70% of the parking places on the property market and 20% will be available for long-term rental. These parking places will likely be bought by those who work in the centre, thus bringing ever more traffic to the area. When confronted with a site of such remarkable historical and cultural value, the forces of property speculation must be stopped. Italia Nostra is making an urgent appeal to the Mayor of Rome, Walter Veltroni, to prevent the realisation of this project. Neither Villa Borghese nor Pincio Hill should be thus disfigured and sacrificed in this way. Extraordinary monuments such as these to remain places of beauty to be appreciated by all.

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Say NO to a tram line through the heart of Florence A protest campaign started by Florence’s citizens, and supported by Italia Nostra and Europa Nostra, has expressed firm opposition to the construction of a major tram line through the very heart of the historic centre of Florence, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1982. The campaign calls on the Florence and Italian authorities, as well as those of the EU institutions, the Council of Europe and UNESCO, to save the historic centre of Florence from this intrusive tram line. It is inconceivable that a tram line penetrates the historic heart of Florence, which deserves to be rendered wholly pedestrian. For visitors who are less mobile, there is a network of much more discrete electric and environmentally friendly minibuses already in use in the historic centre which should be maintained, with connections to the tram lines which will circumnavigate the historic centre of the city. The route the Municipality of Florence is planning for the tram line would run through the narrow streets and delicate historic fabric of the heart of the city, including passing through the Piazza del Duomo alongside the Baptistery, the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (the Duomo) and the Palazzo Medici-


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Tornado hits Sychrov

Tempête sur Sychrov

In early 2007, a tornado struck sweeping away completely the historic park of Sychrov, in Northern Bohemia (CZ). Just a few years ago the owner of the site, Countess Kottulinsky, received and welcomed Europa Nostra most graciously at her castle. Today she is entirely devoting herself to restoring this magnificent setting. Although at present she is receiving the support of generous benefactors, this is not enough to cover the costs of replanting let alone that of rebuilding the damaged walls.

Au début de 2007, le changement climatique a de nouveau frappé. Une tornade a complètement balayé le parc historique de Sychrov. On se souvient que ce grand château fut l’œuvre de Camille de Rohan, 11e duc de Montbazon, qui était né en exil et que les circonstances avaient amené en Bohême du Nord (CZ). Époux d’une princesse de Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, il consacra une bonne partie de son existence à rebâtir une Bretagne imaginaire en Europe centrale et à faire de sa maison une sorte de rêve néogothique où s’épanouirent plus de cent portraits de famille. C’est ainsi que le souvenir de la plus illustre lignée de l’histoire française (avec les Montmorencys, aujourd’hui éteints) embellit un parcours qui attire des visiteurs toujours plus nombreux. Contesse Kottulinsky, née Marguerite de Rohan Montbazon, se consacre depuis plus de vingt ans à la restauration de ce magnifique ensemble, et c’est là qu’il y a une dizaine d’années, elle accueillit Europa Nostra de façon charmante.

Riccardi. While recognising the need for the authorities to invest in an environmentally friendly public transportation system which would include the construction of one or more tram lines, Italia Nostra and Europa Nostra are of the opinion that any mode of transportation provided must be sensitive to the fabric of the historical environment. The proposed tram, no less than 32m long and passing through every couple of minutes, will be at the very least a source of annoyance to the pedestrians in the tight historic public spaces. Protecting against vibrations the trams would otherwise subject the surrounding buildings to, does not eliminate the visually jarring intrusion the trams make in the historic centre. The protest is open for signature by citizens from beyond the frontiers of Italy by sending an email to info@italianostra.org with your name, address and the name of the campaign. Florence has an emblematic importance and Italia Nostra and Europa Nostra call for a Europe-wide discussion on the best practices concerning mobility schemes for Europe’s historic cities. The right balance must be found between keeping historic cities viable and adapting them to better answer to the needs of the 21st century, while ensuring the best possible protection of their invaluable historic and artistic heritage.

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Trente-neuf arbres rares ont été perdus irrémédiablement. À ce jour quelque 33 sponsors ont adopté leur souvenir. Les noms des généreux donateurs sont gravés sur une plaque qui accompagne le nouveau plant au cours de son existence. Mais la plupart des grilles et des murs du parc ont été endommagés, voire pulvérisés, par la chute des titans. La replantation des arbres a coûté près de 8.000,00 g. La réfection des parties du décor qui ont été détruites demande bien davantage et dépasse totalement les possibilités de l’association qui s’en occupe. ☛ www.zamek-sychrov.cz

Patrimoine en péril - Un appel d’Italia Nostra La sauvegarde du patrimoine demande une vigilance de tous les instants car, aujourd’hui encore, des sites déclarés pourtant patrimoine mondial par l’UNESCO sont en danger. Ainsi au sud de la Sicile, la vallée de Noto qui offre un témoignage exceptionnel du génie exubérant de l’art et de l’architecture du baroque tardif est actuellement menacée par les forages d’une compagnie pétrolière américaine. Alors que les pouvoirs publics restent très ambigus quant à la situation, l’octroi du permis d’exploitation du gisement signifierait, d’un seul coup, la destruction d’un paysage et d’une architecture emblématiques. En outre, cela porterait un coup fatal aux efforts réalisés envers le développement du tourisme et de l’agriculture. Célébré par tous les écrivains, de Virgile à Stendhal, le lac de Garde et son paysage environnant se voient de plus en plus menacés par l’inefficacité d’une politique de conservation aussi bien régionale que municipale. Alors que des permis de constructions nuisant à l’environnement ont été octroyés, de nombreux exemples de constructions illicites devraient faire l’objet d’une procédure de destruc-

tion. Mais plus surprenant encore est la série d’initiatives publiques comme le projet financé par la province de Lombardie qui envisage d’asphalter de manière irréversible une promenade le long des plages de neuf municipalités allant de Desenzano à Toscolano. Mais actuellement, Italia Nostra ne s’inquiète pas seulement pour le paysage italien. Ainsi, à Rome, à proximité de la villa Borghèse, la colline du Pincio, qui offre une vue exceptionnelle sur la ville, encourt d’être totalement défigurée par l’aménagement d’un parking souterrain de plus de 700 places. Alors que ce projet cherche à répondre au réel problème du stationnement au centre ville, il risque d’inciter une augmentation du trafic dans le quartier en attirant plus de navetteurs que d’habitants. De son côté, le centre historique de Florence s’expose aux enjeux de la mobilité. La municipalité prévoit l’installation du tram en ville et dans son agglomération. Mais une des lignes passant par la place du Dôme et à proximité de la cathédrale Santa Maria del Fiore, suscite une vive polémique en portant atteinte à un haut lieu du patrimoine culturel. ☛ www.italianostra.org

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Saving Portuguese heritage abroad The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation ✒ MARIA FERNANDA MATIAS Assistant Director, International Department, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Since its creation in 1956, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation has concentrated an important part of its activities on rehabilitating and preserving Portuguese historical heritage abroad, both in Europe and in the rest of the world. Safeguarding this heritage, which is witness to Portugal’s great history as a seafaring and colonial power, preserves the evidence of how travelers spread their culture and traditions around the world throughout the centuries. The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is a private Portuguese organisation with headquarters in Lisbon. It was established according to the will of Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian, a British citizen of Armenian origin, and a pioneer of the oil industry in the Middle-East. In 2006-2007 the Foundation carried out an extensive programme to celebrate its fiftieth anniversary.

Church of the Holy Rosary, Dacca, Bangladesh. L’église du Saint Rosaire, Dacca, Bangladesh.

Within the scope of its statutory activity strands charity, art, education and science - the Foundation is

photo: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation

involved since its beginnings in several domains of cultural, artistic and human development, both in Portugal and around the world. There is a particular concentration of activities in France and the United Kingdom, where the Foundation has delegations in Paris and in London, respectively. The Foundation grants subsidies and scholarships for specialised studies and doctoral degrees in Portugal and other countries, and it also supports scientific research programmes and creative projects for artists. Since 2002, it has implemented shared programmes with Portuguese and international universities and organisations, and promoted projects related to cooperation for development, particularly for the Portuguese-speaking African countries and for the Armenian communities worldwide. Preserving Portuguese heritage abroad The activities carried out by the International Department, set up in 1959, concentrate on the promotion of Portuguese culture throughout the world, and especially the preservation of the Portuguese historical heritage outside of Portugal. This work is at the forefront of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation’s concern. This concern is currently reflected in the number of projects and in the diversity of monuments that the Foundation has been involved in safeguarding, as well as in the large scope of initiatives that, although not subject to direct involvement of Foundation appointed specialists, have received significant technical advice. Architectonic and topographic surveys, historical background studies and/or full rehabilitation projects offered to different countries, are among intervention approaches of the Gulbenkian Foundation. Also financial support is made available, enabling the success of other entities’ initiatives. The work of the Foundation has been guided by three principles: ■ local authorities have to initiate a project by expressing their desire to implement the preservation of a certain monument and assure a vested interest in it; ■ secondly, part of the costs have to be met locally;

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Asilah Fortress, Morocco. Le donjon d’Asilah, Maroc. photo: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation

Portugues Synagogue, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

and lastly, the Foundation will not be involved in the future management of the monument. This management aspect must always remain the responsibility of the local authorities.

of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in the field of the rehabilitation of Portuguese heritage abroad. The keep of Asilah Fortress, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, built in the beginning of the 16th century,

La Synagogue Portugaise, Amsterdam, Pays-Bas. photo: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation

The Foundation offers different levels of involvement and support: ■ it can grant financial support or consulting services through the collaboration with Portuguese technicians (architects, engineers, historians and curators) who guarantee standards of the highest quality and rigour; or ■ the Foundation may be directly responsible for the entire project of restoration, from the architectural plans to the conclusion of the related works. It is possible to find examples of the work carried out by the Foundation in several countries across several continents, from Europe to the Far East. In Europe, the Foundation has supported the restoration of the Ets Haim Library of the Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. The Synagogue, which was consecrated in 1675, was built by the Portuguese Jewish Community that took refuge in the city throughout the 16th century. The temple acted as a model for other synagogues built later on, both in the Old and in the New Worlds. In Malta, the Foundation supported the renovation of the Vilhena Palace in Mdina, built in the 18th century by a Portuguese Grand-Master of the Order of the Knights of St John. In Africa, in Kenya, the Fort Jesus in Mombasa, built by the Portuguese in 1593, was the first intervention

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was the first monument to be reconstructed (in the 1980s it was almost ruined). The architect, in accordance with original iconographic documentation, proposed the reconstruction to be as it was originally built, restoring features which had disappeared from the main tower such as its covering roof.

Vilhena Palace, Mdina, Malta. Le palais Vilhena, Mdina, Malte. photo: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation

Projects in Goa and Cochin (India), Kilwa (Tanzania), São Luís do Maranhão and Rondonia (Brazil), Dacca (Bangladesh), Colónia de Sacramento (Uruguay), Malacca (Malaysia), Ayutthaya (Thailand), Hormuz and Qhesm (Iran), Ouidah (Benin), Yogyakarta (Indonesia), and Safi (Morocco) are further examples where the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation has, or is carrying out its projects around the world.

Since September 2007, the renowned Portuguese historian, José Mattoso, is coordinating an important project which exemplifies the importance the Foundation places on the Portuguese historical heritage abroad. The project involves the identification of all monuments and sites of Portuguese heritage around the world, including Portuguese speaking African countries and East Timor. This work will be the basis for future reflection, anchored on historical and strategic criteria, and will strengthen the Foundation’s capacity to carry out interventions and to develop the right conditions for partnerships with other organisations. It will also widen the number of external experts involved in these projects. ☛ www.gulbenkian.pt

Sauvegarde du patrimoine portugais à l’étranger La Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian Depuis sa création en 1956, la Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian centre une partie importante de son action sur la réhabilitation et la préservation du patrimoine historique portugais à l’étranger. Fondée par la volonté testamentaire de Calouste Sariks Gulbenkian, britannique et d’origine arménienne, pionnier de l’industrie pétrolifère au Moyen Orient, cette institution portugaise s’attache également à d’autres objectifs tels que la santé, l’art, l’éducation et les sciences, tout en donnant une attention particulière aux pays d’Afrique lusophone ainsi qu’aux communautés arméniennes dispersées dans le monde. Basée à Lisbonne, elle possède également une délégation à Londres et un Centre Culturel à Paris. Dans le cadre de ses activités, elle encourage à travers congrès et conférences, expositions et festivals, soutiens financiers et bourses d’études, une large diffusion de la culture portugaise dans le monde. Pour la protection du patrimoine, l’intervention de la Fondation est très variée. Au-delà d’un apport

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financier, elle propose ses services ainsi qu’un support technique. Mais il est important qu’une autorité locale s’investisse et collabore au projet dans lequel elle s’engage. Elle encourage également le partenariat avec d’autres institutions. Ainsi jusqu’à ce jour, la Fondation a participé à la restauration de nombreux monuments répartis sur les différents continents. Citons, par exemple le soutien apporté à la restauration des documents et livres anciens de la Synagogue Portugaise d’Amsterdam aux Pays-Bas, à celle du Palais Vilhena à Malte, remarquable exemple de l’architecture baroque portugaise, ou à la reconstruction du donjon d’Asilah au Maroc. Si d’autres interventions ont également eu lieu en Inde, en Tanzanie, au Brésil, en Iran ou encore en Malaisie, de nombreux projets sont en cours comme l’inventaire du patrimoine portugais à l’étranger dirigé depuis 2007 par l’historien José Mattoso.


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Mediterranean Heritage, an opportunity for dialogue Euromed Heritage: a worthy perspective on cultural heritage development ✒ CHRISTIANE DABDOUB NASSER Team Leader of the Regional Monitoring and Support Unit, Euromed Heritage IV The inter-relationship between cultural heritage, development, awareness and tourism has been attracting considerable attention of late. The complexity and the changes they introduce present new challenges and require new ways of addressing constantly emerging problems. In Europe, considerable progress has been accomplished in this direction and this has nurtured the conviction that culture will be the making of Europe and will support its citizens as they blossom and prosper. In the context of the Mediterranean region - cradle of such a mixture of civilisations, witness to millennia of cultural exchanges as well as “cultural clashes”, and stage where the age-old relationship between Europe and the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean has been played out through the ages - Europe has emerged as both a major actor and a major stakeholder. The birth of the Euromed Heritage Programme (EH) in 1998 is one of the outcomes of the 1995 Barcelona Declaration, and can be perceived within the above context1. Timely and influential in regions at the conjunction of Europe and its Mediterranean neighbours, the Euromed Heritage programme is an expression of this relatively new geo-political configuration. Euromed is a new “borderland zone on the edge of Europe”2, and the programme embodies the potential that cultural heritage incorporates as “a tool for a policy of openness, tolerance, peace and stability in the region”3. With a decade-long history, EH stands out as a successful programme that rallies conservation experts, heritage institutions, administrations and civil society institutions from the countries of the Mediterranean region to work together on specific aspects of cultural heritage development, articulated within a call for proposals for each phase. It is particularly distinctive in that each phase within the programme builds upon the experiences and results of the former, with a marked progression in the methodology and approach it stipulates: the main goal of EH I was the creation of heritage inventories and facilitation of networking between museums and other cultural institutions; EH II and EH III focussed on the increasing of Mediterranean countries’ capacities in managing and developing their cultural heritage with a special focus on intangible heritage; EH IV puts appropriation by the populations themselves of their cultural heritage at the core of the actions and therefore stresses actions

of communication and dissemination of research and examples of good professional practice. Its approach entails a reasonable balance between research and practice, and calls on creativity and innovation in the development of methodologies and production of outputs and activities.

Storyteller in Damascus, Syria Conteur à Damas, Syrie photo: Christophe Graz

1 The Euromed Heritage Programme was created in the wake of the Barcelona declaration in 1995 which aimed towards building an “area of peace, security and prosperity” within the region of the Mediterranean basin. The European Commission’s EuropeAid Cooperation Office has spent 57 million euros on this programme, which is now just starting its fourth phase - Euromed Heritage IV (EH IV) - with a budget allocation of 13.5 million euros. This funding is disbursed, through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), the new funding mechanism for European Community external assistance. A Regional Monitoring and Support Unit (RMSU) based in Brussels will work in close collaboration with EuropeAid to support EH IV partners and projects in implementing Programme objectives. 2 Julie Scott “Imagining the Mediterranean”, Journal of Mediterranean Studies. Volume 15, Number 2, 2005, 219-243. 3 Euromed Heritage II notes for guidance.

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Photographs are from the successful “Museum With No Frontiers”, funded through the Euromed Heritage IV programme which promotes intercultural dialogue between countries bordering the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Photos issues du « Musée sans frontières », un projet qui a bénéficié du soutien Euromed Heritage IV afin de promouvoir le dialogue interculturel entre les pays du bassin méditerranéen.

Ruins of cities, Syria Villes mortes, Syrie photo: Christophe Graz

An added value... One important aspect of Euromed Heritage IV is reflected in the wide variety of actors it will rally from Europe and the Mediterranean partner countries archaeologists, architects, urban planners, sociologists, anthropologists, decision makers, curators, civic leaders, artists, craftsmen and artisans - who will work together towards exploring new venues in the field of cultural heritage development in both its tangible and intangible manifestations. This mixture of disciplines and skills, called for by the dual approach it proposes,

Damascus, Syria Damas, Syrie photo: Christophe Graz

Discovering Islamic Art The project “Discovering Islamic Art” is an innovative showcase of how to bring art to the public. It gave birth to the virtual “Museum With No Frontiers”, allowing people from everywhere in the world to take note of the historical and cultural Islamic heritage around the Mediterranean, even that stemming from remote locations. Crafts and architecture, as well as information about specific customs, themes and minority groups, such as the Mamelouks in Egypt, or the Umayyades in Jordan, are displayed and documented. The project was initiated after a cycle of thematic exhibitions was held on Islamic Art in nine countries around the Mediterranean. The underlying idea was to link the different collections and themes so as to show Islamic art in all its varieties and, at the same time, allow access to a wider audience. Since then the museum gradually opened its virtual doors to other collections and sites as well. The programme is based on cooperation between Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Turkey, Tunisia, Algeria, Syria, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, and is the collective result of 250 experts from all over the region working together. For those that prefer the actual over the virtual, and like to experience, smell and touch the beauties of Islamic craft and art in the “real world”’, the “Museum With No Frontiers” organises thematic cultural travels to the exhibiting countries. By doing so the project generates income while also attracting new commercial partners. This is a reassuring development helping ensure that heritage has a sustainable future. ☛ www.discoverislamicart.org

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is an added value and reflects the variety of themes emerging through the Programme on the one hand, and the significance staked upon interdisciplinary and regional exchange on the other. Supported by horizontal networking and the sharing of activities, the regional scope of the Programme is a multiplier effect in terms of impact and sustainability. Last but not least, the Programme will promote the agency of local groups in the valorisation of their heritage as researchers, conservators, decision makers, administrators, promoters and users. A whole programme of capacity and institution building is planned towards this end, particularly where it concerns improving the institutional and legislative frameworks surrounding cultural heritage among


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Mediterranean authorities. Indeed, this aspect is at the core of the EH IV objectives and is crucial for the overall success of the Programme. New perspectives, new prospects There is no question that the large number of applications for EH IV, a total of 344, is indicative of the increasing interest in the field of cultural heritage among Mediterranean partner countries and reflects the spirit of cooperation and exchange the EH programme has succeeded in establishing throughout the years of its existence. This programme can certainly be interpreted as a vital “space” where EuroMediterranean cultural commonalities and differences are argued and the notions of shared universal values and social and cultural ties are revisited and reconfigured. From this perspective, the interest EH has been able to muster and, more importantly, the impact it has had among peoples of the region cannot be underestimated in the current climate of uncertainty and turbulence brought forth by globalization on the one hand, and polarisation between cultures on the other. New perspectives are envisioned at the termination of this programme in three years time, and it is hoped that new prospects will lie ahead for

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Mediterraneo Nostra Fondée en Sicile à Catania en décembre 2006, l’association du patrimoine culturel « Mediterraneo Nostra » s’attelle à sauvegarder le patrimoine militaire qui borde les côtes de la Méditerranée. Aujourd’hui, elle est soutenue par une quinzaine d’associations, instituts et universités, aussi bien gouvernementales que non gouvernementales de pays comme l’Italie, la France, la Grèce, l’Espagne, Malte, Chypre, la Turquie , la Syrie et le Maroc. Centre d’échange sur le patrimoine fortifié, l’association partage également les expériences et les approches de chacun sur l’usage actuel des systèmes de défense. Soutenant des projets de sauvegarde ainsi que de la recherche sur la préservation, la restauration et l’utilisation de technologies adaptées, elle joue aussi un rôle de sensibilisation à travers différentes initiatives et événements culturels. Founded in December 2006, “Mediterraneo Nostra” concentrates on safeguarding military heritage of the areas bordering the Mediterranean. Supported by public and private funding, it aims to be a network and a centre of expertise regarding the restoration of these ancient systems of defence, and their adaptation to potential new functions to ensure their long term survival. furthering the blossoming of the cultural melting pot of Mediterranean region.

Hebron, Palestine Hebron, Palestine photo: Christophe Graz

Florence, Italy Florence, Italie photo: Christophe Graz

Le patrimoine méditerranéen, une opportunité pour le dialogue La Méditerranée, berceau de nombreuses civilisations, fait partie de notre patrimoine commun. Afin de valoriser ses sites historiques et archéologiques, ses coutumes et son artisanat traditionnel, Euromed Héritage (EH) a été lancé en 1998. Dans l’esprit de la déclaration de Barcelone en 1995, EH contribue à développer la compréhension mutuelle et le dialogue entre les pays de la Méditeranée à travers de nombreux projets culturels. Financé par l’Union européenne, ce programme régional, en jouant un rôle de catalyseur et de moteur, s’inscrit dans un volet de partenariat culturel, social et humain entre les pays du bassin méditerranéen. Cette initiative a déjà permis de démarrer des inventaires, de développer des programmes de recherche, de soutenir l’organisation de nombreux évènements (EH I). La mise en place d’un réseau a offert la possibilité aux musées et autres institutions culturelles, ainsi qu’aux étudiants et aux professeurs d’université de se rencontrer, d’établir des contacts et d’unir leurs efforts de préservation de ces trésors du patrimoine méditerranéen. Les programmes EuroMed

Héritage II et III ont été consacrés aux expressions matérielles et immatérielles de la culture qui font la spécificité de la Méditerranée. Mais aujourd’hui, EuroMed Heritage IV (2008-2011) vise plus particulièrement à approfondir le sentiment d’appartenance des populations méditerranéennes à leur patrimoine en favorisant notamment l’accès à l’éducation et la connaissance. Dans ce contexte, le projet « A la découverte de l’art islamique » est un bel exemple et une manière innovante de mettre l’art au contact du public. Ce « Musée sans frontières » virtuel permet d’accéder, des quatre coins du monde, au patrimoine culturel islamique du bassin méditerranéen, quel que soit l’endroit où l’on se trouve. Lancé après un cycle d’expositions organisé dans neuf pays de la Méditerranée, il offre aussi bien des informations sur l’artisanat et l’architecture que sur des coutumes, des sujets ou des minorités spécifiques. Fondé grâce à la coopération de nombreux pays, cette initiative montre magnifiquement toute la diversité de l’art islamique.

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La Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine Dialogue entre le passé et le présent, Paris, France ✒ DONATIENNE DE SEJOURNET Co-responsable éditoriale de la revue Europa Nostra En plein centre de Paris, face à la Tour Eiffel, la Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine s’est ouverte en septembre dernier dans le Palais de Chaillot au Trocadéro. Ce nouvel espace d’envergure qui réunit sur vingt-trois mille mètres carrés, le musée des Monuments français, l’Institut français d’architecture et l’Ecole de Chaillot s’est donné pour mission la diffusion de la culture architecturale, qu’elle soit aussi bien du passé que du présent. Palais de Chaillot, façade du pavillon de tête de la Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine. Main facade of Palais de Chaillot, home to the “Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine”. photo: Capa / Nicolas Borel

Nouvel escalier rouge du pavillon d’about par Jean-François Bodin (2006). New Red Staircase in the end pavillion, designed by Jean-François Bodin (2006). photo: Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine / DR

La galerie Davioud : au fond, moulage du portail de l’église de la Madeleine, Vézelay; sur la droite, moulages du portail de l’église Saint-Lazare, Avalon; au centre la maquette de l’église abbatiale de Paray-le-Monial (datant tous du XIIe s.). The Davioud Gallery: in the back a casting of the portal of the Madeleine Church,Vézelay; to the right a casting of the portal of the Saint-Lazare Church, Avalon; in the center, model of the Paray-le-Monial Abbey (all dating from the 12thc.).

Construit pour l’Exposition universelle de 1878 par les architectes Davioud et Bourdais, le Palais du Trocadéro abritait déjà à l’époque le musée de Sculpture comparée, l’ancêtre du musée des Monuments français. Transformé radicalement à l’occasion de l’Exposition internationale de 1937 par les architectes Carlu, Boileau et Azéma, il fit, durant ces treize dernières années, l’objet d’un vaste chantier dirigé par JeanFrançois Bodin. Si ces importants travaux ont permis de redécouvrir des structures du XIXe siècle ainsi que des vestiges de peintures et de mosaïques, ils ont également conduit à repenser ce vaste ensemble selon une approche très novatrice.

photo: Cité de l’architecture &

Aujourd’hui, comme le souligne son président François de Mazières, la Cité s’offre comme un espace de dia-

du patrimoine / Nicolas Borel

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logue et d’échange entre le patrimoine et l’architecture contemporaine, entre le grand public, les professionnels et les élus, tous d’une certaine manière maîtres d’œuvre de ce qui contribue à forger notre environnement architectural. Dès l’entrée, ce mariage entre le passé et le présent s’affirme à travers le hall principal qui propose au visiteur un véritable raccourci de l’histoire du bâtiment avec ses colonnes porteuses de 1878, ses poteaux de béton de 1937 et son nouvel aménagement contemporain. Le musée se dessine tout d’abord autour de la galerie des moulages initiée par Viollet-le-Duc et entièrement revue. Cette collection unique et spectaculaire propose un parcours chronologique, du Moyen Age au XVIIIe siècle, de fragments des chefs d’œuvre de l’architecture


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Quelques centres dédiés à l’architecture en Europe / A selection of Architecture Centres in Europe Belgium / Belgique Archives d’Architecture Moderne & Fondation pour l’Architecture CIVA – Centre international pour la ville, l’architecture et le paysage 55, rue de l’Ermitage, 1050 Bruxelles ☛ www.aam.be ☛ www.civa.be

Nederland / Pays-Bas NAi - Nederlands Architectuurinstituut Museumpark 25, 3015 CB Rotterdam ☛ www.nai.nl Sweden / Suède Arkitekturmuseet Skeppsholmen, 111 49 Stockholm ☛ www.arkitekturmuseet.se

Germany / Allemagne Daz - Deutsches Architektur Zentrum Switzerland / Suisse Köpenicker Straße 48/49, 10179 Berlin Swiss Architecture Museum ☛ www.daz.de Steinenberg 7, Postfach 911 4001 Basel Italy / Italie Centro italiana di architettura United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni 16 via Antonio Grossich Architecture Foundation 20131 Milano 60 Bastwick Street, London EC1V3TN ☛ www.acmaweb.com ☛ www.architecturefoundation.org.uk française. A cette enfilade de tympans, de portails et de chapiteaux grandeur nature, s’ajoute une galerie de copies de peintures murales et de vitraux créée en 1937 par le conservateur Paul Descamps. Le deuxième étage est entièrement dédié à l’architecture moderne et contemporaine. Par des maquettes, des images sur écran, des livres et des expositions temporaires, il aborde, de manière thématique cette fois, l’évolution de l’architecture et des villes de 1851 à 2001. Mais la Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine, c’est aussi un lieu qui rassemble une impressionnante bibliothèque, un centre d’archives et une école : l’Ecole de Chaillot fondée en 1897 pour former des architectes spécialisés dans la conservation et la restauration, mais qui aujourd’hui dispense aussi des cours à destination du grand public. A travers l’ « espace-chantier » conçu par le designer Matali Crasset et des ateliers d’initiation et de création, une attention toute particulière est donnée aux enfants. Mais, c’est aussi un centre qui, par le biais d’expositions, de films, de débats et de conférences, s’attache à débattre et à réfléchir sur les enjeux sociaux, culturels, techniques et esthétiques de l’architecture ainsi que sur son devenir. ☛ www.citechaillot.fr

Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine Following an extensive renovation directed by architect Jean-François Bodin, the Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine opened its doors last fall in Trocadéro’s Palais de Chaillot in the heart of Paris. This vast new space (23,000 m2) consolidates the French Museum of Monuments, the French Institute of Architecture, and the École de Chaillot, the French Architecture School specialising in restoration and conservation. It has adopted as its mission making architectural culture known, whether from the past or the present, and it especially offers a space for dialogue and exchanges of ideas between our heritage and contemporary architecture, between the public and experts. The museum takes shape around the gallery of castings of architectural elements and sculptures, first founded by Viollet-le-Duc and

now entirely restored. These life-size fragments of masterpieces of French architecture are joined by a gallery of copies of mural paintings and stained-glass windows, created in 1937, while the second floor is entirely devoted to modern and contemporary architecture, to which it now takes a thematic approach by tracing the evolution of urban architecture from 1851 to 2001. There is, however, more to the Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine: it also has an impressive library, an archives centre, ateliers for children, and a school of architecture specialising in conservation and restoration. Thus, through the presentation of expositions, films, debates and lectures, it strives to promote discussion and reflection on architecture’s social, cultural, technical and aesthetic challenges, as well as its future.

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Santralistanbul Un nouveau centre culturel à Istanbul, Turquie ✒ DONATIENNE DE SÉJOURNET Co-responsable éditoriale de la revue Europa Nostra

Santralistanbul, un nouvel espace culturel à Istanbul. Santralistanbul, a new cultural

Au cœur de la Corne d’Or, dans l’un des plus vieux quartiers industriels de la ville d’Istanbul, une ancienne centrale électrique vient de rouvrir ses portes en accueillant un nouvel espace culturel. A la jonction entre l’Europe et l’Asie, ce centre d’art contemporain se conçoit avant tout comme un lieu de rencontres et d’échanges interdisciplinaires entre les deux continents.

centre in Istanbul. photos: Istanbul Bilgi University Archive

La centrale de Silahtaraga, située dans le quartier de Eyüp, était, en 1911, la première centrale électrique de l’Empire Ottoman. Après sa fermeture en 1983, il fallut attendre de nombreuses années avant d’envisager la réhabilitation de cette friche emblématique du patrimoine industriel de Turquie. Menée par Bilgi, l’une des universités privées d’Istanbul, avec le soutien du programme Culture de l’Union européenne, la reconversion des 118 000 m2 du site a conduit à la création d’un nouveau complexe artistique, culturel et éducatif ainsi qu’à la revitalisation du quartier.

L’ancienne centrale électrique d’Istanbul. The old electrical plant in Istanbul. photo: Istanbul Bilgi University Archive

Soucieux de promouvoir des initiatives artistiques émanant aussi bien des différentes régions de Turquie que des pays avoisinants, Santralistanbul se donne pour mission d’être une plateforme ouverte aux échanges interculturels où se mêlent les influences locales et étrangères. A travers un musée d’art contemporain d’envergure internationale, un musée interactif dédié à l’énergie et à l’histoire du lieu, une bibliothèque spécialisée dans les arts, les sciences humaines et l’architecture ainsi qu’un centre de recherche et de formation sont organisés un grand nombre d’événements, d’expositions et d’ateliers. A ces différentes activités s’ajoute un programme d’artistes en résidence qui offre des facilités de logement et de travail à des artistes et des scientifiques venant du monde entier. Alors que son action favorise une collaboration fructueuse entre les artistes Turcs et ceux venant de l’étranger, elle contribue également au développement économique et social du quartier en sensibilisant et en impliquant la communauté locale à cette dynamique artistique; un rôle qui connaîtra un rayonnement d’autant plus important lorsqu’en 2010, Istanbul sera l’une des Capitales européennes de la culture. ☛ www.santralistanbul.com

Santralistanbul A new Cultural Centre for Istanbul At the heart of the Golden Horn in one of the oldest industrial neighbourhoods of the city of Istanbul, a former electric power plant has just reopened its doors as host to a new cultural centre. Carried out by the private Istanbul Bilgi University, with support from the European Union’s Culture programme, this reconversion of 118,000 m2 today houses an international level contemporary art museum, an interactive museum devoted to energy and to the history of the site, a substantial library, and a research and training centre. In addition to the many events, exhibitions and workshops held at the

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museum, there is an artists-in-residence programme that solicits proposals from artists and scientists the world over to come and work there. Just as this dynamic centre’s activities contribute to revitalising the neighbourhood, it is also designed as an interdisciplinary meeting place for the exchange of ideas between the various regions of Turkey and neighbouring countries, between Europe and Asia. This role will grow leading up to 2010 when Istanbul will become one of the European Capitals of Culture.


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La Venaria Reale An Italian Versailles, near Turin, Italy ✒ ARIËNNE DE BRUIJN International Secretariat, Europa Nostra

Borgo Antico (Antique village) of La Venaria Reale, a reconstruction after the original had to make way for the new Palace.

In October 2007, the Italian Baroque Palace La Venaria Reale, located in Venaria Reale, near Turin in Piedmont, reopened its doors to the public. One could easily compare the structure of La Venaria Reale to the Palace of Versailles in France, consisting as it does of more than 1000 rooms, 1000 square meters of fresco’s and 80 hectares of gardens. Sections of the Palace now open to the public also contain some modern interpretations of exhibitions, galleries and gardens by Peter Greenaway and Giuseppe Penone, and the Palace complex has quickly become a touristic highlight for the Turin area. The origins of La Venaria Reale go back to the mid 17th century, when Duke Carlo Emanuele II of Savoy decided to build a fixed abode for hunting in order to celebrate through the rituals of hunting, the magnificence of the Duke, and as a crown to the capital Turin. The original Medieval village was demolished to make room for the construction of the Duke’s Palace.

Borgo Antico, le village antique de La Venaria Reale, reconstruit après que l'original ait été remplacé par le nouveau palais. photo: flickr.com

Amedeo di Castellamonte worked on the complex from 1659 to 1675, creating a “unicum” consisting of a planned village, Borgo Antico, the Royal Palace, La Reggia, and the Gardens, the whole extending along an axis of 2km. The village has in its center a quadrioval square reproducing the “Collar of the Order of Annunziata”. The Royal Palace includes two courts and in the center, the “Diana Gallery”. Towards the southwest are stables, kennels, the orangerie, parkland stalked with deer, and facing the village, the Chapel of St Rocco. Work continued on the Palace complex until 1757, led successively by Michelangelo Garove, Filippo Juvarra and later Benedetto Alfieri. In all, the Palace could house 8000 people.

The Grand Diana Gallery of La Venaria Reale. La grande Galerie de Diane,

From the time of Napoleon until the end of WWII, La Venaria Reale acted as barracks, a phase of serious neglect. Restoration work was started in 1961, but only in1997, coinciding with La Venaria Reale being added to the UNESCO World Heritage List, did work start in ernest to restore the Palace back to its former glory.

La Venaria Real. photo: flickr.com

The restoration project was promoted and undertaken by the Piedmont Regional Ministry for Cultural Heritage with the support of the European Union, and in partnership with the Province of Turin administation and the Municipalities of Turin, Veneria Reale and Druento. The restauration took more than eleven years to complete and involved a financial investment of over 200 million euros, employing as many as 800 workers a day. ☛ www.lavenaria.it

La Venaria Reale En octobre 2007, après huit années de travaux de restauration, le palais baroque de Venaria Reale, a réouvert ses portes au public. Bâti par la dynastie des Savoie à quelques kilomètres de la ville de Turin, il fait partie depuis 1997 d’un groupe de monuments inscrits sur la Liste du patrimoine mondial en tant que Résidences des Savoie. Désireux de construire une nouvelle résidence dédiée au plaisir et à

la chasse, le duc Charles-Emmanuel II de Savoie, fit édifier un vaste palais à l’image de la puissance d’une dynastie qui régna sur le Piémont durant presque mille ans. Enfilades de salons et de galeries entourées de 80 hectares de parc et de jardins révèlent tout le talent d’architectes et d’artistes de premier plan au cours des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles.

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Splendeur retrouvée d’une des plus belles bibliothèques d’Europe La bibliothèque de l’abbaye bénédictine d’Admont, Autriche ✒ DONATIENNE DE SÉJOURNET Co-responsable éditoriale de la revue Europa Nostra Au cœur des Alpes autrichiennes, la bibliothèque de l’abbaye bénédictine d’Admont, magnifiquement restaurée, vient de rouvrir ses portes. Chef-d’œuvre méconnu de l’art baroque, ce lieu révèle au grand jour toute la splendeur de ses stucs et de ses peintures mais aussi son impressionnante collection d’ouvrages rares. d’un sol de marbre en damier qui crée de fascinants effets d’optique. Tandis qu’un groupe de sculptures figure les « Quatre dernières choses », la Mort, le Jugement dernier, le Paradis et l’Enfer, une soixantaine de bustesconsoles en bois doré complète le programme iconographique de la bibliothèque. A l’égal de ce chef d’œuvre de l’art baroque, la collection de 200 000 ouvrages est tout aussi impressionnante. Son origine trouve ses racines dans la règle de saint Benoît par laquelle les moines se doivent de lire les textes sacrés. Dès sa fondation, Admont disposa de quelques livres et créa un scriptorium. Au cours des siècles, la petite collection ne cessa de s’enrichir dans un esprit universaliste, faisant de l’abbaye, au XVIIIe siècle, l’une des plus puissantes institutions religieuses d’Autriche. Située non loin de Salzbourg, l’abbaye d’Admont, fondée en 1074, s’est parée au cours du XVIIIe siècle d’une bibliothèque dont les dimensions sont dignes de celle d’une cathédrale. Souhaitant concurrencer l’Escorial de Madrid, le monastère réalisa une œuvre d’art globale toute à la gloire de la connaissance. Imprégnée de l’esprit des Lumières, cette immense salle, véritablement inondée de soleil, est surmontée de sept majestueuses coupoles décorées de fresques en trompe-l’œil de Bartolomeo Altomonte, et composée

La magnifique bibliothèque d’Admont fraîchement restaurée. The magnificent Abbey of Admon Libraryt, refreshed after a thorough restoration. photo : Ernst Kren

Si la bibliothèque fut épargnée par l’incendie de 1865 qui ravagea le monastère, elle n’échappa pas aux dommages du temps, ainsi qu’à ceux laissés par l’occupation nazie. Pratiquement pillée après l’annexion de l’Autriche par les nazis, elle a réussi à reconstituer l’essentiel de ses collections. Mais quatre années de travaux et six millions d’euros financés en large partie par l’Union européenne lui auront cependant été nécessaires pour retrouver tout son éclat originel. ☛ www.stiftadmont.at

Rediscovered Splendour of one of Europe’s Most Beautiful Libraries The Abbey of Admont Library In the heart of the Austrian Alps, the library of the Abbey of Admont has just re-opened its doors. A little-known masterpiece of Baroque art, this setting has now brought to light its full splendour, but more importantly, its impressive collection comprising 200,000 rare books.

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Founded in 1704, this Benedictine abbey adorned itself in the 18th century with a library whose size rivals one found in a cathedral. Four years of reconditioning work and six million euros, financed in large part by the European Union, were required to return it to its original glory.


Int’l Built Heritage Conserv’n Training Centre, Bontida (RO) photo: EN Awards Archives

Wouda Steam Pumping Station, Lemmer, (NL) photo: Laurie Neale

Share your photos on Europa Nostra’s new website! / Envoyez-nous vos plus belles photos pour le nouveau site web d’Europa Nostra!

Dominicans Monastery, Dubrovnik (HR) photo: Stevan Kordic

Bruges (BE) photo: Wolter Braamhorst

Europa Nostra will be launching its new website in early 2009, providing even better information for its members and those interested in cultural heritage across Europe. The new website will improve Europa Nostra’s “voice” by being the premium location to visit for news and information about safeguarding and raising awareness of Europe’s rich cultural heritage. Europa Nostra’s new website will be a place to share best practices, experiences and projects, and to announce your activities. We also welcome your best photos on all aspects of Europe’s tangible cultural heritage to include on our website and in our publications1. Send us also photos showing people interacting with their heritage. Share with us your view of Europe’s cultural heritage!

Europa Nostra lancera, début 2009, son nouveau site web. Il vous offrira une meilleure information sur nos actions et notre mobilisation en faveur du patrimoine culturel en Europe. Mais, il sera également un espace unique où vous pourrez partager vos connaissances et vos expériences, diffuser vos projets et annoncer vos activités. Faitez nous part de vos propositions et de vos idées. Envoyez nous aussi vos plus belles photos abordant tous les domaines du patrimoine culturel tangible de l’Europe afin de les inclure à notre site et nos publications2. Nous sommes aussi sensible aux clichés présentant le citoyen en interaction direct avec le patrimoine. Partagez dès lors avec nous votre point de vue sur le patrimoine culturel de l’Europe !

Bay of Kotor (ME) photo: Stevan Kordic

1 All photos will be properly credited and must be submitted copyright free for Europa Nostra’s free use where deemed appropriate. The choice of photos chosen for use remains the sole prerogative of Europa Nostra. 2 Toutes les photos seront libres de droit et leur usage réservé à Europa Nostra à des fins appropriées. Le choix des photos et de leur usage revient à Europa Nostra. E U R O P A

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EUROPA NOSTRA The Voice of Cultural Heritage in Europe OUR CULTURAL HERITAGE In a globalised world, cultural heritage is vital to a better understanding and a deeper respect between Europe’s citizens. It brings us closer together, regardless of our cultural, religious or ethnic backgrounds, and across national and linguistic boundaries. Cultural heritage builds bridges between past, present and future generations, and brings beauty, enchantment and significance to our everyday life. YOUR EUROPEAN VOICE Whether you care for your cultural heritage at local, regional or national level, you will have discovered that many questions transcend borders and affect all Europeans. These questions require a European response: Europa Nostra is the voice of European civil society caring for cultural heritage. Europa Nostra is your voice in Europe. YOUR NETWORK In 45 years Europa Nostra has built a network of more than 400 member and associate organisations from all over Europe. They represent millions of citizens working for heritage as volunteers and professionals. As a member of this growing network, you can share your ideas and exchange best practices with European colleagues. You can contribute to and benefit from our website, magazines, heritage tours and meetings. You will be inspired and gain encouragement for your further endeavours. YOUR LOBBY Join us in making cultural heritage a European priority. Together we will promote sustainable development and quality standards in urban and rural planning. Together we will safeguard our cities, our countryside and our historical, architectural and archaeological sites. Together, we will demonstrate that our cultural heritage is a key asset to Europe’s society and economy, and is essential to our identity and quality of life. Europa Nostra is your connection to the European Union, the Council of Europe and UNESCO. YOUR SUCCESS Each year, we reward the best of cultural heritage achievements. Through our European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards, we celebrate excellence and dedication by architects, craftsmen, volunteers, schools, local communities, heritage owners and media. Through the power of their example we stimulate creativity and innovation. Submit your project and share your success. YOUR CONCERN Europa Nostra campaigns against the many threats to Europe’s cultural heritage. When monuments or sites are in danger by uncontrolled development, environmental change, neglect or conflict, we raise our voice. Cooperation and solidarity between heritage organisations and activists are vital to ensure that witnesses of our past are here to enjoy today and in the future. YOUR MOVEMENT We invite all committed to cultural heritage to join: heritage professionals and volunteers; associations, networks and federations; foundations; public authorities and agencies; museums, schools and universities; corporations and businesses. Share your knowledge, experience and enthusiasm! Support us in taking care of our shared history and the unity in diversity of our common culture! JOIN EUROPA NOSTRA : Visit our website: www.europanostra.org Send us an email: info@europanostra.org Give us a call: +31 70 302 40 50

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EUROPA NOSTRA La Voix du patrimoine culturel en Europe NOTRE PATRIMOINE CULTUREL Dans notre monde globalisé, le patrimoine culturel est vital pour une meilleure compréhension et un plus grand respect entre les citoyens d’Europe. Le patrimoine nous rapproche, par-dessus nos différences culturelles, religieuses ou ethniques, et au-delà des barrières nationales et linguistiques. Le patrimoine aide à construire des ponts entre les générations passées, présentes et futures ; il est source de beauté et d’enchantement et fournit un sens à notre vie de tous les jours. VOTRE VOIX EN EUROPE Pendant que vous oeuvrez pour votre patrimoine culturel au niveau local, régional ou national, vous découvrirez que de nombreuses questions dépassent les frontières et concernent l’ensemble des Européens. Ces questions requièrent une réponse européenne : Europa Nostra est la voix de ce vaste mouvement de la société civile européenne engagée en faveur du patrimoine culturel. Europa Nostra est votre voix en Europe. VOTRE RÉSEAU En 45 ans, nous avons construit un vaste réseau de plus de 400 organisations et associations membres issues de toute l’Europe qui représentent des millions de citoyens œuvrant comme bénévoles ou comme professionnels pour le patrimoine. En devenant membre de ce réseau, vous pourrez partager vos idées et échanger votre savoir-faire avec des collègues européens. Vous pourrez bénéficier de notre site web et de nos publications, et vous pourrez participer à nos voyages culturels et à nos débats. Vous y trouverez inspiration et encouragement pour vos actions futures. VOTRE GROUPE DE PRESSION Nous rejoindre, c’est contribuer à faire du patrimoine une priorité européenne. Ensemble, nous devons promouvoir des normes de haute qualité dans les domaines de la planification urbaine et rurale. Ensemble nous devons sauvegarder nos villes, nos campagnes, nos sites historiques, architecturaux et archéologiques. Ensemble, nous devons démontrer que notre patrimoine culturel est un atout pour la société et pour l’économie en Europe et qu’il est le fondement de notre identité et de notre qualité de vie. Europa Nostra est votre porte-parole auprès de l’Union européenne, du Conseil de l’Europe et de l’UNESCO. VOS SUCCÈS Chaque année, nous récompensons les meilleures réalisations relatives au patrimoine culturel. Grâce à notre Prix du patrimoine culturel de l’Union européenne / Concours Europa Nostra, nous rendons hommage à l’excellence et au savoir-faire des architectes, artisans, bénévoles, écoles, communautés locales, propriétaires et médias. À travers leur pouvoir de l’exemple, nous stimulons la créativité et l’innovation. Soumettez-nous vos projets et partagez ainsi vos succès. VOS INTÉRÊTS Europa Nostra se mobilise contre de nombreuses menaces qui pèsent sur notre patrimoine culturel. Lorsque des monuments et des sites sont en danger face aux développements incontrôlés, aux changements environnementaux, aux négligences et aux conflits, nous faisons entendre notre voix. Coopération et solidarité entre organismes et acteurs du patrimoine sont en effet vitales pour assurer que les témoignages de notre passé puissent être admirés et appréciés de nos jours tout comme à l’avenir.

EUROPA NOSTRA European Cultural Heritage Review La revue du patrimoine culturel européen No 1 / 2008 EUROPA NOSTRA Pan-European Federation for Cultural Heritage Fédération européenne du patrimoine culturel Lange Voorhout 35 NL-2514 EC Den Haag Tel. + 31 70 302 40 50 Fax +31 70 361 78 65 info@europanostra.org www.europanostra.org Chairman of Publications Committee / Président du comité des publications Olivier de Trazegnies Editors / Responsables éditoriales Laurie Neale Donatienne de Séjournet de Rameignies Translations / Traductions Mary Bufacchi Armelle Desmarchelier, Evergreen Communications, NL Vertaalbureau.nl Layout / Mise en pages Martin Sloos, AMON Design & Art, Soest, NL Printing / Impression Koninklijke De Swart, Den Haag, NL As part of our mission to safeguard our built and natural heritage, this Review has been produced using environmentally friendly paper and techniques. / En conformité avec notre mission de sauvegarde du patrimoine bâti et naturel de l’Europe, cette revue a été imprimée avec du papier et des techniques écologiques. ISSN 1871 417X

Cover Photo / Photo de couverture: Torre de San Martin in Teruel, beautiful testimony of 14thc. Mudjar architecture in Aragon, Spain. Torre de San Martin à Teruel, beau témoignage de l’architecture mudéjare du XIVe siècle en Aragon, Espagne. photo: Pakmor / Fotolia.com The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Europa Nostra. Every effort was taken to obtain the proper credits for photos. Any omission may be sent to the editors. / Les points de vue exprimés sont ceux des auteurs et pas nécessairement ceux d’Europa Nostra. Les démarches nécessaires pour l’obtention des crédits photographiques ont été réalisées. Toute omission peut être transmise aux éditeurs.

VOTRE MOUVEMENT Nous invitons tous les acteurs du patrimoine à nous rejoindre : professionnels et bénévoles du patrimoine ; associations, réseaux et fédérations ; fondations ; autorités et administrations publiques ; musées, écoles et universités ; sociétés et entreprises.

Copyright © 2008 Europa Nostra All rights reserved / Tous droits réservés This information may be freely used and copied for non-commercial purposes, provided that the source is acknowledged. / Cette information peut être utilisée librement et copiée pour des buts non commerciaux, à condition d’en indiquer la source.

Partagez vos connaissances, vos expériences et votre enthousiasme ! Ensemble, nous prendrons mieux soin de notre histoire partagée et de l’unité dans la diversité de notre culture commune !

This Review was produced with the kind support of / Cette revue a été réalisée avec l’aimable soutien de:

REJOIGNEZ EUROPA NOSTRA Visitez notre site web : www.europanostra.org Envoyez nous un courriel : info@europanostra.org Prenez contact avec nous : +31 70 302 40 50

EUROPEAN COMMISSION / COMMISSION EUROPÉENNE

Credit Suisse Jubilee Foundation. / La Fondation du Jubilée du Crédit Suisse Price / Prix g7 / £4.50 / 11 CHF

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European Cultural Heritage Review 2008