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EDITORIAL BOARD Air Cdre Syed Suhail Salim (Retd) SI (M) Patron in Chief

Ms. Amina Quratulain Ansari Chief Editor

Mr. Muhammad S. Ansari Prof. Wasimuddin Ahmed Khan Honorary Editors

Engr. Nadia Ehsan Ms. Areeba Ansari Deputy Editors


Mr. Haq Nawaz Akhter (Former Chairman Pakistan Steel)

Engr. Masood Asghar Engr. Khalid Khan Energy & Steel Sector

Mr. M. Ehsan Ullah Sherrif (Geologist) Engr. Kishor Kumar Sharma (Energy Sector) Dr. Wali Mughni (Aviation Sector) Mazher I. Khan (Corrosion & Coating) MANAGEMENT

Mrs. Kaneez Fatima

Director Admin & Accounts

Mr. M. Ehsan Uddin Ansari Director Overseas

Mir Muhammad Ali Marketing Consultant

Ms. Ifrah Ansari / Faisal Qureshi Incharge Circulation & Distribution


Mr. Karim Uddin Khan (United Kingdom) Mr. Irshad A. Qazi (Malaysia) Mr. Rais Uddin Baig (Canada) Mr. Saadat Yazdani (Houston USA) Mr. Mubassirul Azam (Jeddah - KSA) GRAPHICS & LAYOUT

Mr. Muhammad Ali Rais Web Designing & Support



President and Prime Minister had taken their respective oaths before year 2014, which was indeed a great fortune for country. The policies, plans and the initiatives by newly elected government are commendable. As the New Year has started, we pray that may Pakistan accomplish many new developments in the coming future, as other developing countries like China, Russia, Malaysia, Singapore and Gulf regions have achieved. Despite the serious issues, like law & order situations, downfall of leading national organizations due to Corruption, rise in poverty & illiteracy rate, economic and social crises etc. Pakistan is progressing in the fields of engineering, education, Commerce, Medical, Science & technology etc. However, such issues are creating hurdles in the way of Pakistan’s constant progress & growth. There has been endless debates and discussion about how & where the bad politics, enemies and loop holes exist in internal-external policies and strategies of country that have been playing their detrimental role to the reputation and good-will of country on international grounds. As a nation, we have adopted a sadistic approach and causally rant out about how much negativity is there in country. However, we have become less vocal when it comes to appreciate the positivity, growth, & accomplishments of Pakistan. It may be, for the reason as we love to ignore the betterment or either lesser believe in our own resources, skills and capability as a nation. One of the best and recent examples of our country’s technological compatibility is the winning spree of PAF JF17 Thunder in Dubai Air Show, 2013. JF-Thunder has been manufactured in collaboration with China by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra. Besides, Pakistan is proving as a land of resources in the world and despite of being labeled among the world’s unsafe counties, international investors continue to make their huge investments here in Pakistan. Recently Honorable Prime Minister Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif has announced the building of country's largest nuclear power plant with the collaboration and support of China. The plant will be constructed in the southern region of Karachi and it would take 72 months for its completion. It will produce 2,200 MW of electricity. Now Pakistan is gearing up to accomplish many endeavors in different engineering and industrial sectors. Prime Minister, who himself is a key player of steel sector, we request him to consider the development of steel sector of our beloved country as well. Steel industry globally is proven as the mother of all industries and it also guarantees the technological and economic growth of any country. Pakistan has been remained in dark over the years. Our neighboring country India has proper Ministry for Steel Industry and it is ranking in top 10 countries when it comes to the International steel sector. However, we don’t even have specified steel industry policy in our legislation. There are international leading companies from Saudi Arabia, Korea, Japan, China and Russia who have invested and are willing to do more investments in this sector in Pakistan. A proper policy and renovation plan is needed for this industry’s revival. Our journal is dedicated to the specific fields of engineering sector including Energy, Steel, Material, Integrity Management, Shipbuilding, Shipbreaking and Corrosion. We try our best to publish informative articles, write ups, analysis and papers by experts for our readers. We will continue our efforts in this respect. We are introducing a new section of “Aviation” in our journal. The section will include articles by aviation experts and interviews of leading personalities from the aviation sector of Pakistan and abroad. We are hopeful that our readers will appreciate our initiative and we will continue to look forward for their feedback as always. I wish you all a very happy new year once again and happy reading!

Mr. M A. Ali Moiz (Moiz Associates)

Pak Rs. 450/- US $ 5 - UK Pond Sterling 2 UAE 15 - Saudi Riyal 15 Energo Steel Journal Pakistan - Quarterly Magazine Suite# D4/49, Rabia City, Block 18, Gulistan-e-Jauhar, Karachi-75290 (Pakistan) Phone & Fax: +92-21-34014165 Email: -


Amina Quratulain Ansari

Editor in Chief Energo Steel Journal Pakistan

Disclaimer: No reliance should be placed on the basis of information provided in this publication by anyone for making any financial, investment and business decision. The information provided is general in nature and not been prepared for any specific decision making process. Energo Steel Journal Pakistan has not independently verified all of the information provided in the publication and has totally relied on sources that have been deemed appropriate and reliable in the past. Accordingly, Energo Steel Journal Pakistan or any of its staff or other sources of information do not bear any liability or responsibility of any consequences for decisions or actions taken based on provided information, therein the magazine.

molten steel. For this reason comprehensive modification in this area is potentially of major importance to the energy consumption of the plant. Although direct energy savings are of primary interest, changes in energy structure are also of great importance. In this perspective opportunity for development of Energy Conservation in Pakistan Steel is divided into following main categories:Production Scheduling The energy flow in any integrated steel plant like Pakistan Steel depends upon smooth operation of technological process hence it is imperative that production scheduling is executed in such a manner that quality production is achieved with minimum or no idle running of the machinery. For this purpose better quality ore and coal is required to be purchased, a practice which is followed in Pakistan Steel by entering into long term contracts of 5 years or more with foreign suppliers. Periodically review of the terms of procurement viz-a-viz market requirement of steel may still produce better results towards control of energy requirement. Another feature of production scheduling pertains to analysis of market demand and supply of material inputs to our production units. For example during May 1992 Hot Strip Mill has attained only 53% of its capacity utilization with 52% excess fuel consumption and 253% power consumption viz-a-viz DPR norms. A revision of continuous Hot Strip Mill operation per month with respect to undisturbed slab-supply during that period shall reduce the energy cost drastically. The same when rationally applied and evaluated in all the complexes may ENERGO STEEL JOURNAL PAKISTAN

result in the over coming of idle running of equipment, which would save millions of Rupees in term of Energy.

network department through its central dispatch system.

The designed energy consumption for Steel Making Plant Complex (SMPC) is 314 M.Cal/Ton of Crude Steel. An efficient plant is expected to consume 208 M.Cal/Ton of Crude Steel. The main reason for excess energy consumption in SMPC has been its under capacity utilization and over sizing of converter gas exhauster.

Pakistan Steel lacks energy costing procedures at every plant which ought to be developed for every unit from its material consumption to the delivery if its final output to the next plant in production cycle. These procedures should be based upon real indices keeping in view the status of instrumentation at each complex. The Cost, Store and Accounts Department along with concerned plant officials can develop these procedures for monthly review of the Operational Heads as well as top Management of Pakistan Steel. The energy used in Pakistan Steel comprises following types;

Re-heating furnaces at Billet Mill and Hot Strip Mill are not designed for charging; they are however provided with re-cooperators for air preheat and evaporative cooling system for steam generation which is coupled with SMPC superheating system for providing 18 ata. Superheated steam in the plant network. The capacity production of SMPC can provide un-interrupted supply of 18 ata. Steam to the network there by decreasing the load on Thermal Power Plant & Turbo Blower Station (TPP &TBS) in production of steam, which in turn will decrease the consumption of Natural Gas at TPP&TBS. Energy consumption in Cold Rolling Mill does not have any special feature. However, the air knife system recently installed at Galvanizing unit will also reduce energy consumption in this unit significantly. The overall steam system of Pakistan Steel is integrated and as per design maximum use of steam form the waste heat recovery system has been envisaged. A network of gas distribution system for Blast Furnace Gas and Coke Oven Gas is also incorporated. The entire activity of utility flow is controlled by Air Steam & Gas JAN to MARCH 2014

Energy Cost

Productivity & Efficiency It is universally acknowledged that the best of the proposals and strategies applied towards improvements in any industry seldom materialize until its employees volunteer for its adoption. Hence to improve the productivity by economizing the cost of production through control over the excess consumption of energy; a cell of experienced professionals within each department should be created to objectively evaluate and analyze the energy consumption of the plant and identify the short comings with proposals to overcome them. The workers should also be encouraged to participate in these schemes. To encourage this healthy start, the feasible ideas of Engineers, Managers or workers may be named after their originators and implemented in that plant. This will create a sense of pride and belonging to the organization in the mind of a devoted employee.


COMMERCIAL Electricity I Natural Gas Coal Petrol (Super) HSD Kerosene Engine Oil E N E R G Y C O N S E R VAT I O N AWARENESS It may be recalled that Pakistan Steel was not commissioned as a whole. It happened in stages. its different units were commissioned between 1981 to 1985 with Billet Caster in November, 1989, German Air Knife system of Cold Rolling Mill (CRM) in August, 1992 and Irish Telephone Exchange in December, 1992. In this background the management’s priority had also undergone changes based on operational needs. The preferential sequence being testing of plant at 100% capacity utilization between 1981 to 1985, achievement of quality product between 1985 to 1991 and emphasis on productivity but with minimum cost from 1992 onwards. It was well conceived strategic management approach to achieve the goal of capacity utilization with optimum economy and without compromising occupational health and safety standards for entire work force. Accordingly the psyche of our workforce had also undergone changes with the policy of management. It became production oriented during initial years with little or no concern about the cost of product, followed by quality consciousness. The achievement of targets in terms of quantity was followed by challenging task of economy in cost to make it competitive in the market. For the


INDUSTRIAL Coke Oven Gas Blast Furnace Gas Oxygen Compressed Air Steam Coal Tar management it was essential that the workforce is motivated to accept and take on concept of economy in production cost. It was mammoth task but achieved through massive campaign which included but not limited to, on job training in different forms educate them about the cost of production , energy and wastages due to carelessness ignorance by taking following measures:(i) Publicity campaign be launched in the plant by producing effective posters with the co-operation of Public Relation department and Reprographic Center of Administration & Personnel Department which shall bear no extra cost of Pakistan Steel. (ii) Group discussion is initiated at all levels of production about the effect of saving of wasted energy. (iii) Management Development Center may organize symposium on energy conservation for middle/frontline managers with guest speakers selected from within Pakistan Steel who should put forward realistic ideas based upon the factual conditions of the plant. (iv) Employees may be encouraged to write articles on any aspect of energy conservation with a suitable reward for any scheme considered practical for implementation. Monthly AL-HADEED bulletin can be used as media for their expressions. (v) A full page advertisement on Energy Conservation is regularly printed in AL-HADEED by Energy Policy Implementation Cell (EPIC)

JAN to MARCH 2014

WATER De-mineralized Cold Industrial Sea Chemical

since October, 1989 followed by “CONSERVE ENERGY” slogan on different stationery items printed through Reprographic Center. This limited noticed campaign enhanced and 1992-93 may be declared as “YEAR OF ENERGY CONSERVATION” at official level. (vi) S c h e d u l e d p r e v e n t i v e maintenance and frequent inspection of general equipment and utility network at each shop floor shall enhance the life of equipment and improve the productivity target. CONCLUSION Energy conservation is all about awareness on its uses and the ultimate beneficiary is user. Thus every one of us has to accept this reality and as a nation take first step with aim of making difference in the lives of others by saving energy and become part of great cause to conserve it. This is a change for better tomorrow through behavioral change to acknowledge that we are committed to make Integrated efforts towards above mentioned activities in tandem with Short, Mid and Long term measures with sense of belonging. A message “ Conserve Energy” shall propel every one to work for a greater cause in our respective capacities and result in the demonstrative achievements in Energy Conservation without any substantial capital investment.



will be used to drive Turbines, its content of water particles will damage steam Turbine Rotors & Shaft. The steam is then super heated in the boiler within the system to reduce the content of water to 01% to 0.1%. S U P E R H E AT E D S T E A M SYSTEM: When steam is produced in boiler at certain pressure and temperature, it is being carried to super heater coils which are placed within the boiler at maximum temperature zone but after direct radiation of flame to increase temperature of steam and extraction of water particles. This conditioned steam is used for driving steam Turbines. FUELS: Fuels are used in boilers for burning and producing flue gasses or heat is of many types. At present Natural Gas, Oils and Baggasse are very common kinds of fuels; but as it is always being said that, “History Repeats itself”, the first fuel used for boiler was Wood and then Coal. Thoes days have come back and Coal fired boiler design is most


common requirement in Pakistan and Wood fire boilers are being locally manufactured. Although all over world Bio-mass and MSW (Municipal solid wastes) are also used as boiler fuel, but they are not practiced commonly in Pakistan. Alternate fuels such as Rice husk was practiced rarely in Pakistan but as Pakistan is an agriculture country, using Bio-mass fuels such as Cotton Stalk, Cane Trash and Jungle wood, all of them have very low moisture percentage and more volatile matter which are burned easily to produce heat and are very low cost fuels as they are agriculture residues and must be cleaned / extracts / thrown away before next season and wasted valuable fuels.

WATER TUBE BOILER Super Heating System

SOURCES OF BIOMASS 4 Agricultura Residues. 4 Animal Waste. 4 Municipal Solid Waste & Indiustrial Waste 4 Sewage Water & Sludge.


B I O M A S S U T I L I S AT I O N OPPORTUNITIES IN PAKISTAN: 4 Sources in Pakistan. 4 Quantification of Biomass. 4 Available Technology platforms to utilize Biomass. BIOMASS: 4 Level of utilization in country 4 Opportunities being lost due to non utilization.

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BIOMASS UTILISATION OPPERTUNITIES IN PAKISTAN. Analysis of various biomass fuels available in Pakistan Agricultural Residues Baggasse

Cane Trash

Cotton Stalk

Moisture (% wet basis)




Volatile Matter




Fixed Carbon




Ash (% dry basis)




Gross Heat Value(MJ/Kg;:dry basis)






Availability of Cane Trash = 6.39 Million Tons/yr Calorific Value of Cane Trash =15.05 MJ/Kg Tons of Oil Equivalent (TOE) = 2.183 Millions. Current Status – Burned in the field without any gainful use.


COTTON STICKS Cotton Sticks available = 546,500 Metric Tons/year Calorific Value of Cottons Sticks = 17.37 MJ/Kg Tons of Oil Equivalent (TOE) = 215,000 Current status-Burned or left in the fields to rot.


POWER GENERATION WITH COAL FIRED BOILER As example we are considering here a Water Tube Boiler with Capacity of 100 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar(g) maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) and efficiency of 80%. Steam enthalpy @ 24Bar (g) is 792 Btu/ lb or 1774 Btu/ Kg. or 447 Kcal/ Kg. CASE 1- LIGNITE COAL



5. 6. 7. 8.

Heat required @447 Kcal/ Kg. Steam at 24Bar (g) MAWP and efficiency 80% is 558.75 Kcal/ Kg. The lowest grade local available coal is Lignite have Heating Value @10000 Btu/lb or 22050 Btu/ Kg. will give Heat @5557 Kcal/ Kg. From 1Kg. of above Lignite Coal Steam generates at 24Bar (g) MAWP & efficiency 80% is 9.94 Kgs. Steam Turbine generates from 24Bar (g) MAWP Steam in condensing mode @ 6.5 Kgs./ Kwh. Therefore 1Kg. of above Lignite Coal will generate 1.53 Kwh of power. Cost of Lignite Coal is approximately Rs.8.00/ Kg. Therefore 1Kg. of above Lignite Coal will generate 1.53 Kwh of power @ Rs.5.23/ Kwh. Boiler of Steam generating100 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar (g) MAWP & efficiency 80% will generate power from Condensing mode Steam Turbine is 15385 Kwh or 15.385 MWH.

CONCLUSION 9. Therefore for 15.385 MWH power @Rs.5230/MWH from

JAN to MARCH 2014

24Bar (g) MAWP Steam by Turbine in condensing mode @ 6.5 Kgs./Kwh; 12073 Kgs. Lignite Coal will be required to generate steam @100 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar (g) MAWP & efficiency 80%.





5. 6. 7.

CASE 2- LOW VOLATILE(LV) BITUMINOUS COAL Heat required @447 Kcal/ Kg. Steam at 24Bar (g) MAWP and efficiency 80% is 558.75 Kcal/ Kg. The LV Bituminous coal has Heating Value @14340 Btu/lb or 31620 Btu/ Kg. will give Heat @7968 Kcal/ Kg. From 1Kg. of LV Bituminous Coal Steam generates at 24Bar (g) MAWP @ 80% efficiency is 14.26Kgs. Steam Turbine generates from 24Bar (g) MAWP Steam in condensing mode @ 6.5 Kgs./ Kwh. Therefore 1Kg. of above LV Bituminous Coal will generates 2.19 Kwh of power. Cost of LV Bituminous Coal is approximately Rs.12.00/ Kg. Therefore 1Kg. of above LV Bituminous Coal will generate 2.19 Kwh of power @ Rs.5.48/ Kwh.


8. Boiler of Steam generating100 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar (g) MAWP @80% efficiency will generate power from Condensing mode Steam Turbine is 15385 Kwh or 15.385 MWH. CONCLUSION 9. Therefore for 15.385 MWH power @Rs.5480/MWH from 24Bar(g) MAWP Steam by Turbine in condensing mode @ 6.5 Kgs./Kwh; 8415Kgs. Low Volatile Bituminous Coal will be required to generate steam@100 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar (g) MAWP & efficiency 80%. POWER GENERATION WITH BIOMASS FIRED BOILER As an example we are considering here a Water Tube Boiler with Capacity of 60 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar(g) maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) and efficiency of 80%. Steam enthalpy @ 24Bar (g) is 792 Btu/ lb or 1774 Btu/ Kg. or 447 Kcal/ Kg. C A S E 3 - C O T TO N S TA L K 1. Heat required @447 Kcal/ Kg. Steam at 24Bar (g) MAWP and efficiency 80% is 558.75 Kcal/





5. 6. 7. 8.

Kg. The local Cotton Stalk available have Heating Value (Calorific Value-cv) @17.37 MJ/ Kg. or 7468 Btu/lb or 164676 Btu/ Kg. will give Heat @4150 Kcal/ Kg. From 1Kg. of above Cotton Stalk will generates Steam at 24Bar (g) MAWP & efficiency 80% is 7.43Kgs. Steam Turbine generates from 24Bar (g) MAWP Steam in condensing mode @ 6.5 Kgs./ Kwh. Therefore 1Kg. of above Cotton Stalk will generate 1.14 Kwh of power. Cost of Cotton Stalk is approximately Rs.6.00/ Kg. Therefore 1Kg. of above Cotton Stalk will generate 1.14 Kwh of power @ Rs.5.26/ Kwh. Boiler of Steam generating 60 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar (g) MAWP & efficiency 80% will generate power from Condensing mode Steam Turbine is 9231 Kw 9.231 MWH.

condensing mode @ 6.5 Kgs./Kwh; 9717Kgs. Cotton Stalk will be required to generate steam @60 Tons/ Hr. at 24Bar (g) MAWP & efficiency 80%. IT IS THEREFORE CONCLUDED THAT BOILER IS AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR POWER GENERATION AND KARACHI SHIPYARD & ENGINEERING WORKS LIMITED IS AN ORGANIZATION THAT HAVE ABILITY TO DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE BOILERS AND WILL PARTICIPATE IN THE UP GRADATION OF POWER SECTOR & PAKISTAN. Special Thanks to: Captain M. Shakil Tahir – GM (KSEW) Mr. Nasim Aziz of M/s. Ahmed Associates. Mr. Faraz Sarwar of M/s. Ahmed Associates

CONCLUSION Therefore for 9.231 MWH power @Rs.5260/MWH from 24Bar (g) MAWP Steam by Turbine in

JAN to MARCH 2014


Safety Concerns: Corrosion may cause catastrophic failures. According to OPS, the gas transmission pipeline companies in the USA have suffered 1,262 incidents, 58 fatalities, 216 injuries and more than $280 million in property damage since 1986.On August 19, 2000 a natural gas pipeline exploded near Carlsbad, New Mexico causing fire resulting 11 d e a t h s . T h e N a t i o n a l transportation Safety Board (NTSB) called The New Mexico incident the deadliest pipeline accident to the continental in US in nearly 25 year. Following these pipeline failures, National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) International and in support of collective effort to avoid such accidents in the future, is developing new standards that address industry’s need to mitigate corrosion. o o o o o o

In line-inspection. Direct assessment of pipeline integrity (SCC) Internal corrosion External microbiology induced corrosion. Corrosion control & monitoring techniques. Coating conductance

Environmental Concerns: Corrosion is the waste of resources and the source of pollution. Development and the broad application of environmentally friendly “green” inhibitor and biocides is a must .Effective corrosion control is paramount to safeguard of the environment. Search for Corrosion Cure: Corrosion is the cancer of our automobiles, airplane, highway system, and other crucial infrastructure. National cancer institute directive conduct, ENERGO STEEL JOURNAL PAKISTAN

coordinate, and support cuttingedge research and its application also build upon past discoveries and promote creativity and innovation support development of, access to, and use of new technology .Disseminate cancer (corrosion) information . Support training and career development of cancer researcher (corrosion manager, technician, engineer, and scientist). Facilitate the movement of research finding into clinical (industrial) practice .Maintain support mechanism and collaborative environments to link scientist (designer /engineer/operator with their colleagues a and with critical technological and information resources develop strategies to define, improve, measure and monitor the quality of cancer(corrosion) prevention and care (corrosion control) and reduce disparities in outcome.

o o

Advance life prediction and performance assessment methods. Advance corrosion technology through research development.

SSGC Scenario: A considerable part to the increasing trend of lost gases in the distribution system of SSGC can be attributed to corrosion of our above ground and underground infrastructure. In fact it can safely be stated the corrosion is contributing 50% to 60% to the lost gas phenomenon to our infrastructure, amounting to billions of rupees per annum Hence, at SSGC we should on fast track basis, find better material, improve work man ship and create awareness to “fight the menace of corrosion which is not only eating away our infrastructure but also profit.

It is sufficient to know that the increasingly successful effort to combat corrosion represents social and material gain for mankind” as stated by HH Uhlig (Expert on corrosion since 1950’s). Recommendation: o o o

o o

Increase the awareness of large corrosion costs and potential savings. Change the misconception that nothing can be done about corrosion Change policies, Regulators, Standard and management practices to increase corrosion saving through sound corrosion management. Improve the education and training of staff in Recognition of Corrosion control. Advance design practices for better corrosion management.

JAN to MARCH 2014


and industrial sector are tremendous. Just an example the petro-chemical storage tanks park at Kemari and West Wharf, Karachi where all PakistanÂ’s liquid commodity imported from abroad and stored before shipment to up country. Majority of these tanks have their roof top corroded mainly pitting corrosion, which is due to the deposit of sea salt and when dew deposit at night the corrosion cell start its work. The worst conditions are due to wet and dry cycle. Constructed in early eighties SEA VIEW TOWNSHIP apartment buildings are in this condition where balconies are dropping down and top floor roofs are caving in. Sudden falling of sunshade/projection over windows many times caused damaged to vehicles parked underneath and some time humans. Bottom: Darkhshan Villa facing sea shore, collapse as roof caved in due to rebar corrosion.

Estimated 35 to 40% corrosion losses can be saved by having the proper design, right selection of materials and good protection by coatings. New technologies to prevent corrosion continue to be developed and cost-based corrosion management techniques are available to further lower corrosion costs. However, cost-effective methods are not always implemented. Periodic Corrosion Auditing of installations, fuel and oil storage tanks as well industrial plants would help reduce corrosion losses.

is C5 – Severe Marine, which suggest that the design and protection of buildings, structures, equipments etc must be done to the maximum to with stand the severe atmospheric/weather condition of the area. A research paper containing all data collected is under publication. Cantonment Board Clifton (CBC), the authority responsible for Clifton ,Defence and as well Karachi Electricity Supply Corporation having continuous problem of rusted electric poles, electric transformers and electric wires. CBC in the past has tried using cement poles but these poles also got damaged due to severe conditions. Pakistan


Telecommunication Company Limited spent lots of money on replacing their telephone distribution boxes in the Sea View Township and Clifton area and for them it is continuous process. Most of the resident living near to sea complained about the severe disturbance in telephone lines and they have to use gel boxes to prevent corrosion to their phone lines. The life of AC outer in these areas is one to two years unless users make preventive measures like putting protective films and cleaning the AC outer very frequently. Beside domestic corrosion losses, the corrosion losses in commercial JAN to MARCH 2014

Better corrosion management can be achieved using preventive strategies at every level of involvement (owner, operator, user, government, Federal regulators, and general public). The preventive strategies include: (1) Increase awareness of large corrosion costs and potential savings, (2) Change the misconception that nothing can be done about corrosion, (3) Change policies, regulations, standards, and management practices to increase corrosion cost-savings through sound corrosion management, (4) Improve education and training ENERGO STEEL JOURNAL PAKISTAN

a defensive strategy for concrete structures, such as marine facilities, bridges, and concrete structure near marine environment, that will be exposed to high concentrations of chloride.

SADASDADASDASD“Floating Ship” is one of new structure at Sea View Beach, which was constructed in 2005/2006. The RCC structure is still in good condition after 7 years despite its on the summer time splash zone area (sea get too close to the shore during high tide in summer)due the fact that Sulfate Resistant Cement was used and lower portion were painted with imported epoxy paint which prevented the structure from deterioration, but unfortunately steel and even stainless steel were not used of weathering grade so there were clear sign of corrosion even after two years of its construction.

of staff in recognition of corrosion control, (5) Advance design practices for better corrosion management, (6) Advance life prediction and performance assessment methods, and (7) Advance corrosion technology through research, development, and implementation. Some of the suggestion are as follows;A properly designed concrete for use in aggressive environments needs to have an appropriate cementations content, a low water cement ratio, and be well compacted and cured. It is recommended that specialist advice


be obtained during the project design stage to ensure that the concrete is adequate for the expected service. Using Sulfate Resistant Cement (SRC) according to PS 612/1989 (R) ; BS 4027/1980, ASTM C-150 Type V and Australian Standard AS 3972. A concrete designed to provide improved sulfate resistance should have greatly reduced permeability which should also provide increased resistance to the penetration of chloride ions, reducing the risk of corrosion in reinforcing steel. In addition to Sulfate Resisting Cement corrosion-inhibiting admixtures can also be used to slow corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Corrosion inhibitors can be used as

JAN to MARCH 2014

Sand blasting the rebar before pouring the concrete would greatly increase the life of concrete structures. Applying epoxy coatings of sea front elevations would also increase corrosion protection. Split Air Conditioner outers deterioration due to atmospheric corrosion is a single common problem of people living in Defence and Clifton area, no matter which brand AC they purchase, life would be maximum two years within 1 km of sea shore, 1 to 2 years from 1.5 kms to 3 kms, and 2 to 4 years from 3 to 7 kms from sea shore. To increase the life of your AC Outer apply self laminating clear film either PE or PP, this will prevent your AC outer from rusting for at least two years can extend up to 5 years depending on type of clear film and its adhesive. Weatherproof Coil Shield (a special thermal conductive coatings) are available which dramatically helps stop the corrosive effects of salt air on coastal condenser coil fins and extends the overall life of the coil., again depends on your closeness to sea shore. Making a cover over AC outer (either concrete or wood) would help the top from corrosion. Covering AC outer during winter would also help but not much due the fact that corrosion rate is minimum during winter time. On new electronic equipments boards including mother board of desk top computers before using should be clear coated by electronic repair technicians to prolong the life of these equipments.


Effective mitigation of corrosion begins with well engineered comprehensive corrosion audit plan that are designed to produce coordinated application of the appropriate technologies. Corrosion audits are designed to identify both; the sites more vulnerable/prone to corrosive attack and areas with corrosion control deficiencies. Corrosion audit is planned to evaluate the effectiveness of operating corrosion control systems/programs and to identify any deficiencies or recommended revisions. In this context, corrosion audit team leader has following responsibilities: 1. Review records to assess conformance and report out of compliance when necessary. 2. Track specific procedures and processes to ensure compliance including competency of responsible individuals, departments, and organizations and correct implementation, reporting and reaction. 3. C h e c k i f a p p r o p r i a t e investigations were undertaken in accordance with procedures. 4. Check if the investigations were effective and that necessary changes to procedures /processes are developed to prevent recurrence. 5. H a v e the changes implemented/incorporated into procedures/processes. 6. Review the corrosion related documentation. Corrosion audit also helps to evaluate synergistic performance of various corrosion control methods. Sometime different corrosion control methods are drastically interfering with each other for example over potential induced by error signal of reference ENERGO STEEL JOURNAL PAKISTAN

anode at Impressed Direct Current Cathodic Protection unit (ICCP) in marines structure would cause jacking of paint coatings called cathodic disbanding, hence catalyzing corrosion rate. Similarly during refit/repair of structure if replaced metallic part material has different electrode potential then caused galvanic coupling hence initiating galvanic corrosion. Corrosion audit could also benefit by safety improvement as corrosion plays a crucial role in most of machinery failure, bridge / building collapse down, bursting of oil pipe/boilers/tanks. Corrosion audit should be mandatory in every segment of the industry so that loss due to corrosions in terms of resources, energy and life could be drastically reduced. The prevention of failures requires management systems to incorporate appropriate tools (procedures, risk assessments, and probabilistic methods) and teams (design, corrosion, inspection, maintenance, stakeholders) to develop and implement corrosion

management strategies. This is achieved by the incorporation of best practices for corrosion audit from Total Quality Management (TQM) as outlined in the ISO requirements for quality, health and safety and environmental management systems. According to Milliams (a corrosion expert), “The management of corrosion is a concern which extends beyond the responsibilities of corrosion and materials engineers. Whilst they should provide advice during both the design and operational phases, they are dependent upon the cooperation of other disciplines if an installation’s projected design life is to be achieved. The model proposed provides a framework for that co-operation and for optimizing the contribution of corrosion and materials engineers make to an organization.” Industries should understand the need of corrosion audit for corrosion mitigation because numerous catastrophic failures had been caused by corrosion, the root causes of which were frequently

Figure: Milliams’ information flows model for Corrosion Management

JAN to MARCH 2014


poor corrosion control due to managerial/constructional /operational errors. For instance, mistakes occur in the selection of corrosion control options, in application of mitigation technologies and in day-to-day activities needed to ensure that

City refinery accident resulting from inadequate corrosion control. As a standard refinery practice for hydroprocessing units, water was periodically injected downstream of the overheads in hydrogen sulfide gas to control fouling of the condensers. Although heat

Industries should understand the need of corrosion audit for corrosion mitigation because numerous catastrophic failures had been caused by corrosion, the root causes of which were frequently poor corrosion control due to managerial/ constructional /operational errors. corrosion would be monitored and corrective actions would be carried out when necessary. In many failures reason was that basic lessons were not learned, particularly in small industries that could not hire a full time corrosion engineer and delegate corrosion control/monitoring activities to non specialist managers/ engineers who may lack the required knowledge/experience. The effective implementation of corrosion mitigation practices from the design stage through the construction, commissioning, operation, and maintenance phases requires contributions from various teams of designers, constructors, commissioning staff, operations and maintenance personnel, contractors and consultants/specialists. Regular corrosion audit would synergize team efforts to be effective. Need for good corrosion auditing practices is exemplified by a Texas


exchangers had been replaced using corrosion resistant materials a few years previously, but the pipe work was original and had been subjected to only one partial inspection. An explosion and fire resulted from a rupture of a gas transfer line in a saturated gas plant because of local thinning by erosioncorrosion downstream of a water injection point after thirteen years of operation. A lack of management control over corrosion assessments/ inspection/record keeping and procedures was identified as a major contributing factor to the failure during the subsequent trial. Follow up inquiry highlighted the requirement for inspections around any injection point, in intermittent or continuous use, at not more than three years intervals. Following the incident, the refinery was shut down for three months, a further twelve months were required to rebuild the gas plant and company received a

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considerable fine as well. Corrosion audit activity is also helpful to improved corrosion policy for an organization so that various interdisciplinary and multidepartmental contributions are synchronized to ensure appropriate corrosion mitigations. Despite that most industries have not seriously considered for corrosion policies even though they have developed and implemented standard practices for quality, safety, environmental and maintenance polices. A corrosion policy includes establishment of organizational structures with defined responsibilities, reporting routes, practices, procedures, processes, and resources. This requires the demonstration of responsibility and accountability for corrosion performance. In industries most of corrosion problems are due to localized corrosion instead of general slow and manageable uniform corrosion. Localized corrosion can occur much more rapidly than expected with disastrous consequences. Corrosion related incidents occasionally make the front page stories such as in Flixborough Disaster of 1974 when Stress Corrosion Cracking contributed to the failure of a chemical reactor propagating a series of events that resulted in twenty eight victims and thirty six seriously injured while fires burning for over 10 days. This case dramatically illustrates the impact that corrosion can have on safety, environment and the viability of a business in terms of costs. It also shows how easily a situation can run out of control. Corrosion audit is not limited to the prevention of disasters but can also bring a positive package of benefits


to those industries that are willing to adopt best practices and regularly reviewing their products and processes. A good example is a proposed protection system for water tanks reviewed for a customer by the National Corrosion Service UK. In this case, corrosion control

reaction is too often: "Who can we blame for this?". A corrosion expert is then appointed to make a judgment on the "technical" cause of the failure - too late to reduce the impact on all parties. The need to meet increasingly

Corrosion audit has a positive impact on business and should be audited regularly. It improved communication in the supply chain and the use of experts to prevent corrosion hence significantly reduces the impact on all parties. On other hand loss of control can have severe consequences. of the steel was improved simply by re-specifying coating thickness and re-routing cathodic protection cables to improve the operation of the system, extend the period between maintenance, and prevent premature failure due to localized corrosion hence increase lifetime of tank.

c h a l l e n g i n g s a f e t y, h e a l t h , environmental and financial demands will need a cultural shift in corrosion thinking within both industrial organizations and educational establishments that will require a wider appreciation of riskbased approaches and exposure to mainstream engineering concepts

found within safety management, asset management, project/process management and maintenance management. Therefore, industries should realize the importance of corrosion audit in improving overall quality management system. Corrosion is a risk to a project/operation so corrosion risk management must be integrated into the organizationÂ’s philosophy, practices, and business plans and not viewed as a separate activity. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis in commercial and public sector organizations on the identification and management of risks to plant, process and peoples which has driven interest for corrosion audit legislation across the world. Government should pass legislation for industries to provide corrosion audit report once in two years. This legislation would provide fruitful information about corrosion costs in each segment to manage it and save assets of the nation. There should be a government institute for corrosion audit who would be equipped with latest testing devices and expertise to provide corrosion auditing services or private sector should come up to developed such a services for industries.

Corrosion audit has a positive impact on business and should be audited regularly. It improved communication in the supply chain and the use of experts to prevent corrosion hence significantly reduces the impact on all parties. On other hand loss of control can h a v e s e vere consequences. Although corrosion audit is a technical activity, it should be a management responsibility because the consequences of a corrosion failure can impact a business in many ways. Supply and subcontracting chains introduce communication problems that become accentuated when a problem occurs. The immediate


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eliminating hydrogen from the environment or by the use of resistant alloys. Corrosion in concrete: Concrete is a widely-used structural material that is frequently reinforced with carbon steel reinforcing rods, posttensioning cable or prestressing wires. The steel is necessary to maintain the strength of the structure, but it is subject to corrosion. Microbial corrosion: Microbial corrosion (also called microbiologically -influenced corrosion or MIC) is corrosion that is caused by the presence and activities of microbes. This corrosion can take many forms and can be controlled by biocides or by conventional corrosion control methods Atmosperic Corrosion: Atmospheric corrosion is a complicated electrochemical process taking place in corrosion cells consisting of base metal, metallic corrosion products, surface electrolyte, and the atmosphere. Many variables influence the corrosion characteristics of an atmosphere. Relative humidity, temperature, sulfur dioxide content, hydrogen sulfide content, chloride content, amount of rainfall, dust,


and even position of the exposed metal exhibit marked influences on corrosion behavior. Geographical location is also another factor. 5. It is a common belief that corrosion is an inevitable foe that should be accepted as an inevitable process. Actually, something can and should be done to prolong the life of metallic structures and components exposed to the environments. As products and manufacturing processes have become more complex and the penalties of failures from corrosion, including safety hazards and interruptions in plant operations, have become more costly and more specifically recognized, the attention that is being given to the control and prevention of corrosion has increased. 6 Since the first significant report by in 1949 that the cost of corrosion to nations is indeed great, the conclusion of all subsequent studies has been that corrosion represents a constant charge to a nation's gross national product (GNP). 7. Corrosion costs studies of various forms and importance have been undertaken by several countries including, the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Kuwait, Germany, Finland,

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Sweden, India, and China A common finding of these studies has been that the annual corrosion costs range from approximately 1 to 5 percent of the GNP of each nation. Several studies separated the total corrosion costs into two parts: a. The portion of the total corrosion cost that could be avoided if better corrosion control practices were used; and b. Costs where savings required new and advanced technology (currently unavoidable costs). 8. Estimates of avoidable corrosion costs with a range from 10 to 40 percent of the total cost. Most studies have categorized corrosion costs according to industrial sectors or to types of corrosion control products and services. All studies have focused on direct costs even if it has been estimated that indirect costs due to corrosion damage were often significantly greater than direct costs. Indirect costs have been typically excluded from these studies simply because they are more difficult to estimate. 9. There are a number of means of controlling corrosion. The choice of a means of corrosion control depends on economics, safety


requirements, and a number of technical considerations. 10. Design: Engineering design is a complicated process that includes design for purpose, manufacturability, inspection, and maintenance. Few of the considerations often overlooked in designing manufactured products are environment and drainage. 11. Materials Selection: Most large metal structures are made from carbon steel-the world's most useful structural material. Carbon steel is inexpensive, readily available in a variety of forms, and can be machined, welded, and formed into many shapes. , , and are all extensively used to prolong the life of carbon steel structures and to allow their use in environments. 12. Stainless steels: It is a common alternative to carbon steels. There are many kinds of stainless steels, but the most common austenitic stainless steels (300-series stainless steels) are based on the general formula of iron with approximately 18% chromium and 8% nickel. These austenitic stainless steels are frequently immune to general corrosion, but they may experience and and undergo in some environments. 13. Aluminum alloys: They are widely used in aerospace applications where their favorable strength-to-weight ratios make them the structural metal of choice. They can have excellent atmospheric corrosion capabilities. Unfortunately, the protective properties of the aluminum oxide films that form on these alloys can break down locally and allow extensive corrosion. 14. Brasses and bronzes are commonly used piping materials, and they are also used for valves


and fittings. They are subject to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of ammonia compounds. They also suffer from and can cause when coupled with steel and other structural metals. Most copper alloys are relatively soft and subject to erosion corrosion. 15. Titanium: It is one of the more common metals in nature, but its limited use means that small-scale production operations result in a relatively expensive metal. In the United States it finds extensive use in the aerospace industry. The Japanese make extensive use of titanium in the chemical process industries. 16. Protective Coatings: Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. Protective coatings can be metallic, such as the Zinc Coating more commonly known as galvanized of steel or Nickel Coating. But most common are liquid coatings (paints) 17. Inhibitors and Other Means of E n v i r o n m e n ta l A l t e r a t i o n : Corrosion inhibitors are chemicals that are added to controlled environments to reduce the Corrosivity of these environments. Examples of corrosion inhibitors include the chemicals added to automobile antifreezes to make them less corrosive.

indirect, in that producers and suppliers of goods and services incur corrosion costs, which they pass on to consumers. At home, corrosion is readily recognized on automobile body panels, air-conditioner outer, charcoal grills, outdoor metal furniture, and metal tools. Indoors, electronic component and even CD, DVD get damage due to corrosive environment especially near the sea side. Preventative maintenance such as painting protects such items from corrosion. Of far more serious consequence is how corrosion affects our lives during travel from home to work or school. The corrosion of steel reinforcing bar (rebar) in concrete can proceed out of sight and suddenly or seemingly so result in failure of a section of flyover bridges, the collapse of electrical towers, and damage to buildings, parking structures, etc., resulting in significant repair costs and endangering public safety. Good examples corrosion damages can be seen at Sea View DHA and more severely at Hawksbay, Sandspit beaches.

18. Cathodic Protection: Cathodic protection is an electrical means of corrosion control. Cathodic protection can be applied using sacrificial (galvanic) anodes or by means of more complicated impressed current systems. 19. The effects of corrosion in our daily lives are both direct, in that corrosion affects the useful service lives of our possessions, and

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as considering a corroding surface as a short-circuited battery: Metallic loss occurs from that part of the metal called the anodic area (anode). In this case, iron (Fe) is lost to the water solution and becomes oxidized to Fe2+ ion. Fe ? Fe2+ + 2e· As a result of the formation of Fe2+ ion, two electrons are released to flow through the steel to the cathodic area (cathode). · Oxygen (O2) in the water solution moves to the cathode to form hydroxyl ions (OH-) at the surface of the metal. In the absence of oxygen, hydrogen ion (H+) participates in the reaction at the cathode instead of oxygen. O2 + 2H2 O + 4e- ? 4OHIf any step is prevented from occurring, then corrosion stops. Every metal surface is covered with many small anodes and cathodes as shown above. These sites usually develop from: (A) Surface irregularities from manufacturing; (B) Stresses from welding and forming; or (C) Metallic compositional


Mainly caused by CO2 and organic acids. It requires the presence of water.

differences of at the pipe surface. Different Types of Oil & Gas Field Corrosion: Corrosion in oil and gas industry is mainly due to the reservoir and well fluids tapped during the exploration and production operations. Based on the morphology of the attack as well as the surroundings to which the material is out in the open, corrosion has been classi?ed in different categories. The most widespread among all, Uniform corrosion, as the name suggests, occurs over the mainstream of the surface of a metal at a steady and often predictable rate. One who has left a piece of open to attack steel outside can understand this phenomenon quite well. Examples of it include rusting of steel bridges and underground pipelines, tarnishing of silver, patina formation on copper roofs and bronze statues. Fortunately, this corrosion is conventional one and can be prohibited by some methods such as painting the surface or applying a layer of a sacri?cial metal (like zinc to steel). 1)

Sweet Corrosion

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Sour Corrosion Caused by H2S with the characteristic smell of rotten egg. Also requires presence of water. It results in: – Sulfide Stress Cracking – Blistering – Hydrogen induced cracking – Hydrogen embrittlement • Hydrogen Embrittlement – Atomic hydrogen diffuses into the grain boundary of the metal,generating trapped larger molecules of hydrogen molecules, resulting in metal embrittlement.


Crevice Corrosion Intensive localized electrochemical corrosion occurs within crevices when in contact with a corrosive fluid. Will accelerate after start. It is formed between two nonuniformly tempered zones in one body.


Galvanic Corrosion Corrosion resulting from the


coupling of dissimilar metals e.g. corrosion of steel connected to brass. 5)

Bi-metallic Corrosion When two different metals placed in contact in an electrolyte, the more reactive one will corrode and the other will not.


Ring Worm Corrosion It is found on tubing installed in oil and gas wells. It occurs in a ring a few inches from the upset.


Pitting Corrosion Extremely localized attack that results in holes in the metal. Will accelerate after start. Aluminum and aluminum alloys may experience severe pitting corrosion.



Stress Corrosion Occurs in metal that is subject to both stress and a corrosive environment. May start at a “stress riser” like a wrench mark or packer slip mark. Carbon steel may experience stress corrosion cracking. Erosion Corrosion Passage of fluid at high velocity may remove the thin, protective oxide film that protects exposed metal surface.

10) Microbial Corrosion Occurs as a result of primitive organisms living in contact with or metallic objects.

by the simultaneous action of corrosion and stress. PROTECTING STRATEGIES In addition to our every-day encounters with this form of degradation, corrosion causes plant shutdowns, waste of valuable resources, contamination of product, reduction in efficiency, costly maintenance, and expensive overdesign; it also endangers safety and inhibits technological progress. The strength and cheapness of this material, the environment i.e. water, earth, soil, atmosphere however, there are enough exceptions which make corrosion control a bit complex. Corrosion control can be done by changing the environment, changing the material, or placing an obstacle between the material and its surroundings. CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS Corrosion prevention methods broadly divided into two categories: Primary protection and Secondary protection, Primary protection includes, material selection, change of environment (using inhibitors), designing of the material and coatings while secondary prevention methods include Anodic protection

and Cathodic protection. A number of such methods have been developed, and they are set out in Table 1.The table shows a variety of different concepts by which the surface reaction rate can be reduced. Each of these has given rise to a number of technologies. CHEMICAL INHIBITORS An inhibitor is a substance which decreases the corrosion rate so it can be considered as a retarding catalyst. There is a class of chemical inhibitors which work by removing electrons from the metal, thereby pushing the potential into a positive region where an oxide film spontaneously forms. This results in a stable, passive surface with a very low corrosion rate. Industries apply this technology in processes where the inhibitor can be conveniently added without causing environmental or health problems Coatings used to protect the metal are: Metallic/Inorganic coatings and Organic coatings Several attempts and techniques have already been investigated to coat oil and gas components, such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD), physical vapour deposition (PVD), electroplating, polymer linings and sol-gel. In particular, with

Deposition Technologies for Corrosion Resistant Coatings Interface Cable DC cable Gas Cart

Pressure control Insulator


Process Gas



Figure 1. Deposition system setup.

12) Stress Corrosion Cracking A brittle type of failure caused


DC power suppy

Interface Cable


11) Oxygen Corrosion Most common type of corrosion which requires presence of moisture.

Computer software

Turbo Pump

GND Vacuum Pump

Process Control Cart With Pump Stack

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sol-gel and polymer linings attempts have been made to coat the internal surface of components. However, coatings applied in this way do not provide a dense, hard, low friction coating which is good enough to act as an inhibitor. These coatings can also be very thick which restricts flow. In the case of CVD and PVD, the component to be coated must be contained within a vacuum coating chamber which typically cannot accommodate high aspect ratio (length/diameter) parts. Now, a new plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique has developed, in which the component part itself is the vacuum chamber. Figure 1 details the system setup. The plasma deposition technique involves using a hollow cathode discharge to generate very high density plasma inside the part. Gas is continually fed from one side of the system and fills up the volume inside the component. As the component itself is the vacuum chamber, the part itself is biased, which creates an energy inside the part, igniting the gas and resulting in plasma generation. Anodic Protection was first suggested by Edeleanu in 1954, based on the formation of a protective film on metals by applying anodic currents. An electronic device, called potentiostat is used for this purpose which maintains a metal at constant potential with respect to a reference electrode, its advantages are that it is applicable in extremely corrosive environments and current requirement is low. The basic principle of working is that when we apply anodic current to a structure, it increases the dissolution rate of the metal and decreases the rate of hydrogen evolution. In metals, with active-passive


transitions such as nickel, iron, chromium and their alloys, it does not occur but if controlled current is applied then they are passivated and the rate of metal dissolution is decreased. Sir Humphry Davy, in 1824, found out the principle of cathodic protection for the lessening of natural corrosion processes. He was searching for a method to prevent corrosion of the copperclad wooden hulls of English ships. He attached billets of zinc to the copper and observed that the zinc would corrode to save the copper. Today, almost two centuries later, corrosion engineers are still using this same method of preventing corrosion damage by applying this same zinc anode cathodic protection to steel ships around the world. Cathodic protection (CP) is a vital, harmonizing, “active” protection (POWER SUPPLY) TRANSFORMER



cathodic protection. First method makes use of anodes which are energized by an external DC power source. Because the power source is almost always a rectifier unit, this type of system is often referred to as a rectifier. The second method of protection makes use of galvanic anodes which have a higher energy level or potential with respect to the structure to be protected. Each method of applying cathodic protection has uniqueness that makes it more applicable to a particular problem than the other. ADVANCEMENT IN PROTECTION A new generation of corrosion inhibitors emerged in the late 1970s called vapor phase corrosion inhibitors (VCIs). These new chemistries were developed to utilize state-of-the-art, nontoxic organic inhibitors in a wide variety WIRE







Current Flow



Impressed Current Cathodic Protection

Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection

system aimed at preventing corrosion at coating defects, where it is affected by forcing the potential to a negative region where the metal is completely stable. Cathodic protection is well suited to steel structures in marine or u n d e r g r o u n d e n v i r o n m e n ts .

of forms. The VCI technology, as described below, protects metals from corrosion during manufacturing, processing, shipping, storage, and while in use without any residual contamination to the protected metal.

There are basically two methods of applying cathodic protection: Impressed current cathodic protection and Sacrificial anode

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To fight with the distressing effects of corrosion and in an attempt to preserve valuable military equipment, the U.S. Navy tested the first volatile corrosion inhibitor


Toxicity Data

in global warming. Approximately 60% of all oil and gas field failures are related to CO2 corrosion.


LD50 (mg/kg-rat)

Table salt (sodium chloride)



Food preservative/corrosion inhibitor (sodium nitrite)


Nitrie-based VCI powder


Non-nitrite-based VCI powder


During the last twenty years within the UK oil industry alone, there have been several major corrosionrelated shutdowns of facilities and pipelines that have each cost hundreds of millions of pounds to rectify.

(VCI) chemistry for the mothballing of boilers and similar structures on war ships in the late 1940s. The core chemistry at that time was a toxic amine nitrite solution applied to the inside of inaccessible spaces. Although a similar nitrite-based chemistry is still widely used today; there is an effective, environmentally sound & safer alternative. (Fig# 1). Future trends in corrosion research include the development of environmentally gentle inhibitors, accurate prediction of structure service life, and ?nding ways to make corrosion a good thing. Huge sums of money are used up on inhibitors in a wide variety of industries. A single pipeline may spend a million dollars a year on inhibitors that are added to the oil before transport. While chromate is a powerful inhibitor of corrosion on many metallic surfaces, it is carcinogenic. Thus, the search has been to ?nd an inhibitor that is as e ff e c t i v e a s c h r o m a t e , b u t environmentally caring. This requires interdisciplinary work involving c h e m i s t r y, electrochemistry, surface science, a n d m e t a l l u r g y. A s t h e infrastructure of industrialized countries continues to age, more and more failures due to corrosion are occurring. Replacing all the bridges and pipelines (gas, oil, and water) would be prohibitively expensive, and unnecessary as ENERGO STEEL JOURNAL PAKISTAN

most are in good condition and can provide many more years of service. Figuring out which ones are failing and how long they can last is the function of service life prediction. This area involves work with computer scientists, engineers of all kinds (civil, mechanical, chemical, electrical, information), as well as economists. “Corrosion - A Potent Threat to the Oil Industry” Worldwide energy production is based overwhelmingly on fossil fuels that include coal, oil, and gas. However, burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is one of the major issues

The impact of corrosion on the oil industry can be viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety and environment (HSE). Corrosion related failures constitute over 25% of failures experienced in the oil and gas industry. More than half of these failures are associated with sweet (CO2) and sour (H2S) producing fields. Corrosion has wide ranging implications on the integrity of materials used in the petroleum industry. Examples of these ranging from drilling, production, transportation and refinery etc.

COST OF CORROSION IN INDUSTRY CATEGORIES ($137.9 BILLION) Infrastructure 16.4% ($22.6 billion) Utilities 34.7% ($47.9 billion) Government 14.6% ($20.1 billion)

Production and Manufacturing 12.8% ($17.6 billion)

Transportation 21.5% ($29.7 billion)

Cost of corrosion in industry categories

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Because corrosion is a diffusioncontrolled process, it occurs on exposed surfaces. As a result, methods to reduce the activity of the exposed surface can increase material's corrosion resistance. H o w e v e r, s o m e c o r r o s i o n mechanisms are less visible and less predictable. Corrosion in Different Areas of Field A recently released two-year breakthrough study estimates the annual direct cost of corrosion in the United States to be $276 billion. Drilling string failures result predominantly from cracks initiated at the fast engaged thread of madetip tool joints. Typically, most of these failures are caused by a corrosion fatigue process. Basic conditions necessary for such failures are present in drilling operations i.e. cyclic tension, torsion and bending are available and more importantly, the presence of drilling fluids and down hole vibration, assist in the formation and growth of corrosion, fatigue cracks thus leading to failures. In the context of production facilities, corrosion problem is exemplified by describing the significance of H2S containing environments in the choice of production tubing and corrosion fatigue in marine structural fatigues. Corrosion is a natural potential hazard associated with oil and gas transportation facilities. This results from the fact that an aqueous phase is inevitably co-produced with the oil and / or gas. The inherent corrosivity of this aqueous phase is then heavily dependent on the level of CO2 and H2S acidic


gases which are also co-produced. Several natural constituents present in oil can cause corrosion of refinery equipment. These constituents include sulphur compounds, salt water, inorganic and organic chlorides, organic and inorganic acids and nitrogen which forms cyanides. State-of-the-Art in Corrosion Prevention for Deep Sea Oil Rigs: Corrosion having on deep sea oil rigs results to cost heavily for the industry. Usually surface corrosion and pitting corrosion are two types that have been recognized to occur on the structural members of deep sea oil rigs. As the presence of pitting corrosion can go ahead to corrosion stress cracking, the avoidance of pitting corrosion is highly significant in reducing failures in structural members. In order for this reaction to occur an electrolyte is needed, which is sea water in this case. A technique for tackling the dilemma of the corrosion for structural members of a deep sea oil rigs has been given by David W. Crawford by which a polyamine and epoxy jacket is placed around either the virgin steel part of installed after the rig has been erected. Jean P. Maes has also suggested a sacrificial cathode protection system which uses a sacrificial anode which will corrode instead of the rig due to the variation in potential between the rig and the anode. Other technologies such as Paint coatings, Zinc silicate primers and Nanostructured Platinum coatings are used to lessen the effects of corrosion on marine structures. CONCLUSION Like death and taxes, corrosion is

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something we wish to avoid; but eventually it is something we must learn to deal with. Corrosion is a plight that faces everyone who works with metals. To satisfy the basic needs of the 6.3 billion people on this globe, many technological changes with global dimensions must be accomplished. While this concept is widely appreciated as such, there is often only a limited awareness of how critical it is to solve corrosion problems and what the real implications are to society. It is the intention of this write-up to reveal with several examples that future technological challenges can only be met by immense R&D efforts worldwide in the fields of materials, surface protection, corrosion control, and condition-based monitoring. Data Sources: 1. Global Needs for Knowledge Dissemination, Research, and Development in Materials Deterioration and Corrosion Control, by G端nter Schmitt, World Corrosion Organization, May 2009. 2. The prevention of corrosion and corrosion stress cracking on structural members of fixed deep sea oil rigs, The Journal of Corrosion Science and Engineering, Volume 16, January 2013 3. Corrosion Engineering, M. G. Fontana and N. D. Greene, 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, New York 4. ds/Free_Downloads/Corrosion_Introd uction.pdf 5. es/metals/8J.pdf


Airline Training & Development

Muhammad Waqar Ashfaq

Aircraft Engineer/ Instructor (SEAMS/Shaheen Air International)

Training and technology have made commercial aviation the safest mode of transport. A good example of this is how the implementation of advanced Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) systems have significantly reduced common error related incidents and accidents. Technology along with Training nowadays is designed such that Human-Machine interface is well considered and accounted for. Before getting into something which could usually be referred to as "Complex Detail" for laymen, it is preferred to discuss few terms that are of potential Importance in modern day concept of aviation training.


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CRM for flight crew personnel

(Cockpit/Crew Resource Management)

CRM is the effective use of all available resources for flight crew personnel to assure safe and efficient operation while reducing error, avoiding stress and increasing efficiency. It is important to highlight the terms "stress" and "efficiency" apparently narrowing one's attention for to be more in relation with performance of equipment, which is correct of course, but only partially. Stress and Efficiency are the key factors affecting human performance, any compromise on these while considering operational safety would potentially render the project defective. The study involving human performance at workplace is termed as "Human


Factors" or for scientific nerds, a variant of the subject is referred to as "Ergonomics". CRM is one of its Major components considering flight crew training where as MRM is major component while we consider Aviation Maintenance/Engineering Training. Some light would shed be on this subject in a broader picture as we move along.

CRM was developed as a response to new insights into the causes of aircraft accidents which followed from the introduction of flight data recorders (FDRs) and cockpit voice recorders (CVRs) into modern jet aircraft. Information gathered from these devices has suggested that accidents are usually not resultant of technical malfunction of the aircraft or its systems, nor from a failure of aircraft handling skills or a lack of technical knowledge on the part of the crew; it appears instead that they are caused by the inability of crew to respond appropriately to the situation in which they find themselves. For example, inadequate communication between crew


members and other parties could lead to a loss of situational awareness, a breakdown in teamwork in the aircraft, and, ultimately, to a wrong decision or series of decisions which may finally result in a serious incident or a fatal accident. The introduction of the dynamic

flight simulator as a training aid led to various new theories about the causes of aircraft accidents that were studied under experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, while attempting to design remedial action plan, the apparent deficiency in crew skills, additional training in flight deck management techniques have been introduced by most airlines. Following a period of experimentation and development, the techniques embraced by the new training became known collectively as CRM. The importance of the CRM concept and the utility of the training in promoting safer and more efficient aircraft operations have now been recognized worldwide.

CRM encompasses a wide range of knowledge, skills and attitudes including communications, loss of situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, and teamwork; together with all attendant sub-disciplines which each of these areas entails. The elements which comprise CRM are not new but have been recognized in one form or another since aviation began, usually under more general headings such as 'Airmanship', 'Captaincy', 'Crew Cooperation', etc. In the past, however, these terms have not been defined, structured or articulated in a formal way, and CRM can be seen as an attempt to remedy this deficiency. CRM can therefore be defined as a management system which makes optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures and people - to promote safety and enhance the efficiency of flight operations. CRM is concerned not so much with the technical knowledge and skills required to fly and operate an aircraft but rather with the cognitive and interpersonal skills needed to manage the flight within an organized aviation system. In this context, cognitive skills are defined as the mental processes used for gaining and maintaining situational awareness, for solving problems and for taking decisions. Interpersonal skills are regarded as communications and a range of behavioral activities associated with teamwork. In aviation, as in other walks of life, these skill areas often overlap with each other, and they also overlap with the required technical skills. Furthermore, they are not confined to multi-crew aircraft, but also relate to single pilot operations, which invariably need to interface with other aircraft and with various ground support

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agencies in order to complete their missions successfully. (Excerpts from CRM Standing Group of the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS)) It is of utmost importance that classroom training for CRM be provided in conjunction with simulator revalidation training. Particularly, it should be in integration with Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), which involves response to realistic scenarios where the application of CRM principles will usually be the road to successfully coping. LOFT details have become a standard component of most commercial operator aircraft type training.

Aircraft maintenance is an essential component of the aviation system which supports the global aviation industry. As air traffic grows and the stringent requirements of commercial schedules impose

Whenever humans are involved in an activity, human error is a certain sequel. According to one source, the number of maintenance concern accidents and incidents to public transport aircraft has increased significantly. This source defines maintenance concern as one which is not necessarily a

increased demands upon aircraft utilization, the pressures on maintenance operations for on-time performance will also continue to escalate. This will open further windows of opportunity for human error and subsequent breakdowns in the system's safety net. There is no question that human error in aircraft maintenance has been a causal factor in several air carrier accidents. It is also beyond question that unless the aviation industry learns from these occurrences, maintenance-related safety breakdowns will continue to occur. From a Human Factors perspective, important truths have been uncovered during the investigation of these occurrences.

maintenance error (it may be a design error) but one which is of concern to the maintenance personnel as frontline managers of technical problems in daily operations. The same source states that in the first half of the 1980s, there were 17 maintenance concern-related accidents and incidents, involving aircraft belonging only to Western operators and excluding all "routine" technical failures (engine, landing gear, systems, structure, component separations, ramp accidents, etc). All these accidents and incidents had serious consequences (fatal, serious damage, significant previous occurrences, significant airworthiness implications, etc). In

Human factors in Aircraft Maintenance

Human Factors & Ergonomics The term "human factors" has grown increasingly popular as the commercial aviation industry has realized that human error, rather than mechanical failure, underlies most aviation accidents and incidents. If interpreted narrowly, human factors are often considered synonymous with crew resource management (CRM) or maintenance resource management (MRM). However, it is much broader in both its knowledge base and scope. Human factors involves gathering information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics and applying it to tools, machines, s y s t e m s , ta s k s , j o b s , a n d environments to produce safe, comfortable, and effective human use. In aviation, human factors is dedicated to better understanding how humans can most safely and efficiently be integrated with the technology. That understanding is then translated into design, training, policies, or procedures to help humans perform better.


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the second half of the 1980s, the same source enumerates 28 accidents of maintenance concern, an increase of 65% over the first half of the decade. In the same period, traffic movements (flight departures, scheduled and nonscheduled) increased by 22%. In the first three years of the 1990s there were 25 accidents involving maintenance concerns. This compares with seven in the first three years of the 1980s. MRM

(Maintenance Resource Management)

Human factors in aviation were originally focused as CRM on the flight crew community; the subject is now widespread into the training sphere of maintenance technicians and is referred to as Maintenance Resource Management (MRM). As we work with maintenance staff to provide awareness training in human factors, we need to avoid the mistake of merely adapting the existing company CRM program from the cockpit to the maintenance environment. The human factors program for maintenance requires a different approach just as pilots and maintenance personnel are very different. For example, pilots are more open with their communications and freely express their feelings and opinions while maintenance personnel, in general, keep to themselves and are reluctant to express themselves as often as they should. MRM has to be totally relevant to the maintenance function and to the maintenance support staff. With tight budgets, large workloads, and very tight turnaround times, it seems that maintenance "worldwide" is usually deprived of any chance to demonstrate the effectiveness of MRM and it requires getting no less


the head start first time around when implemented. The commitment from management to support and fund this training is critical since it can consume valuable resources. Scheduling a group of sixteen people for a two day MRM training session requires substantial effort to reschedule aircraft and the remaining maintenance staff, for two days in order to enable the maintenance staff participating in the training to be focused on the training. It is an expensive undertaking, but MRM training can and is being done with dramatic results. Today, more than ever, with the stress, pressures and demands for performance of individuals, the Maintenance Department has to be recognized for its professional level of work. Maintenance Staff must be given the tools to work with, especially with regards to the Human Factors. The Regulatory body regulates the aviation staff by giving regulatory structure to comply with, and the Labor Code to provide a safe workplace. Henceforth, it is globally recognized that Human Factors training should be conducted with an insight such that it help the Maintenance staff understand their own work habits and those of other co-workers and resultantly, a positive safety, enhanced morale and greater efficiency would follow. In the absence of this training, technicians have a tendency to keep to themselves and not to c o m m u n i c a t e t h o u g h ts a n d concerns. Communication is a key factor in aviation, and the more stress we are under the more we tend to keep our problems to ourselves. Just when a maintenance person is required to be communicating more, they

communicate less. Why does this happen? Human Factors Training begins with human behavioral analysis: why do we react to the same situations differently? Consider the following scenario. Person 'A', an AMT comes up with a new idea to make life better in the hangar. Person 'B', his fellow AMT thinks it is a great idea and sets out to try it. Person 'C', another AMT in the same hangar thinks he should have thought of it and wonders why he can never come up with good ideas, while a Person 'D' also an AMT thinks person 'A' is out to show him up and sets out to make sure it will not work. A better understanding can be developed to eradicate such behavioral influences by having the subject training in place and regulated. This is of significant importance because Aviation maintenance is a complex and d e m a n d i n g e n d e a v o r. I t s success, which is ultimately measured by the safety of the flying public, depends on communication and teamwork. Aviation maintenance operations are most successful when crew function is integrated as communicating teams -- rather than a collection of individuals engaged in independent actions. Human Machine Interface New technology requires careful consideration of human factors and human-machine interface issues. New technologies succeed or fail based on a designer's ability to reduce incompatibilities between the characteristics of the system and the characteristics of the people who operate, maintain, and troubleshoot.

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Safety depends, in part, on the extent to which the design reduces the chances of human error and enhances the chances of error recovery or safeguards against unrecovered human errors. Experience in a wide variety of systems and applications suggests that the use of computer technology, computer-based interfaces, and operator aids raises important issues related to the way humans operate, troubleshoot, and maintain these systems. This experience is true for both retrofits (e.g., replacement of cockpit alarm annunciators) and the design of new systems (e.g., computerized maintenance). Three recent studies highlight the importance of the "human factor" when incorporating computer technology in safety-critical systems. The study conducted by a subcommittee of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) found interfaces between flight crews and modern flight deck systems to be critically important in achieving the Administration's zero-accident goal. They noted, however, a wide range of shortcomings in designs, design processes, and certification processes for current and proposed systems. Two surveys conducted on the subject categorizing failures found that (a) human factors issues, including human-machine interface errors, comprised a "significant" category and (b) whereas the trend in most categories was decreasing over the 13-year study period, events attributable to inappropriate human actions showed remarkable increment. Two human-machine interaction issues frequently arise with the introduction of computer-based technology, the need to address a


class of design errors that persistently occur in a wide range of safety-critical applications or recur in successive designs for the same system; and, how to define the role and activities of the human worker with the same level of rigor and specificity as system hardware and software. These deficiencies have been identified in the design of computerbased technologies and surveys have shown how these have been negatively impacting human cognition and behavior. These include work overload, the keyhole effect, imbalances in the workload distribution among the human and machine-based team members, mode errors, and errors due to failures in increasingly coupled systems. T o b e continued…………. In the next Part on this subject, the terms discussed are used in conjunction with "specific training" that is required in the making of skillful flight crew member, and a ground engineer.

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Dubai Air Show 2013 Organizers, F&E Aerospace and exhibitors of the biennial Dubai Airshow celebrated historic event, which had been held at the new Dubai World Central Aerotropolis. The world’s leading aviation companies and organizations descended on the 645,000 square metres site, which features a purpose-built 42,870 square metres exhibition hall - about the size of seven football fields. Some 1,046 exhibitors from 60 countries took part in the show, which drew a trade attendee intake of 60, 692. The order book exceeded US$200 billion with an exact figure of $206.1 billion – bulging with aircraft, parts and MRO deals, in a show that reflected the growing importance of the MENASA region as the world’s aviation hub. Mr. Sharief Fahmy, CEO of Dubai Airshow organizers, F&E Aerospace said that Dubai Airshow stepped into the record books of aviation history, breaking all records in terms of the value of deals done. The world’s most powerful aerospace companies now come to Dubai to do business, in what is now the world’s most exciting, innovative and business-friendly environment. The airshow witnessed much of happenings like Aircraft manufacturer Boeing chose to use the event to launch its new 777X series, billed as the world’s largest and most efficient twin-engine jetliner. The US$95 billion deals announced at Dubai Airshow with Emirates, Qatar Airways, Etihad Airways and Lufthansa made the 777x the largest product launch in commercial jetliner history by value.


Mr. Charlie Miller, Boeing’s VP, international corporate communications, said that Dubai 2013 had been a truly historic and record-breaking airshow for The Boeing Company. We would like to thank our hosts for creating of such a momentous event at the stunning new airshow venue. Dubai Airshow 2015 looks set to be an expanded event, with Fahmy commenting: “It might seem impossible to improve what is clearly now a benchmark for global aviation industry events, but we listen to feedback, and constantly strive to deliver beyond expectations. Dubai Airshow 2013 saw a number of activities within the event; such as the Gulf Aviation Training Event (GATE), a two-day forum made up of global experts in training and recruitment in the industry, which caused an industry stir with its urgent call for 460,000 new pilots over the next 20 years to keep up with industry demand. As hundreds of planes were on display, Pakistan’s JF-17 Thunder

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amazed everyone at Dubai Air Show 2013. Pakistan Air Force’s fighter Jet made breath taking aerobatics in this international event. The PAC JF-17 Thunder or CAC FC-1 Xiaolong is a lightweight, single-engine, multi-role combat aircraft developed jointly by the Pakistan Air Force, the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) and the Chengdu Aircraft Industries Corporation (CAC) of China. Its designation "JF-17 Thunder" by Pakistan is short for "Joint Fighter-17", while the designation "FC-1 Xiaolong" by China means "Fighter China-1 Fierce Dragon". A dramatic downpour swept in on the last day of Dubai Airshow, as it witnessed five-day mega-event that took place for the first time at the Dubai World Central Aerotropolis this week, from November 17th to 21st, 2013. Dubai Civil Defence, Dubai Airports, Dubai Aviation Engineering Projects (DAEP) and organizers of the Dubai Airshow -


CEO of F&E Aerospace, Sharief Fahmy, commented that the downpour did little to quash the high spirits of exhibitors and visitors to what had already been dubbed the benchmark event for global aviation. We decided to close the hall for the safety of all, especially after taking advice from Dubai Civil Defence, who will always put the safety of people first. The torrential downpour put a swift end to a show which saw a record breaking order book in excess of US$200 billion by the end of the fourth day.

DUBAI: Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafique Butt, Chief of the Air Staff, Pakistan Air Force along with Mr. Li Yuhai, Central Executive Vice President of Aviation Industry of China at the inaugural ceremony of Dubai Air Show-2013.

F&E Aerospace took swift action to ensure the health and safety of exhibitors and visitors to the

packed event, which has drawn 1,065 exhibitors from 60 countries; as well as thousands of attendees.

Production of JF-17 fighter jet launched – Prime Minister says Pakistan strategizing its Defence on modern lines

transformed our Defence into a great force. We want that our Defence forces should be ever ready for any contingency,” he said at the roll-out ceremony of the 50th JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft at Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra. The prime minister expressed satisfaction that the country’s military leadership was fully cognizant of the changing

ATTOCK - Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said on 18th December, 2013 that country’s defense strategy was being devised keeping in view contemporary professional requirements as no battle could be won with outdated technology and discarded strategies. “The new technology and modern expertise have


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Dubai Airshow had been organized under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, and in co-operation with Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, Dubai Airports, Dubai World Central and the UAE Armed Forces. environment and was following an agreed and well-integrated approach. “For this reason, we want to ensure that our forces are alert, active and fully equipped with necessary professional skills,” he added. Nawaz Sharif said the day marked a glorious milestone in the history of country’s aviation industry as well as in the national quest for development and progress. He congratulated Chief of the Air Staff and his team on the successful completion of in-country production of first batch of 50 JF-17 aircraft. He said proud accomplishments marked the history of Pakistan Air Force showing bravado, commitment and courage.


construction. Multi-deck segments of the hull and superstructure, 91 in all in this case, were prefabricated in various places within the shipyard, grit blasted and painted under controlled conditions prior being transported to the slipway where they were lifted into place. The

and at sea. A warship is designed to function in a harsh marine environment and the optimal functioning of all its machinery, equipment and sub-systems under such trying conditions has to be ensured prior acceptance. The harbour and sea acceptance trials

Once the ship was successfully launched in June 2011. The functioning of the various systems was then fully optimized through a laborious process known as setting to work. On completion of installation, integration and STW of all the equipment, the vessel was put through its paces in a series of arduous trials at harbour and at sea. process is not as simple as it sounds, as the out- fitting work, apart from the placement of machinery and equipment on shock-absorbing foundations, also entailed the installation of more than 10,000 pipes, 16.5 km of cable, 69000 cable connections and 6000 pieces of ventilation ducting. Modular construction techniques, which rely on pre-installation of all equipment, pipes, cables and other components within the blocks to facilitate assembly and subsequent repairs whenever needed, are being extensively employed these days.

thus took a period of over 18 months to accomplish to the satisfaction of the end user, the Pakistan Navy. With the vessel soon to join the Pakistan naval fleet as the newlycommissioned PNS ASLAT, it is a time for introspection and planning for the years ahead. A lot has been accomplished and yet much more needs to be done if we are to derive

optimal benefit from the enterprise. Using history as a guide, we find that the United States shipbuilding industry, which accounted for as much as 90% of the total global production during the Second World War years, soon lost its prime position to newer players like Europe in the sixties and seventies, Japan in the eighties and to South Korea and China in the current century, owing to higher production costs and an unwillingness to subsidize. By contrast, most developed countries prefer to undertake warship construction on their own, by declaring all such constructions as a strategic industry. Just as South Korea built its economic success story around its shipbuilding industry by drawing on the extensive technological capability and enormous downstream benefits that it generated, Pakistan can only pride itself on its achievement if it manages to take a giant share out of the 70 % of the net value of a ship which is normally outsourced to a network of suppliers and sub-contractors. This it can only do if it goes into series production, which would hopefully lead to the development of an efficient and effective local supply chain and herein is some food for thought.

Once the ship was successfully launched in June 2011, the combat systems were installed and integrated. The functioning of the various systems was then fully optimized through a laborious process known as setting to work. On completion of installation, integration and STW of all the equipment, the vessel was put through its paces in a series of arduous trials at harbour


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short span of time. With the use of tools like Backhoe Loader, Skid Steer, Tele-Handle and Crawler D o z e r, t h e c o n t r a c t o r c a n accomplish many contracts simultaneously, rapidly. Successful contractors try to keep their machinery in mint condition. They know that sudden break down can cause delay in completion of their projects. They even go on to purchase new machinery to complete the project in time and later when the machine is nearing the end of its mint life, it is replaced with a new, more productive one.

the next twenty to thirty years! Pakistan and Iran are setting up a pipeline that will require plenty of civil work in the project and this construction machinery will be brought in use everywhere. Moreover, there are countless good opportunities in sight in the years to come for the small contractors of the construction industry. But, in order to capitalize on these opportunities, our contractors and construction industry professionals will have to acquire skills and improve output.

This is a major reason that contractors in Europe, United States, Korea and Japan export their second hand machinery to Pakistan and purchase the latest, modern machinery for themselves. As a result, their own competitive capability and productivity (to achieve more in minimum time)ramp up, but the contractors of the countries like Pakistan waste their time on restoration of the old machinery and along with it, import their expensive replacement parts from Korea and Japan. Thus, countries like Korea and Japan earn double profits because it helps their aftermarket sales, while theirs construction industry continue to be more productive, being equipped with the latest machinery.

Pakistani construction industry professionals need to prepare themselves for the challenge by adopting modern methods, shuttering systems of new kinds and new construction machinery. If Pakistani construction industry fails to come up to take a project for certain reasons, the foreign contractors will take the opportunity. Today, we can see various Chinese companies securing contracts and working in Pakistan. These were the opportunities that were available to the Pakistani construction industry but certain factors that include conservatism, indifference to productivity and time frame deprived the local contractors from taking these contracts and the foreign companies grabbed the opportunities.

Pakistan continues to invest heavily into infrastructure. It has witnessed spectacular growth during the last 60 years. Numerous motorways and dams have been built. There is a huge potential for more small and large dams to be built, new cement plants, oil and gas plants, refineries to be installed, housing schemes are on the rise, along with road infrastructure improvement all over the country. The housing shortage is expected to remain for

It is the need of time that our contractors should properly s t r u c t u r e t h e i r c o m pa n i e s , discontinuing the custom of buying old machinery and adopt new machinery and modern methods. They should not care about the price of the machinery, instead focus on the fact that by using new machinery how much profit will it yield. By completing a complex project within the given time without any break down, it will not only compensate


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for the high cost of the new machinery but they will enjoy more profits as compared to risking delay in their project owing to the breakdowns and ending up with losses. Considering the present state of a ff a i r s w h e r e o u r n a t i o n a l universities are educating a large number of youngsters having degrees in civil engineering, it is the duty of government institutes like SMEDA to provide them with business opportunities, instead of jobs. SMEDA needs to collaborate with institutes like Khushahali Bank and not only guide these graduates, but also give them financial aid so they become successful small contractors. SME Contractors should be encouraged to establish Limited companies so that they can avail bank loans . A class of professional small contractors needs to be prepared in the country that meets the needs of modern construction inside Pakistan, resulting in Pakistan emerging as a developed country in the world.


moved down or up by a chain feed. ROTARY DRILLING: Rotary drilling is typically used for drilling through overburden and soft rocks. The rigs vary in size from truck-mounted machines capable of depth penetration of 600 m to extremely large machines used in the oil industry to drill wells of 6000 m or more. In soft rocks rotary drills are capable of an extremely high rate of penetration. The larger machines used in oil well can drill over 100 m per hour. In igneous rocks, advance may be as little as 1 m per hour. For this reason rotary drills are used in mineral and water exploration and are combined with down-the-hole percussion drills. Such combination rigs are very versatile and can drill holes quickly through any type of formation. DIAMOND CORE DRILLING: Exploration diamond core drilling is used in the mining industry to prove the content of known ore deposits and potential sites. By withdrawing a small diameter core from the ore body which enable to study the geology, ground condition and mineralogy. Diamond drilling is the most important type of drilling used in mineral exploration. The key technology of the diamond drill is the actual diamond itself. It comprised of industrial diamond bit into a soft metallic matrix. The diamond are so scattered throughout the matrix, and the action relies on the matrix to slowly wear during drilling, so as to explore the more diamond. The bit is mounted onto a drill stem, which is converted to a rotary drill. Water is injected into the drill pipe, so as to washout the cuttings produced by the bit. In a diamond drill the hollow drill rods passes through a tube in a


swivel-head which is firmly held in place by a chuck. The swivel-head rotates the rods. It has a feed mechanism for advancing the rods as drilling proceeds. Feeding is mechanically by systems of screws or hydraulic. By means of a gear box directly speed can be varied according to the rods being drilled. Drilling fluid generally water, occasionally drilling mud is supplied to the rods by a water swivel. The drilling fluid passes down the hollow rods through the core barrel to the bit where it cools and lubricates the cutting faces. The fluid then carries cutting and sludge backup the hole outside the rods where it is discarded in a pit at the surface. As drilling proceeds the drill core passes into inner tube of core-barrel where it is hold firmly in place by the core spring or core lifter which is then retrieved out of hole.

Warsak Dam in 1958 under Colombo Plan in NWFP (KPK).Where a young civil engineer Mr. Muhammad Istifa took interest in work of Canadian diamond core drilling experts working for foundation engineering of the dam. Mr. Istifa had also Bsc. Degree in geology from Ali Ghar University. He envisioned the importance of diamond core drilling for mineral exploration in Pakistan. Mr. Istifa studied deep and practically involved himself in the profession of diamond core drilling and learnt all about it from these foreign experts. Later on he joined Geological Survey of Pakistan. There he made ground for lying base of Drilling Directorate under the DGship of honorable Dr. N.M Khan. DIAMOND CORE DRILLING RIGS

REVERSE CIRCULATION (RC) DRILLING: In RC drilling the drilling cutting are returned to surface inside the rods. The drilling machines are a pneumatic reciprocating piston driving a tungsten steel drill bit. RC drilling utilizes much large rigs and machineries and depths of up to 500 m are routinely achieved. RC drilling ideally produces dry rocks, chips, as large compressors are used to dry the rock out ahead of the advancing drill bits, RC drilling is slower and costlier but achieve better penetration, it is cheaper then diamond core drilling and is thus prefer for most exploration work. HISTORY OF DIAMOND CORE DRILLING PROFESSION IN PAKISTAN Diamond core drilling was a known profession in the world when Pakistan came into being but it has no root in this part of sub continent. In Pakistan history of diamond core drilling begins from construction of

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UTILIZED IN PAKISTAN: In early 60s when Drilling Directorate was established in GSP. A large squad of Diamond Core Drilling Machineries and Equipment was imported under different development program of Government of Pakistan. In which number of drilling rigs of Joy Company make were induced in Geological Survey of Pakistan Drilling squad e.g Model Joy 45, Joy 22 HD, Joy 12B with other machines of Sprague & Henwood, Akcer and Atlas Capco. These machines might be in use of some small Drilling companies in Pakistan. These Rigs have the conventional system and their progress was very slow. In 1974 at Saindak project a number of Longyear Company Rig were imported for Copper deposit evaluation project. These were Longyear 44, Longyear 38, Longyear 34. Geological Survey of Pakistan also imported Longyear 44, Longyear 38, Longyear 34, Longyear 24 during this time. Having the wireline system these Rigs paid an important role to expedite mineral Exploration in Pakistan. In 1998 under the USAID program Rigs for deep coal drilling Acker WA lll-C were added in Geological Survey of Pakistan Drilling squad for exploration of Deep Coal Deposits. These Rigs were completely hydraulically operated. On the other hand PAEC, PMDC and PUNJMIN also got Rigs of different company according their requirements. A glance on Drilling Rig in different Department: GSP: Longyear 44, Longyear 38, Longyear 34, Longyear 24, Acker WA lll-C, BBS 37, Atlas Capco. PUNJMIN:LF 90, Longyear 38, Longyear 34 PAEC: not available


Now different small drilling companies might have these Rigs along with imported and locally manufactured machines according to their jobs requirement. DIFFICULTIES IN DIAMOND CORE DRILLING PROFESSION: The main difficulty in this profession is shortage of qualified and skilled experts. Geological survey of Pakistan has been the main source of producing the diamond core drilling expert for its own and country needs. Unfortunately the program of training Drilling personnel was restricted after its batch of 1976. Since then no batch of diamond core drilling expert was produced in GSP where as a number of drilling projects e.g Sorange,Thar, Cholistan, Salt Range were executed by GSP drilling personnel. On job training program can be induced during these projects to train new blood. The reason was that after the directions of Engineering Council GSP was forced to appoint Engineering graduates direct to this job. So in 2003 eight number of Engineering graduates were appointed in GSP through FPSC as Drilling Engineer but due to hardship of this profession majority of them left this department and the gap of diamond core drilling experts could not be filled. As without going through on job training program these Engineering graduates could not handle this profession. It is painful to say that in our society white collar job is respected and a person who makes his hands black with oil and grease has not that respect. Whereas I have seen the executive of TCC Mr. John Micheal doing sampling with his hands and covering him overall in dust and mud, the other day sitting with President of Pakistan in National media, not having any type of

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complex. Job of diamond core drilling differs too much with Ground water or other minor drilling operation, soil testing etc. This needs practical experience with technical qualification background. As the diamond core bit functions hundred of meter down the surface performing a number of functions for example cutting of rocks, recovering of core etc which changes with the starta from depth to depth. The behavior of this condition has to be judge on the surface by the drilling personnel with some of engineering base reaction by the change in penetration, torque and circulation pressure which reflect through the weight gauges on the drill rig. A person with no background of technical and engineering qualification cannot understand these things. On the other hand with increasing length of drilling string and very narrow space within drill rods and hole wall has to predict the collapsing of hole walls having different strata layers maintaining the physical properties of the drilling fluid being used. In the environment of a number of engines making roaring noises result the nature of this profession being tiresome, dirtiness and mental tiring throughout the duty hours. Hence it is concluded that this profession requires skills along with adequate qualification, where as the engineering graduates have qualification but not skill neither they are interested in learning it due to nature of the profession. GSP has planned to establish Drilling Institute in Geological Survey of Pakistan Head Quarter Quetta, which is according to my information, is still under process. If this program is implemented then this problem would be solved.


News Bulletin ESJ Pakistan

New Year's Day 2014 marks 100 Years of commercial aviation: January 1, 2014, marks exactly 100 years since the birth of commercial aviation. The International Air Transport Association (Iata) shares the celebration details with anyone with an interest in aviation to join a year-long celebration of the 100th

anniversary and take part in a conversation about what needs to happen to make the next 100 years even more momentous. On January 1, 1914, a team of four visionaries combined efforts in the first scheduled commercial airline flight. Percival Fansler organized the funding for the St. PetersburgTampa Airboat Line which provided the first scheduled air service across Tampa Bay, Florida. Thomas Benoist’s airboat conducted the first flight, piloted by Tony Jannus. Abram Pheil, then mayor of St. Petersburg, paid $400 at auction for the 23-minute flight. These pioneers could not have envisioned


the transformational changes that would follow. The industry began with only one passenger on one route on 1 January 1914. At present, the global aviation industry provides unprecedented connectivity and positively impacts directly and indirectly people in all corners of the world.

Aerospace Industries Association Elects Officers for 2014 Arlington, Va. The Aerospace Industries Association Board of Governors has elected Michael T. Strianese, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of L-3 Communications, as its Chairman for 2014. Strianese has begun his term from January, 1st, succeeding Wes Bush, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President of Northrop Grumman Corporation. David L. Joyce, President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Aviation, was elected AIA’s Vice Chairman. “I look forward to working with the Association and its member companies to promote the country's national security and broader economic interests. Our industry is at the forefront of innovation and helps protect our nation and our troops,” said Mr. Strianese. “We must do all we can to ensure that the decisions coming out of Washington preserve our industrial base and continue to foster the pioneering spirit that has allowed us to accomplish so much.” “We are delighted to have Mike

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Strianese serve as AIA Chairman in 2014,” said AIA President and CEO Marion C. Blakey. “As an industry, we are facing troubled times and his experience, engagement and vocal leadership will be very welcome.” The Board re-elected Marion C. Blakey as AIA’s President and Chief Executive Officer and Ginette C. Colot, AIA’s Chief Financial Officer, as the

Board’s Secretary-Treasurer.

Privatization of Pakistan Steel Pakistan Tehreek-e Insaf (PTI) central leader and member national assembly, Asad Umer said that the PTI would not accept privatization of any national institution including the Pakistan Steel Mills (PSM). The PSM was the only iron fabricating industry in Pakistan, which the present government wanted to privatize out at penny rates and to see the most expensive land of the mills illegally occupied by the land mafia. Mr. Asad Umer was talking


to a delegation of Pakistan Steel Mills Insaf Labour Union. The PTI leader said that it was very unfortunate the salaries of employees of the PSM was not disbursed for past three months due to which the families of the PSM workers had reached the brink of starvation and extreme level e c o n o m i c d e v a s ta t i o n . T h e government should pay heed to the PSM and take immediate steps for the disbursement of salaries so that the employees on starvation should find resources for their living hood.

Pakistan Plans seven functional Nuclear Plants Chashma: Pakistan plans to have seven functional nuclear plants of 1,100MW each by 2030 in addition to four units of 300MW, producing a total of 8,900MW of electricity. Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Dr. Ansar Parvez said that Chashma Nuclear Power Complex, 280km southwest of Islamabad, is set to become a major player in the country's power sector. He was briefing journalists on the eve of the ‘dome-laying ceremony' of Chashma-IV nuclear power plant, which will mark the completion of civil works at the unit and will be followed by installation of the reactor. In addition to the four units at Chashma, two of which (Chashma-III and Chashma-IV) are expected to start commercial operations by 2016; the government has begun work on two 1,100MW plants (Kanupp-II and Kanupp-III) in Karachi, whose ground-breaking ceremony was performed in November. Dr. Parvez said that work on five more plants of 1,100MW each would commence in next 10 years. The country began its journey towards proficiency in nuclear energy in 1972. The PAEC chairman said the initial years were utilized in gaining experience in safe


operation of plants, building confidence and acquiring technology. The platform, he underscored, was now ready for starting producing electricity from nuclear sources at a bigger scale. With more than 55 reactor-years of successful operating experience to its credit, the PAEC can confidently move from technology acquisition s ta t u s t o a c t u a l l y s ta r t i n g contributing sizeable electrical energy to the system, he said. Dr Parvez said units of 300MW would no longer be installed after completion of Chashma-IV. The Kanupp-I, the 125MW facility and the first one to be set up in the country, he said, would meanwhile be wound up after Kanupp-II became operational. The design life of Kanupp-I ended in 2002 and the plant was re-licensed by the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2004 after upgrades. "The Kanupp-II and Kanupp-III will lay foundation of large-sized nuclear power plants," he said. He noted that availability of funds was not an issue for setting up more nuclear power plants, but agreed that there were no sources other than China from where country could get reactors.

Samsung Heavy Industries floats world's largest floating vessel

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South Korean shipbuilder Samsung Heavy Industries has floated a tanker-shaped vessel tagged as the world's largest "floating facility" with a length greater than the height of the Empire State Building. A Samsung spokeswoman said that the floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) platform named "Prelude" was set in the water at its southern shipyard in Geoje on November 30, 2013. The 488 metre (1,601 foot) long vessel cannot be described as a "ship" as it is unable to move under its own steam and must be towed. But its specifications are impressive, outstripping the 443metre tall Empire State Building in New York. Once complete, the facility will weigh more than 600,000 tonnes fully loaded, displacing the same amount of water as six of the world's largest aircraft carriers. Seventy-four metres wide and 110 metres high, it is expected to produce 3.6 million tonnes of LNG a year and its storage tanks have a capacity equivalent to approximately 175 Olympic swimming pools. Commissioned by the Dutch energy giant Shell, the facility is due to be delivered by September 2016. In a press Shell said Prelude would operate in a remote basin around 475 kilometers (295 miles) northeast of Broome, a town in Western Australia, for around 25 years. It is an all-weather facility designed to withstand the most powerful category-five cyclone.


Science / Environment News CHINA HAS LANDED ON THE MOON On Saturday 14 December 2013 at 1311 GMT, China’s first Moon lander, Chang’e 3, and its rover touched down on the lunar surface. China is the third nation to make a soft landing on the Moon, after the United States and the former Soviet Union. This is the first such landing in 37 years; the last one was performed by the Soviet Union in 1976. The ‘Jade Rabbit’ rover, weighing 140 kilogrammes, separated from the larger landing vehicle on Sunday 15 December, about seven hours after the unmanned Chang'e 3 space probe touched down on an Earth-facing part of the Moon. The descent from lunar orbit to the moon's surface took about 12 minutes. Soon after the landing, Chang'e 3 deployed its solar arrays so that it could begin generating power for its mission. The Jade Rabbit has already left deep traces on the lunar soil. The rover will now begin its survey of the Moon’s geological structure and surface, and will look for natural resources for three months. Meanwhile, the lander will carry out scientific explorations at its landing site for a year. The mission launched from southwest China on December 2, 2013, on a Long March-3B carrier rocket. The mission itself is named after a Chinese goddess of the Moon while the ‘Yutu’ rover (Jade Rabbit) is named for the goddess’ pet. This mission is part of a wider-reaching Chinese space programme, which aims to eventually put a Chinese astronaut on the Moon. China sent


its first male astronaut into space in 2003 and their first woman into space 16 June 2012. The country has successfully deployed two lunar missions that orbited the moon. China launched a Mars-exploration space probe on 8 November 2011; unfortunately the burns needed to expel the probe from Earth’s orbit were not performed and the probe was declared lost. This has not deterred the people behind the China space programme however and there are plans for an uncrewed mission to Mars within the next twenty years. China plans to open a space station around 2020 and send an astronaut to the Moon after that.

Island explored after Earthquake hit near Gwadar On September 24th, a major earthquake hit western Pakistan; resulting in the deaths of at least 200 people, and the formation of this new island. The island, called Zalzala Jazeera (Earthquake Island) rose from the sea-floor only hours after the earthquake. Initial reports

JAN to MARCH 2014

indicated that the island was 18m above sea level, 152m long and 182m wide. It has since sunk 3m underwater – as part of an ongoing process. Predictions suggest that the island will disappear in the coming months – potentially halting the sudden eco-tourism boom that the island has provided.

Gibbous Moon

The photo, taken by the spacecraft Galileo, captures a stunning view of Jupiter's moon, Europa. Galileo orbited Jupiter from 19952003, the moon is now one of the targets for the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) which has a proposed launch set for 2022. This particular image highlights bright ice plains, dark patches (likely to be ice and “dirt”), shadows caused by raised terrain, and of course huge cracks that are scattered all over the surface.



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