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May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 10:14 PM Page 4

Contents ISSN-0835-605X • May/June 2013 Vol. 26 No. 3 • Issued July 2013 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Founding Editor


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager C Mac DESIGNS E-mail: chris@cmac-designs.ca Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: peter@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Pennsylvania Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada

FEATURES 6 8 10 14 18 20 26 28 32 34 37 38 40 44 48

Will the real environmentalists please stand up? Design principles and installed costs are key considerations for specifying RC pipe Innovative disinfection technology cuts high THM levels in drinking water Penticton doubles its water plant capacity with a DAF retrofit Dawson Creek’s reclaimed water facility is the first of its kind Post-treatment stabilization of drinking water Soil retaining system helps urban trees reach maturity “Green” approach to dehumidification inside water treatment plants How to select the correct valve for wastewater treatment applications Mag meter improves water operations management WaterRF releases report on enhancing the safety of water reservoirs Environmental drilling made easier with direct push technology Floating treatment wetlands improve stormwater quality In situ treatment of a high nitrate loaded groundwater plume Advanced odour control for organics management facilities

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com


DEPARTMENTS Product Showcase . . . . . 62-67 Environmental News . . . 68-74 Professional Cards . . . . . 68-72 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

52 A historical perspective on the steel and fabrication industries 54 Containerized MBR treats wastewater at a remote mine 56 Beware of buried tank buoyancy 59 Geosynthetics used to help properly close Manitoba’s Farley Mine 60 BC firm honoured for its oil recovery systems

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:39 PM Page 5

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Comment by Tom Davey

Will the real environmentalists please stand up?


n celebration of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s 25th year of publication, we are pleased to reprint some of Founding Editor, Tom Davey’s editorial comments. Many of these are as relevant now as when they were originally published. For example a group of concerned citizens recently launched an online petition and a digital billboard on the Gardiner Expressway in Toronto to raise awareness about Ontario Power Generation’s site selection process and plan to construct an underground nuclear waste dump on the shore of Lake Huron. Other provincial groups are vociferously protesting against wind turbine use for power generation. Some protesters remind me of certain television evangelists. Both species warn of impending catastrophes – then solicit donations to continue the good work. Some so-called environmentalists are really closet Luddites with a deep-seated distrust of all technology. Many, however, have developed impressive expertise which could be valuable when projects are being developed. But all too frequently, their dire warnings are combined with an air of moral superiority that would nauseate a pathologist at a leper colony. If the groups did not exist, however, it would be necessary to invent them. We need checks and balances in our demo-

ist’ is used by the news media as a synonym for expert; all too often it is a pseudonym for expertise, not a synonym. The word “environmentalist” crept into the media lexicon barely two decades ago. Now, reporters eagerly seek out the self-designated “authoritative” sources, regardless of competence or relevance. It is a perfect match – a press with insatiable appetites for sensationalism, mating with an eloquent protest

“A nation behaves well if the natural resources which one generation turns over to the next are increased and not impaired in value.” Teddy Roosevelt cratic systems. Only recently has perestroika revealed hideous ecological horrors in the former Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact nations. Environmental activism can, and should be, vital in a modern democratic society – but not as a substitute for environmental engineering. But now, the word ‘environmental6 | May 2013

movement brimming with moral indignation. Many warnings are justifiable, and engineering professionals around the world know we are facing enormously complex problems. What seldom filters through to the public is the fact that tangible progress is being made. Many of the apocalyptic warnings on

drinking water are based on anecdotal evidence rather than the scientific methodology accepted throughout the world. Professional advice – based on long training, education, and experience in engineering and science – was and is being largely ignored in favour of those groups who orchestrate politicians and the media with great dexterity. Some politicians compound the problem. Too often they respond to complex environmental situations with simplistic responses. Their statements owe more to electoral opportunism than to honest attempts to solve problems. Invariably, they find willing allies in the news media to promulgate their views, regardless of scientific relevance.

This editorial was published in Tom Davey’s book “For Whom the Polls Tell”.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:39 PM Page 7

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Design principles and installed costs are key considerations for specifying RCP By Derek Light

Structural soil embedment for rigid products ends at the spring line of the pipe in Regina. Photo: Associated Engineering.


igid and flexible pipe products are designed to react differently in the field. When installation specifications accurately account for these differences, and are combined with a cost analysis of the pipe envelope, the result is the construction of a cost-effective pipeline that will perform as expected. The Greens on Gardiner stormwater trunk sewer in Regina is an installation that demonstrates how wellwritten specifications for the installation of sewers result in cost-effective durable installations, with reduced liability placed on the design engineer. Regina’s specification for the construction of storm sewers recognizes that flexible and rigid pipe interact differently with the surrounding soil and have major inherent differences that must be considered in the design. Many believe that specifications are the same for installing flexible and rigid pipe. This misconception can lead to premature pipeline failures and litigation involving the designer. 8 | May 2013

The trunk sewer installation addressed by the Regina specification considered that the area of structural soil embedment for flexible products extended 300mm above the crown of the pipe. Construction of the embedment material to a minimum of 150mm or more above the pipe crown is recommended by major thermoplastic pipe suppliers. In comparison, the structural embedment for rigid products ends at the spring line of the pipe (spring line is at the midpoint of the pipe measured vertically). A rigid pipe is less sensitive to installation than flexible pipe products. With rigid concrete pipe, a large portion of the soil-pipe structure is contained within the pipe itself, thereby relying less on the portion of the structure provided by the soil. This is not to say that you don’t need to perform a proper design for whatever product you use. The Greens on Gardiner trunk sewer included a 1350mm section of pipeline installed with three to four metres of cover.

The consultant, Associated Engineering, specified reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) due to the reduced cost of installation and contractor familiarity with it. The Greens on Gardiner is a new community in the south-east sector of Regina, covering 152 developable hectares. Included in the contract materials were approximately 37m of 1650mm diameter RCP, 1045m of 1350mm diameter RCP, 138m of storm watermain ranging from 300mm diameter to 1050mm diameter, 13 manholes ranging from 2100mm to 2700mm diameter, and 2 T-riser manholes. Wappel Construction completed the installation of the storm sewer in approximately 50 days. Product was shipped from Inland Pipe plants in Winnipeg and Calgary. Derek Light, P.Eng., is with Inland Pipe. E-mail: derek.light@lehighhanson.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Treatment

Innovative disinfection technology cuts high THM levels in drinking water By Norman Cato, Vanessa Greatrix and Eric Czarnecki


umerous communities throughout North America are struggling to mitigate and minimize the presence of disinfection byproducts — specifically trihalomethanes — in their municipal drinking water supplies. Trihalomethanes (THMs) can form when chlorine interac ts with naturally occurring organic materials in water and are a known carcinogen. Long-term exposure to THMs has been linked to certain types of cancer, most notably bladder cancer. However, chlorine continues to be used as the de facto disinfectant for municipal water supplies because of its effectiveness and the lack of a suitable alternative. It has been in use since the early 1900s. The Township of Killaloe–Hagarty– Richards, in eastern Ontario, had been experiencing high levels of THMs for

New chlorine monitoring system.

several years. Provincial drinking water safety objectives regulated through the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) dictate that the level of THMs in drinking

water should not exceed 100 μg/L. However, the community’s water supply regularly tested above this amount, reaching as high as 213 μg/L on occasion. The

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Treatment issue was exacerbated by the length of time treated and chlorinated water sat in the clearwells and distribution system. When the measured levels of THMs approached or exceeded the legislated limits, operators would flush the system and replace water in the clearwells. While this method was effective in mitigating the presence of THMs in the system on a temporary basis, it was inefficient, and wasted large quantities of treated water. Chemicals and electricity used to treat the wasted water were also costly. Flushing the water system was clearly a temporary solution, but, in the absence of cost-prohibitive plant upgrades, there was no permanent solution in sight until the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA), SanEcoTec, and the municipality joined forces to tackle Killaloe’s problem. The proposed solution used a stabilized form of hydrogen peroxide to disinfect water. The idea was that eliminating the chlorine use for secondary disinfection would prevent the conditions that led to the creation of THMs. An alternative to chlorine While regular hydrogen peroxide is

Hydrogen peroxide monitor.

well known for its disinfectant properties, it cannot maintain a residual for any length of time. This makes it unsuitable for use in secondary disinfection, where a measurable disinfectant residual must be maintained throughout the distribution

system. SanEcoTec’s stabilized hydrogen peroxide, which goes by the brand name Huwa-San Hydrogen Peroxide or HSP, maintains a residual suitable for use in continued overleaf...


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Water Treatment

Hydrogen peroxide injection point.

Hydrogen peroxide residuals.

drinking water systems. As a pleasant side benefit, a water supply treated with HSP lacks the characteristic chemical smell and taste of chlorine that consumers dislike and complain about. Importantly for the residents of Killaloe, replacing chlorine with HSP would mean that, for the first time in years, the Township would be able to drastically reduce the levels of THMs in, and potentially im-

12 | May 2013

prove the safety of, its water supply. HSP is also a very strong oxidizer, attacking the biofilm commonly found on the walls of water distribution system pipes. This biofilm can harbour bacteria and has the potential to impair water quality. The Killaloe project was initiated in 2011, when OCWA applied for funding on behalf of the Township to the Ontario

Small Waterworks Assistance Program (OSWAP). Once the funding request was approved, OCWA worked closely with SanEcoTec, the Township and the MOE to lay the groundwork for this innovative project. The SanEcoTec technology has been used successfully in smaller regulated sites in Ontario since 2011, and, also, for nearly a decade in Europe. Implementing

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:40 PM Page 13

Water Treatment this technology in Killaloe would represent the first application of HSP disinfection on a municipality-wide basis in North America. One of the hurdles to overcome, however, was that Ontario drinking water regulations do not currently recognize the use of hydrogen peroxide as a disinfecting agent for municipal water supplies. The project team was able to comply with provincial regulations for primary disinfection in Killaloe by maintaining the use of chlorine followed by ultraviolet disinfection in the treatment process. For secondary disinfection requirements, HSP was then introduced into the treatment process after the UV units, replacing chlorine. OCWA and SanEcoTec also worked closely with the MOE to develop appropriate safeguards that enabled the MOE to grant regulatory relief for the use of HSP as a secondary disinfectant, instead of chlorine. The team worked to install the HSP treatment system in Killaloe. This included peroxide feed systems and peroxide residual monitoring equipment, at the

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treatment plant and in the distribution system. OCWA’s Killaloe operations staff was also trained to ensure the new system was up and running smoothly. There were no adverse changes or impacts to the municipality’s water quality during the changeover process.

Results of the Killaloe project After initiation of the new HSP secondary treatment in November 2012, levels of THMs in the water supply dropped to approximately 25-26 Îźg/L, with the latest test showing 20-21 Îźg/L, far below provincial and federal limits. In addition, HSP residual levels have consistently been maintained throughout the distribution system. “I think it’s fair to say that this is one of the most significant innovations in municipal drinking water since the introduction of chlorine as a primary disinfectant more than a century ago,â€? says Andy Valickis, P.Eng., OCWA’s director (A) of engineering services. “This technology represents a new, viable disinfection alternative for communities that are grappling with the potentially adverse health implications associated with trihalomethanes and other chlorine-related byproducts.â€? Norman Cato, Vanessa Greatrix and Eric Czarnecki are with the Ontario Clean Water Agency. For more information, E-mail: alane@ocwa.com


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Water Treatment

Penticton doubles its water plant capacity with a DAF retrofit By Martine Warda and Robert L Wiley III


n 2003, the City of Penticton faced problems that required it to upgrade its potable water treatment plant, to accommodate an increasing seasonal demand in the area. Its Indian name is Pente-hik-ton, meaning "ever", or "forever", and refers to the constant steady flow of the Okanagan River out of Okanagan Lake. The City is a resort destination in the Okanagan Valley, situated nearly 400 km east of Vancouver, British Columbia. With 35,000 permanent residents on 9,000 connections, the summer months see water demand nearly quadrupling due to tourism and lawn care. In 2003, demand reached 55 million litres per day (MLD), which was very close to the plant capacity of 60 MLD. The plant draws its water from Okanagan Lake and from Penticton Creek. Constructed in 1996, it was intended to treat a 50/50 blend of the two sources. However, given the higher colour and seasonally high turbidity of the creek, the existing lamella plate settler had proven problematic at elevated flows. In order to meet increasing demand, the plant had to switch to 100% lake water to avoid solids exiting the clarifier and to improve filterability. Plant design and piloting As an expansion exceeded municipal

budgets, the City contracted AECOM to develop a comprehensive and affordable solution. Taking into account capital and overall life cycle costs, AECOM and the City’s engineers decided that a high-rate DAF (Dissolved Air Flotation) system retrofit of the existing lamella plate settlers represented the best and lowest cost strategy for treating the combined source water from the lake and creek.

In 2003, demand reached 55 million litres per day (MLD), which was very close to the plant capacity of 60 MLD. A Leopold Clari-DAF® Dissolved Air Flotation system uses micro bubbles that carry particulate floc to the surface, where it is mechanically skimmed off, allowing clarified water to be drawn off from laterals at the tank bottom. It could be housed in the existing building, reducing construction cost and time. Taking advantage of the Leopold Clari-DAF pilot system, the City underwent a month-long testing on a 50/50 blend of lake and creek water. The pilot

performed extremely well on the blend and was able to meet the hydraulic loading rate of 38 M/hr, based on the ClariDAF’s collector area. This was required to meet the 115 MLD (30 MGD) capacity within the existing clarifier footprint. The pilot averaged 0.36 ntu at this elevated system hydraulic loading rate and provided excellent filterability at a filter loading rate of 14.7 M/hr (6 gpm/ft2.) The high quality clarified effluent from the system allowed for a 50% increase in filter loading rate, meeting the 81 MLD capacity, without any additional expansion to the current plant’s filtration process. Construction The final design called for two ClariDAF basins, operating in parallel, within the existing footprint of the single lamella plate settler. Construction began in 2008 and the system was commissioned in 2010. Construction also included an upgrade to the current creek intake system, and to the existing residual handling facility. The existing plate settler walls and flocculation basins were utilized with the new design. Minimal civil works were needed to accommodate the basins. A wall was constructed to separate the two basins and baffling was added. Existing basin depth of approximately continued overleaf...

A Leopold Clari-DAF® Dissolved Air Flotation system. 14 | May 2013

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Treatment

The City of Penticton.

six metres (21.5 ft) was more than sufficient to allow for the high system loading rates to be utilized, even with water temperatures averaging less than 5ºC year round. Performance of the DAF system The DAF system upgrade provides for up to 115 MLD of clarified water, which is projected to meet demand until 2025. It has proven capable of treating the creek source water to a higher standard during all flow conditions. Even with cold water conditions, the

The pilot performed extremely well on the blend and was able to meet the hydraulic loading rate of 38 M/hr.

system was able to produce 0.6 ntu at the peak system loading rate, without floc or bubble carry-over to the effluent. Its effluent turbidity averages approximately 0.3 ntu year round and has allowed the plant to operate filtration to a rate of 14.7 M/hr as tested during piloting. The plant can now meet high seasonal demands, and can add additional filtration in the future to meet demand through 2025. The increase in filterability has also had other benefits. The quantity of backwash water has been significantly re-

duced due to longer filter runtimes. Consequently, the plant no longer has an issue with residuals handling. The plant can now be operated on the creek source alone, should problems ever be encountered with the lake intake, or supply piping from the lake source. Martine C. Warda is with Xylem Water Solutions Canada. Robert L. Wiley III is with Xylem. E-mail: martine.warda@xyleminc.com

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May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:40 PM Page 18

Water Supply

Dawson Creek’s reclaimed water facility is the first of its kind


hen the City of Dawson Creek, British Columbia, implemented a stage four water restriction in response to extreme drought conditions, Shell Canada had a challenge on its hands. Significant volumes of water are required to sustain hydraulic fracturing at the company’s Groundbirch natural gas development. The City, with approximately 12,500 residents, draws its drinking water from the Kisatinaw River. Extreme drought conditions in the area had left the river with exceptionally low water levels. Urban Systems has worked with the City to monitor and maintain their drinking water treatment facilities for over 30 years and was invited to help find a solution to the community’s ongoing drought issues. The challenge was to ensure that the City’s drinking water needs could be fully met first, and, then, to meet the water resource needs of local industry, including farming, logging, mining, and oil and gas operations. Shell’s Groundbirch facility, which is located approximately 48 kilometres from Dawson Creek, has five natural gas processing plants and over 300 wells. Hydraulic fracturing is used to release shale gas by pumping large volumes of highly pressurized water underground. Various sources are used, including trucked potable water, which can be very taxing on community supplies. With so much natural gas activity in the region there was an urgent need to

City of Dawson Creek Reclaimed Water Facility.

rather than potable water, for industrial operations. After conducting feasibility studies, environmental impact studies and stringent water quality testing, it was determined that using reclaimed water was indeed a viable and cost-effective alternative. The technology selected is a combination of biological treatment, wastewater filtration, and disinfection. A new technology that is designed for northern climates was also used. The Submerged Attached Growth Reactor (SAGR) uses a

With so much natural gas activity in the region there was an urgent need to find a viable alternative to the use of potable water for hydraulic fracturing find a viable alternative to the use of potable water for hydraulic fracturing and other high volume industrial water uses. Urban Systems partnered with the City and several industry stakeholders to explore the potential of using reclaimed water (i.e., treated municipal effluent) 18 | May 2013

horizontal trickling filter. Although these technologies have been available for a number of years, the Urban Systems team discovered a unique way of combining them to allow reclaimed water to meet regulatory requirements for both municipal and industrial water uses.

In addition to managing the design team and construction of the new water treatment facility, Urban Systems helped to facilitate an innovative funding agreement between the City of Dawson Creek and Shell Canada. In exchange for a financial contribution to the project, Shell is entitled to receive 3,400 cubic metres of water per day for a period of 10 years, with an option to renew for another 10 years. Shell constructed a pumping station next to the water treatment plant and pipes the reclaimed water 48 kilometres to their Groundbirch facility. The reclaimed water facility is designed to produce 4,000 cubic metres of water per day, so the excess 600 cubic metres of reclaimed water, not being used by Shell Canada, is being sold to other local industries. It is considered the first of its kind in Canada, because of the type of effluent that it treats, and has been in operation since May 2012. For more information, E-mail: twamboldt@urbansystems.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:41 PM Page 20

Water Treatment

Post-treatment stabilization of drinking water By Dallas Burnett and Teresa Znajewski


ost-treatment stabilization of drinking water is important for both public health and cost-effective facility operations. Improper or inadequate post-treatment can result in corrosion events, lead and copper rule impacts, DBPs, taste and odour complications, pH instability, disinfection residual variability, white/red water events, colour increase, and biological regrowth. Effective disinfection treatment lowers the risk of bacterial or viral infection to the public. Properly treating aggressive water lowers the leaching of lead and copper into the water system from old pipes, ensuring compliance with regulations. Proper post-treatment methods can also extend the life of the distribution system and lower operating cost by reducing corrosion and its damaging effects. Beyond damage to the distribution system, water that is non-compliant with government standards for lead and copper can cost the municipality thousands of dollars and generate unwanted publicity. Stabilization is required to improve the aesthetics of the water. However, improper stabilization can cause finished water to smell musty, taste bitter, and stain bathtubs and laundry, and even discolour blonde hair. Balanced and naturally stable water eliminates many of the common causes of customer complaints. The roadmap to stable water Water stabilization is arguably one of the most important steps in water treatment and can be one of the most challenging. Every source of water is different and every treatment process is unique. Post-treatment technology, chemicals and dosages must be tailored to meet the exact corrosion control needs of each plant. Three parameters which operators can control to generate more stable water are pH, alkalinity and hardness. Each possesses unique properties that can enhance the quality and stability of the water as it travels from the treatment plant through the distribution system. When adjusting pH and alkalinity in 20 | May 2013

Plant trial stabilizing a post-treatment flow of 1 MGD low alkaline water. The pilot unit utilizes CAL~FLO and CO2 dosing technology.

post-treatment applications, three primary concerns must be addressed: 1. Ensuring the additives are high-quality, do not introduce contaminants and are consistent from load to load. 2. Chemical dosages are accurately controlled. 3. Unwanted chemical reactions are avoided. (Mixing concentrated acids and bases at the same feed point without proper mixing can cause precipitation). Water plants can safeguard the quality of the additives by ensuring chemical specifications are strict, checking the delivered product against the specifications, and rejecting suppliers who do not conform. Municipalities should also include references in the chemical specifications and work with companies that use designated tankers and have quality manufacturing standards in place (ISO 9000). Most post-treatment chemicals will dose accurately with standard tanks and metering pumps; however, there are a few chemicals that need special attention. Adding lime or calcium hydroxide in post-treatment applications can be difficult. Operators should pilot calcium hydroxide feed technology to make sure the dose is accurate and the equipment does not require excessive maintenance. En-

sure chemicals such as hydrofluoric acid and calcium hydroxide have separate dosing points with adequate mixing at each delivery point. Separating acids and bases will lower the likelihood of a chemical reaction, causing unwanted precipitation. The role of pH in post-treatment stabilization One of the most common measurements in water treatment is pH. Greater understanding of how the equilibrium of pH affects other chemical equilibriums in the water can shed light on its role in post-treatment. For example, as the pH of water rises above 8.4, the bicarbonate-carbonate equilibrium begins shifting from the soluble bicarbonate, to the insoluble carbonate. The shift in solubility is the reason higher pH values achieve a higher LSI or CCPP values. The higher the pH rises above 8.4, the more carbonates precipitate out of the water, which affects metal ion dissolution potential. Raising the pH has been found to lower the dissolution potential of metal ions, which in turn reduces the corrosion of iron pipes in the distribution system. Understanding the finished water chemistry is important because the pH continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_Final_2010 13-05-30 8:38 PM Page 21

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Water Treatment value must be one that limits ferrous ions from dissolving, but does not cause excessive carbonate scale. Although in most cases higher pH lowers metal ion dissolution in low alkalinity environments, it can actually increase the dissolution rate. Higher pH values have been shown to increase copper pitting in waters with low alkalinity. Therefore, while higher pH values can help lower corrosion, the alkalinity and other factors must also be taken into consideration. Another equilibrium affected by pH is one that exists between corrosion inhibitors. Finished water pH can affect whether a polyphosphate, or orthophosphate corrosion inhibitor, is successful in reducing corrosion. An AWWA survey in the early 1990s showed that polyphosphate corrosion inhibitors could actually increase lead release at certain pH values. Overall, the study demonstrated that the value of corrosion inhibitors increased with low pH in low-alkalinity waters. If municipalities have low alkalinity and low pH, corrosion inhibitors offer municipalities the greatest benefit. However, as pH and alkalinity increase, the effective-

is less and periodic treatment with free chlorine may not be required. However, if the pH is consistently below 8.5, then chloramines could provide the needed ammonia for nitrification. Then a seasonal purge using free chlorine may be a wise option. The role of alkalinity and hardness Alkalinity is a measure of the general buffering capacity of water and is critically important to water stabilization. Increasing alkalinity increases water's buffer capacity, which in most cases mitigates large pH swings in the distribution system. Alkalinity (as CaCO3) over 80 mg/L has shown a strong correlation to reducing the release of colour in the distribution system in unlined and galvanized iron pipes. When municipalities in the study maintained higher values of alkalinity, they saw a decrease in customer complaints of red water. Iron corrosion rates at a fixed pH have been shown to decrease as total alkalinity increases. In one study, when alkalinity levels were decreased from 30 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 35 mg/L to 10 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 15 mg/L at a constant pH, the results demon-

ness of corrosion inhibitors can diminish. Finally, pH can indirectly affect chlorine residual levels and their effectiveness in the distribution system. Studies have shown that raising the pH of water over 7.8 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 8.0 greatly diminishes the effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant. However, ammonia-oxidizing bacteriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s optimum pH is below 8.0. Studies have also demonstrated that supplying a distribution system with water pH values higher than 8.5 will inhibit nitrifying bacteria. For example, a Nova Scotia water plant demonstrated that adding calcium hydroxide post-filtration was more effective than adding 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4 mg/L of chorine residual. This was due to the rise in pH in controlling certain bacteria in the distribution system. Understanding the role of pH in disinfection could influence the decision on whether a municipality needs to shift periodically from a chloramine to a freechlorine treatment process, to purge the distribution system of bacteria that cause nitrification. If the water plant produces water with an average pH of 9.0 or higher, the likelihood of a biofilm growth












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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_Final_2010 13-05-30 8:39 PM Page 23

Water Treatment

CAL~FLO and CO2 systems installed at a water plant. Piloting proved it was possible to raise the alkalinity over 40 ppm while keeping pH constant and turbidity low.

strated an immediate increase of 50 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 250% in iron release. Conversely, low alkalinity can be a problem even in high-pH waters. Studies have demonstrated that one of the most aggressive types of water related to pitting of copper pipes is water with low alkalinity, high chlorine residual and high pH. Higher alkalinity allows municipali-


ties to take advantage of conditions where some of the calcium bicarbonate is converted to calcium carbonate coatings in the distribution pipes. Some of the earliest studies on corrosion control showed how an increase in pH formed a thin protective layer of carbonate around the metallic surface of the pipe. This acts as one additional safeguard to re-

duce corrosion in the distribution system. Consequently, municipalities should closely watch alkalinity levels when changing source water, or treatment processes. If alkalinity levels drop due to raw water or treatment process changes, negative impacts in the distribution system may occur years later with no warning. continued overleaf...

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May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:41 PM Page 24

Water Treatment End-user changes in the distribution system can also affect water stability. For example, in areas where solar panels are used for heating water for homes, circulating water can be exposed to increased flow rates, higher temperatures and diverse piping materials. This can dramatically affect the corrosiveness of the water, or change the effectiveness of phosphates, the level of chlorine residual, bacteria growth and other factors that could cause a higher rate of corrosion. Alkalinity is a tremendous weapon in a municipality’s arsenal to combat changes outside the water plant. Insufficient alkalinity changes in the distribution system can dramatically affect corrosion rates, surfacing later as customer complaints or compliance violations. Case study: South Blount, Tennessee South Blount Municipality’s 5.5 million gal/day water treatment plant was constructed in 2004 and is the first membrane plant in the state of Tennessee. The plant used liquid caustic for final pH adjustment and added 3 mg/L of orthophosphate for corrosion control. No problems were detected in the distribution system for a few years after the plant was commissioned. All the samples of lead and copper came back within compliance. However, in the summer of 2006, the municipality noticed a rise in lead and copper levels. Then in 2007, the plant began failing lead and copper sample tests and was cited as being out of compliance. The utility superintendent was very surprised, because the plant and dis-

tribution system were so new and had not been abused or neglected. The municipality decided post-treatment stabilization was needed. Several options were proposed. In 2007, five different corrosion inhibitors were piloted, but did not produce the desired control. The plant’s next option included pairing post-treatment chemicals to achieve and increase both pH and alkalinity. The reviewed chemical pairs included liquid caustic/sodium bicarbonate, CAL~FLO® Slurry/CO2 and liquid caustic/CO2 as potential options. Initially, the municipality chose to run a trial of sodium bicarbonate and liquid caustic. However, due to dust and safety concerns, the operators chose not to manufacture sodium bicarbonate slurry from dry bags inside the water plant. The trial was never performed because feed equipment was difficult to operate. Then, in December 2009, the municipality chose to run the CAL~FLO Slurry and CO2 trial. CAL~FLO Slurry is a high-grade calcium hydroxide slurry. The results of the trial were positive. Not only did the pilot unit easily dial in the precise pH, but it effectively raised and accurately controlled alkalinity. The pilot successfully raised the finished alkalinity from 0 – 3 mg/L to 51 mg/L and raised pH from 7.3 to 8.4. Results allowed the municipality to achieve acceptable values in its corrosivity index. After reviewing data on all three available options, the municipality chose to install a CAL~FLO System and a CO2 system.

The municipality chose the slurry over caustic because it was non-hazardous, did not gel in the feed lines, and added needed calcium to the water, while adjusting the pH. CO2 was chosen over sodium bicarbonate, because the cost was substantially less and it is easier to store and feed. The municipality installed both the CAL~FLO and CO2 systems in 2011. Positive reduction in lead and copper were noticed after the first sample was collected. After collecting the second lead and copper sample, South Blount moved back into compliance, and has experienced no more corrosion-related issues since the installation. Raising the pH and adding needed alkalinity to South Blount’s water dramatically decreased corrosion, increased the life of the distribution system, and moved the municipality out of non-compliance. Whether a plant is brand-new, has changed raw water sources or treatment processes, or just struggles with issues like lead, copper, red water, bacteria, chlorine residuals or nitrification, an evaluation of the post-treatment strategies is important. Even small changes to the finished water can make all the difference. Dallas Burnett is with Burnett Inc. E-mail: dburnett@burnett-inc.com. Teresa Znajewski is with General Chemical Co. E-mail: tznajewski@genchemcorp.com.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_Final_2010 13-05-30 8:39 PM Page 25

Public Education

Canadian citizens oppose OPG's plan to bury nuclear waste close to Lake Huron


group of concerned citizens launched an online petition and a digital billboard on the Gardiner Expressway in Toronto to raise awareness about Ontario Power Generation’s site selection process and plan to construct an underground nuclear waste dump in the municipality of Kincardine, on the shore of Lake Huron. The dump would be approximately one kilometre from shore, extending underground to approximately 400 metres from the lake. The group said some nuclear waste remains toxic and radioactive for over 100,000 years. Federal government approval is anticipated within nine months. “This dump puts at risk the fresh water of the Great Lakes, which contain 21 per cent of the world’s surface fresh water which is relied upon by forty-million people in two countries,” said Beverly Fernandez, member of Stop The Great Lakes Nuclear Dump Inc. “We are bringing this


issue to the public’s attention because we believe that Canadians and Americans deserve the opportunity to learn more and voice their opinion on an issue that will affect generations to come.” To date, OPG has paid out $10.5 million to the municipality of Kincardine and four adjacent municipalities in an effort to secure local support before approval to construct the dump has even been received. If OPG can secure federal government approval for its plan, they will pay

the five municipalities in excess of $35.7 million over a 30 year period. The catch: the municipalities must not waiver from consistently “exercising best efforts to support the construction and operation” of the dump. University professors, physicians and individuals intimately familiar with government processes are speaking out. For more information, visit www.stopthegreatlakesnucleardump.com

May 2013 | 25

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Sustainable Ecosystems

Soil retaining system helps urban trees reach maturity By Eric Keshavarzi


reen infrastructure and sustainability goals are of increasing importance, and achieving them requires technical knowledge and training in varied fields. Integration of soil and trees into urban areas substantially improves sustainability and helps alleviate some of our most pressing ecological challenges. These include air and water quality, rising temperatures, flooding and erosion from daily rainfall events. The West Don Lands, in Toronto, Ontario, is a community that is people focused, family friendly, environmentally sustainable and beautifully designed for living. It has a Stage 1 LEED ND GOLD certification under the pilot program established by the U.S. Green Building Council. One notable sustainable component, utilized in the design of the area’s streets, is a soil retaining system called Silva Cells™. Typical urban trees in the city core die after approximately seven years. However, Silva Cells help extend their life spans, thus promoting the growth of mature street trees. Although the City of Toronto had previously used Silva Cells as part of a stormwater management pilot program in The Queensway, their use as part of site

Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street.

development is new. In fact, the West Don Lands streets are the first in a Toronto subdivision to be designed with this system installed under parking lay-bys and sidewalks. Mill Street was the first subdivision street in Toronto to be designed to include this soil retaining system. As the lead engineering consultant, R.V.Anderson Associates coordinated all plans and specifications with the landscape architect. About Silva Cells Silva Cells are a plastic/fiberglass structure of columns and beams that support paving above un-compacted planting

soil. The structure has 92% void space and is a stable surface for the installation of vehicle loaded-pavements. When properly installed, they can achieve an AASHTO H-20 load rating. Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code loading can also be achieved through appropriate design. This is the required load rating for structures such as underground vaults, covers and grates in areas of traffic including sidewalks and parking lots. The cell structure transfers the force to a base layer below the structure. Soil within the cells remains at low compaction rates, thereby creating ideal



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www.densona.com Toronto • Edmonton Denso North America Inc. 90 Ironside Cres. Unit 12 Toronto, ON M1X 1M3 Tel: 416.291.3435 Fax: 416.291.0898

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Sustainable Ecosystems

Silva Cells under pavement.

Mill Street after completion of civil works.

growing conditions for tree roots. The cells are designed to allow use of a wide range of soils. Even native soil at a project site may be suitable if sufficient compost is added. The use of recycled or reused soil makes this an extremely sustainable approach. Silva Cells are a solution to many soil related development issues. They are

filled with quality, un-compacted soil to help trees grow, manage the rate, quality and volume of stormwater, and restore ecological function to developed sites. The modular design can be sized to treat the water quality volume of surrounding impermeable surfaces while accommodating utilities and traffic loading. By combining on-site stormwater

management with expanded rooting volumes for large healthy trees, Silva Cells create a unique opportunity for stormwater management and achieving mature trees in an urban environment. Eric Keshavarzi, P.Eng., is with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. E-mail: ekesharvarzi@rvanderson.com


DISPOSABLE FILTERS www.waterra.com (CANADA) Waterra Pumps Limited sales@waterra.com • tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366


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Plant Management

“Green” approach to dehumidification inside water treatment plants By Piyush Patel


n most water treatment plants, temperature and humidity control is crucial. When moisture condenses onto cold pipes, valves and pumps, a number of destructive effects can occur. High humidity can cause metal corrosion, paint deterioration and failure of electrical components. Moist locations also act as breeding grounds for bacteria, fungus and molds. To prevent excessive condensation, a dedicated dehumidification system is essential. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed to avoid contamination and corrosion on the pipe surfaces to protect the potable water supply. However, the surface temperature of the piping may vary depending on water temperature and room condition. Condensation will occur whenever the surface temperature of the pipe or valve is below the dew point of the surrounding air. In general, condensation occurs during the spring, summer and fall months. In more humid climates, it may be throughout the year. Conventional methods to prevent condensation Two conventional methods can be used to avoid condensation: 1. Insulate all cold surfaces. Cold surface insulation is a best practice to save energy. However, inconsistent maintenance practices can reduce the effectiveness of insulation, as it is necessary to keep and/or replace the insulation on piping and valves to prevent condensation from occurring. The payback period for installation of insulation is around three to five years, depending on the amount of cold surface area. 2. Provide a dehumidification system. The two types of dehumidification systems commonly implemented are refrigeration and desiccant wheel. Refrigeration systems consist of a typical refrigeration DX cooling coil, compressor and condenser. Air is passed through the DX cooling coil to reduce air temperature below the dew point, in order to remove moisture from the air and reduce humidity. Refrigeration systems are initially attractive, due to low start-up costs 28 | May 2013

Air handling unit.

and the availability of residential and commercial grade systems. However, this type of system consumes more energy than the desiccant wheel system. Desiccant wheel dehumidification systems are quite different from refrigeration systems. Instead of cooling the air to condense moisture, desiccants attract moisture from the air by creating an area of low vapor pressure at their surfaces. Pressure exerted by the water in the air is higher, so the water molecules move from the air to the desiccant and the air is dehumidified. However, the desiccant wheel system can be prone to fungus germination when nutrients are present along with condensate and frost. It also does not work effectively when room temperature is rising due to sensible heat gain from solar through windows, or heat dissipation from equipment. Alternative control using process water Using process water is an alternative method of controlling humidity that requires less energy than conventional methods. Process water is readily avail-

able in a water treatment plant or pumping station. If its temperature remains fairly steady throughout the year, it can be utilized for cooling purposes. It is necessary to review temperature data of the process water to verify that it can maintain room temperature between 18°C to 25°C throughout the year. Process water can then be reused, provided that refrigerant materials are totally isolated from it to avoid any chance of contamination. Coil, piping and valve material must also be NSF61 certified to meet potable water standards. This approach to condensation control is far more “green” and sustainable than conventional methods. It may result in major energy savings and a reduced carbon footprint for two key reasons: 1. There is no potential for condensation if the supply air dew point temperature is maintained below the surface temperature of water piping, or other cold surfaces. Typically, the surface temperature of the water piping stays above 8°C for lake water, though this would need to be confirmed. As indicated by the Phycontinued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

T d T

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Plant Management

The design utilized the alternative dehumidification approach.

chrometric chart, condensation will be automatically avoided if supply air remains below the 8°C dew point. Requirements for additional insulation or

dehumidification systems are reduced, saving costs and energy. 2. If the system is properly designed, the supply air will absorb heat dissipated

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30 | May 2013

from equipment and gained from the building envelope. In short, it will maintain room temperature at 18°C, minimizing the need for additional cooling Case study: Halton Region R.V. Anderson Associates was retained by Halton Region to design two new water booster pumping stations for Zones 4 and 5. The design utilized the alternative dehumidification approach to save energy and reduce the carbon footprint, in accordance with the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment to achieving sustainability. Air handling units (AHU) at these pumping stations were designed to use process water, running through a cooling coil, to absorb sensible heat released by the process equipment, prior to using a refrigeration type cooling and dehumidification system. This approach reduces air temperature and humidity before it enters the DX coil, reducing the amount of active cooling required. A water-cooled condenser was built into the AHU, instead of an outdoor aircooled condenser to increase performance efficiency in cold weather. A double wall cUL listed heat exchanger (suitable for potable water) was used for the condenser to maintain double wall separation between the refrigerant and water. This protected the water supply and allowed process water to be reused. Only limited outdoor air is required to be brought in through the intake damper of the AHU to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62.1 and local standards. This helps reduce the dehumidification load, further reducing energy requirements. The system was designed so that the temperature of the outdoor air and return air mixture will never reach below freezing. Built-in freeze protection controls provide additional safety. The ultimate energy savings seen at the booster pumping stations will depend on the amount of heat dissipation and air, solar heat gain, water temperature, air temperature, and outdoor and indoor atmospheric conditions. Piyush Patel, P.Eng., is a LEED Green Associate with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. E-mail: ppatel@rvanderson.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:41 PM Page 31

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May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:41 PM Page 32


How to select the correct valve for wastewater treatment applications By Jega Jeganathan


astewater treatment plant valves must be selected to operate safely, efficiently, and consistently to avoid unnecessary maintenance. In addition, selection should focus on accuracy, repeatability, and feedback requirements for automated control valves. The following criteria should always be considered: 1. Purpose of the valve: Isolation, or throttling/modulating. 2. Process parameters: Flow, pressure, and temperature. 3. Chemical compatibility: Concentration, percentage of solids, media, and density. 4. Process requirements: Frequency of operation, allowable leakage rate, cleanliness, available space, and structural considerations. The common valve types used in wastewater treatment facilities for various services (isolation/throttling) are shown in Table 1. 1. Butterfly Valves: Butterfly valves have a circular disc mounted on a shaft in the centre of the valve. They are generally used in wastewater treatment for air supply systems. Butterfly valves are an economical alternative for larger valve sizes (>200 mm), because of the compact valve design, and lighter mass compared to other valves. Furthermore, they have relatively high coefficient of flow (Cv), standard face-to-face dimensions, and can be produced using chemical resistant

materials. In general, sizes available for butterfly valves range from 50 mm to 1200 mm. The butterfly valve is considered to be a high recovery valve, since only the disc impedes the valve flow path. The Cv is comparatively high and pressure drop across the valve is comparatively low. Although butterfly valves are economical, they tend to foul up when used on sludges with solids/stringy materials and, therefore, do not handle slurry applications well. Especially vulnerable are the cavities around the disc stem, which can potentially entrap fluids and slurries. Due to this, unwanted contamination is possible in slurry services. These valves are normally not rated as bubble-tight, although some high performance butterfly valves may meet ASME leakage ratings. 2. Gate Valves: Gate valves have a wedge or disc that travels up and down to either block or allow the flow of water. They are mainly used for isolation (shut off) for wastewater applications. The stem of a gate valve can be either rising or nonrising. Rising stem requires clearance above the valve to move up when the valve is opening. This will provide a visual indication of open/close position. If space is limited (e.g., underground applications) or in areas where safety is a concern, a non-rising stem can be used. In general, gate valves are less expensive for smaller size valves (<300 mm). However, larger valves can be costly and

Purpose Air Services Air Services Air Services Sludges with Solids/Stringy Materials Sludges with Solids/Stringy Materials Water Water Water with No Stringy Materials

require adequate clearance for the valve. 3. Knife Gate Valves: Knife gate valves are similar to gate valves; however, the knife edge of the gate can cut through accumulated solids. Knife gate valves are used in wastewater systems for handling abrasive slurries or sludge applications. They are available from standard cast configurations as small as 50 mm to specially fabricated valves up to 1,800 mm. Knife gates for sludge applications should be specified with by-directional pressure rating, making them suitable for unplugging the pipe lines in either direction. Knife gate valves can cut through slurries, scale, and surface build ups. Since they have an unobstructed flow path, they provide high flow capacity (Cv). They also have small face-to-face dimensions, which assists with weight reduction of the valve and facilitates piping design. Knife gate valves are not suitable for relatively low pressure applications. Two of the drawbacks are an inability to provide bubble-tight shut-off, and cavity formation. Hence, they are not recommended for high purity applications. 4. Globe Valves: Globe valves have a round body with two cavities separated by a circular opening that is smaller than the pipe size. In general, the sizes available for globe valves are from 50 mm to 200 mm. Valve operation is a linear rising-stem, with a multi-turn hand-wheel.





(most common)

(most common)

≤ 50 > 50, 75 ≥ 100 ≤ 250 ≥ 350 ≤ 50 > 50, 75 ≥ 100

Ball Ball, Gate Butterfly Plug or knife gate Knife Gate Ball Gate Butterfly

Globe Globe Butterfly Plug Knife Gate Globe Globe Butterfly

Table 1: Valves for Various Services. 32 | May 2013

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Valves Globe valves can be used for precise throttling and control services in wastewater treatment applications, since they can easily be automated and are available with positioners, limit switches, and other accessories. In general, control valve manufacturers provide the software for control valve sizing, since it is much more complex than isolation sizing. Globe valves are relatively low Cv, and are unable to handle slurries. They are relatively expensive. For these reasons, they are not usually specified for control in high purity services or slurry services. Also, the low Cv causes a relatively high pressure drop across the valve. 5. Ball Valves: Ball valves have a ball-shaped plug with a hole bored through its centre. They are normally used in chemical applications, and for isolation purposes for air and water at smaller diameters (<50 mm). They are available from service type valves to high performance valves and readily obtainable in a wide variety of configurations, such as top entry, end entry, and threepiece. In general, the sizes available are from 25 mm to 300 mm.

Some of the pertinent features of ball valves are ease of operation, high pressure and temperature capacities, high flow capacity, and ability to handle severe chemicals. Ball valves are also considered as high recovery valves (relatively high Cv,), similar to butterfly valves. Ball valves are not suitable for slurry applications. As well, the weight of the larger size ball valve is much higher than other similar size valve types. 6. Plug Valves: Plug valves are similar to ball valves. The moving part of a plug valve consists of a tapered plug instead of a ball. Plug valves are mainly used on pipes carrying raw sewage, sludge, and grit. They are also used for digester gas systems. Plug valves can seal well and they do have tight shutoff. However, some plug valves are made with a reduced port which means that the flow passageway through the valve is smaller than the adjoining pipe’s cross-sectional area. This leads to higher pressure drop. Therefore, look for full bore plug valves if you need them. Plug valves are heavy and require more space, but are reliable and durable.

In some cases, plug valves are used for throttling purposes. Summary Based on the application, selection of the correct type of valve should be carried out with the following in mind: • Butterfly valves are high recovery valves but not rated as bubble tight. • Gate valves are less expensive for smaller size valves. • Knife gate valves have the ability to cut through slurries and have very low flow resistance. However, they are not suited for high purity applications. • Globe valves are good for throttling purposes, but have relatively high head loss. • Ball valves allow quick, quarter turn onoff operation but have poor throttling characteristics. • Plug valves can seal well, and they do have tight shutoff. Jega Jeganathan, Ph.D., P.Eng., is with the Municipal Infrastructure Group Ltd. E-mail: jjeganathan@tmig.ca

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Water Metering

Full-profile insertion mag meter improves water operations management By Jerry Stultz and Curt Worlund


ounded in 1816 and home to 7,000 residents, the City of Geneva, Ohio, is located in Ashtabula County, east of Cleveland, along Lake Erie. Its Water Works Department is responsible for managing a 350,000 gpd drinking water operation, which has a unique history and structure. In 2003, Ashtabula County bought its water system from a private utility. It includes booster stations and storage facilities, but no treatment plants. The county purchases finished water from the private utility’s treatment plant. In 2004, the city bought its water system, which is a distribution network connected within the county system. This system had no bulk metering to measure actual consumption. The city has been billed by Ashtabula County, according to an agreed formula that apportions an amount of the overall county consumption to the city. The challenge Geneva’s Water Works Department determined that eight individual metering locations were needed around the city. City management had several primary considerations when selecting a metering solution: • Budget impact. As a smaller municipality, Geneva has a limited budget. This compels smart investment in affordable, operational efficiency improvements. Securing the operational efficiency gains would depend on finding a very cost-effective solution. Most of the city’s water mains are in the road or right-of-way. An installation solution that could support the weight of vehicles was required, since re-routing pipelines away from traffic was financially unfeasible. • Ease of installation, minimal disruption. Geneva needed flow meters that could be installed without the need for a line shutdown. Each of the metering sites is a connection to a county distribution artery that serves both city and county consumers. Shutting down these lines for a meter installation was not acceptable. • Meter performance and bi-directional capability. To meet Geneva’s costsaving goal, a minimum of 1% accuracy 34 | May 2013

City of Geneva above ground meter reading location.

was required. Additionally, the open nature of the distribution system allowed for water to flow in either direction in the pipelines. Therefore, bi-directional metering capability was needed. • Startup and calibration assistance. Since the distribution system had no bulk water metering, nominal flow rates within the pipes were unknown. The city needed a partner on this project that would help it establish initial flow rates and calibration ranges. • Aesthetics of solution. Geneva needed to find a metering solution that maximized siting options. As a scenic, residential community, it had to find locations for above-ground meter reading stations that were close to primary electrical service, but would not compromise the aesthetic appeal of its properties. The solution After reviewing a number of technology options, the Water Works Department ultimately decided that an electromagnetic flow meter would provide the accuracy and reliability needed. Different electromagnetic technologies were considered, but the department concluded the McCrometer FPI Mag™ was one that addressed its challenges: • Budget impact. Spool-type electromagnetic meters would require large

vaults that would have to be installed away from traffic because they could not support vehicle loading. Re-routing water lines would greatly increase the cost and implementation time. The FPI Mag flow meter’s compact insertion design is particularly cost-effective for retrofit applications. Geneva used small manholes with “doghouse” cutouts. These manholes are fitted with metal covers designed to support the load of residential traffic. This installation technique avoided the expense and time of rerouting pipelines away from traffic. This flow meter can also be removed from pressurized pipes for easy inspection, cleaning, calibrating or verification without an expensive shutdown and restart sequence. This minimizes the ownership cost. • Ease of installation, minimal disruption. Installation can occur without interrupting service, dewatering lines, cutting pipe or welding flanges. Geneva spent approximately five days installing each of the eight meters in lines ranging from 6 to 16 inches. This included four days to install the manholes and electrical service to the new, aboveground meter-reading stations. Installation of the FPI Mag full-profile sensor and electronic converter only took a com-

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Water Metering

FPI Mag installation.

FPI Mag flow meter graphic.

bined half-day. This included pulling wiring from the sensor to the converter at the meter-reading station. • Meter performance and bi-directional capability. Accuracy was critical to meeting Geneva’s primary objective. The FPI Mag delivered on the accuracy requirements. Its streamlined sensor features multiple electrodes across the entire pipe diameter. Its highly stable profile

provides accuracy of ± .5% of reading, from 1 to 32 ft/sec velocity range. Additionally, the availability of the bidirectional model fit the city’s needs, allowing it to account for water regardless of the flow direction in the distribution system. • Startup and calibration assistance. Due to the absence of bulk metering, Geneva was unable to provide McCrom-

eter with confident flow ranges for the factory calibration. Consequently, it used its NIST-certified, full-flow test facility to calibrate the units to a reasonable maximum flow velocity for each pipe size, down to a minimum velocity reflecting very low flows. Once the meters were installed, Geneva and McCrometer worked tocontinued overleaf...

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Water Metering gether to confirm the calibration in the field, using hydrant flows and individual consumer readings collected. • Aesthetics of solution. With the FPI Mag meters requiring such little installation space, Geneva gained multiple siting options that were aesthetically satisfying. The results The Geneva Water Works Department concluded that McCrometer’s FPI Mag full-profile insertion flow meters met its accuracy, reliability and bi-directional requirements with an installation approach that satisfied cost, siting and uninterrupted operation needs. All eight flow meters were installed in aesthetically pleasing locations, in minimal time, with minimum investment and no operational interruptions. They are all currently performing successfully, and the city’s goal of transitioning to actual metered billing will soon be realized. Geneva anticipates operational cost savings of 8–12% per year, as a direct result of its investment in the system. FPI Mag technology All magnetic flow meters, including the FPI Mag, operate under the principle

36 | May 2013

of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction to measure water velocity. The principle of operation states that a conductor, such as water, moving through a magnetic field produces a voltage that is directly proportional to the velocity of the water moving through the field. The FPI Mag’s multi-electrode sensing provides accurate measurement without long upstream and downstream straight pipe runs. The sensor design compensates for variable flow profiles, including swirl, turbulence and low-flow conditions. Multiple electrodes placed across the entire sensor body continuously measure and report the average flow rate over the full pipe diameter for greater accuracy and repeatability. Choosing the flow meter best suited for an application will result in improved accuracy, repeatability, lowered maintenance costs, and will promote a long life for the flow meter.

FPI Mag – pipe cross section graphic.

Jerry Stultz and Curt Worlund are with McCrometer. For more information, visit www.mccrometer.com

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Cover Story

WaterRF releases report on defining and enhancing the safe yield of a multi-use reservoir


any areas are struggling to match future water demand projections with the estimated safe yields of current water supplies. Even traditionally water rich areas such as the southeastern United States have struggled through recent droughts that have spawned new legislative activity, an increased focus on regional water supply planning, and a renewed interest in identifying sustainable water supplies. In the midst of this heightened focus on water supply, traditional methods and techniques for determining safe yields are now under review. These methods range from simple arithmetic spreadsheets to complex river basin models with numerous input criteria. Further, the potential impact of climate change on water supply availability has many water utilities facing an uncertain future. Defining and Enhancing the Safe Yield of a Multi-Use Multi-Reservoir Water Supply, the Water Research Foundation’s Research Project #4304, focuses on the Catawba-Wateree River Basin in North and South Carolina, but the findings have wide application well beyond U.S. borders. To complete this project, the research team worked closely with the CatawbaWateree Water Management Group (CWWMG), WaterRF’s Project Advisory Committee (PAC), and a Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) made up of water supply professionals from around the world. There was great diversity among the 20 river systems surveyed as part of this project. Some, but not all, have made efforts to calculate water (i.e., safe) yield. Significant research and modeling has been completed on potential climate change impacts to water supplies. The impacts of potential future climate change can have both supply-side and demand-side impacts on water availability. For the purposes of this project, various existing climate change modeling scenarios were used to test for sensitivity of safe yield to future changes in climate (e.g., precipitation, temperature – evaporation, etc.). The low impact scenario for www.esemag.com

climate change showed no significant change in safe yield of the Catawba-Wateree River Basin due to the influence of the region’s low inflow protocol (LIP). The high impact scenario for climate change did indicate a measureable change in safe yield for this river basin despite the influence of the LIP. As such, this project illustrates the critical importance of incorporating potential future climate change impacts on water supply availability in multi-use, multi-reservoir systems. Three climate change scenarios were also modeled to quantify their impact on safe yield against baseline operations. In addition, each safe yield enhancement strategy was put through a screening level analysis to identify fatal flaws and assess the feasibility of implementation specifically related to financial/cost issues, environmental/permitting issues, and public impacts. Some general observations made from these analyses include the following: • It is critical to understand the operational logic of a multi-use, multi-reservoir system, its water use hierarchy, and the impact of any drought management protocol. • Yield enhancement strategies can

work to either increase the safe yield of a water supply, or extend the availability of the water supply. These strategies may vary depending on the water supply system. • Future climate change has the potential for impacts, but some of these impacts may be mitigated with an effective drought management plan. • Regional collaboration is necessary in multi-use, multi-reservoir systems to implement safe yield enhancement strategies and ensure a long-term sustainable water supply. This project provides practical guidance (i.e., best practices) for identifying and extending safe yields in multi-use, multi-reservoir water supplies. In particular, this research effort is applicable to all areas where continued population growth and climate change strain limited water supplies. Moreover, this research enables water resource professionals to streamline the costs and schedule for defining and extending water availability. For more information, visit www.waterrf.org

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Groundwater Management

Environmental drilling made easier with direct push technology By Thomas Dalzell


ne of the main goals of environmental drilling is to protect and restore groundwater resources. It is not adequate just to know that there is contamination in the subsurface. The contamination type and concentration must be specifically identified. Also, the exact vertical and lateral extent of the soil and/or groundwater that has been affected, the type of soil, and the characteristics of the groundwater must be determined. Once a sample is brought to the surface, it is best to perform field extraction, extrusion, and preservation, so that when it arrives at the laboratory, it will not be diminished due to improper preparation, preservation, and/or transport duration. The main purposes of environmental drilling include: • Identify the type, level/concentration and extent of contaminated soil. • Determine details regarding the subsurface lithologic condition. • Evaluate if groundwater has been impacted, or has the potential to be impacted by contamination. • Sample groundwater and/or install long-term groundwater monitoring wells. • Successful cleanup/remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. • Site closure – the documentation for,

For environmental drilling activities, it is important to know and understand the site facilities and underground utilities.

and final approval of, successful cleanup of the contamination. For environmental drilling activities, it is important to know and understand the site facilities, underground utilities, have a work plan or job specification, use applicable standard operating procedures (SOPs). It is possible that the entire project will be a combination of all SOP contributors. Work plan and worker health and safety plan As with all drilling and subsurface contamination, there is a risk of danger to human health and safety. All potential

dangers, conditions, and considerations must be identified. A work/sampling plan should contain any prior information that will help investigators. Valuable information could be any history of the site, including the source and age of release of previous subsurface contaminants on or adjacent to the subject site. Proposed soil boring and groundwater monitoring well locations should be included. The work plan should also include details about overhead and underground utilities, along with how to cut concrete or asphalt, the sample collection plan Design/Build Construction Management P3 Project Delivery Maple Reinders has been delivering innovative environmental construction projects for the Canadian market for over 46 years including design, operation and private financing.






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Groundwater Management (depth, interval, quantity to initially be submitted, volume for analysis requires, quality control), field monitoring, and laboratory analysis. Soil sampling Soil sampling with direct push can either be single tube, dual tube, piston sampler, telescopic drill and sample, or other, depending on the scope of work and subsurface conditions. Direct Push Drilling Technology (direct push) allows for a wide variety of direct push tooling (DP tooling) and instrumentation to be advanced into a subsurface lithology. This is conducted using a combination of the static weight of a direct push rig, hydraulic down pressure, and rapid hydraulic hammering. For some direct push instrumentation, such as CPTu, rapid hydraulic hammering is not used. Groundwater sampling Prior to installation of direct push wells, groundwater samples can be collected through a variety of direct push tooling. There are several types of retractable groundwater samplers for contaminants dissolved in the upper/highest level of the groundwater table. There are also samplers for determining the condition of the groundwater, when a contaminant is possibly sinking within it. If it is not possible or practical to sample through DP tooling, temporary groundwater monitoring wells can be installed. If a long-term groundwater monitoring program is needed at the site, direct push wells can be installed.


Where it is not possible or practical to install long-term groundwater monitoring wells, temporary wells can be installed. Direct push groundwater monitoring wells Direct push wells are approved and accepted by regulatory agencies. ASTM International has several methods and/or procedures directly related to their use and installation. The sizes of direct push wells range from ½â&#x20AC;? nominal inside diameter (ID) to 2â&#x20AC;? ID. The practical

surface lithology, and applicable regulatory requirements, a remedial action plan can be drafted, based on the initial site investigation alone. If a pilot study needs to be conducted to determine the radius of influence for a particular remedial action, is can also be conducted with a direct push drill rig. Once a remedial action has been completed, verification borings can be quickly and accurately conducted with a direct push rig to confirm the success of

There are several types of retractable groundwater samplers for contaminants dissolved in the upper/highest level of the groundwater table. achievable depth is based on lithology and the desired well ID size, but in general, less than 80 feet below ground surface (BGS) is the average depth. It is possible, however, to install direct push wells over 100 feet BGS. These wells can be secured exactly like conventional wells, and development of the pre-packed section can be a simple surging. They can be used to calculate gradient magnitude and direction. A variety of small diameter instrumentation can take depth measurements accurately, measure useful parameters, and collect samples. Once a subject site has been properly characterized, a precise and strategic remedial investigation can be conducted. Depending on the contaminant type, sub-

cleanup, or if additional remedial activities need to be conducted to clean the site up. Conclusion In general, the only limitations are inefficiency in direct push activities at depths greater than 100 feet BGS, and lithology. Direct push should not be used in bedrock and other consolidated subsurface lithologic formations. Ultimately, the entire project is conducted to represent actual subsurface conditions in order to provide data to develop a remediation strategy. Lack of proper preparation and planning leads to poor performance. Thomas D. Dalzell is with AMS Inc. E-mail:tom@ams-samplers.com

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Stormwater Treatment

Floating treatment wetlands improve stormwater quality By Mark Reinsel


loating treatment wetlands (FTWs) have significantly reduced nutrient and solids levels in stormwater ponds and have been approved as stormwater best management practices (BMPs) in several jurisdictions. They have been shown to enhance contaminant removal in stormwater ponds in studies by Floating Island International (FII) and other researchers, and users are now given a numeric credit for their removal. FTWs can significantly improve runoff water quality and reduce its environmental impact. BioHavens® are passive islands consisting of post-industrial polymer fibres and foam for flotation, and vegetated with native plants. BioHavens and natural floating islands are essentially biofilm reactors with plants. Plant roots hang beneath the floating island and provide a large surface area for biofilm growth, which forms an important part of the treatment reactor. Studies have shown that approximately 80% of an island’s nutrient cycling ability comes from biofilms, while plants, although they are the most visible component of an island, are responsible for only about 20%. Case study: North Carolina An independent research project conducted for the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) directly compared contaminant removal from ponds with and without FTWs. The BioHaven FTWs used in this study mimic and enhance the ability of natural wetlands to clean water by bringing a “concentrated wetland effect” to stormwater ponds. FTWs are an attractive retrofit to “wet ponds” (those that permanently contain water) because they: • Do not require earthmoving. • Eliminate the need for additional land to be dedicated to treatment. • Float, so they will not add to the storage volume required for wet ponds. • Allow for a smaller detention basin/wet pond BMP footprint. • Increase plant survivability, which is 40 | May 2013

DOT pond with mature FTWs (photo by Rob Crook, FISE).

expected to increase treatment efficacy. • Allow for more detention within a pond that has been modified to draw down its level between rain events. Being able to do this will allow pond owners to meet volume reduction goals that are becoming the regulatory norm. To test whether FTWs provide a benefit for nutrient and total suspended solids (TSS) removal, two ponds in Durham, North Carolina, were monitored, pre- and post-FTW installation. The first, the DOT pond, had 9% of its surface area covered, while the second, the Museum pond, had 18% coverage. At least 16 storm events were sampled from each pond in each period. FTWs improved performance of both ponds, with the Museum pond having statistically significant improvement for both total phosphorus (TP) and TSS. Fraction of coverage appears to be an important variable. Root length was approximately two feet below the pond surface, which has the benefit of reducing water velocity and increasing sedimentation. A very small fraction of N and P was also taken up by the plants. Mean effluent concentrations of total nitrogen (TN)

were reduced at one pond from 1.05 mg/L to 0.61 mg/L. Mean TP effluent concentrations were reduced at both ponds (0.17 mg/L to 0.12 mg/L at the DOT pond, 0.11 mg/L to 0.05 mg/L at the Museum pond). Post-retrofit concentrations are similar to those observed for bioretention cells in other studies. Importantly, both the pre- and postFTW retrofit ponds performed well from a pollutant removal perspective. The Museum pond had extremely low TN effluent concentrations (0.41 mg/L and 0.43 mg/L) during the pre- and post-FTW retrofit periods, respectively. Both ponds regularly exceeded the assigned NCDENR pollutant removal credits for TN, TP and TSS, as hoped. The final project report recommended offering additional credits, when FTWs are incorporated at various levels. Removal results for the DOT pond (large pond, 9% coverage) for nitrate, TN, TP and TSS are shown in Figure 1 for pre-FTW and post-FTW conditions. Removal improved with FTWs for all parameters except TSS. This was likely due to factors other than the FTW. Removal results for the Museum pond (small pond,

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Stormwater Treatment 












Figure 1. DOT pond results.

18% coverage) are shown in Figure 2. With higher coverage, removal with FTWs was much higher for all parameters except nitrate. FTWs improved removal of TP and TSS to a statistically significant degree. Case study: Montana In November 2008, the City of Billings, Montana, constructed a pond to treat a portion of stormwater discharging





Figure 2. Museum pond results.

from Metra Park, a 174-acre drainage area dominated by light industrial and commercial properties. A large BioHaven FTW was installed in the Metra pond shortly after its construction, along with a smaller FTW in the preceding channel. The FTW was installed in late 2008 and planted with native grasses and other vegetation in early 2009. This vegetation became established in 2009 and 2010.

Billings has an arid climate, so stormwater flow occurs infrequently. Three samples taken in 2009 showed little removal of the eight contaminants measured. However, two samples taken in late 2010 and early 2011, after the FTW vegetation had matured, showed dramatic contaminant reductions between the stormwater pond inlet and outlet. continued overleaf...

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Stormwater Treatment

Metra stormwater pond with FTW, June 2011 (photo by FII).

The FTW installed in the Metra Park stormwater pond has very effectively removed the eight contaminants monitored. Removal percentages from the last two sampling events range from 63% to 98%. The FTWâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effectiveness substantially

improved after its vegetation had matured for two growing seasons. The extended root system likely provided more surface area for TSS removal and biofilm growth. The large jump in treatment effectiveness from the first year of operation shows the

effect of the FTW, compared to the pond by itself. Stormwater treatment review An extensive literature review of FTW effectiveness in treating stormwater was published by Headley and Tanner in 2012. Their conclusion was that FTWs offer potential advantages for treating highly variable flow rates and concentrations encountered with stormwater. Advantages include the ability of FTWs to tolerate widely fluctuating water levels and the large surface area provided by the FTW structure and plant roots for attachment of microbial biofilm, which will perform the bulk of the contaminant reduction. Although they note that further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of FTWs treating stormwater at full scale, the authors provide data from mesocosm (experimental water enclosure) and pilot studies, showing substantial removal of organics, suspended solids, nutrients and metals Similar to the NCDENR study, a controlled experiment in New Zealand examined the effect of retrofitting an FTW to

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Stormwater Treatment Parameter

Removal rate Areal (g/m2/day)

Volume (g/m3/day)







Total N



Total P



the group recognized FTWs as an approved BMP. A subgroup was formed to assign rates or credits later in 2013. Most recently, the City of Philadelphia recognized FTWs as an approved BMP and added FTWs to its best management practice website. Mark Reinsel, Ph.D., P.E. is with Apex Engineering, PLLC. E-mail: mark@apexengineering.us

Table 1. Average removal rates for FTWs.

a stormwater pond. The study differed from the one in North Carolina in that two parallel ponds were studied (one with an FTW and one without), rather than comparing data from the same pond before and after FTW installation. It showed that the FTW pond removed 41% more TSS than the “control” pond, with 40% higher removal of particulate zinc and 39% higher removal of particulate copper. All these differences were statistically significant. Metal particulate removal is likely associated with TSS removal. Best management practice status In Florida, FTWs that cover more than 5% of the surface area of a wet pond now receive an additional 12% “credit” for TN and TP reduction. This means wet ponds receive an additional credit of 12% towards their watershed nonpoint source reduction goals. In June 2013, FTWs will be formally recognized by NCDENR as an approved BMP. The North Carolina numbers are not official until the announcement is made. However, Floating Island International anticipates that adding a BioHaven, covering less than 17% of the surface area of a wet pond, will receive an additional 5% credit for TN and TP reduction. Wet ponds with BioHavens that cover more than 17% surface area will earn an additional 10% credit. These credits are in addition to the 25% credit that properly constructed wet ponds currently earn in North Carolina. In 2011, the Chesapeake Bay Program’s Urban Stormwater Workgroup initiated four independent research efforts with leading universities to assess FTWs as a watershed water quality management tool. At the workgroup’s July 2012 session, research results were presented and www.esemag.com

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Groundwater Protection

In situ treatment of a high nitrate loaded groundwater plume using a large-scale denitrification wall By Ryan Riess, Matthew Hiltz and Michael Edmonds


ermeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have been shown to be low maintenance, cost-effective options to reduce concentrations of dissolved phase nitrates or other contaminants in groundwater. A PRB designed to remove nitrates through the denitrification process is often referred to as a denitrification wall. Recently, a client needed to prevent a groundwater nitrate plume from reaching sensitive offsite receptors, while not disrupting site operations. After a detailed site assessment and a cost-benefit analysis of all feasible remedial and risk management options by Pinter & Associates Ltd., design and installation of a PRB was undertaken. The PRB (or denitrification wall) was constructed in Northern Alberta clays with hydraulic conductivity values of between 10-6 to 10-8 m/s. Pre-construction assessments consisted of a detailed Phase II environmental site assessment, including delineation of both soil and groundwater nitrate impacts. Results from the pre-construction assessments indicated groundwater nitrate concentrations as high as 1,350 mg/L. The effectiveness of the PRB was evaluated by Pinter using groundwater sampling transects established up-gradient, within, and down-gradient of the PRB. Short term results indicate an average 99% reduction of nitrate concentrations within the PRB, when compared to concentrations immediately upstream. Denitrification is a multi-step process involving bacteria to reduce nitrogen oxides (nitrite, NO3 and NO2) under anaerobic conditions to their gaseous oxide forms (nitric oxide NO and nitrous oxide N2O) and finally to inert nitrogen gas (N2). In essence, oxygen in the nitrogen oxides serves as a supplement source for microbial respiratory function, once the dissolved oxygen in the groundwater has been depleted (NO3 → NO2 → NO → N2O → N2). There are several variations of denitrifying bacteria, which contribute to the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas. They are classified as either heterotrophic (use 44 | May 2013

From June 4-8, 2012, Pinter oversaw construction of the denitrification wall, along the south end of the property.

organic carbon as an energy source) or autotrophic (derive energy from inorganic material). In each case, an electron donor is required to complete the oxidation-reduction reaction. The transport of organic matter through soils is largely governed by diffusion. However, its diffusive rate is less rapid than oxygen, nitrate and nitrous oxide. As such, there tends to be considerable spatial variability in undisturbed soils. This is because denitrification tends to occur in concentrated areas, where oxidisable organic matter is readily available and primarily controlled by the availabil-

ity of nitrates and the absence of oxygen. Historically, denitrification walls have been constructed of a mixture of an organic carbon source with native soils. Horizontally flowing groundwater passes through the carbon source within the PRB, promoting the denitrification process. Recent studies have primarily focused on evaluating the effectiveness of various carbon sources and their ability to reduce nitrate concentrations over several years. Laboratory studies have explored a variety of carbon sources, including wood chips, soybean oil, corn-

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Groundwater Protection and vertical points at each location, to ensure a complete representation of EC ranges. EC data was shown to be a useful method for estimating nitrate concentrations in soils. From June 4-8, 2012, Pinter oversaw construction of the denitrification wall, along the south end of the property determined to be down gradient of the nitrate plume. Excavated soil was mixed with 500m3 of 100% pine shavings (50% pine vol.) and placed into a 120m x 4m deep continued overleaf... Groundwater sampling transects.

stalks, cardboard fibers, coconut coir, bamboo powder, charcoal, alfalfa, compost, newspaper, sawdust, and wheat straw. Field studies have been aimed at more practical applications to analyze wood chips and sawdust, which are readily available, fit within economic constraints of large scale projects and have been proven to provide a stable long-term source of carbon. Field studies have shown wood chips still promoting denitrification, decades after installation. A key aspect to optimal operation of a PRB is to ensure hydraulic conductivity after construction is greater than that of the surrounding aquifer. If hydraulic conductivity is observed to be lower, the possibility exists that groundwater will flow under or around the PRB, defeating the purpose of the installation. Environmental factors and PRB design The study was undertaken on a fertilizer distribution facility in Alberta. Annual precipitation in the region is generally within 400-450 mm, with typical seasonal temperatures between -25 and 25 degrees Celsius. The site has been in operation since 1978 and has experienced an accumulation of nitrate levels in the shallow groundwater table of up to 1,350 mg/L. The areal extent of the nitrate plume was determined through collecting groundwater samples, from an established groundwater monitoring well network on the site and adjacent property to the south. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) was measured at 28 locations over a grid pattern, utilizing a direct push rig fitted with an electrical conductivity probe. Soil samples were collected at multiple lateral www.esemag.com

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Groundwater Protection

Nitrate plume prior to PRB.

x 2m wide trench. The amount of pine shavings used was determined through a mass balance, for a 30 year design life for the denitrification wall. The location for the PRB was based on the presence of a naturally occurring drainage ditch. Surface water was allowed to accumulate over the surface of the PRB, to aid in reducing oxygen diffusion within the wall.

A monitoring well network comprised of three transects was established west, center and east along the denitrification wall. Each transect consists of wells upstream, within and downstream of the denitrification wall. The wells were constructed of 50 mm diameter, schedule 40, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) threaded casing. The screened portion consisted of

0.25 mm slotted PVC casing installed at depths between 1 to 4 metres below ground level (mbgl). This meant that they were installed within the shallow aquifer, typically encountered at a depth of less than 2 mbgl. Groundwater monitoring programs were completed at one, 5, 12, and 21 weeks post construction. Samples were analyzed by a third party accredited laboratory for nitrate, nitrite, dissolved organic carbon, alkalinity and sulphate. Static groundwater elevations were measured using a Heron Sm.OIL oil/water interface meter. Groundwater flow direction was determined through vector maps and groundwater and topography elevation data inputs. Average groundwater temperature over the sampling period was 12.2 °C. Results Field data indicated migration of the dissolved phase nitrate plume is southward. Hydraulic conductivity values within the PRB were higher on average compared to the undisturbed areas surrounding it. Therefore, groundwater should flow through the PRB without restrictions. Nitrate removal expressed as a per-

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Groundwater Protection

PRB area after construction.

centage was greater than 99% in the November monitoring event. Nitrate removal within a PRB is based on the difference between the upstream nitrate value and the value within the PRB. Upstream nitrate values averaged 612 mg/L, while values within the PRB were less than 1 mg/L. Although a decreasing trend in nitrate

Four months after construction.

concentrations in downstream wells is anticipated, it has not yet been apparent. Horizontal groundwater velocities in the area of the PRB are approximately 3 m/year. This means reductions within the downstream wells were not expected until at least one year after construction. Downstream wells are approximately three metres south of wells within the

PRB. Early results suggest that the PRB is effectively removing nitrates from incoming groundwater. Ryan Riess and Matthew Hiltz are with Pinter & Associates. Michael Edmonds is with Viterra Inc. For more information, E-mail: ryan.riess@pinter.ca

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May 2013 | 47

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Odour Control

Advanced odour control for organics management facilities


isposal of solid wastes continues to pose significant challenges in large urban centres. As landfills run out of capacity, and finding locations for new ones becomes difficult, focus has shifted to reduction, source separation, recycling and new methods of treatment and disposal. Meanwhile, municipalities are striving to meet waste diversion goals defined by provincial governments. Thermal oxidation is not considered to be waste diversion under these objectives, so green technologies are being used for the treatment of the organic fraction of solid wastes. Most large urban centres in Canada separate food and other organic wastes at source. This stream is called source-segregated organics, or SSO. They must be further processed prior to reuse or disposal, and composting is a common method of converting these into soil. Anaerobic digestion is also gaining increasing acceptance, as it produces methane gas as a byproduct. Digested solids then have a reduced level of organics, and composting for final stabilization becomes simpler. In either case, odours are created throughout this cycle and need to be treated prior to discharge. Advanced biofiltration technologies and systems are now available for treatment of odours at organics management facilities. Biofiltration and biofilters Biofiltration is a process in which airborne contaminants are oxidized by microorganisms grown on a solid media into harmless and odourless byproducts. It was first used more than 50 years ago for sewage odour control by passing odorous air through open soil beds, which were approximately one metre deep. The air was pre-humidified and periodic irrigation of the biofilter was provided to maintain optimum moisture level. These early biofilters demonstrated significant cost and environmental benefits over physical-chemical technologies, such as chemical scrubbing, activated 48 | May 2013

Figure 1. Thriving microbiology in a Biosorbens media biofilter.

carbon adsorption, masking, ozonation and plasma treatment. Biofiltration grew rapidly with the introduction of advanced media and system designs. Common applications include sewage treatment, solid waste management, pet food production, animal byproducts rendering, tobacco processing, etc. Biofiltration is also used for the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in industrial exhausts from automotive manufacturing, petroleum refining, wood processing and other manufacturing facilities. Media is the heart of a biofilter, as it provides a favourable environment for microbial growth. Important features of a good biofiltration media include readily available nutrient content, adsorption capacity, buffer action and porosity to retain moisture. In addition, the media should have high specific surface area, and low pressure drop, and should be structurally stable. Organic media such as bark and compost replaced soil in early biofilters. Although organic media continues to be used in many installations, disadvantages include long residence times, resulting in large biofilters. The media can settle over time, requiring replacement every two to four years. Settling often leads to uneven air distribution and poor treatment effi-

ciency with aging. Biorem was the first company to introduce an inorganic media, BiosorbensÂŽ, to the North American market. Over 500 biofilters now use this media throughout the world. Biosorbens almost halved the time required for treatment of odours from sewage plant exhausts over organic media. It also made it possible to build very large systems, with capacities ties as high as 500,000 m3/h. More recently, Biorem introduced XLD, a media targeted for sewage and sludge odours that further reduces residence time by a factor of two over Biosorbens. Key to this performance is its shape, size, surface area and superior coating. A broad range of microorganisms are involved in the treatment of odorous contaminants. Chemi-autotrophic bacteria use energy from the oxidation of hydrogen sulphide for growth, while operating at pH of 1.5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2, They produce sulphuric acid as a byproduct. Heterotrophic bacteria oxidize VOCs and organic sulphur compounds at, or near, neutral pH conditions to carbon dioxide, salts and water. Fungi are particularly suited to VOC reduction in open biological systems, and are present in well-functioning biofilters. Figure 1 shows thriving microbiology on the surface of a highly efficient Biosorbens media biofilter in a compost-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_Final_2010 13-05-30 8:39 PM Page 49

Odour Control

The Dufferin facility with anaerobic digesters in the foreground and biofilter/stack in the background.

ing application. It consists of a diverse microbial consortium, with a preponderance of bacteria and fungi. Typically, a biofilter is inoculated by compost or sewage sludge, but a “designer” inoculum can be used for air streams with difficult-to-oxidize contaminants. Dufferin SSO Anaerobic Digestion Facility The City of Toronto’s Dufferin Anaer-

Decommissioned organic biofilters with new Biosorbens biofilters in the background at Dufferin Facility.

obic Digestion Facility is a city-owned, contractor-operated SSO treatment facility. It was designed in 1997 as a mixed waste and SSO processing research facility and was commissioned in 2002. Initial capacity was 25,000 tonnes per year (tpy) SSO. It was upgraded to 55,000 tpy in 2012 by adding a digester and ancillary equipment. The organic media biofilter was replaced with a Biosorbens biofilter

to handle a greater volume of air. SSO is preprocessed by hydro-pulping. Light and heavy inert fractions are separated and sent for disposal. Pulp is transferred to one of the two anaerobic digesters, where most of the organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide. Residual sludge, called digestate, is then sent to a different location for continued overleaf...

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May 2013 | 49

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Odour Control

The two biofilter cell and exhaust system at Dufferin facility.

composting. The anaerobic digestion process is mesophilic, with a residence time of 16 days. Digesters are loaded on weekdays and are continuously mixed. Biogas is flared, but different options for its utilization include generation of power and heat, and conversion to

pipeline-quality gas for fueling garbage collection vehicles. The facility is located in a densely populated area with the nearest residents about 100 metres away. Therefore, great care is taken to prevent the escape of odours from buildings and equipment.

All odour sources such as waste receiving and processing are enclosed, and vessels handling odorous materials are sealed. Partitions and doors are used to separate building areas to minimize cross-drafts. Dedicated ventilation pickups are provided at odour release points, such as the main feed conveyer, pulper, digestate dewatering, digester solids loading and the coarse contaminant residue compactor. To contain odours further while keeping the volume of air low, air is collected under suction from the enclosed process train and ducted to the biofilter in a 2meter diameter duct. Initial installation consisted of an organic media biofilter. Due to space requirements for capacity expansion, an inorganic filter using Biosorbens media was selected. This biofilter is designed to treat 45,000 m3/h of air. Incoming air contains primarily volatile organic compounds with small concentrations of reduced sulphur compounds and is first humidified. The biofilter consists of two cells, each 14 m long and 10 m wide, with a media depth of more than 1.8 m. Irrigation is

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Odour Control performed daily to maintain media moisture content within an optimum range. A two meter diameter, 100 m high exhaust stack is used for final air dispersion. The biofilter started operation in early 2012. Due to the adsorptive capacity of Biosorbens, odour remediation was immediate. Treatment efficiency improved over the first month of operation, as biomass grew on the media. The biofilter was designed to achieve odour concentrations of less than 1,500 odour units/m3 (ou/m3) at design flow. Tests conducted by Pinchin Environmental on August 4, 2012, measured a range of 410–532 ou/m3 in the exhaust, indicating that the biofilter was performing better than design. With the aid of final dispersion in the stack, the system continues to achieve an odour-free environment in the vicinity. Biorem has also installed its odour control systems at a number of SSO facilities to help achieve odour free environment. Dispersion modeling using Aermod software is used for evaluating system design parameters and for optimizing stack design. Typically, the systems are designed for an exhaust odour concentration of less than 1500 ou/m3 to achieve MOE criterion of 1 ou/m3 at points of impingement. For more information visit, www.biorem.biz

 Industry-led electronic waste stewardship plan approved by Newfoundland and Labrador

by Electronic Products Recycling Association, an electronics industry organization that currently is operational in six provinces across Canada.

The Multi-Materials Stewardship Board announced today approval of an industry-led electronic waste stewardship plan for the management of certain e-wastes in Newfoundland and Labrador. The plan is set to launch on August 1, 2013, and will divert items such as computers, televisions, DVD players, printers and other types of ewaste from the province’s landfills. The electronic waste recycling program will allow residents, businesses and governments of all levels to properly manage their e-waste and advance the province a step forward in achieving the 50 per cent goal of waste reduction in the provincial waste management strategy. It is estimated that more than 2,600 tonnes of e-waste is generated annually in Newfoundland and Labrador. This program will see manufacturers take responsibility for their products, manage the end-oflife disposal and take an active role in waste diversion in the province. The approved plan was submitted

SK buys 2.3 million trees to renew forests

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The Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment has signed a contract with a Saskatchewan nursery to grow and store 2.3 million tree seedlings, which will be planted in 2014 to renew the province’s publicly owned forests. PRT Growing Services will grow the pine and spruce seedlings this year and store them for the winter. The ministry buys trees from PRT each year under a long-term agreement. The value of this year's contract is $975,000. In Saskatchewan, forest companies must renew all of the areas they harvest, under current licence agreements. The province’s renewal program addresses harvesting that is outside the areas covered by these agreements or that predates them. The provincial government has planted about 168 million trees since 1939 to renew provincial forests. www.gov.sk.ca

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A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

A historical perspective on the steel and fabrication industries By John R. Curry


teels of the late 19th century and early 20th century were not what we have in use today. Early steels were simply molten iron with a small amount of carbon melted in the heat. Hence the term carbon steels. The carbon gave the steel strength, hardness, and the ability to stand stresses. However, it also gave the steel a course grain structure and, with too much carbon, a brittleness. Early steels contained impurities, such as sulfur and phosphorus that adversely affected the quality of the finished product. Prior to World War II, two major steels were used in pressure vessels. The first was A-285C, a 55,000 psi tensile steel, that was easy to weld and fairly “soft” to fabricate. Forming was easy and this steel found wide use in the industry. The other was A-212B Firebox, a 70,000 psi tensile steel with a course grain structure and high hardness. It had the tendency to suffer brittle fracture in thicker materials during severe service. Both of these steels were essentially replaced by A-516-70 in the mid-1960s. A-516-70 is a fine grain, 70,000-psi tensile steel that is silicon-killed in the ladle. The addition of a small amount of silicon during the melting process promotes the

52 | May 2013

fine grain properties. Fine grain steel is easy to cut, form, and weld. These properties, along with the higher tensile strength, have made A-516-70 the steel of choice for carbon steel pressure vessels today. Fabrication methods in the Post World War II era A century ago, welding, as we know it, had not yet been developed. Great structures, such as the Eiffel Tower and giant steamships, were held together with rivets. Arc welding was developed in the 1930s and was in wide use in World War II. With a very few exceptions, all large diameter pressure vessels manufactured today are made using flat plates, roll formed into cylinders or shell cans and welded together. The metal fabrication industry in the United States reached its zenith during the late 1970s. The third world was not yet a threat to the supremacy of the American grip on the world’s fabrication needs. The company I founded grew from 6,900 ft.² and 15 shop employees in 1973 to over 40,000 ft.² and 90 shop employees by 1980. Expansion was the rule of the day. The bust of the 1980s The pendulum began to swing in the early 1980s. Business was booming in

1981, but the signs of a major downturn were beginning to show up. Inventories were growing. Lead times were dropping. An economic correction was at hand. Major contractions in the demand for all things associated with oilfield production and supply rapidly spread through the industry in the early 1980s. The recovery and decline of the 1990s In the early 1990s, conditions within the industry were favorable. New refinery and chemical plant expansions and offshore production platform work grew steadily. The remainder of the fabrication industry began to recover from the bust of the previous decade. The industry was in good health until 1998, when a decline in the price of crude oil took its toll on the construction budgets of the major oil companies. Strong growth from 2004-2008 The year 2004 saw a dramatic rebound in the fabrication industry due to several factors. The first was an ever-increasing price for crude oil, due mainly to greatly increased consumption in China and India. The second was a 104% increase in the price of steel. This too was fueled by demand from China. Worldwide steel production had flattened out. The cruel steel market of the last few

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:43 PM Page 53

Rolls of sheet steel.

years had done things that no one would have ever considered possible twenty years ago. Bethlehem Steel is no more and United States Steel no longer makes plate of any kind. It sold its last plate mill to the International Steel Group (ISG) in early 2003 in exchange for a sheet mill. ISG was purchased by Mittal, Inc. which became Archelor Mittal, the largest steel mill in the nation. As the price of crude oil climbed to $147.00 per barrel in July 2008, the industry boomed. The fabrication industry prospered due to ever higher energy prices. The collapse in late 2008 was not felt by many fabricators in the industry because of strong backlogs going into 2009. By the end of 2009, a bust was in full swing. There were some strong contractions within the industry, but most fabricators weathered the storm. By mid 2010, crude was once more climbing and generating ever stronger business. Metal fabrication 1. Field fabrication and construction. Fifty years ago, any vessel or tank larger than 12’ 0” in diameter was considered to be a field erection and construction job. Most highways, bridges, and underpasses were not designed for the


movement of large, heavy objects. For a process column 14’ 0’’ or larger in diameter, the approach was to roll the plates in arc segments and assemble the vessel in the field just like a jigsaw puzzle. Since labor was still relatively inexpensive, versus steel, this was a cost-effective approach to constructing a large vessel. As field labor became ever more expensive, larger and larger vessels began to be manufactured in vessel shops. Shop labor rates are much cheaper than field construction rates and shop fabrication is not subject to weather related delays. 2. Sheet metal fabrication. Sheet metal fabrication is generally a precision operation using press brakes, roll forming, punching, plasma burning, and laser cutting tools. Typically, sheet metal shops work to a maximum thickness of .250’’ or less. It is a rare sheet metal shop that does ASME Code fabrication. 3. Structural fabrication. This includes skids, various structures made from beams, channels, angles and ladders and platforms. Generally, the labor rates in a structural shop are less than a vessel shop. Therefore, ladders and platforms are subcontracted to structural shops. 4. Atmospheric tanks. The steel tank industry builds non-pressure, non-ASME

Code, flat or cone bottom or top tanks. Typically, the thicknesses are .375’’ or less and the tanks are made with commercial quality steels, such as A-36. The labor rates in this industry are much less than a pressure vessel shop. 5. Pressure vessel and exchangers. The pressure vessel industry manufactures almost all of their products as ASME Code items, designed and stamped to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Div. 1. Their principal pieces of equipment are plate-forming rolls, vessel turning rolls, and heavy welding machines and machine tools in exchanger shops. 6. Fabricated piping. The pipe shops employ the most highly skilled and expensive welders. Pipe shops have jigs and fixtures and use a wide variety of welding processes. Their work is generally more precise and subject to tighter tolerances than vessel shops. Most of their work is pipe size up to 24’’ diameter, and 100% radiography of their welds is often required. John R. Curry is a pressure vessel, steel fabrication industry and metallurgical expert, with almost 50 years experience. E-mail: John.curry6614@att.net

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Containerized MBR treats wastewater at a remote mine


containerized membrane bioreactor recently installed at a remote mining site in Labrador has achieved superior treatment of industrial wastewater. Implemented rapidly without major installation work, the system can treat low or high-strength wastewater. It has a small footprint, only needs to be connected to a power supply to initiate wastewater treatment, and has been operated for over one year now, with an average flow rate of 62 m³/d. System installation involved wastewater characterization, startup, operation and evaluation of the effluent quality according to the local water reuse standards. Average removal efficiencies were 98% BOD5, 99% TSS, 85% ammonia, 99.9% total phosphorus and 100% fecal coliforms. Results show that effluent quality complied with most national and international reuse criteria. However, some modifications are needed to optimize removal efficiency, especially for simultaneous organic matter and nutrient removal. Further investigations into long-term monitoring are necessary. System details The Ecoprocess™ MBR combines the use of biological process and membrane technology to treat wastewater. After the soluble biodegradable matter is removed through a biological process, the biomass formed needs to be separated from the liquid stream to produce the required effluent quality. In conventional processes, a secondary settling tank is used for such solid/liquid separation and this clarification is often the limiting factor in effluent quality. With the MBR ultrafiltration, 0.04

By Mohamad Ghosn

A containerized wastewater treatment system integrating this technology was produced for the Labrador mining site.

microns submerged membranes provide a real physical barrier by removing all particulate suspended solids and microbes. The membranes are made of polythersulfone with module sizes from 50 to 400 m2. A containerized wastewater treatment system integrating this technology was produced for the Labrador mining site in September 2011, and installed and commissioned in January 2012. The plant is modular and includes all associated ancillary equipment, such as primary decanter, equalization tank and phosphate precipitation system. All these components are placed in an insulated and heated 40-ft high cube container. The system is pre-assembled, prepiped and pre-tested to allow “plug and play” installation. It is designed to allow modular expandability and includes a complete remote monitoring program, ensured by telemetry software and PLC control panels. The plant meets effluent discharge criteria required by the Newfoundland and Labrador Regulation (Schedule “A”).

The containerized Ecoprocess MBR was selected because of its small footprint and ability to treat wastewater to very high levels. In 2013, a second system was added to accommodate increasing site population. Operation and discussion In the Ecoprocess MBR, formation of biofilm layer at the membrane surface enhances oxygen mass transfer. Periodic membrane backwashes and air scouring are employed to control biofilm accumulation and maintain steady-state conditions. Excessive biofilm accumulation can result in transport limitation of oxygen and nutrients, plugging of membrane pores, decline in biomass activity, metabolite accumulation deep within the biofilm, and channelling of flow in the bioreactor. Backwashing successfully removes most of the reversible fouling, due to pore blocking, transports it back into the bioreactor, and partially dislodges loosely attached sludge cake from the membrane surface. Key parameters in the design of backwashing are frequency, duration, the ratio between those two parameters, and

Parameters/effluent criteria (mg/L)

Ecoprocess MBR

Schedule A

BOD5 TSS Nitrogen (ammoniacal) Total phosphorus Fecal coliforms (CFU/100ml)

<2 <5 <2 <0.4 <1

20 30 2 1 1,000

Table 1. Ecoprocess MBR performance vs. Schedule A criteria. 54 | May 2013

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Figure 1. Effluent characteristic profile. Results shown were obtained at wastewater temperature below 10°C. Two mechanical failures that temporarily stopped the system are responsible for the loss of nitrification shown in this Figure.

its intensity. Different combinations of these parameters have proved to be more efficient in different installations. Since the Ecoprocess MBR was operated at high SRTs, high biomass concentrations were maintained in the bioreactor. Consequently, higher-strength wastewater can be treated and lower biomass yields are realized. The system has three operating modes: E (Economic mode), Cycle1 (Normal mode) and Cycle 2 (Accelerated mode), producing rates of 0, 15 and 25 L/m2.h respectively. The key flux rates that determine the number of membranes required are associated with peak flow rates. The MBR was operated with mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations of more than 8,000 mg/L, and often in the range of 10,000 mg/L. As a first approach, bio-augmentation was used for the startup period, providing a MLSS concentration of 2,000 mg/L. No biomass was removed from the reactors for the first three months of operation. Fouling on the surface of the membrane sheet and the frame module is controlled through tangential flow along the membrane surface by fine air scouring. The trans-membrane pressure difference is provided by the water head above the membrane. BOD5 and TSS were almost completely removed in the reactors and the www.esemag.com

tained and total phosphorus was almost completely removed with coagulant addition. No fecal coliforms were detected in the effluent, which is a good indication of system performance. This study indicates that the submerged MBR is suitable for wastewater treatment at mining worker camps. They can be satisfactorily operated under local conditions with low and high influent pollutant concentrations that can range from 100 to 600 mg/L of BOD5. It is necessary to provide satisfactory permeate quality for different reuse options. In accordance with the results, treated water can be adequately reused for toilet-flushing as well as cleaning and irrigation purposes. The system requires operational optimization for better water permeate quality, especially for ammonia removal. It is recommended that various cycle schedule adjustments be examined in a further study to reach sufficient nitrification levels.

average BOD5 and TSS concentrations in the effluent were 4 and 2 mg/L, which is the lowest detection level. An average NH3 removal efficiency of 85% was at-

Mohamad Ghosn, P.Eng, is with Premier Tech Aqua. E-mail: ghom@premiertech.com

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Beware of buried tank buoyancy By Mark Bruder


oncrete tanks are commonly used in water and wastewater treatment plants and reservoirs. Depending on process requirements and site considerations, they may be fully or partially buried, covered or uncovered, and frequently have both full and empty liquid levels throughout operation. An individual tank can be used for storage, aeration, filtration, clarification, digestion, sludge holding, or one of many other treatment stages. Buried concrete tanks can be damaged by groundwater-generated buoyancy force. Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that acts on an immersed object. Over two millennia ago, Archimedes of Syracuse developed the Archimedes Principle, which states, “any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.” A buried tank can fail due to the buoyancy force, when the groundwater exerts more pressure upward on the underside of the base slab than can be counteracted downward by any of the following: • The self-weight of the tank. • The weight of soil supported by the tank. • The weight of any liquid in the tank at the time of failure. • Any additional groundwater mitigation system, or GMS. There are two commonly encountered failure mechanisms for buried tanks due to the groundwater-generated buoyancy force: structural failure of the base slab, and complete tank flotation. For one of these to occur, either the effects of groundwater were not properly quantified or part of the groundwater GMS failed. It is important for designers, contractors, owners and operators to understand the buoyancy force. Otherwise, costly and inconvenient repairs may be required during the construction, or design life, of any buried tank. Recent tank failures There have been several tank failures in the past few years. One example was a buried, open-topped, circular concrete

56 | May 2013

tank with a mildly sloped base slab, pressure-relief valves (PRVs) installed in the base slab, perimeter subdrains connected to manholes, and a granular drainage layer placed underneath the slab. As the liquid level in the tank was being lowered for regular maintenance, hydrostatic uplift pressure on the underside of the base slab (due to the surrounding groundwater) exceeded the weight of the slab and the water remaining inside the tank. As a result, the slab heaved by over 400 mm. The first issue was that the mid-floor PRVs failed to function as intended. They should have prevented differential pressure from building up as the liquid level was being lowered. During previous tank maintenance, the PRVs were functional and no damage occurred. However, the filter fabric surrounding each valve had become clogged, preventing the free passage of water into the tank. This was despite significant hydrostatic pressure underneath the base slab. The second issue was that, prior to pumping down the liquid in the tank, facility operators did not check the groundwater elevation or lower it to a safe elevation. Had this been done, the failure might not have occurred. Another failure happened to a tank that was constructed with PRVs, but no subdrains or any mechanism to

check/lower groundwater elevation. In this case, the PRVs were installed incorrectly by being cemented shut with a concrete floor topping. During the first dewatering for maintenance, the base slab heaved. In addition, facility operators were not aware of the dangers of groundwater and had not taken any precautions when draining the tank. Basics of groundwater mitigation systems Buried concrete tanks are susceptible to structural failure when being drained and subjected to a high groundwater table. This is despite having a GMS incorporated into the design. The groundwater table does not have to be very high to cause structural failure. Ultimately, any tank can fail if the GMS has been improperly designed, installed, operated and/or maintained. The designer should choose a suitable GMS that meets the needs of the client and carries a minimal risk against failure. It is the responsibility of the contractor to install the system properly and ensure that it is functional during commissioning. It is the responsibility of the owners/operators to be aware of, actively operate, and maintain the systems as required. Listed below are five GMSs commonly used to help alleviate buoyancy force. They differ in initial capital cost,

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:43 PM Page 57

simplicity of installation, lifecycle functionality and risk of failure. Tank dead weight The tank dead weight can be increased by thickening the base slab and/or walls. This downward permanent dead weight directly counteracts the upward buoyancy force. Pros: Full restraint against flotation can be achieved. No maintenance or active operation by plant staff is required. The system is simple to design and construct. Con: This approach can be uneconomical if the slab/wall thicknesses become excessive. Soil on the toes Additional dead weight can be found within the wedge of soil that is supported on the toes of the base slab. The wider the toe, the larger the soil wedge that becomes activated when subjected to uplift. Pros: Full restraint against flotation can be achieved. No maintenance or active operation by plant staff is required. The system is simple to design and construct. Cons: This can be uneconomical if the

Buried concrete tanks are susceptible to structural failure when being drained and subjected to a high groundwater table.

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toe width becomes excessive due to increased excavation volume. The excavation method, type of backfill, and proximity to existing structure must be considered prior to construction. The base slab must be capable of spanning the tank. Subdrains Subdrains can be installed around the perimeter of the tank walls, or underneath the base slab. Typically, the walls are backfilled with free-draining granular material. Subdrains are wrapped with filter fabric (to prevent fine soil particles from clogging the perforated pipe), and a drainage layer may be installed underneath the base slab. The subdrains are tied into a manhole, so the groundwater table can be monitored and lowered to any elevation by pumping. Pros: This is effective at lowering the groundwater table. Installation is straightforward and not overly expensive. Cons: The system requires active monitoring, operation and cleaning. Facility operators may rely too heavily on the continued performance of the system. Settlement of nearby structure may occur continued overleaf...

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when the groundwater table is lowered. This approach may not be practical for sites with a very high groundwater table. Pressure-relief valves PRVs can be installed in the base slab or walls depending on the process requirements and structural design. The valves open one-way into the tank when the pressure outside is greater than the pressure inside. As water slowly seeps into the tank, groundwater pressure is alleviated. Pros: This system is effective at alleviating groundwater pressure, and is highly economical. Cons: It requires occasional cleaning to prevent blockage. If not properly installed, content of the tank may leak out. The PRVs may not be able to fully drain the tank, when the groundwater elevation balances inside the tank.

Anchors Anchors can be installed to fully restrain the tank. Options include screw piles that activate a wedge of soil, rock anchors that mechanically grip a rock layer below, and caissons that rely on dead weight. A successful design includes economic pile spacing and a proper connection to the base slab. Pros: Full restraint against flotation can be achieved. No maintenance or active operation by plant staff is required. The anchors are simple to design and construct. Cons: This can be uneconomical without an optimized design, or if costly extras arise during construction. It is not an option for sites with unfavourable soil types. Installation and operation For a GMS to function, all components must be properly designed, installed, operated and maintained. The system is only as strong as its weakest link. Typically, it costs far more to repair a tank after it has failed, than to spend time and money during the design or construction phases to implement a suitable GMS. Components that require active oper-

ation and/or maintenance by plant staff include subdrains, manholes, pumps and PRVs. When a tank needs cleaning and must be emptied, plant staff should first check the groundwater elevation in the manhole. If it is too high, then a pump is lowered into the manhole. By means of the free-draining granular backfill and/or base slab drainage layer, water travels through the subdrains into the manhole and is pumped away. Eventually, groundwater elevation is brought down to a safe level. Occasionally, PRVs require cleaning to ensure they are not clogged. Any component that requires active operation or maintenance includes a life cycle cost and increased risk of failure. Avoiding structural failures definitively and economically has no all-inclusive answer. All available mitigation systems should be considered for each individual tank design and site-specific conditions. This can ensure optimal performance, without excessive capital or life cycle costs. Mark Bruder, P.Eng., is with R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. E-mail: mbruder@rvanderson.com


Phone: 610-236-1100 Email: stormwater@brentwoodindustries.com Web: www.brentwoodindustries.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Geosynthetics used to help properly close Manitoba’s Farley Mine By Titan Environmental Containment and Chris Kelsey


ining is a vital activity for modern life. The metals, minerals, and other raw materials extracted enable the production of the goods each of us utilizes directly and indirectly on a daily basis. But the legacy of mining, particularly for those that were started before the advent of today’s containment materials, can present very difficult environmental challenges. Remediation of Farley Mine at Lynn Lake, Manitoba, provides an example of how geosynthetic systems are being used in larger geotechnical work to properly cap old mines. Originally developed as a nickel mine, the Farley Mine began production in 1953 and deposited tailings in an unlined zone, now referred to as the East Tailings Management Area (ETMA). After 1976, the nickel operation was expanded, with the mill also producing zinc, copper and gold at various times. This went on under the management of different operators until 2002, when mining ceased. The former tailings cells, area soils and groundwater were evaluated from 2001 to 2006, after which, in coordination with the mining firm Viridian, Inc. (a subsidiary of Agrium Corp), a remediation scheme, including funding, was developed for proper closure of the ETMA land. Rehabilitation of the ETMA has been directed by the Province of Manitoba’s Orphaned/Abandoned Mine Site Rehabilitation Program. Launched in 2000, the program has identified 149 former mine sites as orphaned or abandoned. Five of these sites have been listed as “high-priority.” The former Farley Mine site in Lynn Lake is one of them. Seeking closure More than 550 acres of tailings (totaling 25 million tons) have been identified for rehabilitation, with an overall investment of $25 - $60 million needed through 2016. This is roughly divided 50/50 between the province and the mining company. Major geotechnical and environmental engineering work includes:


• Construction of a rainwater and melt water diversion ditch around the ETMA (completed). • Installation of a trial permeable reactive barrier to treat contaminated groundwater (completed). • Revegetation trials (completed). • A review of options for covering the tailings. • Installation of an engineered wetland to remove contaminants from the ETMA runoff (ongoing). Capping the site One of the primary purposes of an engineered capping system is to prevent rainwater incursion into the polluted soil zone. Soil-only caps are permeable to liquid and subject to erosion. Clay-only caps can crack and create channels for infiltration and polluted runoff. Because of this, geotechnical engineers incorporate geosynthetic technologies in a capping system to greatly improve barrier properties, provide longterm security, and reduce the required thickness of the system. The latter also reduces cost, heavy truck and equipment usage/pollution, and site labour time. The engineering firm Arcadis provided a multi-layer design for containing the site’s polluted soils, including the installation of geomembrane, geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and geotextile. This combination of materials provides a strong barrier to liquids. The high-swelling bentonite clay within the GCL “self-seals” when hydrated, providing defense against potential punctures in the system The geotextile provides protection for the geomembrane and provides filtration and soil separation characteristics within the cap and additional frictional strength, for slope security. To construct the cap’s geosynthetic layers, the general contractor Hazco (Tervita) worked closely with Titan Environmental Containment, which is certified by the International Association of Geosynthetic Installers (IAGI). Geosynthetic installations, particularly when they involve barrier systems, are often very sensitive. Each product is en-

gineered to perform specific functions and care must be taken to ensure that it is handled and installed very carefully. In the case of geomembranes, this is vitally important. Geomembranes provide an exceptional barrier against liquid migration. They must not be damaged—or if damaged, left unrepaired—during installation. Improper handling may lead to leakage, and require expensive corrective action. Seams between the geomembrane panels must also be tight to prevent leakage. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes, such as those used in Lynn Lake, are known for their durability in aggressive environments and long-term performance. HDPE is the most common membrane used in critical waste management and highly sensitive applications. However, HDPE is a more rigid geomembrane, which means its panels must be welded in the field, rather than pre-fabricated into large flexible panels in the controlled environment of a factory. Titan’s team installed 749,000 m2 of 60-mil textured HDPE from GSE Environmental and 720,000 ft.2 of BENTOMAT® CL geosynthetic clay liner from CETCO. In addition to the geomembrane’s heightened chemical resistance and endurance characteristics, texturing on the geomembrane provides increased resistance to friction. To further emphasize the site’s security concerns, the GCL specified is a reinforced material, consisting of a layer of sodium bentonite between two geotextiles. These are needle punched together and laminated with a thin flexible membrane liner for additional liquid/gas barrier properties. Bringing it all together was challenging in Lynn Lake’s remote, windy and dusty environment. With the geomembrane, great care needed to be taken to keep the seams clean during welding, so that firm bonds could be achieved between the panels. For more information, visit www.titanenviro.ca. Chris Kelsey writes for Geosynthetica.net. E-mail: chris@geosynthetica.net

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BC firm honoured for its oil recovery systems

The stricken Costa Concordia.


ith more and more oil exploration, production and refining, the need to clean large volumes of water in the event of a spill has become

60 | May 2013

a critical issue. Aqua-Guard’s RBS TRITON™ oil skimming technology won the 2012 Innovation Award from the North Vancouver Chamber of Commerce. It was also a

finalist in the Innovation category at the 2013 Offshore Support Journal Awards in London, UK. With oil recovery efficiency of up to 98% oil and only 2% water, its rotating brush skimming system with patented oil recovery and removal technology has been proven in thousands of applications of recovering light to extremely heavy oils such as diluted bitumen (dilbit). The firm’s oil skimming systems have been used in 104 countries around the world in situations requiring the removal of surface oil from ponds and API separators, as well as in oil spill response operations in locations onshore, near shore and offshore. They were used by Burrard Clean Operations (now WCMRC), to recover heavy dilbit from Burrard Inlet, during a pipeline spill in 2007. Each system consists of a floating oil skimmer head, powered hydraulically from an external diesel/hydraulic or diesel electric power system. Heavy-duty lobe pumping systems are mounted on each oil skimmer head and are able to transfer large volumes of light to extremely heavy oil products. RBS TRITON 35 and 60 model skimmers are effective at recovering oil in industrial processes. At the Chevron refinery in Vancouver, they have been operating constantly for the past five years, with very little maintenance. Installed in the primary API separator basins, they re-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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move most surface oil and, in turn, pump it back for reprocessing. This not only has financial benefits for the customer, but also has a positive impact on the environment by reducing the hydrocarbon content of effluent wastewaters. Larger RBS TRITON 150 systems are also being used extensively to recover surface oil from large oil ponds in the Middle East, Venezuela, Panama, Cuba and Northern Canada. These skimming systems are able to recover large amounts of ultra heavy oil, which can be reclaimed by the oil company. Even larger RBS TRITON URO 300 and URO 600 systems are designed specifically for the offshore support vessel (OSV) market. These massive systems are mounted onboard the OSVs and are used to recover high volumes of oil in the event of a major offshore spill, such as the BP Horizon Macondo spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Aqua-Guard now has a

At the Costa Concordia cruise ship grounding in Italy in 2012, Aqua-Guard’s RBS TRITON 300 skimmers were on standby and ready to intervene in the event of an oil spill.

• Linear polyethylene tanks certified by NSF International to ANSI 61 standards for potable water • Double wall containment in one integral, space-saving unit • Secondary tank has a capacity 120% of inner tank, exceeding EPA standards • Capacities from 20 to 6,550 gallons

Toll-free: 888-357-3181 Why Assmann? See our website: www.assmann-usa.com Assmann Corporation • Garrett, IN 46738 Fax: 888-TANK FAX (826-5329) E-mail: info@assmann-usa.com

Manufacturing facilities in Garrett, IN and Marshall, TX



fleet of these URO offshore systems on standby in Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Japan and Korea. These machines have the highest oil recovery capacity in existence and are able to recover up to 600 m3/hour, according to Aqua-Guard. At the Costa Concordia cruise ship grounding in Italy in 2012, Aqua-Guard’s RBS TRITON 300 skimmers were on standby and ready to intervene in the event of an oil spill. More recently, RBS TRITON 150 systems were used extensively to recover 1,850 m3 of oil over a 10-day period (120 m3/h oil) at a pipeline spill of heavy oil in Panama. The internal pumping systems also transferred the heavy oil an additional 140 metres to storage tanks. For more information, visit www.aquaguard.com


www.greatario.com 519-469-8169 sales@greatario.com May 2013 | 61

Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase

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Small double wall tanks

Stormwater storage system

Small double wall tanks, from 20 to 405 gallons, provide primary and secondary containment for hazardous and corrosive chemicals in one unit. Linear polyethylene tanks are certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61, and high-density crosslink resin tanks for chemical storage. ISO 9001:2008 Certified. Web: www.assmann-usa.com

StormTank™ Stormwater Modules provide innovative solutions for spatial maximization and sustainable water management. These strong, affordable modules are a successful alternative to concrete structures or pipe chambers, offer 97% void space, and are load tested with an HS-25 rating. E-mail: stormwater@brentwoodindustries.com Web: www.brentwoodindustries.com

Assmann Corporation of America

Brentwood Industries

Corrosion protection

Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to provide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Water reservoir & tank mixer

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Specialist training Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: michael@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: www.spillmanagement.ca

H2Flow Tanks & Systems

Spill Management

Fall protection specialists

Spill containment systems

Containment system

TEAM-1 Academy Inc. is your Fall Protection/Rescue from Heights Specialist. With many government enforcement agencies having a zero tolerance for fall accidents, our courses are a must. All of our courses are the industry benchmark and attended by Fortune 500 companies regularly. Tel: 905-827-0007 Web: www.team1academy.com

To avoid any major reoccuring expenses like oil/water filtration, shoveling snow and debris, or incurring tainted water disposal costs, Transport Environmental Systems offers open collector pan models and closeable lid models to help avoid collecting snow, rainwater and debris. Also available are roll-under spill collector pans and other products for train/tanker truck loading, unloading and spill containment. Tel: 252-571-0092, Fax: 252-489-2060 E-mail: info@transenvsys.com Web: www.transenvsys.com

Westeel's CRing Containment Systems are ideal for petrochemical, frac water storage, oil and gas, fertilizer, hazardous material, and agricultural applications. All systems are made with high-strength (50-ksi) steel and have heavy-duty G115 galvanizing, meeting the stringent requirements of ISO 9001. Tel: 888-674-8265, 204-233-7133 Fax: 888-463-6012 E-mail: info@westeel.com Web: www.westeel.com

TEAM-1 Academy

62 | May 2013

Transport Environmental Systems


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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American Public University is a leading provider of quality online education. APU offers more than 170 undergraduate and graduate degree and certificate programs for environmental science, policy, and management professionals. When you’re ready to learn more, visit StudyatAPU.com/ESE. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: info@apus.edu Web: StudyatAPU.com/ESE American Public University

Phoenix Underdrain System

• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Combination pH/ORP electrodes

The new combined pH/ORP electrodes, Memosens CPS16D, CPS76D and CPS96D from Endress+Hauser, now make customers’ processes even more transparent. Two parameters measured at the same time or alternatively - pH plus extra sensor check - don’t leave room for interpretation. And for the first time, one single sensor is able to deliver the rHvalue! E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/memosens Endress+Hauser Canada


Biosolids management

American Water provides beneficial reuse of biosolids; advanced technologies - Class A biosolids; mobile dewatering; digester, reactor, tank and lagoon cleaning; confined space entry; treatment plant by-pass; vacuum and haulage services; custom, mobile screening; and free assessments and quotations. Tel: 800-846-2097 E-mail: terratecsales@amwater.com Web: www.terratec.amwater.com American Water

Phoenix Panel System

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Innovative bar sceen

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

The Duperon® FlexRake® FPFS model features ThruBar™ technology, which ensures scrapers fully penetrate bars and eliminates the issues of wrapping and clinging debris. Energy-efficient operating speed of .5 rpm; discharges once per minute to reduce head loss and slot velocity. Tel: 800-383-8479, Fax: 989-754-2175 E-mail: chegler@duperon.com Web: www.duperon.com Duperon

New Liquiline CM44x

Filtration media

Memosens sensor technology and the new digital Liquiline platform make "plug & play" online analyzers and samplers a true reality. Modular design allows for any combination of inputs (DO, TSS, pH, conductivity, chlorine, nitrate, Ion Selective and blanket level). All are easily customized to your specific process. E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/analysis

Improve tertiary effluent quality by 50% or more with “Microfiber” Pile Cloth Media. OptiFiber PES-14® Microfiber cloth filtration media is engineered to remove suspended solids, turbidity and fine particles up to 50% better than other filters or microscreens. Microfiber cloth media is proven to reduce total phosphorus to 0.1 mg/l or less.

Endress+Hauser Canada


Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.envirocan.ca

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Product & Service Showcase

Online education

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:44 PM Page 64

Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com

P roduct & Service Showcase

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Ultrasonic flow meter

Ozone systems

With no down time and no pipe cutting, accurately measure flow from the outside of metal or plastic pipes. The new Greyline TTFM 1.0 Transit Time Flow meter includes clamp-on ultrasonic transducers for easy flow measurement of liquids, including water, oils and chemicals. Tel: 888-473-9546, Fax: 613-938-4857 E-mail: ernie@greyline.com Web: www.greyline.com

H2Flow offers Pinnacle’s revolutionary Zenith ozone systems, producing up to 600 lbs/day (5% wt.) per unit. With their highly efficient design, they can be turned up/down for 100% dosage variability. They are built with solid components, are rugged, proven, extremely compact, and water cooled, with no yearly maintenance. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: info@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com



Wrapped concrete cylinder pipe

Water temperature data logger

Flow measurement system

C303 Bar-wrapped pipe combines the physical strength of steel with the structural and protective properties of high strength cement mortar. C303 consists of a steel cylinder, steel joint rings, a cement mortar lining, reinforcing steel bar, and a cement mortar coating. The pipe is manufactured in accordance with AWWA C303 Standard; Tel: 888-497-7660, Fax: 905-640-5154 Web: www.hansonpressurepipe.com Hanson Pipe & Precast

The tiny TidbiT v2 from Onset has 12bit resolution and a precision sensor for ±0.2 °C accuracy over a wide temperature range. The rugged TidbiT is waterproof to 300m (1,000 ft). Data readout is available in less than 30 seconds via the Optic USB interface. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www.hoskin.ca

The Son Tek-IQ Series was developed for use in irrigation canals, culverts, pipes, rivers and streams. It can collect flow and volume data in as little as 8 cm (3 in) of water. It offers 4-Beam velocity measurement, easy installation and integration and total volume data. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Hoskin Scientific

Septage receiving station

Sludge screen

Hypochlorite generation equipment

The Huber RoFAS Septage Receiving Station is designed to handle environments that would cause standard septage receiving stations to fail. It easily handles large rocks and debris and protects headworks from unpredictable septage. Its design allows for rapid offloading of tanker trucks. Tel: 704-990-2055, Fax: 704-949-1020 E-mail: solutions@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/rofas

The Strainpress® Inline Sludge Screen from Huber Technology is designed to effectively screen sludge in pressurized lines. Reduces maintenance costs and increases the operating reliability of downstream sludge treatment systems. The Strainpress is precision manufactured of stainless steel. There are more than 700 installations. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

Utilizing 150 plus years of combined experience selling, designing, manufacturing, installing and servicing onsite hypochlorite generation equipment, the team at PSI have implemented innovations to ensure equipment reliability matches the operational benefits of switching to a MicrOclor On-Site Hypochlorite Generation system. MicrOclor is distributed in Ontario by Indachem Inc. Tel: 416-743-3751 Web: www.indachem.com

Huber Technology

Huber Technology


64 | May 2013

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Screening system Wastewater pump stations are facing an influx of sewer clogging rags and debris, so JWC Environmental engineers developed a breakthrough vertical Auger Monster速 screening system to fit inside cramped pump stations and provide complete

IPEX has launched ABetterSewer.com, a new blog for wastewater engineers, designers and operators. It will cover technical issues related to drop structures, sewer hydraulics and odor control, and will inform on technology and opinions of industry experts with a specific focus upon the Vortex Flow Solution. Tel: 905-403-0264 E-mail: jennifer.tuck@ipexna.com Web: www.abettersewer.com

pump protection. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail: jwce@jwce.com Web: www.jwce.com

IPEX Management

JWC Environmental

New versions of an old favourite KSB has launched the latest generation of its popular Etanorm series. With more than 1.5 million units sold since 1936, it is a best-selling standardized water pump. Offering improved efficiency, the 2013 Etanorm line-up comes in 43 different pump sizes with many optional material and impeller choices. Matching size and features closely to application requirements ensures long service life and economical pump operation. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca KSB Pumps

Screw press

Dissolved air flotation

Interpreter register

The ACAT screw press is now available in Canada, the US and Mexico, exclusively through Kusters Water, a division of Kusters Zima Corporation. It is an efficient and reliable way of dewatering sludge. The slow rotational speed, low maintenance, low noise level and low energy consumption are significant advantages over other technologies. Tel: 864-576-0660 Web: www.kusterswater.com

Hi-Tech/ Kusters Water offers a complete line of Dissolved Air Flotation units for use in municipal and industrial wastewater applications. Each DAF mechanism is equipped with the necessary pressurization and recycle components required for efficient and effective separation of suspended solids, fats, oil and grease. Tanks are offered in either circular or rectangular configurations. Tel: 205-987-8976, Fax: 205-987-8996 E-mail: jim.weidler@kusterszima.com Web: www.kusterswater.com

Master Meter's Interpreter Register System, based on proven Dialog速 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com

Kusters Water

Kusters Water

Master Meter

Ultrasonic meter

Safety hatches

Rotary lobe pump

Octave速 offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is anexcellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com

MSU MG Safety Hatches set the standard in Canada for fall-through protection. They withstand pedestrian and occasional traffic loads. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made in Canada. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com

The NETZSCH TORNADO速 positive displacement, self priming, valveless pumps, offer high performance and are selected and configured for the requirements of each application. They are designed for intermittent or continuous operation, provide gentle pumping of the pumped product and are ideally suited for transfer, process and dosing applications. There are highly abrasion resistant and replaceable protection plates on both faces of the housing. Tel: 705-797-8426, Fax: 705-797-8427 E-mail: info@netzsch.ca Web: www.netzsch.ca

Master Meter

MSU Mississauga

NETZSCH Canada Inc.


May 2013 | 65

Product & Service Showcase

New technical reference blog

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:44 PM Page 66

Equipment supplier

Noble is one of Ontario’s largest suppliers of pipe, valves, fittings and accessories for the wastewater and water treatment industries. The Noble Advantage: • 40 branches in Ontario • 200 delivery trucks • 500,000 sq. ft. distribution centre • Pipe cutting & grooving services Tel: 800-529-9805 Web: www.noble.ca Noble

P roduct & Service Showcase

Check valves Praher’s K6 PVC Wafer Check Valve is engineered and molded with improved hinge and spring design. It is rated to 150 psi. The disc design is new, with conical sealing surface for highest reliability and maximum operating cycles. Sizes range from 2” to 8”. Tel: 705-720-2753, Fax: 705-725-0444 E-mail: njohnston@prahervalves.com Web: www.prahervalves.com Praher Valves

Solution architecture

Schneider Electric is the only global specialist providing EcoStruxure, an integrated systems architecture unifying process management, energy management and security management for water and wastewater. Our solutions can save up to 30% in operating and design costs. Tel: 800-565-6699 E-mail: canadian.pss@ca.schneiderelectric.com Web: www.schneider-electric.com Schneider Electric

66 | May 2013

Microcystins detection

Water filters

Orival’s Automatic Self-Cleaning Water Filters are simple to install. They provide uninterrupted downstream flow while cleaning themselves only when needed, based on a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet. With models from ¾” to 24” and filtration degrees from 5 to 3,000 microns, Orival filters are available in many configurations and construction materials. Tel: 800-567-9767 E-mail: filters@orival.com Web: www.orival.com ORIVAL

DulcoFlow® flow meter is based on the ultrasonic measurement method. Operation without moving parts guarantees a long service life and wear-free operation. Its measurement range is between 0.1 and 50 litres per hour. A unique feature is that, for the first time, pulsed flow and the amount of liquid which has been dispensed by each pump stroke can be reliably and precisely measured and monitored. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

Schonstedt’s new MPC Kit (Multi-Purpose Combo) replaces the discontinued MAC-51BX and includes both a GA-92 XT magnetic locator and an XT-PC pipe and cable locator. These locators are the most portable, versatile, and accurate way to find it all underground. Tel: 800-999-8280, Fax: 304-725-1095 E-mail: info@schonstedt.com Web: www.schonstedt.com Schonstedt Instrument Company

Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 E-mail: sales@ospreyscientific.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com Osprey Scientific

Metering pump

Flow meter

Underground locators

The EnviroGard Microcystins Plate Kit is a quantitative laboratory test for the detection of microcystins residues in water. The EnviroGard Microcystins Plate Kit is calibrated with a non-toxic microcystins-LR surrogate at levels equivalent to 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.56, 0.8 and 1.6 ppb microcystins-LR.

The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca/delta ProMinent Fluid Controls

Automation solution The simple combination design of the Smart Servo Package allows for an extremely high level of flexibility with various extension products, which can be optionally combined to meet the requirements of the application, communication and automation structure. Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca


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PISTA®Works™ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTA® Grit Concentrator, a PISTA® TURBO™ Grit Washer and a PISTA® 360™ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

New and Improved Hydrolift The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift has been one of the most popular mechanical actuators for the Waterra Inertial Pump, and we've been working to make it better. Today, the improved Hydrolift is more durable and easier to use and most importantly, more affordable than ever.

Flexible multilevel monitoring

Obtain discrete zone groundwater data using a Solinst CMT® Multilevel System. Inexpensive and easy to install, design flexibility allows port locations and monitoring strategy to be finalized right on site. Monitor up to seven zones in one well; three in the 1.1" diameter system. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com Solinst

Inertial pumping system

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

The Waterra Inertial Pumping System is the most widely used pump for monitoring wells in Canada. For developing, purging and sampling — nothing else comes close. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps

EcoPlug Wellcaps

The EcoPlug™ offers the latest in well plug design and is the only well cap made from recycled materials. If you're looking for a durable, tamper-proof well cap that will withstand repeated use (and abuse) over many years, the EcoPlug is an excellent fit for your requirements. This well cap is available for 3/4", 1", 2" and 4" monitoring wells. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps


Controlling contaminated groundwater Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: info@waterloo-barrier.com Web: www. waterloo-barrier.com Waterloo Barrier

PVC or Polyethylene

The Waterra Clear PVC EcoBailer and Weighted Polyethylene EcoBailer are both eco-friendly products. A better weight distribution allows these bailers to sink straighter, and the efficient valve design makes them the fastest sinking bailers available. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

Chemical-free water treatment

Amalgam UV lamps

WEDECO Ozone Generators from Xylem eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca

Xylem’s WEDECO ECORAY® ultraviolet lamps offer significant savings in operation and life cycle costs. The UV lamps incorporate a new long-life coating and improved overall stability and performance. An innovative gas and amalgam mixture in the lamp utilizes up to 80 percent less mercury. Corresponding electronic ballast cards have been fine-tuned to the specific requirements of ECORAY lamp aging characteristics. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca



May 2013 | 67

Product & Service Showcase

Grit removal system

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:44 PM Page 68

 Montreal faces its largest boil water advisory

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Over one million Montrealers were affected by a 36 hour boil-water advisory, issued by the city last month after an incident at its Atwater water filtration plant. The boil-water advisory applied to most of Montreal Island and is believed to be the largest one in recent history. Residents were advised to boil their water for at least a minute, or to use bottled water. They were also asked to avoid brushing their teeth with tap water. However, tap water could still be used to wash dishes, take a shower or wash clothes. The 95 year old Atwater plant has been undergoing extensive renovations. Reports on the incident stated that water levels were periodically lowered in the plant’s main treated water reservoir during the renovations. On this occasion, the water level went far lower that it was supposed to and the reservoir was almost emptied. This stirred up sediments deposited on the bottom of the reservoir, which were then pumped into the distribution system. Sometime after this happened, a number of residents reported brownish water coming from their taps. Though the water in question was filtered and disinfected with chlorine, it was feared the sediment could contain bacteria. Hence, the advisory was issued to protect public health.

While visiting the Abitibi Témiscamingue region, Québec Premier Pauline Marois announced the creation of the d’Opémican national park. D’Opémican will be the second park created since the current government took office. Marois said it demonstrates the government's will to develop every region of Québec and support local economic and social development. 40,000 visitors are expected annually, generating approximately $7.5 million in economic spinoffs. This translates into some 30 regular or seasonal jobs in the region and will be a significant shot in the arm for the tourism industry and the regional economy as a whole. The creation of the national park will make it possible to protect and develop an area about 250 km2 in size, bordered on the West by Lake Témiscamingue and on Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:44 PM Page 69

 the East by Lake Kipawa. The park is located at the junction of the deciduous and boreal forests and includes a diversity of habitats that are home to wildlife and floristic species that are typical of Témiscamingue landscapes. www.mddefp.gouv.qc.ca

Markham, Ontario 905-747-8506 WeKnowWater@BV.com www.bv.com

Consulting • Engineering • Construction • Operation

First-ever recipients of Excellence in Water Stewardship Award announced The Council of the Federation has recognized Canadian organizations, businesses and institutions, for outstanding achievement, leadership and practices in water stewardship. The Council established this award in recognition that water is critical to human and ecosystem health. This is part of the Council's Water Charter which was adopted by Canada’s premiers in August 2010. The recipients of the 2013 Council of the Federation Excellence in Water Stewardship Award are: Alberta Urban Municipalities Association – Alberta; Okanagan Water Stewardship Council – British Columbia; Lake Winnipeg Foundation – Manitoba; City of Moncton Automated Water Meter Reading Project – New Brunswick; Atlantic Coastal Action Plan (ACAP) Humber Arm – Newfoundland and Labrador; Sambaa K’e Dene Band – Northwest Territories; Clean Annapolis River Project – Nova Scotia; Centre for Water Resources Studies – Nunavut; City of Kitchener Impervious-area Based Stormwater Utility and Credit Policy – Ontario; Winter River-Tracadie Bay Watershed Association – Prince Edward Island; Regroupement pour la protection du Grand lac Saint-François – Québec; Lower Souris Watershed Committee Inc. – Saskatchewan; Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council – Yukon. Each recipient receives a glass award, a monetary prize and a certificate signed by the Premier of their province or territory. www.councilofthefederation.ca

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HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGES HIGH VOLUME PUMPING-HDPE PIPE HDPE PIPELINE FUSING GEO TUBE DEWATERING Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction, Municipal & Industrial Tel: (506) 684-5821 | Fax (506) 684-1915 | www.girouxinc.com Ideal mixing for: Anoxic Basins Aeration Basins Large Bubble Mixing Technology Sludge Mixing Drinking water storage tank mixing Innovative, air burst driven mixing Sewage pump station grease cap busting & odor control Most energy-efficient mixing Industrial Applications No in-basin moving parts Food processing applications, liquor blending & a wide range of mixEasy installation ing applications


HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 Ph: 905-777-9494 Fax: 905-777-8678 info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca


Robert Haller has been selected as the new executive director of the Canadian Water



Email: info@cctatham.com

CWWA appoints new Executive Director

continued overleaf...



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May 2013 | 69

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:44 PM Page 70

 RELIANT WATER QUALITY AERATOR for Lagoons and Aquaculture 

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WELL AND PUMP MAINTENANCE Performance Testing, Inspections, Well Rehabilitation & Repairs Lineshaft and Submersible Turbines 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

Tel: (705) 733-0111, Fax: (705) 721-0138 E-Mail: iws@iws.ca

and Wastewater Association. Haller has worked with the City of Ottawa, the Township of Goulbourn, the Town of Prescott, Tay Valley Township, and as a municipal consultant. www.cwwa.ca

Meat processing plant fined $15,000 A Cookstown, Ontario, company was fined $15,000 for failing to comply with a ministry approval for an industrial sewage works. “Polluters should be aware that the ministry’s investigations and enforcement branch will vigorously pursue charges when our environmental laws are broken,” said Jim Bradley, Ontario's Minister of the Environment. 1291675 Ontario Corporation operating as Holly Park Meat Packers Inc., owns a meat processing plant in the County of Simcoe. Ministry staff conducted a file review of the company that revealed a number of non-compliance issues with their ministry approval relating to the sewage system. The company was responsible for failing to prepare an operation manual as per its approval, failing to notify the district manager one week prior to start-up of the works, and failing to prepare and submit annual performance reports to the ministry. The company was fined a total of $15,000 plus victim fine surcharges of $3,750.

Company fined after operator by-passes treatment equipment

10 Alden Road Markham, Ontario Canada L3R 2S1 Tel: 905-475-1545 Fax: 905-475-2021 www.napier-reid.com

Package Wastewater Treatment Plants/SBR/MBR/RBC/EA/DAF 70 | May 2013

When residents of a private island community in Lefaivre, Ontario, complained that they had no water, water treatment operator Rosaire Lalonde by-passed the water treatment equipment after he was unable to identify the problem. The result was untreated water being sent to users of the drinking water system. The community is overseen by Prescott Condominium Corporation No. 1. Mr. Lalonde failed to ensure water treatment equipment was in operation whenever water was being supplied. In addition, the company failed to immediately report the observation that the water system had not been disinfected to the ministry. The company was fined $8,000 plus Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:44 PM Page 71

 victim fine surcharges of $2,000. Mr. Lalonde was given a suspended sentence. In addition to the fine, a court order was issued to the company requiring a protocol be developed to report adverse water results and ensure at least one person have training as a certified operator.

Ontarioʼs air quality continues to improve Ontario's annual air quality report shows levels of many air pollutants have dropped across the province and air quality continues to improve. Measures the government has taken to improve air quality are: replacing coal-fired generation with cleaner, renewable energy sources; lowering emissions from cars and trucks and investing in public transit; stronger regulations to reduce greenhouse gases and other industrial emissions; and, working with the federal government and the United States to address trans-boundary air pollutants that impact Ontario. There are 40 air quality index monitoring stations across the province that provide around-the-clock information on air quality. Over the past decade, levels of air pollutants such as fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and summer time ground-level ozone have declined.

Environmental groups request federal action over Suncor spill After a Suncor Energy Inc. oil sands operation leaked 350,000 litres of toxic wastewater into the Athabasca River, Ecojustice, on behalf of five environmental organizations, is calling on the federal government to investigate and potentially lay charges against the energy giant. “The information available thus far indicates that there is sufficient evidence to establish that a violation of the Fisheries Act has occurred,” said Melissa Gorrie, staff lawyer at Ecojustice. “The federal government has the legal authority to hold Suncor to account for polluting one of Alberta’s biggest rivers, but whether it has the will to actually do so remains to be seen.” Ecojustice submitted a letter on April 25 to Environment Canada and the Public Prosecution Service of Canada on behalf continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 10:15 PM Page 72

 of Council of Canadians, Greenpeace Canada, Keepers of the Athabasca, Public Interest Alberta, and Sierra Club Prairie, requesting that charges under the Fisheries Act be laid against Suncor. Section 36 of the Fisheries Act prohibits the deposition of deleterious substances into fish-bearing waters; the Athabasca River is home to more than half of Albertaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fish species. Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development (AESRD) confirmed that the toxic wastewater released in Suncorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s March 25 spill, â&#x20AC;&#x153;did not meet all parameters of the Alberta Surface Water Guidelines, and did not pass the standard 96-hour rainbow trout acute toxicity test...â&#x20AC;? In a blog post on its website, AESRD stated that pyrene was present at twice the chronic guideline for aquatic life, with ammonia, chloride and various trace metals (e.g., arsenic, cadmium and zinc), also present above the chronic aquatic life guidelines. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Incidents like this illustrate the very real risks associated with oil sands operations. Canadians have the right to know how oil sands production impacts our air, water and land,â&#x20AC;? said Gorrie. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The federal SILVER SPONSORS:

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72 | May 2013

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_5_2010 13-05-29 9:45 PM Page 73

 government must do a better job monitoring and tracking oil sands pollution, and where necessary, the federal government must be ready to enforce its laws and ensure that our health isn’t being put at risk.” www.ecojustice.ca

Unlocking BC's blue carbon opportunities The British Columbia government is partnering with Vancouver Island University and the Comox Valley Project Watershed Society to better understand how coastal communities can combine action on climate change and improvements to coastal ecosystems and at the same time potentially benefit economically from these activities. All three have signed a memorandum of understanding and identified opportunities, starting in the Comox Valley, for blue carbon projects in BC. To contribute to the success of the agreement, the BC Ministry of Environment is providing $30,000 to commission a first phase of scientific research planning. Blue carbon is the carbon stored in the marine environment, shellfish, plants and sediment. Healthy estuaries remove and store carbon dioxide, possibly even more effectively than plants on land. Blue carbon projects have climate change reduction and adaptation benefits, as well as economic and environmental opportunities for communities and First Nations along BC's 27,200 km of coastline. The parties have agreed to: • Identify additional eligible project areas for blue carbon project activities along the BC coast. • Evaluate the reasonable cost per tonne to undertake various blue carbon projects, including key variables in forecasting costs (i.e., accessible vs. inaccessible coastline). • Undertake projects involving a wide range of shoreline and estuary protection and habitat restoration activities on private and public lands that can be designed, developed, quantified and verified to meet domestic and international quality standards. • Undertake the necessary research and analysis to support the creation and sale of greenhouse gas offsets from blue carbon projects that will be recognized as quality offsets in international markets. www.esemag.com

Order issued to improve water quality in BCʼs Elk Valley BC's Environment Minister Terry Lake issued a ministerial order on April 15 to Teck Coal Ltd., requiring the company to submit a plan to address high levels of selenium and other contaminants in the Elk Valley watershed as a result of decades of coal mining activity. The order covers the Elk Valley watershed, including Fording River and Lake Koocanusa, and establishes a process for Teck to take immediate steps to stabilize and reverse water quality concentrations

for selenium, cadmium, nitrate and sulphate. The order will result in a plan to identify long-term concentration targets including: current contaminant concentrations; current and emerging economically achievable treatment technologies; sustained balance of environmental, economic and social costs and benefits; and, current and emerging science regarding the fate and effects of contaminants. Specific environmental objectives and outcomes defined in the order include protection of aquatic ecosystems, protection of human health and protection of groundcontinued overleaf...

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Advertiser INDEX



ACG Technology............................75 American Public University ..........35 American Water/Terratec Env. ......10 Assmann ........................................61 Associated Engineering .................5 AWI ..................................................21 Brentwood Industries....................58 Canadian Water Summit ...............72 Chemigreen ....................................29 CIMA Canada..................................12 Cole Engineering ...........................39 Delcan .............................................51 Denso .............................................26

water. Teck will develop the plan in collaboration with stakeholders, First Nations and various levels of government. A technical advisory committee to guide development of the plan is also established by the order. Representatives will be invited to participate from Teck, the provincial and federal governments, the U.S. government, the government of Montana, the Ktunaxa Nation Council, and an independent third-party qualified professional scientist.

Spirit of innovation leads to better products

Endress + Hauser ..........................15 Envirocan ......................................75 Geneq..............................................12 Greatario ........................................61 Greyline Instruments.....................33 H2Flow ............................................58 Halogen Valve Systems.................50 Hoskin Scientific......................23, 41 Huber Technology ...........................9 Imbrium Systems...........................60 Indachem ........................................55 Inland Pipe......................................76 Iowa State University.....................33 Kusters Water ................................19 Maple Reinders Group ..................38 Master Meter.....................................3 Mueller ............................................25 MSU Mississauga ..........................13 National Ground Water Assoc. .....24 Osprey Scientific ...........................42 PINTER & Associates ....................42 Pro Aqua .........................................17 ProMinent .........................................2 Schonstedt Instrument..................16 Seneca College Workforce Skills Centre ...............................49 SEW-Eurodrive...............................16 Smith & Loveless...........................22 Solinst Canada...............................45 Stantec............................................49 Urban Systems...............................46 Walkerton Clean Water Centre .....30 Waterra..........................11, 27, 36, 47 WEFTEC..........................................43 Westeel ...........................................57

Endress+Hauser applied for 230 patents last year. More than 240 innovators from the company gathered at the 2013 Innovators’ Meeting in Basel, Switzerland, to introduce their developments and share their experiences. Four highly-successful patented solutions received awards. Three teams were also recognized for significantly improving business processes. To recognize granted patents of particular commercial importance, four Patent Rights Incentive Awards, each worth 15,000 euros, were given to innovators from several production centers. www.ca.endress.com

Experts stress Arcticʼs vulnerability to spills Experts say it is crucial that northern nations strengthen response capabilities to shipping-related accidents foreseen in newly-opened northern waters, as well as to more-common local emergencies, such as floods, forest fires and rescue situations. Despite having the world’s longest Arctic coastline and second-largest territory in the region, Canada’s far northern marine and aviation infrastructure badly lags by international comparison, according to experts with the Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program. This is an initiative of the Canada Centre for Global Security Studies at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto and the Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation. Northern emergency flight rescue operations today originate from the Royal Canadian Air Force base in the southern Ontario city of Trenton and involve at least eight hours of flying. The Canadian Coast

Guard aims to respond to requests for icebreaking services within 10 hours. However, weather and distance often result in response times measured in days. By contrast, Russia is building 10 search and rescue stations along its Northern Sea Route, expected to open in 2015. In a May 2012 report, the Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program said that even though Canada is the second largest Arctic nation, it is the only one without a deep water port. The report recommended Canada “make the necessary strategic investments in Canadian Arctic air and marine infrastructure to enable it to implement the Arctic Council’s negotiated accord on search and rescue” and be able to meet its international agreement obligations.

Hurricane Sandy caused 11 billion gallons of sewage overflows and $3 billion in infrastructure damage Months after Hurricane Sandy left parts of the U.S. East Coast leveled and underwater, a new Climate Central report says 11 billion gallons of partially or untreated sewage leaked into rivers, lakes and waterways in the storm's aftermath. Analysis based on data reported to state agencies by municipalities, found 94 per cent of the spilled sewage was from storm surge. Despite the best efforts of plant operators, Sandy’s floodwater simply overwhelmed plants, leading to major diversions of sewage into receiving waters. Thirty-two per cent of the overflow was untreated sewage, with 93 per cent of the overflow volume taking place in New York and New Jersey. New York and New Jersey officials estimate the cost of repairing damaged sewerage infrastructure at about $3 billion. In Washington D.C., five inches of rain produced the sixth largest Sandy-related overflow — 475 million gallons of untreated sewage and contaminated runoff. “Sandy showed the extreme vulnerability of the region’s sewage treatment plants to rising seas and intense coastal storms,” said Alyson Kenward, lead author of the report. Most experts expect seas to rise between two to four feet by the end of the century even if aggressive actions are taken to control emissions of greenhouse gases. www.climatecentral.org

Western Canada Water..................73 XCG Consultants ...........................50 Xylem ................................................7

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2013_ES&E_4_2010 13-05-28 4:46 PM Page 75

Two Companies • Many Lines One Number To Call PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of fine screening equipment • Selfcleaning perforated plate screens • FlexRake® frontraked fine screens • FlexRake® frontraked bar screens • FlexRake® low flow • Screenings washer/compactor • Auger conveyor • SelfCleaning trashracks • Muffin Monster® grinder for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater • Channel Monster® grinder for pump staons and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving staon • Auger Monster® fine screen system • MSS fine screen & band screen perforated plate fine screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perforaons • Screenings washer/compactors • Rotang drum screens down to 2mm perfs • Raptor screenings washer press • Vistex™ grit separators • Grit washers and classifiers SECONDARY TREATMENT • AquaJet® direct drive floang aerator • AquaDDM mechanical floang mixer • Fine bubble aeraon systems using membrane or ceramic diffusers with gas cleaning systems • Stainless steel coarse bubble aeraon systems • Two & three rotary lobe P/D blowers • Centrifugal mulstage blowers • Floang diversion curtains for aerated lagoons, acvated sludge systems & clear wells • Subsurface jet aeraon/mixing systems for high rate & low rate treatment systems • Drop in jet aerators/mixers • Spiraflo & Spiravac peripheral feed clarifiers • Closed loop reactor oxidaon ditch systems • Rotary brush aerators • High efficiency single stage integrally geared blowers • Direct drive turbo type blowers • Chain & flight clarifier systems & components plasc, cast iron or stainless steel • Aeraon system controls & instrumentaon • Half bridge, centre feed circular clarifiers • Spiral blade clarifiers


SECONDARY TREATMENT cont. • Mul stage act’d biological process MSABP • Moving Bed Bioreactors • Sequencing Batch Reactors • Membrane Bioreactors TERTIARY TREATMENT • AquaDisk®  cloth media terary filter DISINFECTION • UV disinfecon systems • Package & custom ozone systems BIOSOLIDS PROCESSING/HANDLING • Sludge storage bins & live boom dischargers • GBT & RDT for sludge thickening • Belt filter presses & screw presses • Centrifuges for thickening & dewatering ODOUR CONTROL • Biofilters • Bioscrubbers • Carbon adsorbers • Chemical wet scrubbers CONVEYANCE • Sha less & sha ed screw conveyors • Screw pumps open & closed designs FLOWMETERS • Open channel flow metering portable and permanent; wireless data transmission • Inseron mag flow meters with wireless data transmission • Data loggers with wireless data transmission • Clampon ultrasonic flowmeter INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PCl Series DAF with corrugated plates • PWl Series DAF low profile, from 20 800 GPM • Pipe flocculators • Industrial wastewater treatment systems STORMWATER TREATMENT • Downstream Defender® advanced hydrodynamic separator • First Defense® enhanced hydrodynamic separator • UpFlo™ filter • RegUFlo® vortex flow controls WATER TREATMENT • Pressure filtraon systems removal of iron & manganese, arsenic, fluoride, radium, uranium

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Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association

May2013_ES&E_Final_2010 13-05-30 8:40 PM Page 76

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine May-June 2013  

This issue focuses on: Selecting wastewater valves, using membrane bioreactors to treat mine wastewater, Water Research Foundation's reservo...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine May-June 2013  

This issue focuses on: Selecting wastewater valves, using membrane bioreactors to treat mine wastewater, Water Research Foundation's reservo...

Profile for esemag