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OCTOBER 2017 www.esemag.com

SPECIAL FOCUS

WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY Overcoming wastewater pumping challenges Evaluating fluid bed incinerator performance Using aquifers for water storage and withdrawal


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CONTENTS

October 2017 • Vol. 30 No. 5 • ISSN-0835-605X

COMING IN OUR DECEMBER 2017 ISSUE This issue will offer our 40,000 readers across Canada a strong and diverse range of articles. EDITORIAL FOCUS Consulting Engineering in Canada: Experts in environmental consulting share their opinions, experiences and values. Water and Wastewater Operations Forum: Looking at trends and issues impacting operators

42

23 FEATURES 8 10 14 18 22 24 28 32 34 40 42 74

Electroflocculation treatment system exceeding expectations

SPECIAL FOCUS

46 49 51 54 58 60 62

Is the water and wastewater industry ready for Industry 4.0? Wastewater’s resources can be valuable if reclaimed properly CWWA surveys optimization practices at large-scale pumping systems Using QMRA to estimate the health risks of pathogens in drinking water New device reduces polymer use and controls struvite during sludge dewatering London’s Greenway WWTP chooses centrifuges for sludge dewatering Toronto Water develops a 20-year energy optimization plan

Using aquifers for water storage and withdrawal during high demand New ring jet scrubber can remove almost all flue gas particulates Evaluating the performance of new fluid bed incinerators

FEATURED TOPICS • Wastewater treatment and collection systems • Stormwater management

Manufacturing new pump parts now an economical option Reviewing Canada’s CEA guidelines for the metal mining sector New bio-electrode sensors allow for real-time BOD measurement New procedure developed for assessment of coatings and corrosion Sudbury’s WWTP has had to evolve considerably to meet new challenges Taking steps to overcome wastewater pumping challenges Research shows high rates of sewer inflow, infiltration in new subdivisions

• Drinking water supply, treatment and distribution systems • Disinfection and filtration BONUS CONVENTION CIRCULATION AT: • Manitoba Water & Wastewater Association

Antidepressants found in Great Lakes region fish brains

WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

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EDITORIAL COMMENT BY STEVE DAVEY

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER STEVE DAVEY steve@esemag.com MANAGING EDITOR PETER DAVEY peter@esemag.com SALES DIRECTOR PENNY DAVEY penny@esemag.com SALES REPRESENTATIVE DENISE SIMPSON denise@esemag.com ACCOUNTING SANDRA DAVEY sandra@esemag.com CIRCULATION MANAGER DARLANN PASSFIELD darlann@esemag.com DESIGN & PRODUCTION MIGUEL AGAWIN production@esemag.com

TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd. Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, City of Toronto Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, City of Toronto Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30 Aurora, Ontario  L4G 3V6 Tel: (905)727-4666 Website: www.esemag.com

Doing more with less requires innovative thinking and a system wide analysis

T

he footprint of treatment solutions is becoming more important as facilities need to add more processes and increase capacity. Adopting new technologies and innovative designs that build on existing infrastructure means plants can remove more contaminants to lower legislated limits without expanding in size. Sudbury, Ontario’s wastewater treatment plant is a good example of squeezing more capacity and improved treatment out of existing infrastructure. Built in 1971, it has gone through a series of upgrades to increase its capacity, remove fine grit and screenings, improve phosphorus removal and install dechlorination capability. Throughout this evolution, engineers had to deal with space constraints and increase efficiency in areas such as energy consumption, maintenance and operating costs. For a full history of the plant, see the article on page 34. By investing into energy saving equipment and software, utilities are recognizing additional efficiencies beyond lower electricity bills. One utility surveyed as part of the Canadian Water & Wastewater Association’s pumping optimization study saved $125,000 due to reduced main breaks, in addition to another $125,000 due to lower electricity costs and system leakage. Read about this study on page 51. Water and wastewater treatment accounts for a large amount of the energy used by cities and towns. Toronto Water, which is the City of Toronto’s largest user of energy, has established a 20-year energy optimization plan (EOP) to optimize consumption and costs. Both the CWWA survey and Toronto Water’s plan are meant to be shared with other utilities. As methods to improve efficiency are tested, tweaked and verified, others can use them. Lou Di Gironimo, general manager, Toronto Water, says that he hopes that Toronto’s EOP can also adapted by other utilities to develop their own energy plans. Read about the full plan on page 62. While initiatives to improve wastewater treatment plant performance and cut energy costs are important, they can easily be nullified by unwanted sewer inflow and infiltration (I/I), which adds completely unnecessary loading. In their article on page 42, authors Barbara Robinson and Dan Sandink provide a detailed analysis of an Ontario research project that showed “unacceptable” high rates of sewer inflow and infiltration in new subdivisions. They describe the extent of this problem and outline causes, both technical and procedural. Recommended actions to help ameliorate the issue are also outlined. To not address the I/I issue would be analogous to a homeowner spending considerable money on a high efficiency HVAC unit, upgrading insulation, caulking, weather stripping, etc., hoping to save money, only to leave windows open. It simply does not make sense.

A Supporting Publication of

Steve Davey is editor and publisher of ES&E Magazine. Email: steve@esemag.com

6  |  October 2017

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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WASTEWATER

The process can produce potable drinking water from raw sewage.

Electroflocculation treatment system exceeding expectations in Unity, SK

T

8  |  October 2017

he Town of Unity, Saskatchewan began a search for a new wastewater treatment solution when it was told by the Province of Saskatchewan that their current system could only support 2,500 residents. Faced with the prospect of growth in the near future, the Town then spent 18 months researching options. They finally settled on the MemFree system, which is an Australian technology, owned by Arizona-based Soneera Water. In January 2016, Soneera and the Town of Unity signed the original supply and service agreement. Since then, Soneera partnered with Tecvalco Ltd. to manufacture and sell the system in Canada. Two MemFree continuous-flow electroflocculation water systems were installed in a new building located at the plant’s current lagoon site, west of Unity. The two systems are made up of eight cells each, which is sufficient to handle the wastewater treatment needs of a community of 3,600 people. However, the system is modular and can be expanded to handle the requirements of 6,000 residents. The Town currently has a population of just over 3,000.

was invented in Australia by Dr. Vivian Robinson. It is a membrane-free, continuous flow electroflocculation system that can treat up to 750 m3 of water per day, using a single system module. It uses very small amounts of power, ranging typically from 0.03 Kwh/m3 – 0.07 Kwh/m3, and takes up roughly one-fifth the physical footprint of a traditional treatment facility. There are no chemicals added in the process. However, with the addition of a chlorine drip and a UV system, the technology can produce potable drinking water from raw sewage. It is capable of cleaning 97% – 99% of all wastewater types, and treats to the nano-filtration level. It is an automated system that is remotely monitored and programmed. “All things considered, I believe the MemFree system is surpassing expectations so far,” said Collin Field, Unity’s director of public works and infrastructure. While small towns are the prime candidate for this system, it is capable of much more. It has applications in industrial use, oil and gas, tailing ponds, wineries, breweries, creameries, dairy operations, etc.

THE MEMFREE WASTEWATER SYSTEM Soneera Water’s MemFree system

For more information, email: gford@tecvalco.com, or darrell@soneerawater.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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WATER

Using aquifers for water storage and withdrawal during higher demand periods

M

unicipalities and other government agencies are investigating methods to collect and store sufficient water for public distribution and consumption. One method under development to mitigate these supply issues consists of the capture of excess surface water from creeks, rivers or lakes during an area’s rainy season. Surface water is pumped through a filtration system and stored in an underground aquifer via a well for later withdrawal, treatment and distribution. In the summer of 2016, an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) pilot was performed to test the feasibility of this method. The system included a freshwater surface pump, booster pump, self-cleaning automatic filtration system, and an injection/ withdrawal well containing a turbine pump. Monitoring included flow meters, conductivity meters, pressure transducers, and recording devices. The ASR 3.8 megalitre per day pilot was supplied from a local creek next to a water treatment plant. The final filtration requirement was determined to be 10-micron, in order to protect the porosity of the underground aquifer. The creek water treatment consisted of two in-series stages of 25-micron and 10-micron before injection into the storage well at 75 PSI. There are two 25-micron Orival model ORG-060-LE filters, followed by four 10-micron model ORG-060-LE filters. The rainy season turbidity averages between 4 – 6 NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit), with TSS (total suspended solids) grab sampling of less than 5 ppm to 200 ppm. The water treatment plant lab tested water from a sampling point inside the lab at a sink faucet that is connected to the plant piping system. Lab technicians stated that there was a difference in TSS concentration between equipment testing points, which indicated better quality than the actual water quality that entered the plant. It was determined that water sampling 10  |  October 2017

Both stages were mounted on a temporary 150 mm PVC piping manifold and steel supports.

should take place at the water pipe supply side of the ASR filtration systems in order to provide the best accuracy. The filter elements are permanent multi-layer stainless steel weave-wire cylinders within a carbon steel, powdercoated housing. Each stage of filtration is operated by an independent controller that initiates a cleaning cycle. The cycle sequentially operates the rinse system inside each housing at a rate of 16-seconds per unit. Both stages were mounted on a temporary 150 mm PVC piping manifold and steel supports. Wastewater from the cleaning cycle was sent to a cement lined holding pond for further processing and recycling.

Reversing the flow allows the sand bed to be lifted, agitating the sand particles to release the collected solids. During agitation, sand particles hit each other, making their sharp edges smoother. Eventually, the sand media will need to be replaced because of this wear and some loss through flushing. The particles that break off during the agitation process must either pass through to the piping system during the filtration process or be flushed out for a period of time to a wastewater collection area.

PRELIMINARY STARTUP During a preliminary 24-hour operation of the filter pilot there were unexTRADITIONAL FILTRATION plainable large swings in the flushing Sand-media and multi-media filtra- frequency of the automatic self-cleaning tion has been traditionally used for filters, which characteristically indicated surface water sources. The configuration TSS water quality changes. In order to for high pressure systems involves a series compensate for the flushing frequency of interconnected round tanks. Flushing a of 2.5 to 5 minutes, the flow rate was tank involves reversing the flow through reduced by the manual closure of a gate each tank for one to two minutes at a rate valve at the injection point at the well. slightly greater than the flow-through of The flow rates averaged 1,130 – 1,326 other connected tank(s). continued overleaf… Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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WATER

Suspended solids are collected on the screen element, forming a filter cake. Cleaned water flows outside the screen element and is discharged.

LPM and, on those occasions of higher than expected TSS values, flows were reduced. During the first days of operation it was observed that filter flushing frequency increased in the mornings and then tapered off during the day and at night. Finally, a correlation developed and it was determined that the morning increase of TSS occurred when city flood management utility workers would open up drainage canal gates, flowing water into the creek. In the late afternoon, the gates were set back into a lesser flow condition. Once this was discovered, the ASR operators established an operating protocol to address the TSS changes affecting the filters through flow regulation. On occasion, the ASR filtration system was temporarily shut down for flood protection due to tropical storm activity. Full flow drainage of the canal network in the city caused the water turbidity to increase to 9 NTU. When TSS levels reach this maxi-

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mum concentration, any water flow into the 10-micron stage filters resulted in instant blinding of the screen elements. Such an event prompted a water sample to be collected and sent to a local lab for TSS testing and additional augmentation of the operating protocol. The ASR pilot stored and withdrew water in the aquifer in two consecutive long-term tests. In each test, there were no adverse effects of pressure and flow into the porous underground formations. Conductivity meters were used during the withdrawal process to indicate the end of the stored water quantity. When the normal aquifer conductivity was reached, it signaled to the plant operators that the end of the stored water was met.

SUMMARY Although the sand media option was considered, there were several drawbacks for this application. Residual particles that break off during the back-flush process would have to be eliminated for fear of plugging the porosity of the aquifer. The long run-times for flushing and the elimination of the smaller particles to the waste collection area produce too much water volume to manage. The maintenance and replacement of the sand-media was a human resource scheduling and budget cost issue. The foot-print size of the sand media system was also much greater, requiring a higher capital investment. The second underground storage test using the 25-micron filtration was only done to determine if a larger degree of filtration could be used to protect the porosity of the aquifer. The larger degree of filtration also allowed for a much smaller footprint and sequential cost of a permanent 5.7 Megalitre per day system. The advantages of the self-cleaning automatic filter system include: a much smaller footprint size; less complexity; smaller maintenance personnel support; and a permanent media with a consistent required degree of filtration. Due to the success of the pilot, a permanent filtration system was designed and is scheduled for installation before the end of 2017. For more information, visit www.orival.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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October 2017  |  13


AIR POLLUTION

New ring jet scrubber can remove almost all flue gas particulates By Joe Szczepkowski

W

hether a facility is generating Conventional wet scrubbing systems flue gas from incineration of utilize a quench which delivers a coolwastewater treatment sludge, ing effect, and venturi technology which medical hazardous waste, pulp controls fluid flow and velocity through and paper, or foundry processes, if a a constricted section of the scrubber. A scrubbing technology is not aggressively singular, large venturi device is utilized removing particulates, it will not be to create a spray of solution or water, compliant with existing regulations. which then traps the pollutants. In conventional wet scrubbers with A wet scrubber system makes contact with target compounds or particulate venturi systems, that spray is more of a matter with a scrubbing solution, pulls rain, with the droplets being of a larger the contaminant out of the flue gas, and size. The volume of particulate removal, carries the pollutants away in a liquid however, is directly related to the surface stream. The solutions may simply be area of the droplets, as well as temperawater, for dust, or solutions of reagents ture and viscosity. For any given volume that specifically target certain compounds. flow of water or solution through the

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BIOLOGIC™ SR2

system, the bigger the droplet size, the less surface area is extant to contact and remove particulates. Hence, conventional wet scrubbing systems have been limited in their function to clean particulates from flue gas streams.

THE RING JET MULTISTAGE WET SCRUBBER PROCESS The ability of wet scrubbing systems to attract and remove particulates and other pollutants, has been greatly expanded through the application of Ring Jet™ venturi scrubber technology, developed by Hitachi Zosen Inova. It consists of a variable throat bomb bay door quench, packed cooling and conditioning tower, an optional pH-controlled caustic absorption section, a proprietary Ring Jet venturi, followed by a sorbent polymer composite (SPC) mercury removal system. Each of the process stages are optimized for a particular pollutant, such as acid gases, particulate, heavy metals, etc. Heavy metals and aerosols, for example, are removed without any need to be concerned about load fluctuations. QUENCH STAGE The quench section of the scrubber has two functions. The first is to cool incoming gases to their saturation temperature. The second is to capture the majority of the incoming particulate coming from the combustion system for collection and disposal. Particulate removal efficiency, and to some extent gas cooling, is controlled by the degree of turbulence and intimate gas-to-liquid contact that occurs in the venturi section of the quench. That section is fitted with adjustable bomb bay doors. By opening or closing these, the throat area will change, thus decreasing or increasing, respectively, the turbulence and droplet surface area in the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


throat. It is this turbulence that creates the gas-to-liquid contact required for particulate removal. The venturi pressure drop measures the degree of turbulence. The pressure drop is controlled by modulating the bomb bay doors automatically to maintain it at the set point.

COOLING TOWER STAGE The purpose of the packed tower (cooling tower) is to subcool and condition gases prior to sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorption and fine particulate collection by the Ring Jets. Subcooling increases water viscosity, thereby increasing the droplet surface area. The flue gas flows vertically upward through the packed bed stage. Plant effluent water is sent into the top of the packed bed section via the packed tower flow control valve. The packed bed consists of several cubic feet of packing structures, which fill the entire cross section of the vessel. The packing continued overleaf...

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October 2017  |  15


AIR POLLUTION

creates channels, which provide contact between the flue gas and flush water, and also allow the flush water to absorb the SO2. Drainage from this stage flows into the plant’s return water system.

section. The remaining SO2 is removed in the absorption section. Plant effluent water is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and pumped to the top of the absorption section. In order to remove SO2 from the flue gas, the pH of this CAUSTIC ABSORPTION STAGE effluent/caustic mixture is maintained at From the packed tower, the satu- a concentration level between 6.5 and 7.0. rated gases go to the SO2 gas absorption The existing pH and control and caus-

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16  |  October 2017

tic blowdown will be modified to assure reliable control of SO2 capture. Two existing wet scrubber caustic pumps will be used to recirculate caustic through the gas absorption section.

RING JET STAGE After leaving the SO2 absorption section of the wet scrubber, flue gas flows upward to the Ring Jet stage. Flue gas leaving the second stage passes through a separation floor before entering these. This third and final stage of gas scrubbing is comprised of a multiple of venturi-type Ring Jets for the removal of submicron particulates and aerosols. Instead of a singular, large venturi-effect sprayer, Ring Jet venturi technology employs anywhere between five and 20 smaller venturi jets, positioned in parallel. These create a much smaller netting of droplets, which significantly increase the overall droplet surface area – given the same flow rate and volume of water or solution as with conventional wet scrubbers – thus attracting more particulates and contaminants. The entering gas stream is divided into a number of smaller streams. These are forced through the individual Ring Jets. The particulate in the gas stream is forced to come into intimate contact with the scrubbing fluid, resulting in capture of the particulate by the fluid. The film of scrubbing fluid covers the mouth of the Ring Jet, thereby completely eliminating shortcutting or bypassing. The scrubbing fluid film is created by a stream of water, flowing counter-flow to the gas stream from a port cast in the centre of the Ring Jet inner cone, and colliding with an impingement plate. This causes the water to flow radially outward to the outer cone of the Ring Jet. The liquid flow rate to this stage will be controlled in response to the gas side pressure drop. This feature allows for a constant operating pressure differential across the stage and, therefore, constant removal efficiencies at different flue gas flow rates. The exit duct from the wet scrubber includes a demister. The demister captures any droplets of spray from the Ring Jets which may be remaining in the exiting flue gas.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


COLLECTION OF SPENT WASTE LIQUIDS In between each of the different stages, and at the exit of the scrubber, there are combinations of separation floors and/ or demisters. The separation floors are used to collect the spent waste liquids in each stage so that they can be recycled back into the system after treatment. Demisters are used to prevent the carryover of moisture entrained in the flue gas. In situations where no wastewater is acceptable, the Ring Jet process provides a closed cycle, where the scrubber blowdown can be pumped into the spray dryer, and sprayed into the hot flue gases.

This mercury removal technology is based on a sorbent polymer composite (SPC) material, containing sorbents and catalysts in a highly hydrophobic porous structure. The SPC is formed into flat and pleated sheets, and placed into a Hastelloy C-276 frame to form each module. Gas flows through the channels formed by the pleated and flat sheets, allowing for minimal pressure drop. Continuous gas temperatures should be below 180oF for optimum mercury removal performance. Gas phase mercury is chemically bonded within the SPC material. In addition, MCS converts SO2 in the gas into aqueous sulfuric acid which falls MERCURY REMOVAL SYSTEM into the scrubber absorber vessel below. The mercury control system (MCS) The sulfuric acid, formed as a product consists of stacks of static absorption of SO2 removal, helps to wash the SPC modules located after a particulate collec- surface. The acid washing action, along tor in an industrial flue gas application. with the smooth, low-friction texture The modules are arranged in layers to of the polymer-based SPC, makes the cover the cross-sectional area of the gas module resistant to fouling and deposiflow. tion by process dust. In addition, a water

wash system is typically installed below and above the modules for intermittent operation to provide further protection from fouling.

PROCESS EFFICIENCIES Ring Jet scrubbers have demonstrated high particulates removal rates – up to 99.99% – and they can eliminate the need for a wet electrostatic precipitator. The process has no moving parts. It is simply a step-by-step process which eliminates different constituents in different stages. These advantages not only allow the plant to operate a robust and reliable system, they also reduce operating and maintenance costs substantially. Joe Szczepkowski is with Hitachi Zosen Inova USA LLC. For more information, visit www.hz-inova.com

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October 2017  |  17


BIOSOLIDS

Left: Duffin Creek fluid air blower coupled with steam turbine driving the blower. Above: Duffin Creek WPCP stack.

Evaluating the performance of new fluid bed incinerators By E. Ferguson, B. Dobson, K. Dangtran and L. Takmaz

T

he Duffin Creek Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) in Pickering, Ontario, is jointly owned by the Regional Municipalities of York and Durham. Both regions are experiencing significant population growth, which necessitated increasing rated plant capacity to 630 million litres per day (ML/d) through several process expansion projects. Two fluid bed thermal oxidizer units were built back in the late 1970s by GL&V. Two additional reactors built by SUEZ were recently added to provide the facility with a firm solids processing capability of 270 dry tonnes per day. Identical to the original systems, the new oxidizers are also equipped with two waste heat recovery systems producing superheated steam to drive two steam turbines coupled with two fluidization air blowers. Unit No. 4 fluidization air blower is connected to an electric motor (447 kW) and a steam turbine through a clutch 18  |  October 2017

mechanism. Unit No. 3 fluidization air blower is connected to only a steam turbine. A clutch mechanism between the fluidization air blower and the steam turbine enables the switching from turbine to electric motor during normal operation. Once both units are operating at full capacity, the fluidization air blowers are driven by steam turbines during steady state operation. This unique design should be a template for future incineration systems. Each fluid bed unit has the capacity to incinerate 105 metric dry ton per day (MDTPD) total solids. Each fluid bed unit is equipped with a dedicated heat recovery system employing a primary heat exchanger and waste heat recovery boiler. Primary heat exchanger (shell and tube design) is used to preheat fluidization air to minimize the auxiliary fuel usage during steady state operation. Each unit was designed to be autogeneous with a sludge feedstock composition of 68% volatile, 28% total solids and 5,560

kcal/kg sludge heat value based on volatile. Based on the feedback from the plant, both units are operating autogeneously even with a sludge feedstock content as low as 24%. Flue gas from the fluid bed reactor is passed through a primary heat exchanger and then discharged into a waste heat boiler to generate superheated steam. From waste heat boiler, flue gas is sent to a wet scrubber to remove particulate and acid gas (SO2, HCl). The wet scrubber is not equipped with a caustic injection system. Due to more stringent air requirements, a Kombisorbon mercury removal system is installed downstream of the multi-venturi wet scrubber to remove mercury, dioxins and furans. It includes a conditioner having a droplet separator to remove free water droplets from the clean flue gas discharged from the wet scrubber. The conditioner also has a heat exchanger to increase the saturated flue gas temperature about 20oC above the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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BIOSOLIDS

TABLE 1. Stack emission test results during the performance testing in June 2013 (unit no. 4) and February 2014 (unit no. 3)

Parameter

Limit

Test Results for Unit No. 4 taken in June 2013

Test Results for Unit No. 3 taken in February 2014

Oxygen

Minimum 4%

8.70%

7.70%

Total Hydrocarbons

100 ppm (10 min. avg.)

6.3 ppm

4.1 ppm

20 ppm (30 min. avg)

4.9 ppm

3.2 ppm

Hydrogen Chloride

30 ppm

0.15 ppm

0.517 ppm

Dioxins and Furans

100 pg/m3

2 pg/m3

3.7 pg/m3

Total Suspended Particulate

20 mg/m3

0.6 mg/m3

0.35 mg/m3

Arsenic

99% Removal Efficiency

100%

100%

Cadmium

89% Removal Efficiency

99.90%

99.90%

Chromium

99% Removal Efficiency

100%

100%

Lead

92% Removal Efficiency

100%

100%

Nickel

99% Removal Efficiency

99.90%

99.90%

Mercury

Max. 70 µg/m3

0.5 µg/m3

0.91 µg/m3

dew point temperature, to prevent moisture formation inside the fixed carbon bed adsorber. Clean flue gas discharged from the wet scrubber flows through the cold side of the conditioner heat exchanger and the steam from the low pressure steam header is used as the heating medium for the hot side of the conditioner heat exchanger. Clean flue gas from the conditioner heat exchanger is sent to the Kombisorbon adsorber to remove mercury, dioxins and furans. There is also an ID Fan installed before the stack to maintain vacuum conditions inside the waste heat boiler to prevent any potential flue gas leak into the building. The adsorber has three layers, with the first layer filled with regular carbon and the following two filled with activated carbon. Operators can take carbon samples from the adsorber during normal operation and test the samples for mercury 20  |  October 2017

loading to determine the current condition of activated carbon. It is estimated that every two or three years, carbon bed material will need to be replaced. The actual life expectancy of the carbon is based on the mercury-loading rate at each facility. However, the Duffin Creek units do not have sufficient operating time on them at present to provide a definitive life expectancy.

COMMISSIONING AND PERFORMANCE TESTING The Duffin Creek fluid bed incinerators went through start-up, commissioning and performance testing in 2013 and 2014. Unit No. 4 passed the performance testing in June 2013. Unit No. 3 passed the performance testing in February 2014. During the performance testing, sludge, ash and water samples were collected and analyzed. The successful operation at Duffin Creek WPCP has shown that the improved

thermal oxidizer design, incorporating enhanced air pollution control and energy recovery systems to reduce the operational expenditures, is an economical, environmentally friendly and cost-effective solution for sludge disposal. Duffin Creek WPCP fluid bed units have satisfied the sludge disposal needs of the plant, emission requirements of the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, and the future growth needs of the Regions of York and Durham. E. Ferguson is with York Region. B. Dobson is with the Duffin Creek Water Pollution Control Plant. K. Dangtran and L. Takmaz are with SUEZ. For more information, email: levent.takmaz@suez.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Martin Jobke appointed as President of Associated Engineering

WATER & WASTEWATER

Manufacturing new parts now an economical option to complete replacement By Pat Kennedy

Martin Jobke, P.Eng. has accepted the role of President of the Associated Engineering group of companies, effective January 1, 2018. As part of the company’s leadership succession, Associated Engineering’s Board of Directors selected Martin, a civil engineer with 33 years of experience, to succeed President & CEO, Kerry Rudd, P.Eng., who will retain the role of CEO after the transition. Kerry states, “Martin has demonstrated leadership and a vision for integrated, collaborative project delivery that will support our clients and guide Associated Engineering’s continued growth and path forward.” Associated Engineering thanks Kerry Rudd for his vision and leadership as President & CEO over the past 11 years. Under Kerry’s leadership, the company experienced sustained growth, and diversified into the environmental science, energy, and buildings practices. Associated Engineering is an employee-owned, Canadian consulting firm with a 70-year history of providing uncompromising, clientfocussed service. Our commitment to client satisfaction, technical excellence, and innovation has resulted in national and international recognition, including twice winning the Schreyer Award, the highest award for Canadian consulting engineers.

www.ae.ca

22  |  October 2017

I

n North America, there are many older pumping installations that are still in operation. It is not uncommon for centrifugal pumps commissioned in the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s to still be in service. As this equipment ages, spare parts and replacement pumps become obsolete. In cases where parts are available, prices can be extremely high, and deliveries prohibitively long. At times, the original manufacturer no longer exists, making matters even more difficult. When confronted with delivery and price problems, customers are forced to consider replacing the older pumps with current line offerings. This can be a costly option. In most situations, the new equipment will not have the same footprint as the existing. In order to install the new pumps, baseplate, motor and couplings will also need to be purchased. Piping and concrete work will also be required. An alternative to outright replacement is to reverse engineer/duplicate existing parts. Major components or complete pumps can be manufactured this way by companies such as Emnor Mechanical Inc. In recent years, there have been advances in technology that make the reverse engineering process more accurate than ever before. Portable coordinate measuring machines can be used to create 3D models of either new or worn cast parts. Enmor uses a probe type machine to measure samples. It generates a 3D model of the impeller. This is then checked for accuracy versus the sample part. In the case of used parts, the model will be adjusted to accommodate for wear. For pump impellers, the following steps are taken: • The solid model is used to determine hydraulic geometry and vane angles. • Using the pump curve, inlet angles

are calculated and compared to the solid model. • Head calculation based on speed, design flow and impeller exit geometry is compared to actual head. • The impeller solid model is then corrected for wear. In a similar manner, when casings are worn, inlet area and inlet angles are calculated, and the solid model adjusted for wear. Emnor also uses portable scanning equipment, either on its own or in conjunction with the probe device. The scanning equipment is helpful when making site visits to measure parts that cannot be sent out. It speeds up obtaining the cast profile shape. Once the solid models are finalized, the manufacturing process can begin. Most parts produced by Emnor are cast in sand foundries, and require pattern tooling. The pattern is used to create a cavity in a sand mould, into which liquid metal can be poured. After being poured, the casting is cleaned and heat treated if required. The solid model of the part being manufactured is adjusted for foundry shrink, and machining allowance is added. Once this is done, the pattern tool can be designed. The tools are cut on computer numeric control machines. When the pattern is complete, it is inspected versus its solid model. Corrections are made if required. In cases where parts need to be made quickly, a combination of 3D printed sand cores and single use tooling is used. When using this process, foundries can be working on moulds in one week. Whether employing traditional or 3D core methods, Emnor uses melt simulation software. The program uses algorithms to predict liquid metal behaviour

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Sustainable Ecosystems

Soil retaining system helps urban trees reach as it is poured into a mould. To detect maturity By Eric Keshavarzi and prevent possible casting flaws,

velocity and solidification are checked. If problems are detected, the mould design reen infrastructure and susis corrected.tainability This technology helps goals are ofelimininate common problems such as shrink creasing importance, and and porosity. achieving them requires techOne customer was two large nical knowledge and operating training in varied double suction pumps that had fields. Integration of soil and trees been into in service the 1960s. The casings urban areassince substantially improves suswere badlyandworn. costsome to replace tainability helps The alleviate of our the pumps with current offerings was most pressing ecological challenges. prohibitive due to civil, piping and motor These include air and water quality, rising requirements. flooding Emnor manufactured two temperatures, and erosion from new casings and impellers, that were drop daily rainfall events. in replacements, a much cost.OnThe West DonatLands, inlower Toronto, Portable advanced technology tario, is a community that is people has fomade the reverse engineering process cused, family friendly, environmentally speedy, accurate, reliable and cost-effecsustainable and beautifully designed for tive. When considering whether toGOLD replace living. It has a Stage 1 LEED ND older equipment, dropesin certification undermanufacturing the pilot program replacements is a viable option. tablished by the U.S. Green Building Council. PatOne Kennedy is with Emnor Mechanical. notable sustainable component, For more information, utilized in the design ofemail: the area’s streets, pkennedy@emnor.com is a soil retaining system called Silva Cells™. Typical urban trees in the city core die after approximately seven years. However, Silva Cells help extend their life spans, thus promoting the growth of mature street trees. Although the City of Toronto had preTop: Probeused type machine used toasmeasure a a viously Silva Cells part of sample. Bottom-left: Typical 3D printed core. stormwater management pilot program in Bottom-right: Portable The Queensway, theirscanning use as equipment. part of site

G

Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street.

development is new. In fact, the West Don Lands streets are the first in a Toronto subdivision to be designed with this system installed under parking lay-bys and sidewalks. Mill Street was the first subdivision street in Toronto to be designed to include this soil retaining system. As the lead engineering consultant, R.V.Anderson Associates coordinated all plans and specifications with the landscape architect. About Silva Cells Silva Cells are a plastic/fiberglass structure of columns and beams that support paving above un-compacted planting

soil. The structure has 92% void space and is a stable surface for the installation of vehicle loaded-pavements. When properly installed, they can achieve an AASHTO H-20 load rating. Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code loading can also be achieved through appropriate design. This is the required load rating for structures such as underground vaults, covers and grates in areas of traffic including sidewalks and parking lots. The cell structure transfers the force to a base layer below the structure. Soil within the cells remains at low compaction rates, thereby creating ideal

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine October 2017  |  23


INDUSTRIAL

Reviewing Canada’s CEA guidelines for the metal mining sector By Edgar Tovilla

C

umulative effects assessment (CEA) is a concept that requires further understanding and analysis. This article examines the regulatory framework for CEA in Canada, particularly as it relates to the metal mining sector, which is highly regulated and scrutinized. A regulatory scan was recently completed on federal and provincial water environmental protection policy, with a focus on Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, British Columbia, Manitoba, Nunavut and the Yukon (NRC, 2014). Ninety-five percent of metal mining and exploration activity occurs in these jurisdictions. The Canadian government and provincial/territorial jurisdictions recognize the need for CEA, but have no binding policies. There is ambiguity surrounding the 24  |  October 2017

term “cumulative effects” from a regulatory perspective. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) defines cumulative effects as “the effect on the environment which results from effects of a project when combined with those of other past, existing, and imminent projects and activities. These may occur over a certain period of time and distance.” Within this context, the associated effects from other activities are difficult to define and predict. CEA and management techniques are not fully developed to date and as a result they are not always effective. CEA involves three dimensions of scale: spatial extent, level of detail, and temporal scale. It can cover extensive areas such as watersheds, typically encompassing several jurisdictions. It should also

consider a time scale beyond a project lifespan, typically measured in hundreds of years, and examine specific effects on the environment to a meaningful level of detail. CEA provides an integrated and more strategic level to a site-specific environmental assessment process in that it addresses how the receiving environment “is affected by the totality of plans, projects and activities, rather than on the effects of a particular plan or project” (Therivel and Ross, 2007). While principles of CEA can be explored and examined on a regional basis, it is only at the federal level where policy tools exist under the Fisheries Act, such as the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER), or the Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations. Environmental effects monitoring (EEM) reports are required to better understand the potential negative effects of site-specific effluents on fish, fish habitat, and the use of fisheries resources. The EEM is a science-based performance measurement tool that assists in determining the adequacy of current regulated requirements (EC, 2012). continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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INDUSTRIAL

Additional opportunities to explore CEA exist at the provincial level with site-specific rule instruments, where local assimilative capacity studies provide indicator values for the spatial and temporal dimensions. Nunavut is the only jurisdiction with a clear policy towards cumulative effects. With only one operating metal mine in the Kivalliq region and significant exploration within the same area, Nunavut works in partnership with Inuit organizations to enhance capacity and knowledge sharing in the territory. Among other objectives, the intent of this partnership is to build knowledge on baseline water quality in the Kivalliq region, where there is the potential for more mineral development. It is in the process of establishing a cumulative effects monitoring framework for the Baker Lake watershed (NCNC, 2013). The governments of Canada, British Columbia, and Ontario do recognize the need for CEA but have no binding policies.

26  |  October 2017

At the federal level, assessment of cumulative effects may be required by legislation when a project is subject to a federal environmental assessment under the CEAA, or in regulations under the Fisheries Act. However, no provincial jurisdiction was found to have binding obligations at a sector level. The MMER – EEM reports provide the spatial and temporal dimensions needed for CEA. The Environment Canada response to Mining Watch Canada (AGC, 2012) noted that “the scope of the MMER – EEM requirements is restricted to effects at individual mines, and there is no requirement for study designs to collect data to investigate cumulative effects over entire watersheds. Environment Canada has not collected additional data and conducted analyses specifically targeted to investigate relationships between observed metal mining EEM effects and geographic or climatic categories.” There is evidence of public requests to provincial governments to address the

need to have cumulative impacts assessments (ECO, 2006: 14; ECO, 2012: 56). However, no other province or territory has a requirement for CEA. In Ontario, the Environmental Bill of Rights (EBR) requires the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change (MOECC) to have a Statement of Environmental Values (SEV), specifically requiring that MOECC “considers the cumulative effects on the environment; the interdependence of air, land, water and living organisms; and the relationships among the environment, the economy and society” (MOECC-SEV). While CEAs are not required, SEV is typically addressed at a very high level through the environmental assessment process, and site-specific studies at a micro-spatial and temporal scale. Technical guidance, such as the 2004 Stormwater Management Design Manual, requires project proponents to consider cumulative effects in their design criteria, but this is not a regulated require-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ment. The Ontario Toxic Reduction Act has requirements for bioaccumulation of toxic substances, but, due to its lack of enforceability, its effectiveness relies on a voluntary approach (MacDonald and Lintner, 2010). In British Columbia, while there are no requirements for CEA, there are considerations for a provincial multiagency approach to provide recommendations and analysis that may contribute to cumulative effects assessments (BC-MEM, 2013: 2-3). The BC Water and Air Baseline Monitoring Guidance Document for Mine Proponents and Operators (McGuire, and Davis, 2012) notes the ambiguity surrounding the term “cumulative effects” and cites the same definition by the CEAA. The BC mining guidance document refers “specifically to the combined effects on the environment from separate activities, including activities that are not associated with the proposed mine.” The document notes that, despite the importance

of cumulative effects, current assessment and management techniques are not fully developed with respect to these. As a result, they are not always effective (McGuire, and Davis, 2012). The provinces of Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec have developed provincial water quality programs with the goal of ensuring that their waters are protected and are of a quality that sustains aquatic life, supports ongoing recreational activities, and protects drinking water sources for current and future generations. These provinces have water quality objectives or benchmarks with specific water quality criteria to support a healthy population of aquatic life and protect human uses of surface water. These water quality criteria are assessed on a site-specific basis in order to obtain approvals. Site-specific assimilative capacity studies provide indicator values for the spatial and temporal dimensions needed for CEA. The water-receiver assimilative capac-

ity study is by far the only available tool currently being required that considers the receiver’s existing water quality upstream, proposed discharges, and consequently downstream impacts. Climate change considerations have given a renewed impetus for a cumulative effects type of analysis, but the CEA will remain an area of further study to find innovative ways to define it and implement it. Edgar Tovilla, P.Eng. is manager of wastewater operations at the Region of Peel and a PhD candidate at Ryerson University. Email: edgar.tovilla@peelregion.ca References cited are available upon request.

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October 2017  |  27


WASTEWATER

New bio-electrode sensors allow for real-time BOD measurement By Dr. Colin Ragush, Dr. Patrick Kiely and Jack Ambler

B

io-electrode sensors (BES) are an emerging technology for the monitoring of water quality. They allow the user to put their finger on the pulse of the metabolic activity of a microbial community. The concept of BES technology is not new, with the research into microbial fuel cells dating back over a century. Thanks largely to technical advancement and cost-effective components, the technology is only now becoming attractive for wastewater applications. The most recognizable BES technology is the microbial fuel cell that harnesses the energy produced by exo-electrogenic bacteria when they consume organic compounds to produce electrical energy. The basic architecture of a BES system is an anode/cathode pair, with a resistor positioned between them. Exo-electrogenic microbes on the anode oxidize organic material in the wastewater and the electrons are transferred to the cathode through the circuit. Protons (H+) created at the anode migrate to the cathode to recombine with the electrons which have travelled through the circuit, creating a complete electrical circuit. Electrons travelling through the resistor are measured and logged. Protobacteria, such as those from the Geobacter genus, typically colonize the anode and oxidize organic carbon material. Through metabolic pathways that evolutionarily predate the presence of atmospheric oxygen, these bacteria can use the metallic anode as an electron receptor. Monitoring of the microbial derived electrical current provides novel realtime insight into biological treatment rates and efficiencies. The data generated can also provide rapid insights into water quality characteristics. BES sensors are attractive because they have low power and maintenance requirements, and provide novel data on micro28  |  October 2017

Schematic of a bio-electrode system.

bial activity that can be leveraged in wastewater process optimization. They can be installed in a similar fashion to a standard wastewater probe (either submerged in a tank or installed in a pipe). All that is required for maintenance of a pre-inoculated probe is a regular supply of soluble organic material for the resident microbial populations. Therefore, the probes must be maintained in a proprietary synthetic wastewater when not being used for measurement. Output from the sensor is a voltage measurement, which is typical of other sensors such as pH, conductivity or ORP. The standard signal output being a voltage signal allows for BES sensors to be easily integrated into an existing data acquisition system or a developed SCADA system. In addition, the low power requirement means that BES sensors are attractive for remote locations or in situ water quality monitoring. Island Water Technologies recently launched the first commercial BES plat-

form, SENTRY-AD . It monitors microbial activity in anaerobic digesters to aid in process optimization and stability. For this research project a standard SENTRY-AD probe was used in a benchscale setting to determine if there was a relationship between the signal generated by the probe and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5) of a wastewater sample. The project’s hypothesis was that the metabolic activity recorded from the exo-electrogenic bacteria, as measured by the BES, would be directly correlated to the presence of biologically oxidizable organic carbon in a water sample. Traditionally, the biologically oxidizable organic carbon is quantified by the consumption of oxygen in Wheaton bottles over five days (the CBOD5 test). It was hypothesized that a BES sensor’s output would be an analogous means of measurement of CBOD5. In this study, the relationship between continued overleaf...

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WASTEWATER

BES output and CBOD5 concentration was confirmed, and a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) between the total charge transferred and the CBOD5 concentration (standard Wheaton bottle method) was identified. Replacement of the current standard method is of interest because it requires five days and skilled lab personnel to obtain precise and accurate results. Also, setup of the test is relatively time-consuming (two hours) which makes the test less practical when regularly running a small quantity of samples, and impractical in remote locations. A BES sensor that is effective for quantification of CBOD5 would liberate the measurement from a lab setting, and the real-time quantification would create the potential for optimization of wastewater treatment trains, based on real-time influent and effluent water quality. In this experiment, the sensors were run as batch reactors with regular flushing of the probe with buffered solution

Dalhousie University's Bio-Environmental Engineering Centre. Wastewater at the collection site has already undergone settling and is low in solids (<25 mg/L). A range of CBOD5 concentration was created from the domestic wastewater samples by diluting samples in phosphorus buffer with the addition of minerals and nutrients. Two metrics were used to create a Standard BES probe and data acquisition relationship with CBOD5: total charge system used for this study. transferred (integrated current); and max current. A strong linear relationship between each test. The response of the between charge transferred and CBOD5 sensor was recorded until it fell to back- concentration was found, with the domesground levels (deemed to be caused by tic wastewater relationship having an R2 endogenous respiration). After this period, of 0.98. A relationship between the maxia feed synthetic wastewater was put in the mum current CBOD5 was also apparent. cup to sustain the microbial community However, it was non-linear and only a until another sample was prepared. maximum measurable concentration of 25 Bench-scale testing was performed mg/L CBOD5 when sodium acetate was on a synthetic wastewater with sodium the carbon source and 80 mg/L CBOD5 acetate as a source of CBOD5, and on with domestic wastewater. The limitadomestic wastewater samples collected tion on the quantification of CBOD5 is a directly from the septic settling tank at satiating response (biological limitation).

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


However, when using total charger transferred to quantify CBOD5 there were no identifiable limits for total charge response. Analytical processing times for max current output were near-instantaneous after inserting a sample. The relationship of max current output with CBOD5 concentration suggests that further BES development has the potential to provide continuous real-time measurements of CBOD5 from an in situ installation. Using this sodium acetate based, synthetic wastewater, the satiating response in maximum current was identified at approximately 25 mg/L CBOD5, representing the maximum biological uptake rate for this exo-electrogenic biofilm. A Monod-type relationship was examined as a fit for the max current data but it was a poor fit, suggesting that the response limitations are not a simple substrate limitation. More in-depth analysis of the relationship will provide avenues of investigation to improve BES sensor architecture.

The results of this work are very encouraging for the potential of BES to act as real-time tools for monitoring CBOD5 concentrations in wastewater streams. Analysis time for total charge transfer for the domestic wastewater was linearly dependent on CBOD5 concentration with an R2 = 0.95. This was an anticipated result as the measurement of charge transfer is complete when the organic substrates are consumed. The results of this work are very encouraging for the potential of BES to act as real-time tools for monitoring CBOD5 concentrations in wastewater streams. The data shows a strong correlation between both the instantaneous current and charge

transfer with CBOD5. Improvements of the architecture and operation of the BES technology will focus on reducing the time required for CBOD5 quantification and improving the quantifiable range of the max current relationship. The team at Dalhousie University and Island Water Technologies are interested in installing a demonstration bioelectrode sensor technology for real-time BOD quantification at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across Canada and the U.S. The technology could be used for monitoring end-of-pipe wastewater being discharged from the facility or wastewater streams internal to the treatment process. Dr. Colin Ragush, P.Eng. is with the Centre for Water Resource Studies Dalhousie University. Dr. Patrick Kiely and Jack Ambler, P.Eng. are with Island Water Technologies. For more information, email: pkiely@islandwatertech.com

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October 2017  |  31


INFRASTRUCTURE

New procedure developed for assessment of coatings and corrosion conditions By Paul Makar

O

xidizing and neutralizing chemicals, as well as misty, wet and damp conditions, contribute to an aggressive corrosive environment in water treatment plants. In wastewater treatment plants, there is also a corrosive cocktail of bacterial decomposition of fecal and other matter and varying pH levels. Water and wastewater systems have hundreds or even thousands of painted assets, including: pumps, valves, actuators, motors, process skids, stairways, pump stations, piping systems, elevated potable water towers, standpipes, above ground reservoirs, etc. Slowing down and ultimately stopping the corrosion process is certainly achievable and affordable, provided sound steps are taken. Specific coating systems selected for their bonding, overcoating and moisture-tolerant attributes must be the first priority. These are somewhat more expensive, but will outperform and outlast conventional coating systems, resulting in a savings in both labour and material costs. The selection of a quality coating system will slow down the corrosion process. If the coating system is left unattended and not periodically maintained on any and all components, hundreds of thousands of dollars will ultimately need to be spent to refurbish and restore them. With periodic inspections, good record keeping that tracks the coating deterioration over specific time frames, and scheduled maintenance painting, there will be substantial savings. However, keeping track of coatings and corrosion issues is a daunting task of inspection, setting priorities for areas of concern, and managing costs for remediation within an annual budget. PW Makar Coatings Inspection Ltd. has developed a coatings and corrosion assessment program, specifically tailored 32  |  October 2017

Water and wastewater systems have hundreds or even thousands of painted assets, including: pipes, pumps, valves, actuators, motors, etc.

to water, wastewater and water transmission system facilities for municipal, private and industrial operators. Selected areas within water, wastewater and water transmission system facilities are audited annually for their coatings and corrosion “condition levels”. The coatings and corrosion assessment program will inspect all painted assets located in the selected buildings, rooms, galleries, chambers, and elevated towers. This is a yearly program and assets inspected will be re-inspected every three to five years, depending on location and level of exposure to corrosion-causing factors. A coatings and corrosion condition level is assigned to each painted asset. This format helps to identify assets that are in a newly painted state, ready for minor maintenance painting touchups, or a more aggressive surface preparation

and the utilization of a multi-coat painting system. It will even identify safety issues, such as an asset that has lost enough metal due to corrosion to render it unsafe for further use. The type of coating system, the colour of the top coat, the amount of dry paint film thickness and whether or not the asset has lead in its pigment can also be identified for a painted asset. Any environmental issues are noted. Is the area damp and wet? Does the area get flooded? Is the HVAC system working properly? Are there any contamination issues, i.e., oil, grease or fuel on the surface of the painted asset? If a painted asset’s coating system has failed, an explanation as to the root cause of the failure is determined. Each asset is then photographed, which helps to visually identify the type and size of the asset and the health of its coating

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


and corrosion tolerance. Information gathered from the painted asset field audits are downloaded into a customized database program, where the painted assets are organized and prioritized from “pristine” to “complete failure” and requiring immediate remediation based on a percentage of deterioration. The database program assigns paint specifications to each asset based on the assigned paint condition level. The estimated labour and material cost to repaint and bring each asset to a “like new” state is also assigned. The coatings and corrosion assessment program report package is delivered to the client, facilities managers and supervisors. It consists of hardcopy binder reports and electronic copies, which have all of the painted assets identified and categorized. A summary of the painted assets from that year’s audit is outlined in key performance indicators such as “paint health” and “general plant health”, utilizing charts and graphs. These methods highlight where to focus resources to combat coating deterioration and corrosion issues, and demonstrate overall deterioration trends. For the first time, water and wastewater managers have a tool to show where they have spent maintenance budget money, why they need more, and to demonstrate how well they are doing in the battle to fight corrosion and keep control of costs. Before a coatings and corrosion assessment program can be implemented, a data collection and labeling program must be conducted. Each asset must have a specific numerical identifier assigned to it, which clearly defines one asset from another. This data collection process can be quite simple for small rural facilities in which only critical operating equipment has data and labeling assigned to it. Data collection can be much more robust for facilities which have thousands of painted assets. A team of data collection specialists catalog and label each asset. That captured asset is then downloaded into a sophisticated computerized database program that identifies the make, model and operating parameters of that asset. A scheduled preventative maintewww.esemag.com

nance inspection plan is assigned to the labeled asset, which is routinely inspected and maintained to ensure that it is in ready-for-service condition. With the continuing use of aging infrastructure, the “paint it and maintain it” philosophy maintains plant heath, saves maintenance dollars, frees up staff time, extends the life of the asset,

and flags corrosion deterioration issues before metal failures and unsightly rust blemishes can occur. Paul Makar is with PW Makar Coatings Inspection Ltd. Email: paul.makar@cogeco.ca

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October 2017  |  33


WASTEWATER

Sudbury’s WWTP has had to evolve considerably to meet new challenges By Joshua Ranger

T

he Sudbury Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Ontario has evolved tremendously over its 45 years of existence. This can be attributed to a number of factors, such as changing environmental requirements, increased sewage flows, health and safety concerns, power failures, or outdated equipment that reached the end of its useful life. The plant was constructed in 1971 and was designed as a typical extended aeration facility, consisting of a raw sewage pump station (constructed in 1962), headhouse/degritting building, control building, four aeration tanks, four clarifiers, and a chlorine contact chamber. Effluent is discharged to Junction Creek, located north and east of the plant. For many years the plant had operated well, meeting the needs of the City of Greater Sudbury. In the late 1980s, it was determined that the plant needed to be expanded to handle future flows. In 1989, R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA) was retained by the City to complete an Environmental Study Report (ESR) which paved the way for the future expansion of the plant. The ESR recommended a staged implementation of various upgrades, increasing the average daily capacity from 68,250 m3/ day to 102,375 m3/day.

Upgraded raw sewage pump station forcemains, channels and bypass.

upgrades and modifications to the facility between 1997 and 2011. In total, six new submersible pumps were installed to handle peak flows of 409,500 m3/ day. To design and install these pumps, several factors had to be considered: • Physical pump size (could the pumps fit through the front door?). The only access to the drywell/wetwell was by an existing elevator shaft. • Increased total dynamic head (TDH) requirements. As a component of headSEWAGE COLLECTION SYSTEM house upgrades requirements, the hydrauThe sewage collection system for PUMP STATION lic gradeline between the pump station the City is unique since all flow is ultiSince the rock tunnel is located more discharge and aeration tanks was raised mately transported to the WWTP by an than 25 m below ground, a pump station 2.55 m. underground rock tunnel, measuring had to be constructed to pump wastewa- • Performance of the proposed pumping roughly 1.5 m wide by 2.1 m high. This ter out of the tunnel. In 1962, the Sudbury configuration. The large increase in capacwas constructed in 1962 to transport WWTP pump station was constructed. It ity raised concerns as to the performance sanitary sewage from the downtown consisted of a pump station control build- of the proposed pumping configuration. core of the City to the WWTP. Over the ing over an 18 m deep vertical shaft with As such, computational fluid dynamic years, the rock tunnel network has been access elevator, a pump drywell, a sluice (CFD) modeling was completed, which extended, with the most recent exten- gate screening room and two wet wells. helped to better understand the characsion, the South End Rock Tunnel, being In 1996, a major failure occurred at teristics of the existing inlet and discharge completed in 2010. the pump station which flooded it. This conditions, and how they would affect the The rock tunnel is extremely import- prompted the City to complete various continued overleaf... 34  |  October 2017

ant to the Sudbury WWTP as it allows for additional operational flexibility. If required, the WWTP can be isolated from the rock tunnel, which has the capacity to store average sewage flows for as long as 12 hours. This allows plant operators to temporarily shut down the entire plant if required for maintenance. In addition, the tunnel can be utilized to buffer the plant against high peak instantaneous flows, helping to reduce the likelihood of bypass events.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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proposed pumping upgrades. Additional upgrades at the lift station include installation of two mechanical bar screens and two cast-iron sluice gates. The sluice gates are used to isolate the rock tunnel from the lift station, and control flow to two separate pump wetwells.

HEADHOUSE UPGRADES The headworks facility, commonly referred to as the headhouse, was constructed in 1972. It was comprised of manually raked bar screens and detritors equipped with grit classifiers. In recent years, a number of operational, maintenance and safety concerns in the headhouse were raised, leading to the construction of an upgraded headworks facility. Upon further review by the City and RVA, it was recommended that the existing screening and degritting facility be upgraded to take advantage of the existing building, plant layout and recent upgrades completed to the pump station. As a result, two separate treatment trains

If required, the WWTP can be isolated from the rock tunnel, which has the capacity to store average sewage flows for as long as 12 hours.

were designed and constructed, each capable of handling the maximum day flow of 204,750 m3/day. The upgrades included: • Two automated fine screening systems – complete with washing and dewatering compacting system. • Two raised channels to facilitate the removal of the intermediate pumps located between the headhouse and aeration tanks. • Two grit vortex units. Grit removal is necessary to remove fine solids that can impact plant processes and equipment. Grit vortex units utilize a natural vortex flow pattern coupled with gravity to effec-

tively separate grit from sewage influent. The grit is removed from the units using a pump that discharges into a classifier which separates the grit from the liquid matrix. • Three new ferric sulfate storage tanks and injection system. Ferric sulfate is added to facilitate the removal of phosphorus from the wastewater. Like most construction projects at a WWTP, the upgrades to the headhouse had to be completed while maintaining plant operation. As such, this project had a number of construction constraints and risks associated with it. These included constructing the new

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elevated raw sewage channel and bypass over the old Parshall flume and channel which had to remain operational until upgrades were complete. Upgrades to the headhouse were completed in January 2015.

ODOUR CONTROL SYSTEM Over the years, the Sudbury WWTP has been subject to odour complaints due to its proximity to adjacent residential neighborhoods. As a result, the City decided to install an odour control system to treat the foul smelling air from the headhouse and raw sewage lift station. The City and RVA evaluated three treatment options: carbon filter absorption, biofiltration and photoionization. It was recommended that the City install a photoionization system, which utilizes ultraviolet light and carbon filtration to decompose odorous compounds. Among the options evaluated, photoionization had the lowest life cycle cost, smallest footprint and was a modular design. This was important as there were space limitations adjacent to the headhouse and pump station, requiring a compact system. This type of technology was the first of its kind in Ontario and was completed in April 2016. CONTROL BUILDING UPGRADES The control building was constructed in 1972 and is located between the headhouse and aeration tanks. It contains control panels, city central control/ SCADA system, administrative offices, aeration blowers, and distribution piping for the aeration tanks. Until March 2014, all flow from the headhouse was pumped to a raw sewage conduit located in the basement of the control building, using intermediate lift pumps. Upon completion of the headhouse upgrades, the intermediate lift pumps were decommissioned and all sewage now flows by gravity to the aeration tanks. This helped to reduce power consumption, maintenance requirements and operating costs for the plant. In addition, a new turbo blower was installed in December 2015, further reducing the energy consumption of the plant by an estimated 490 MWh per year.

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CLARIFIERS The clarifiers at the Sudbury WWTP are circular and have conventional scraper mechanisms and scum skimmers. The tanks are centre-feed with revolving mechanisms to transport and remove the sludge from the bottom of the clarifier. The first four clarifiers were constructed in 1972. In 1994, the City constructed two additional clarifiers to increase plant

capacity to 79,625 m3/day. The original four clarifiers were also replaced in the 2000s. Several things had to be considered when designing and constructing the clarifiers: • Planning for the final two clarifiers. To facilitate future construction, a portion of the final clarifiers was built.

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WASTEWATER

• Connection to the mixed liquor conduit. Since it was not practical to connect to the existing mixed liquor conduit, a separate conduit was constructed from the aeration tanks to the two new clarifiers. This has also allowed for additional plant operational flexibility. • Connection of clarifier effluent to the chlorine contact chamber required additional in-ground chambers. • Dewatering and rock excavation for the clarifier foundation resulted in additional challenges during construction.

CHLORINATION SYSTEM/ DECHLORINATION SYSTEM Prior to 1994, the Sudbury WWTP utilized chlorine injection and a chlorine contact tank to disinfect the effluent before discharging into Junction Creek. The new chlorine contact tank and facility was designed to treat a peak day flow of 409,500 m3/day. The chlorine system was also designed to allow for the treatment of bypassed plant flows before

Upgraded raw sewage lines in control building basement.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


being discharged into Junction Creek. In 2004, Environment Canada issued requirements for allowable levels of inorganic chloramines in chlorinated wastewater effluents. As such, the City prepared and implemented a Pollution Prevention (P2) Plan in accordance with the P2 Planning Notice published by Environment Canada. Ultimately, dechlorination using sodium bisulfite was installed at the plant.

SLUDGE HANDLING Prior to 2015, all waste activated sludge was hauled to the City’s transfer station and pumped to Vale’s tailing ponds for disposal. This was common practice for the City for more than 30 years, but operational issues would arise on occasion. This resulted in odour problems, complaints from area residents, and issues relating to plastics and debris being washed up on the tailing pond beaches. The odour problems were exacerbated in 2005 and 2007 due to a combination of changes that altered the tailing pond dynamics. As a result, the City undertook a comprehensive Biosolids Management Master Plan, following the Class EA process. The Class EA recommended the construction of a biosolids treatment facility at the Sudbury WWTP, with an end goal to produce a Class A soil-type product. This facility would also be capable of receiving sludge from the City’s other wastewater facilities. In the end, a solution involving an alkaline stabilization process was chosen by the City. The new biosolids treatment facility was constructed through a Public Private Partnership, and was completed in May 2015. FUTURE UPGRADES Every wastewater treatment plant will experience new challenges with respect to process and capacity upgrades. The Sudbury WWTP is not immune from such challenges, as a number of future projects are expected, including: • Expanding the aeration system and possible conversion to a moving bed bioreactor. • Constructing the final two secondary clarifiers. • Constructing a tertiary treatment facility. • Constructing primary clarifiers/storm tanks. • Expanding the standby power system. • Various aesthetic and non-process related upgrades (parking lot, RV dumping station, works garage, walking trail adjacent to the plant, increased security improvements). These projects will continue to change and evolve, based on the needs of the community, and changing flow and regulatory requirements. They will require a great deal of planning between the City, engineers and contractors to ensure that the projects meet or exceed the City’s requirements. It will be interesting to see the evolution of the Sudbury Wastewater Treatment Plant over the next 45 years and beyond!

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Joshua Ranger is with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (Sudbury). Email: jranger@rvanderson.com

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October 2017  |  39


WASTEWATER

Taking steps to overcome wastewater pumping challenges By Mehran Masoudi

S

olid and fibrous materials in wastewater streams can block or clog pumps, valves and piping systems. Abrasive materials, such as sand, can cause premature wear in pump components. Large flow variations, especially those that are encountered in pump stations that need to deal with a combination of wastewater and stormwater, can make it impossible to keep pumps running in their most efficient operating range. Low velocity flows in pipes and tank structures can lead to solid wastes settling out into hard-to-move masses, while very high-velocity flows can cause air entrapment and cavitation at pump intakes. While it is impossible to prevent all such problems, there are ways to prevent some of them.

SCREENS ARE THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE Clearly, the best way of dealing with solid materials in the waste stream is to intercept and remove them before they can get into the wastewater treatment process. Screens are very effective at this task and care should be taken to keep them clear and in good repair. Settling basins near the plant intake are also very valuable, since they allow dense, fine-grain solids, such as sand, to settle out before they come into contact with machinery.

Top: Impellers come in a variety of configurations. Right: Combined pump station for stormwater and wastewater.

as KSB’s newly-designed F-Max model, offer large free passages and are effective when pumping fluids with high levels of dissolved gases. A key to optimizing pumping efficiency is to match pump characteristics CHOSE THE RIGHT PUMP to local operational requirements. ManuCONFIGURATION FOR THE JOB ally clearing blocked pumps can be very Some pump/impeller combinations time and resource consuming. Pumps are better at handling solids-laden intended to handle raw or minimally wastewater streams. Pumps with large screened sewage should be selected with free passages can pass relatively large good anti-clogging characteristics in solid objects without becoming blocked. mind. Pumps installed at the later stages Special impellers, such as the KSB’s of the wastewater treatment cycle are less D-impeller, have specially contoured likely to encounter solid materials and leading edges to help avoid becoming can be fitted with impellers that deliver clogged with tangles of fibrous materi- good energy efficiency. als. Vortex, or free-flow impellers, such “Chopper”, “grinder” or “cutter” impel40  |  October 2017

lers are designed to break up solids into smaller pieces that can pass through the pump without causing blockages. However, when solids are broken into smaller bits, they can more easily pass through screens. This means that they become harder to separate from the waste stream and can cause problems with downstream biological digestion processes.

KEEP THINGS MOVING In many pumping applications, low flow rates are regarded as a good thing, since they reduce friction losses. For wastewater though, low flows can lead to sludge material settling out in tanks, wells, or in awkward places in the piping system. Careful design of pump stations

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


and related piping systems can keep flow rates high enough that solids are kept in motion. Low flow rates, which implies running on the far left side of the pump’s characteristic curve, can cause cavitation at the discharge nozzle. Very rapid flows can also cause problems, such as excessive turbulence, the formation of vortices and the entrainment of air in the stream of water entering the pump station. These can create uneven, two-phase flows near the pump suction nozzle and result in rough running and damage due to cavitation. Avoiding these flow-related problems requires careful design of pump station structures and piping systems.

Pumps installed at the later stages of the wastewater treatment cycle are less likely to encounter solid materials and can be fitted with impellers that deliver good energy efficiency.

They should be designed with separate sewage and stormwater sections. The sewage section is relatively small, designed to deal with the lower “normal” wastewater flows and maintain minimum flow velocities. The stormwater section is large enough to handle extreme conditions. Incoming water normally enters STORMWATER PLUS the sewage section. It only flows into the WASTEWATER? stormwater section when volumes exceed Facilities designed to handle a combi- the capacity of the sewage section. nation of wastewater and stormwater can A “dissipation chamber” in the stormbe difficult to design, considering the water section allows turbulent inflows to extreme variation in flow rates between settle before they reach the pump intakes. “normal” and “peak storm” conditions. Splitter plates between the pumps keep

turbulent flow conditions that might become established near one pump intake from affecting neighbouring pumps. Multiple pumps make it easier to manage highly variable flow rates. The number of pumps turned on would depend on the volume of water that must be handled. Each running pump would be operated near to its best efficiency point. Mehran Masoudi is a Project Engineer with KSB Pumps Inc. For more information, email: avezina@ksbcanada.com

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October 2017  |  41


INFRASTRUCTURE

Research shows ‘unacceptable’ high rates of sewer inflow, infiltration in new subdivisions By Barbara Robinson and Dan Sandink

T

he issue of unacceptable levels of Inflow and Infiltration (I/I) in new subdivisions has recently emerged. In 2005, a new subdivision in St. Jacobs, Ontario, located in the Township of Woolwich, demonstrated significant baseflows, as discovered inadvertently by a downstream flow monitor. As a result, Woolwich staff elected to flow monitor all new subdivisions, and a further three subdivisions also demonstrated unacceptable levels of I/I. Recognizing that this issue was likely prevalent across Ontario, Norton Engineering Inc. initiated a project in 2015 to examine the problem in more detail, to identify the underlying causes and conditions, and to develop feasible and cost-effective solutions for municipalities and regulatory officials. This ongoing project has been funded by a variety of municipalities and non-profit agencies in Ontario. Staff from the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction and the Region of Peel have been particularly helpful in guiding the project. Firstly, data was collected from new subdivisions across Ontario, which had been subject to flow monitoring. In total, results have been obtained from 31 subdivisions in Ontario, as of June 2017. Flows observed in these subdivisions were deemed “unacceptable” by the reporting agencies. However, this study examined what an “acceptable” I/I number should be. The typical peak I/I allowance used in sewer system design in Ontario is based on the 1985 Ministry of Environment Guidelines, which are out of date but are the most recent Guideline to identify a range for allowable I/I. They specify an allowable I/I for sanitary sewers of 0.10 to 0.28 L/s/ha. Because sewers are sized based on this value, it is intended to provide for long-term I/I. Most Ontario municipalities have traditionally used the higher end of this range 42  |  October 2017

Installation of new sewers and maintenance hole in a subdivision.

engineering, and building departments. Supplemental information was also collected from consultants, contractors, developers, builders and other industry representatives. All participants in the working sessions and surveys were promised confidentiality, so the sources of specific comments are not identified in this report. This project does not purport to examine what the specific defects are, but rather to determine why these deficiencies are occurring in the first place In Ontario, engineering/development departments oversee the public side of SURVEY OF ONTARIO sanitary sewer systems (usually mainMUNICIPALITIES line sewer and lateral to property line). Following the confirmation that the Municipal building departments oversee vast majority of subdivisions which private-side systems (property line to had been flow monitored were produc- house). Private- and public-side systems ing unacceptable I/I, detailed surveys fall under completely different legislative of municipalities across Ontario were regimes, and are therefore treated sepaundertaken. Surveys were conducted rately here. The engineering commuwith staff from development, planning, nity, who concern themselves with I/I, in sanitary sewer design sheets which are included with approval applications for new sewers. This will ensure that, in the last year of a pipe’s life, there is adequate capacity to convey both domestic and long-term I/I. This value is not a suitable acceptance testing number. That is provided by the Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications. Data and figures for this project were provided by most participating municipalities. At the time the data was obtained, these were brand new sewers, and only 25 homes were occupied.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


does not normally examine data on the private side, under the jurisdiction of the Ontario Building Code (OBC), which makes this project unique. Current thinking around I/I sources across North America suggests that half of the I/I observed originates on the private side

RESULTS FROM THE PUBLIC SIDE The survey included discussing both specific practices that reduce I/I, as well as general issues, concerns and constraints related to how new construction of public sanitary sewers evolves, and how much involvement municipal staff have. The Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications (OPSS) are used by the vast majority of municipalities in Ontario. OPSS 410 (Construction Specification for Pipe Sewer Installation in Open Cut – November 2012) is very clear regarding the Acceptance Testing of New Sanitary Sewers. Required tests include checking every gasketed joint by feeler gauge, mandrel testing, air/water testing, installation of factory made tees or wyes to join service connections to the main pipe sewer and CCTV inspection. These are the primary tests that confirm that pipes are correctly laid and not leaking. Survey results indicate that most municipalities are not performing these required public-side tests. Similar results were found for the required mainline CCTV inspection. Very few municipalities reported performing CCTV inspection of laterals along with mainline sewers. Arguably, the lateral to property line qualifies as “new sewers” referenced in OPSS 410. Mandrel testing was the most common test undertaken (71% of those surveyed). However, the purpose of the test was not well understood. If a mandrel test of a PVC pipe fails, the pipe is out of round, its service life will be compromised, and the pipe needs to be re-laid. Only one inspector in the surveys reported requiring the re-laying of a pipe due to mandrel test failure. In addition, OPSS calls for the checking of every gasketed joint by feeler gauge to ensure that the gasket is seated properly, which was never observed in this study. However, many CCTV inspections of pipes performed later www.esemag.com

show the gasket hanging into the sewer (e.g., not providing a watertight seal). It was also reported that most municipal staff did not review the CCTV tapes themselves. Rather, they relied on the developer’s consultant to do this. Many other issues which likely contribute to I/I were observed by survey participants.

RESULTS FROM THE PRIVATE SIDE The survey included discussing both specific practices which will reduce I/I, as well as general issues, concerns and constraints related to how new construction on the private side is performed. In new subdivisions, several tests performed on private-side sanitary infrastructure are explicitly called for by the OBC, and are legally required. Each municipality was asked to report on which of the tests called for in the OBC were being performed. Failure to construct sanitary building sewers (OBC term: known in engineer-

(Top) Example of a gasket that is not seated properly, causing the joint not to be sealed. (Bottom) A brand new lateral leaking in new subdivision at the property line.

continued overleaf…

October 2017  |  43


INFRASTRUCTURE

This municipality no longer required parging/ sealing of pipes at the maintenance hole.

ing as the private-side lateral) to a watertight condition contributes to I/I in the municipal system, and increases the risk of sewage backup into basements. The OBC requires every pipe in a drainage system be capable of withstanding, without leakage, a water test, air test and final test. Another significant issue found in the survey is that bedding and backfill operations frequently do not appear to meet OBC requirements to support plastic pipe being used for the sanitary building sewer (SBS). The plastic pipe used for the SBS is connected by glued joints, which has a more limited capacity to flex the way a gasketed joint (used on the public side) does, so proper bedding is essential. Improperly bedded, glued SBSs have a much higher chance of cracking than gasketed joints. Various types of solvents (glue) are required on site, and each application requires a different type of glue. Survey participants were not checking that glue

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44  |  October 2017

used was appropriate for the application, which may compromise the joint. An SBS which is leaking may put residents at greater risk of flooding in the future, as well as allowing the introduction of I/I into the municipal sanitary sewer from the private side. In addition, inspection of the connection of the public- and private-side sewer at property line is not widely performed. This connection is frequently found to be leaking in older systems. The municipal sewer system and lateral to property line (the public side) is installed, buried and tested by the pipe laying contractor. Public-side tests (if any) are performed, and the underground infrastructure is accepted by the city engineer or equivalent. Then, builders arrive to construct the homes. They dig up the end of the public sanitary sewer lateral to connect the SBS for each home. Differential settlement associated with these two operations is not unexpected. A common source of I/I in new subdivisions is a poor connection of lateral sewer at property line (different sized pipes; lack of a fitting, glue that did not set; offset joints).

FINDINGS The survey revealed that staff in both engineering and building departments struggled with a lack of clear understanding of the various specifications, codes and guidelines that govern their work, and how they related to work in other departments. Indeed, the OBC is open to interpretation in many areas and a wide variety of opinions regarding its requirements were shared with the author. Staff at different levels within the same organization were reporting different tests, procedures and requirements. This study also found that “…challenges are posed by a web of contributing factors comprising: complexity of legislation; jurisdictional conflicts; development pressures; municipal infrastructure; engineering design standards; procurement policies and practices; construction industry and workforce; climate change and extreme weather events.” Municipalities are also starting to face legal consequences associated with not following their own bylaws and specifications. Since many of the issues Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


reported in this survey are already specified or mandated, many may be at risk of legal action if they fail to perform appropriate inspection and testing results in flooding or other negative consequence for residents. These issues must be resolved from the top down, with substantial support from senior management and politicians, as well as from the bottom up, through staff. Further action on this issue must be made at the municipal level.

RECOMMENDATIONS The overwhelming conclusion from the project to date is that most municipalities are not insisting on the inspection and testing procedures already required in their Specifications and Regulations (both OPSS and OBS). For municipalities who do not already have data on this subject, they should introduce, at least as a pilot project, flow monitoring of a few new subdivisions from the establishment of the subdivision's trunk system,

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to final acceptance, to see if this problem exists for them. Municipal staff should use the legacy “0.28 L/s/ha” allowance for peak extraneous flow on Sanitary Sewer Design sheets correctly. Although in the new subdivision itself there may be ample capacity, the downstream infrastructure should not be expected to convey clean water potentially at the expense of new development, climate change safety factors, overflows and flooding. It is also largely unknown how systems with relatively high I/I at the time of construction will perform over time when exposed to the extreme short-duration rainfall events generally associated with regional sewer backup and urban flood events. These are expected to increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change. Ultimately, the municipality has the power to ensure that new subdivisions are built free of unacceptable I/I. It could withhold Letters of Credit (a financial

deposit made by the developer) until leak-free infrastructure is delivered. As a result of the survey, some of the participating municipalities are actively engaged in amending development agreements, amending capital development standards for sanitary infrastructure and introducing mandatory flow monitoring of new subdivisions. We must start looking at the costs of not carefully constructing our infrastructure, as it certainly far exceeds the costs of doing it. Barbara Robinson is with Norton Engineering Inc. For more information, email: nortonengineeringinc@gmail.com, or visit www.nortonengineeringinc.ca. Dan Sandink is with the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction.

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SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

Is the water and wastewater industry ready for Industry 4.0? By Dean Rudd

T

here has been a lot of talk around the water and wastewater industry about the future of our systems and how we can better provide services to the public. In the water sector, the focus seems to be on smarter systems that can eliminate water loss and automatically adjust to optimize delivery based on true demand. On the wastewater side, we want better treatment and more efficient use of energy and human resources. To achieve these goals, I believe we need to embrace Industry 4.0, which is the next phase of the industrial revolution/digital age.

46  |  October 2017

THE EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIES 1.0-3.0 A person on horseback could travel about 40 km per day on a long journey, which was as fast as information and goods could travel. This time frame changed with the introduction of steam travel. People, goods and information got together much faster. Also, productivity soared as much more could be done with steam power than could be done manually. This is Industry 1.0 – the steam age. Then came the introduction of electricity, which was more efficient, easier to use and less expensive than steam. Electricity led to increased productivity and

the analog age, one device one function, and one piece of data. This is Industry 2.0 – the analog age. In the sixties, we wanted to travel to the moon, which helped spur the age of computers. This is Industry 3.0 – the digital age. WHERE IS THE WATER AND WASTEWATER INDUSTRY AT? Are we truly in the digital age in wastewater treatment? I would argue that we are still in the age of Industry 2.0 – the analog age. I have heard many people in the industry discuss the complexity of our systems, such as SCADA, and the mountain of signals and values we have to deal with on a daily basis. But, is just having the data really enough? The first “Smart” instruments, such as HART protocol, were introduced in the 1990s and became the standard a few years later. Today, it is almost impossible to buy a measuring point without it or something even more sophisticated. When we say “Smart”, what do we really mean? Even the simplest of devices have built-in microprocessors doing all the thinking and number crunching. We can now get this information out of them using digital communications. Let’s take a look at the data a simple pH sensor can provide. It can measure pH, mV, temperature, and glass impedance. Some can provide the last calibration date, extreme values, life timer, serial number and model number. This is a lot of information, but can it help us, or is it information just for information’s sake? First, we have to examine the effect of data on regulatory compliance, be it federal, provincial or internal. If we want to control or regulate something we need to measure it. Having a reliable measurement with a high degree of confidence makes control that much easier.

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The Steam Age

The Analog Age

In Industry 4.0, or the digital information age, we can gain this confidence with the knowledge that all devices are continually running diagnostic tests internally and making this data available for study. Let the device tell you its status and when it needs to be looked at for support. Many of the current devices we are running in our systems today have this capability. If we look at the data in the proper way, we can quickly identify any issues and implement the remedy. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in aeration basins are one of the most important analytical measurements in any wastewater plant. Only with the recent introduction of optical DO sensors have we had enough trust in the measurements to implement automated energy-saving strategies.

The Digital Age

Let’s go back to that simple pH sensor with the nine pieces of data and look at the glass impedance. By following this parameter it can give us a health indication of the measuring surface, helping us predict required maintenance. Think of the time and dollars that can be saved by only dispatching maintenance when it is really required. Many manufacturers of equipment are incorporating global standards for information (e.g., Diagnostic NAMUR 107). This means that no matter what device you have, regardless of the manufacturer, the messages are the same. Standards developed in other industries can enhance wastewater as well. In Industry 4.0, when confidence is lost in a device, it can talk to the maintenance system, check inventory, arrange for new parts

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to be ordered and schedule the replacement, once parts and people are available, ensuring a confident, compliant result. When we talk confidence, we have to look at data security and what that means for our industry. Most systems have very sophisticated architectures for control, monitoring and data collection. There is a drive to put this information into the cloud and increase access and eliminate hardware. It is true that many devices can easily accomplish this feat today, using simple technologies like Bluetooth or WLAN, making information available without hooking up outputs. Security of this data must be designed right into the device. Many of these devices are already in place, but are we taking advantage of the continued overleaf…

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continued overleaf… www.esemag.com

October 2017  |  47


SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

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information they can give us? First, we must look at the design of our systems. Do we have the ability to communicate? Only a small number of waste treatment facilities run digital communication between the measuring devices and the SCADA. It is common to be able to see from plant SCADA to plant SCADA within a region. It is easy to see a remote pump station and look at all key variables (key as we see them today), like pumps on or off, levels high or low, and flow values. Wastewater and water systems were some of the first networks designed and built to handle this type of communications. Some of the most detailed wireless communication systems were in our industry. With the ability to communicate to remote sites, we could now turn pumps on and off, without having personnel travel to them. This was a significant milestone. Imagine now that we extended this communication into the measuring devices in those remote stations. Now, we can not only look at the flow value, for

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48  |  October 2017

example, but also know that the meter is working up to specification by reading its health indicator over our communication network. Let the pump give you its runtime and efficiency factor as a trended value. Moreover, have it communicate a wear issue directly, allowing the maintenance system to look for spares, examine personnel availability and eliminate any non-required travel and downtime. Another dimension to Industry 4.0 is the ability to change the roles of the human element in the whole equation. Will we be eliminated? No, but many of us will have to develop new skills and be open to new opportunities. Other aspects of Industry 4.0 are simulation and augmented reality. The wastewater industry has been a leader for many years in the use of simulation and modeling of processes. Almost all plants and regions use simulations to test for things like storms and population expansions. We are already in the future. Augmented reality is something that will be a standard in Industry 4.0 and it will open up a whole new world of efficiency. A simple smart phone with a camera will be all you need to look at a device, define operating and maintenance procedures, and perform calibrations and more. Imagine a complex device that is down and the only maintenance person is several hours away. You will be able to open an App, point your phone at the device and then the App will walk you through the basics of how to get it back on line. This will save money and time. This type of technology will change our roles and it will be here soon. We have seen that we have devices of all kinds already in our facilities that can save us time, money and help us meet our regulatory requirements. But are we using their capabilities? Are we communicating and getting the right data into our systems that make operations and maintenance better, faster and cheaper? Are we increasing the safety of our process and our employees by letting our “smart devices” tell us what they need when they need it? The answers are “yes”, “no”, and “sometimes”. Dean Rudd is with Endress+Hauser. For more information, email dean.rudd@ca.endress.com

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SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

Wastewater’s resources can be valuable if reclaimed properly By Shannon Grant

O

perators of wastewater treatment plants can combat both wasted natural resources and unnecessary expenses, by shifting their focus towards resource recovery. Green energy, clean water, and nutrients can all be harnessed from wastewater.

TAPPING INTO THE POWER OF BIOGAS Anaerobic digestion produces valuable biogas, creating an easy opportunity to convert waste into energy. On-site energy production is one of the most practical ways plants can become more sustainable. Biogas can be used in boilers to produce heat, or burned in cogeneration engines to produce both electricity and heat. In some cases, it can be sold to the energy network for utility credits. These smart strategies also help displace fossil fuel use. The first step to harnessing the power of biogas is to capture it with a gas-tight tank or lagoon cover. Exactly how much energy can be captured depends on the quantity of wastewater being treated

Anaerobic digestion produces valuable biogas, which can be converted into renewable energy. Photo: ADI Systems.

and its strength. But typically, an anaer- corrosion and harmful sulfur emissions. obic digestion system can capture thou- This can be achieved using either biologisands of cubic metres of biogas per day. cal or chemical scrubber technologies. In many cases, biogas contains hydroOnce treated, biogas captured from gen sulfide (H2S), which must be removed anaerobic digestion can be used in in order to reduce health risks, equipment continued overleaf…

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October 2017  |  49


SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

many applications, including: internal combustion engines, gen-sets, microturbines, fuel cells, sludge dryers, and boiler and steam generating systems. Biogas produced from the anaerobic wastewater treatment system at one WWTP is captured and burned in two 1,000 kW gas engines to generate electricity. The electricity helps power the wastewater treatment process, saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in annual electricity costs. It also generates revenue by selling excess electricity to the local utility.

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nutrients. When applied on land, these nutrients re-enter the food chain via uptake by plants and crops, creating a closed-loop nutrient cycle. Land application also reduces hauling costs and the associated vehicle emissions.

REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE WATER The right on-site treatment system can transform treated wastewater into a reliable alternative water source, helping address water shortages, while reducing operational costs. Water conservaThis treatment plant saves hundreds of tion further minimizes the demands on thousands of dollars with biogas utilization. NUTRIENT RECOVERY freshwater sources and demonstrates Nutrient-rich waste anaerobic sludge Photo: ADI Systems. environmental stewardship. (WANS) from the anaerobic digestion of Aerobic technologies such as membrane wastewater can be recycled as fertilizer. micro-nutrients in WANS presents an bioreactors are a good starting point for The production of WANS for use or sale environmentally-sound alternative to water reuse projects because they can can also contribute to the economics of mineral commercial fertilizers. Nutrients produce a very high-quality effluent. The a biogas system. in WANS, including nitrogen and phos- treatment process results in extremely low Making better use of biosolids places phorus, are plant-accessible, increasing nitrogen, phosphorus, biochemical oxygen essential nutrients and water back into nutrient absorption and reducing pollu- demand, and total suspended solids the soil. The high levels of macro– and tion by the non-utilized portion of the concentrations. The physical barrier in Waste Water products 4.65 x 4.65.pdf 1 1/26/2016 9:25:59 AM membrane bioreactors ensures complete solids retention and process stability. With the right technology, potable water reuse applications are also an option, although Pumps for all your waste water challenges this usually requires reverse osmosis. Treated wastewater can be used in  Thickened Sludge  Bio-mass  Thin Sludge a number of applications, including:  Dewatered Sludge  Activated Sludge  Lime Milk makeup water for cooling towers and boil Auxiliary Flocculents  Combined Sewage  Flotation Sludge ers, equipment cleaning, vehicle washing, irrigation, air conditioning, toilet flushing and fire protection. Noosa’s Yoghurt has an on-site wastewater treatment system. Its aerobic membrane bioreactor allows the dairy processor to comply with strict environmental regulations, and generate an efflu® CLASSIC TORNADO T1 NEMO® Progressing ent suitable for reuse on-site or direct Rotary Lobe Pumps Cavity Pumps discharge. Treated water is reused for cleaning cow barns and irrigating crops. Full Service-in-Place ® Wastewater treatment plants that have (FSIP ) Pumps ® made the shift to treating wastewater ® NEMO Mini TORNADO T2 as a resource rather than treating it like Metering Pump Rotary Lobe Pumps waste are minimizing costs and realizing the first-hand benefits of rethinking their perspective on wastewater. Water reuse, waste reduction, and energy generating NETZSCH Canada, Inc. initiatives are helping protect both the Tel: 705-797-8426 environment, and a plant’s bottom line. ntc@netzsch.com www.pumps.netzsch.com Shannon Grant is with ADI Systems. For more information, email: systems@adi.ca 50  |  October 2017

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SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

CWWA surveys optimization practices at large-scale pumping systems By Morris Liu

W

ater utilities operating a system with multiple pressure zones and pump stations encounter challenges to their financial resources as well as environmental impacts. Operators have to make instantaneous decisions in selecting optimal pumps/pump combinations to respond to demand changes or other system needs. A large-scale pumping system uses an extensive amount of energy. Proper operational guidance and technical support is the key for efficient operation that can reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, while ensuring safe and secure water supply. A variety of pump station optimizers or pump schedulers are available in today’s market. However, water utilities often find it difficult to choose an appropriate solution for their system. Non-biased knowledge of their peers’ practices and experiences could help them in such a situation. The Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA) conducted a national survey among its members in February 2017, about large-scale pump system optimization practices. The survey targeted water utilities with multiple pressure zones and pump stations, and focused on pump station optimization software (functionality, experience and preference).

SURVEY RESULTS Eighteen municipalities responded with information on their drinking water systems and optimizing practices in pump stations’ operation. Participants shared information on their main drivers, methods, preferable control strategy and major challenges in optimizing large-scale pump systems. Twenty percent of the participants have an existing pump system optimizer. Twenty percent said they use pump optimization solutions other than software. www.esemag.com

Figure 1. Drivers of investment.

One-third of the remaining participants are interested in investing in pump system optimization software. Among the “No” responders to the “interest of investing” question, 40% either conducted pump tests recently

or installed monitoring devices for the energy consumption of individual pumps. The “No” responses appeared to neither correlate to the scale and complexity of a municipality’s pump continued overleaf…

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SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

system, nor to the population served. As seen in Figure 1, high-energy cost is the primary driver to invest in pump system optimization. Population growth and demand increase is the second main driver. Other drivers include reduction of carbon emissions, reduction of pressure fluctuation and overpressure incidents, building resiliency and redundancy in the system, inadequate staffing and losing experienced staff due to retirement.

OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION Two-thirds of survey participants use one or more pump system optimization solution in their water transmission system. The solution can be software, an operational practice, or both. Software products providing advisory recommendations are slightly preferred over software that takes full or partial control of a pump system. See Figure 2.

Figure 2. Operational optimization.

LEVEL OF AUTOMATION WITH SOFTWARE To understand what type of pump system optimization software is desired among municipalities and utilities across Canada, three options were provided.

These are fully automatic control by software, advisory only, and hybrid. Advisory software was the favored option. However, the municipalities/ utilities who already have optimization software, all select the hybrid option.

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Experience Innovation

6JSCEE

Figure 3: Level of automation.

(See Figure 3) A number of software products capable of optimizing large-scale pump systems in real-time or non real-time were mentioned in the survey responses. A summary of these products is available online at: www.esemag.com/pumping-survey. Other optimization solutions included: • Operating pumps during off-peak periods. • Thermodynamic testing of pumps to establish real-world up-to-date pump curves. • Running VFD in the most efficient energy and flow zones. • Continuously monitoring pump efficiency in conjunction with pump retrofits. • Proper pump selection during design stage. • Educating operators and providing the most efficient pumping schedule and combination.

CHALLENGES Utilities across Canada are facing diverse challenges for pump system energy management including: aging infrastructure; difficult to maintain adequate storage for potential sudden demand increase; oversized pumps; pipe leakage; difficult to obtain reliable demand prediction and current pump curve; pump operating far from the Best Efficiency Point; high water demand often occurring during on-peak hours; and raising water over an extensive amount of height. CONCLUSION The survey yielded results that may benefit water utilities facing financial constraints when making decisions in capital investment. It showed the significance of the energy and energy efficiency issues today to water utilities, provided examples of optimizing solutions in large-scale pump systems with multiple pump stations and reservoirs, displayed preferences in software’s level of automation and shared current practices among participated water utilities. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This survey was funded and supported by the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association and its Water and Energy Efficiency Committee. The author would like to thank the municipalities that participated in this survey and Rita Zhang, City of Calgary, for her significant contribution in this project. Morris Liu is with the Water Resources Department at the City of Calgary. For more information, visit www.cwwa.ca www.esemag.com

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Using QMRA to estimate the health risks of pathogens in drinking water

A

recent Water Research Foundation study used Health Canada’s Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) tool to conduct assessments at four drinking water plants. These were Ottawa’s Britannia plant, Toronto’s R.L. Clark plant, the Region of Waterloo’s Mannheim plant and Metro Vancouver’s Coquitlam plant. The study is designed to: • Demonstrate application of the Health Canada QMRA tool for analysis of four drinking water treatment plants. • Develop guidelines for effective application of the tool. • Develop and assess approaches for improved source water pathogen monitoring, including the assessment of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as an alternate source water monitoring approach. • Develop and evaluate extensions of the Health Canada QMRA tool.

BACKGROUND The Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (CCME 2004) recommend that water providers use QMRA to provide a better understanding of microbiological risk in their systems. To meet this recommendation, water providers need access to user-friendly, validated QMRA tools. This project demonstrated application of the Health Canada QMRA tool – an Excel-based tool designed and implemented to allow QMRA studies by professionals with and without extensive specific expertise in programming and risk analysis. This tool was initially developed by Health Canada as part of the risk assessment process for enteric pathogens in drinking water. It has been developed into a tool to explore the potential disease burden, with associated uncertainty, associated with user-defined scenarios for a given drinking water system. The intended audience includes regu54  |  October 2017

Protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, enteric viruses, and bacteria, are used as reference pathogens. Credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

latory authorities and drinking water providers. Exposure is calculated based on user inputs of reference pathogen concentrations in the source water. Protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia), enteric viruses (a model virus), and bacteria (E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter) are used as reference pathogens (i.e., representative pathogens). Impacts of water treatment are described as organism-specific removal/ inactivation. Log removal values for each treatment stage are weighted mean values taken from a large literature survey. Log inactivation (disinfection) relations and parameters are based on published literature and concentration × time (CT) tables where available. Exposure information, along with dose–response models for each reference organism, are used to estimate the potential disease burden and assess

how a given system is addressing overall microbiological risk.

APPROACH Effective use of the QMRA tool is a multi-step process which involves: • Characterization of source water pathogen concentrations, either on the basis of pathogen monitoring or use of default pathogen concentration estimates. • Conducting an engineering assessment to collect process data and to develop an understanding of how microbial risks are managed at a given plant. • QMRA analyses and risk characterization. Each of these steps was undertaken and documented for the four plants analyzed. Engineering assessment reports generated QMRA model inputs and were reviewed and used to develop guide-

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lines for future engineering assessments. Source water pathogen monitoring entailed monthly sample collection from the raw water supply of each plant and analysis for Cryptosporidium, Giardia, E. coli O157:H7, thermotolerant Campylobacter, and enteric viruses. Samples were collected using ultrafilters to allow filtration of large sample volumes and to allow a single sample to be collected each month, rather than collection of separate samples for each pathogen. Both culture and molecular methods were used for E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and viruses. The target organism for viruses via culture methods was enteric viruses, and the target via molecular methods was Adenovirus 2. Matrix spike recovery experiments were conducted on whole water samples from each of the four study plants. Data collected during the engineering assessments and source water monitoring was used as inputs to the QMRA tool.

QMRA analyses conducted for the plants explored the adequacy of treatment barriers under normal operating conditions and under challenge conditions, such as reduced disinfectant dosing or failure of individual unit operations.

RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS Experiences gained from conducting engineering assessments were used to develop engineering assessment guidance. While processes in place at treatment plants are generally similar, the way they are configured and operated differs widely among plants. Those differences made it difficult to develop a simple checklist for engineering assessments. Critical elements of the engineering assessment are; • Understanding how chemical disinfectant CT is estimated by plant staff, during daily operation, and collecting sufficient data for calculation of disinfection process data to use in the QMRA tool.

• Eliciting specific information on how disinfection is conducted, including differences in seasonal practice and responses to process upsets. • Identifying appropriate locations for source water pathogen monitoring. Among the four source waters, Cryptosporidium was seldom detected and E. coli O157:H7 was never detected, neither by culture nor molecular methods. None of the pathogens were detected at concentrations that pose a significant risk when plants are operated as designed. Matrix spike recovery studies indicated widely variable recoveries for Cryptosporidium and Giardia among the plants and very low recovery of enteric viruses. QMRA and statistical analyses indicate that ongoing, routine monitoring would not contribute to improved risk estimation for any of the study plants. This is largely because all of the plants are designed and operated to provide continued overleaf…

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October 2017  |  55


SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

pathogen removal/reduction well above that required to meet microbial risk objectives, given conservative estimates of source water pathogen concentrations. This is particularly true for bacterial and viral pathogens, whose removal, in most cases, was beyond the ability of the QMRA tool to calculate. While not important for QMRA analyses, ongoing pathogen monitoring could be conducted for other purposes, such as source water assessment and protection (including microbial source tracking), event monitoring, or periodic surveillance for periods of elevated pathogen loading. Developing sampling strategies for treatment operations is one important use of QMRA. In this study, QMRA was run “in reverse” to determine plant-specific source water pathogen concentrations that would pose benchmark level risks given the treatment in place at the plant. Such an a priori use of QMRA in

assessing and managing microbial risks can avoid expenses for pathogen analyses that would not contribute to meaningful risk management, and allow allocation of those funds to more meaningful monitoring efforts such as determining event pathogen concentrations or microbial source tracking. QMRA analyses indicated that the study plants meet risk performance objectives and provide sufficient barriers to pathogen breakthrough. Important analyses conducted in this study included evaluation of “what-if ” scenarios, such as partial or total failure of unit operations, and attendant impacts on risk. Daily risk estimations, as opposed to estimates based on monthly and annually averaged disinfection process data, were made for one of the study plants to explore the impact of analysis time frame on risk estimation. Annual risk estimates for Cryptosporidium and Giardia were higher when

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based on daily average process data than on monthly or annually-averaged process data. The difference was due to the capture of a period of degraded process performance in risk estimates when daily data were used. Because the intended use of the QMRA tool is for higher level analysis and planning, use of monthly or annually averaged data appears appropriate, though users should consider making risk estimates under “worst day” conditions as a part of their analyses. This study demonstrated that ultrafilters can be used in routine source water monitoring and that they offer the significant advantages of very large sample volumes and multi-organism capture. Large sample volumes reduce detection limits, and pathogens are frequently present in source waters at or below the method detection limit. Several techniques were developed and demonstrated to improve recovery from ultrafilters. Matrix spike recovery studies identified highly variable protozoan recovery and very low enteric virus recovery. Variable protozoan recovery has been observed in other raw waters and is cause for additional matrix spike recovery studies at each of the four study plants. Investigations into the cause and mitigation of low virus recoveries identified filter blocking with bovine serum as a means for significantly improving recovery. Additional virus monitoring with blocked filters could help plant staff better characterize microbial hazards in their source waters, but would not contribute to a significant improvement in risk characterization, given the very high virus removals for all of the plants.

APPLICATIONS/ RECOMMENDATIONS In this study, the Health Canada QMRA tool was used for successful analysis at four Canadian treatment plants. Techniques and guidance documents developed in this study indicate that the tool can be used properly as a component of a water safety planning processes and to meet Canadian regulatory requirements for risk analysis, where appropriate. Risk-based sampling analyses indiEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine


cate that, although ongoing source water ing techniques other than those included For more information, visit pathogen monitoring can provide multi- in the Health Canada QMRA tool, could www.waterrf.org(Project Number: 4598) ple benefits, the pathogen data require- improve removal estimates. ments for QMRA analyses of the plants analyzed in this study are modest. Improvements to the Health Canada NOW AVAIL AB QMRA tool could focus on better charIN CANADA LE acterization of variability and uncerTurbo advantages without limitations tainty in process performance. As currently configured, the Health Canada Integrally-geared Single-stage Turbocompressor QMRA tool does not account for differfor High Efficiency Aeration ences in design and performance of unit processes among plants or based on daily long life bearings – reliable – operational choices. While this approach hybrid ceramic or proven technology matches the intended use of the tool, hydrodynamic efficient – better understanding of process perforintegrally-geared – intelligent mance variability and uncertainty, and robust design optimization their impacts on risk, would allow users inlet guide vanes – versatile – to understand and manage risks better. efficiency wide flow & pressure For example, an extension accountoptimization regulation ing for non-ideal chemical disinfection diffusers vanes – non-proprietary – process hydraulics was added to the 100-40% flow control industry standard model over the course of this study. That components custom milled model extension allows better characimpeller – minimal terization of disinfection performance forged Aluminum maintenance – among plants with widely differing alloy plant serviceable contactor designs and baffle factors. Proven single-stage, integrally-geared turbocompressor technology with the Other such extensions that would allow highest levels of Reliability, Efficiency, Turndown, Maintainability and Affordability the model to better capture local process performance should be considered. Additionally, an update of model HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. process performance data for physical T: 905-777-9494 • F: 905-777-8678 • info@hydrologic.ca • www.hydrologic.ca removal of pathogens, and for plants prac762 Upper St. James Street, Suite 250, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 3A2 ticing enhanced coagulation or employ-

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October 2017  |  57


SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

New device reduces polymer use and controls struvite during sludge dewatering By Douglas L. Miller

H

ydroFLOW is a water conditioning device that induces an electric signal of +/-150 kilohertz into the liquid inside any pipe on which it is installed. A specialized transducer connected to a ring of ferrites performs the electric induction. The technology was developed in England over 20 years ago, for calcium carbonate scale removal and scale prevention in domestic water heating applications. Various device configurations have been used in the power generation, commercial, industrial, hospitality, food service, municipal, mining, oil and gas, maritime, agriculture and aquaculture sectors. Hydropath Technologies has expanded the use of HydroFLOW technology in the wastewater sector, specifically, reducing polymer use and controlling struvite and other scale forming issues during sludge dewatering processes. As a result of positive trials in the U.S., HydroFLOW USA conducted a mini-seminar at WEFTEC 2015 in Chicago, with the goal of sharing this technology and finding partners to collaborate with. One outcome of this seminar was the arrangement with GEA Westfalia Separator to conduct a trial at a centrifuge installation in Somersworth, New Hampshire. In November 2015, two HydroFLOW 160i units were installed on the sludge pipe feeding the GEA Westfalia Separator model CB 505-00-32 centrifuge. One unit was placed before the centrifuge, just after the thickened waste activated sludge pump, and the other was placed before the feed tube just before the centrifuge. Both units were installed without process down-time as they are fitted around existing piping and do not require plumbing modifications. The units use 120V AC and draw less than 1 Amp, which is similar to the 58  |  October 2017

Centrate line before (top) and after (above) HydroFLOW installation. Right: HydroFLOW 160i device installed on digested sludge feed line to a belt filter press.

mg TSS/L. Surpassing the 1,000 mg TSS/L threshold could affect the plant SUCCESS FACTORS treatment capacity. Success for this facility meant reducThe trial protocol dictated an increing polymer usage and producing dryer mental reduction of polymer dosing cake, while not adversely impacting the while monitoring the cake solids. If the centrate quality. The centrate quality in cake became too wet (below 20% total Somersworth typically averages about solids), polymer reduction would cease. 500 mg TSS/L, but rarely exceeds 1,000 During six testing sequences, utilizapower consumed by a 60-watt light bulb.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


tion of the HydroFLOW devices allowed for the reduction in polymer use from an average of 25.5 to 19.1 pounds per dry ton (25.1% reduction) and increased cake solids by up to 3% total solids, as compared to the same process without the devices operating. Additionally, the centrate quality was maintained within testing limits of less than 1,000 mg TSS/L. Based upon current polymer costs and use, the estimated payback for Somersworth for this device is approximately 1.5 to 2 years. Actual reduction of polymer and cake dryness in the dewatering watering process has many variables. More recently, HydroFLOW has been focusing on struvite control in sludge and anaerobic treatment processes at water reclamation facilities. In February 2016, a HydroFLOW 160i device was placed on the digested sludge feed line to the belt press dewatering devices

with the intent of reducing polymer use and affecting the struvite scale that was problematic on their four two-metre belt presses. There was some moderate polymer reduction. Struvite was reduced in its scaling effect and softened within eight days to become easily scraped off the rollers and drums. A trial was also done to reduce struvite plugging in gravity centrate lines. As HydroFLOW will only affect pipe where there is continuous water flowing, struvite was cleaned off up to the liquid level. (See before and after photos.) Another WWTP suffered from vivianite, a hydrated iron-phosphate scale. It is similar to struvite in that it is a crystal that impacts their sludge line and centrate/thickening lines. This crystal forms after waste activated sludge and primary sludge is blended and thickened. Iron is used in their activated sludge process to remove phosphorus from their liquid stream and results in vivianite in

their sludge stream. A HydroFLOW trial in the fall of 2016 reduced vivianite scaling by about 50%. Based on the above positive results HydroFLOW Canada is currently working with a number of municipal wastewater treatment plants on struvite and polymer reduction applications and trials. Douglas L. Miller is a consultant for HydroFLOW. Email: dlmiller@maine.rr.com, or visit www.hydroflowcanada.com

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Environmental Science Engineering 3.375” x 4.875” October 2017  |  59 September 2017


SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

The Greenway wastewater treatment plant in London, Ontario.

London’s Greenway WWTP chooses centrifuges for sludge dewatering By Daniel Lakovic

L

ocated along the Thames River, London Ontario’s Greenway wastewater treatment plant takes in sludge from six other city treatment facilities. Upon arrival, it is dewatered by two C7E Flottweg centrifuges. In 2012, the Greenway plant decided to replace its belt presses with Flottweg centrifuges. “Sludge dryness can greatly affect overhead,” said Geordie Gauld, division manager at the Greenway plant. By increasing sludge dryness from 24% to 25%, the plant was able to burn it in incinerators without the aid of natural gas. This results in an annual savings of about $700,000. “The centrifuges are also producing cleaner and more consistent centrate,” said Gauld. 60  |  October 2017

The plant currently treats approximately 17,000 dry tons of sludge per year. After it is burned, left over ash is hauled to a nearby landfill. “Odour control was an issue,” said Angelo Marcoccia, maintenance manager at the Greenway plant. “With a centrifuge, everything is contained, which greatly reduces odour. This also cuts down on the mess that resulted with the belt presses, which frequently spilled.” There are three C7E Flottweg centrifuges reside in the plant. Two operate continually, while one is in standby mode. The machines are rotated into standby on scheduled intervals, at which point they are taken through preventative maintenance. Flottweg’s engineering staff analyzed

the plant’s process and incorporated ancillary equipment into the control system provided. For example, the sludge feed pumps and polymer feed systems are controlled by Flottweg controls. The changeover from belt presses to centrifuges was not entirely seamless. For example, polymer consumption increased and centrifuge parts tend to be more expensive than belt press parts. However, these added costs were more than offset by the natural gas savings and the fact that there are fewer wear parts in a centrifuge, which makes repairs faster, lowering labour costs. The biggest offset is that the centrifuges remove more moisture, which in this case reduces incinerator demand. During startup, the plant did expe-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


rience a bearing failure on a centrifuge. With Flottweg’s help, it was determined that the culprit was an incorrectly sized centrate line. Since the plant installed a larger line, the machines have been running without issue. In the past, energy consumption was a big concern with centrifuges. However, the electric motors driving centrifuges have become more efficient. Also, centrifuge technology has evolved to harness spin to create more spin. One such innovation was Flottweg’s Recuvane® which was introduced in 2012. Within a centrifuge, energy is required to accelerate the separation medium to operating speed. The liquid separated from the solid is normally discharged without pressure. This means the energy contained in the liquid is lost. The Recuvane system enables this rotational energy to be recovered by targeted centrate discharge, thus supporting the main drive and reducing energy consumption. It is possible to save 10% to 20% of the work energy, depending on the pond depth and sludge composition. Water mills and turbines also use this principle to harness flowing water energy to perform work. Further centrifuge improvements include the optimization of the drive system, or more specifically, the differential speed between the decanter bowl and decanter scroll. Differential speed determines the length of time the solid remains in the bowl, and thus has a significant influence on the separation process. The bowl and differential speeds can be adjusted independently of one another during ongoing operation. This control is only possible with a special transmission mechanism. In 1995, Flottweg invented this special transmission mechanism and called it the Simp-Drive® (i.e., special planetary epicyclic gear unit).

CONCLUSIONS The change from belt presses to centrifuges helped the Greenway plant regain reliability and consistency of the system and is expected to cover demand for the next 20 years. The system has helped reduce costs and simplify operawww.esemag.com

Two centrifuges operate continually, while one is in standby mode.

tions. According to Marcoccia, the C7E machines are much easier to work on from a maintenance perspective.

Daniel Lakovic is with Flottweg Separation Technology. For more information, email: dlakovic@flottweg.net

Engineers and Environmental Consultants Air & Noise Asset Management and GIS Environmental Land Development Renewable Energy and Conservation Solid Waste Structures Transportation Water/Wastewater Well Drilling and Diagnostics Barrie Calgary Collingwood Guelph Mississauga Newmarket Orangeville Pickering Stratford Wingham Winnipeg

www.rjburnside.com October 2017  |  61


SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

Toronto Water develops 20-year energy optimization plan By Abhay Tadwalkar, Toronto Water

T

oronto Water is responsible for the treatment and distribution of drinking water, wastewater conveyance and treatment, as well as stormwater management. Each day, four drinking water plants treat more than one billion litres of potable water and distribute it through 22 major pumping stations and 6,000 km of water mains. As the City of Toronto’s largest energy user, Toronto Water has actively sought to implement capital projects and operational changes to improve energy efficiency, while still meeting its primary mandate to provide quality water services. It recently completed an energy optimization plan (EOP) that provides a longterm energy management strategy to optimize consumption and cost over the next 20 years. "For water and wastewater service providers, energy represents a large portion of the operating budget. It is a major concern that must be addressed in a timely manner, if we are to continue to deliver sustained levels of service to our customers," said Lou Di Gironimo, general manager, Toronto Water. "This EOP provides an appropriate framework for us that can also be adapted by other utilities to develop their own energy plans." The EOP was developed using an iterative and evolving process that allows for updating the plan as activities progress and goals are accomplished. See Figure 1.

Toronto's R.C. Harris Water Treatment Plant can produce a maximum of 950 million litres of drinking water per day.

generation, and innovation in energy. The vision, mission, strategies and goals for the EOP align with Toronto Water’s strategic plan and support its long-term strategy for service excellence. To meet these goals, numerous initiatives have been established to support and augment Toronto Water’s existing programs.

ENERGY OPTIMIZATION The first EOP strategy is energy optimization to reduce Toronto Water’s per capita energy footprint. In July 2017, Toronto City Council unanimously KEY STRATEGIES AND approved City's long-term path to reduce PERFORMANCE GOALS city-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) emisA mission statement was developed sions by 80% by 2050. The TransformTO for the EOP that states, “optimize energy Pathway to a Low Carbon Future report utilization by leveraging innovative recommended ambitious strategies and technologies and approaches in an envi- long-term goals to transform Toronto's ronmentally sustainable, operationally urban systems, specifically buildings, reliable, and fiscally responsible manner.” energy, transportation and waste. The EOP focuses on three strategic For the EOP, a performance goal of areas: energy optimization, revenue 20% per capita GHG emissions reduc-

62  |  October 2017

tion by 2035 from 2014 levels was established. This was based on analysis of feasible energy saving opportunities at each facility. Key initiatives to achieve this performance goal include reducing energy consumption (electricity and natural gas) and the increased use of renewable energy. The per capita GHG emission was used as a single metric for easy communication between different departments within the City, as well as to the public. It was selected because GHG emission includes both electricity and natural gas consumption, while the per capita basis would account for population increase and the associated need for increasing levels of service. The footprints from different departments can also be added. Another benefit of the GHG emission-based metric is that it allows easy tracking of energy optimization progress that aligns with the municipal and provincial long-term energy targets.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


REVENUE GENERATION The second EOP strategy is revenue generation to minimize energy costs through grants, incentives, and on-site generation and operations optimization. The effectiveness of this strategy will be measured based on energy saving and incentives received. Toronto Water has already been taking advantage of various funding programs, and has received more than $3 million to date through various energy saving initiatives and programs. Key initiatives to minimize energy costs include: • Demand side management (e.g., peak shaving, global adjustment curtailment). • Leverage grants and incentives to implement energy efficient upgrades. • Reduce energy purchases through on-site generation. • Optimize operations to minimize energy costs. Performance indicators for revenue generation would be the development of energy management plans for relevant capital projects during the conceptual or preliminary design stage. These would identify opportunities, grants and incentives, along with the total energy cost offsets or savings per year. INNOVATION IN ENERGY USE The third EOP strategy is to implement

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Figure 1. Energy optimization plan development framework.

innovative technologies and approaches to make effective use of energy. The effectiveness of this strategy will be measured by demonstration of this and the overall success of the EOP. The key initiatives to demonstrate innovation include: • Regularly review new opportunities and implement, where feasible. • Reward innovative approaches and technologies in request for proposals (RFPs) and request for quotations (RFQs). • Engage staff in developing, evaluating, and implementing innovative approaches and technologies. • Continue to partner with universities and industry research organizations.

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SPECIAL FOCUS: WATER & WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY

Revisions to existing City standards were proposed to ensure that energy management is considered throughout the life of a project, including preliminary design, detailed design, construction, as well as testing and commissioning. payback period (business case assessment). • Environmental considerations: GHG emissions, footprint. • Social considerations: public perception, community impacts/benefits. The identified opportunities were subjected to the decision making framework outlined above to determine the appropriate implementation priority. In addition to identifying opportunities for energy and cost saving, improvements were also made to incorporate energy management into the project delivery approach within Toronto Water. Revisions to existing City standards were proposed to ensure that energy management is considered throughout the life of a project, including preliminary design, detailed design, construction, as well as testing and commissioning. The standardized clauses to be included in all City-issued RFPs/RFQs will ensure consistent initiation of an energy management plan for all new projects, quality and consistency of submissions, and enforcement through the life of the project.

SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION AND STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT Stakeholder engagement and performance monitoring are key followthrough actions to the success of the EOP. To support implementation, a stakeholder engagement plan was developed, including the following key elements: • Communicate progress on the EOP vision, mission, goals and progress to stakeholders, using various methods, such as newsletters, energy management website, press releases, journal articles, presentation at conferences, and staff energy management training. • Engage staff in energy management through various methods to solicit their 64  |  October 2017

ideas for improvement and support their efforts for energy optimization. • Recognize and reward staff for their achievements and contributions.

PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND REPORTING Performance monitoring allows Toronto Water to monitor progress, make adjustments to improve performance of systems and processes, and track the progress towards achieving the EOP goals. At the facility level, Toronto Water is currently implementing automated monitoring systems and tracking tools to monitor energy use, which allows staff to evaluate the energy performance of processes and systems and make decisions to adjust operations and gauge the impact of changes. Across the division, Toronto Water continues to compile the information to regularly report on the progress by facility, department and for the division as a whole. SUMMARY This comprehensive energy optimization plan sets the framework to meet the mission of optimizing energy utilization by leveraging innovative technologies, processes and procedures in an environmentally sustainable, operationally reliable and fiscally responsible manner. The framework, strategies and opportunities identified, as well as the methodology used, can be adopted by other utilities to develop their own energy optimization plan and establish achievable and meaningful targets. Abhay Tadwalkar, P.Eng., is Manager, Process Innovation and Energy at Toronto Water. For more information, email: abhay.tadwalkar@toronto.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Folding Handrailing Extension MSU has developed a new safety feature for underground stairways – a folding handrailing extension!! For more information on this exciting development, call Paul at 1-800-268-5336 x 27. T: 800-268-5336 F: 888-220-2213 W: www.msumississauga.com

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Engineered metal doors USF Fabrication, Inc. manufacture a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been fabricating solutions since 1916 with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it. T: 604-552-7900 F: 604-552-7901 E: epsl@telus.net

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Accommodate Dynamic Movement Victaulic released the Style W257 Dynamic Movement Joint as a more efficient solution to accommodate differential settlement and seismic movement in large diameter piping systems. The pre-assembled, AWWA M11 compliant joint reduces installation complexity compared to threaded rod installations of the M11 harness and C219 bolted sleeve-type joints. It is pre-engineered by Victaulic for its customers to determine the spatial requirements and number of coupling pairs needed. T: 905-884-7444 E: rhys.jardine@victaulic.com W: www.victaulic.com

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Controlling contaminated groundwater Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. T: 519-856-1352 F: 519-856-0759 E: info@waterloo-barrier.com W: www.waterloo-barrier.com

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Disposable groundwater filter The unique, open pleat geometry and 600 cm2 surface area of Waterra’s High Turbidity FHT-45 offers the most surface area available in a capsule-type filter today. High quality polyethersulphone 0.45 micron filter media provides maximum exposure and excellent particle retention above the target micron size range, while ensuring that you will not lose filtration media to blinding. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

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Water Level Indicator Waterra WS-2 Water Level Sensors are advanced products that utilize the most recent electronic technology. The WS-2 features innovative design

as well as compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. Available in imperial/metric and open/ closed reel formats. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

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High Performance Automation Waterra’s portable, electrically operated Hydrolift-2 inertial pump actuator will eliminate the fatigue that can be experienced on large monitoring programs and will result in a big boost to your field sampling program. The Hydrolift-2 gives you the power and endurance you need — without breaking a sweat. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

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HS-2 Oil/Water Interface Sensor Waterra HS Oil/ Water Interface Sensors utilize the most advanced technology available today for hydrocarbon product layer measurement and are now available with Kynar® coated tapes. These sophisticated ultrasonic sensors are more sensitive in a broader range of hydrocarbon products than conventional optical systems and provide faster product detection. The HS-2 line includes innovative design features, compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra .com

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October 2017  |  67


ES&E NEWS MILLIONS ANNOUNCED FOR MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE

iew: Water and sewer upgrades – $1,501,264 Newfoundland and Labrador have 4. Flower’s Cove: Main waterline announced $38.8 million for projects upgrades/repairs – $1,326,496 that will support improvements in 5. Wabush: Engineering work at the municipal infrastructure. Approximately Industrial Park wastewater treatment $29.3 million has been allocated for 77 plant – $1,100,000 projects under the Small Communities 6. Pasadena: Storm sewer – $1,056,000 Fund for municipal infrastructure proj- 7. Grand Falls-Windsor: New water ects. Another $9.5 million in funding is and stormwater work, plus road widenallocated to 28 projects under the provin- ing – $1,000,000 cial Municipal Capital Works program. 8. Miles Cove: Water and wastewater Municipal infrastructure investment upgrades – $961,766 covers many things in addition to water 9. Embree: Water system upgrades – and wastewater, such as roads, recre- $927,960 ational facilities, fire safety and public 10. North Harbour: Water system spaces. upgrades – $859,062 Environmental Science & Engineering www.releases.gov.nl.ca Magazine has ranked the 10 largest water and wastewater projects, as measured by project value: NOVA SCOTIA RECEIVES 1. Harbour Grace: Harvey Street FEEDBACK ON PROPOSED water, sewage and road improvements – CAP‑AND-TRADE PROGRAM $2,032,090 The government of Nova Scotia 2. Wabana: Pumphouse and wells has received feedback on its proposed replacement – $1,737,109 cap-and-trade program to further reduce 3. Harbour Main – Chapel’s Cove-Lakev- greenhouse gas emissions. The comments

were in response to a provincial discussion paper outlining principles and design options for the program, as well as feedback received during more than 50 meetings earlier this year with individuals and representatives of industry, business, associations, academia, non-governmental organizations and municipalities. “Nova Scotia is a national leader in fighting climate change, having already reached the federal 2030 greenhouse gas reduction target,” said Iain Rankin, Minister of Environment. “That success is attributed to investments made in the electricity sector and actions taken by Nova Scotians to reduce their carbon footprint. A new cap-and-trade program will continue to protect the environment by placing limits on how much industry can emit, while also protecting the pocketbooks of Nova Scotians.” The program is being designed as part of the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change with the federal government. Nova Scotia said its next steps include introducing legislation and regulations this fall to enable the implementation of the cap-and-trade program. Stakeholders will continue to be consulted on the proposed regulations. www.novascotia.ca.

BC ORDERS REVIEW OF HULLCAR AQUIFER

• Aqualoader Bulk Water & Septage Receiving Stations • Kupferle Sampling Stations and Automatic Flushers • Hot Box Enclosures • Febco Backflow Preventers www.birksco.com sales@birksco.com 68  |  October 2017

British Columbia's Minister of Environment and Climate Change Strategy, George Heyman has announced a new review of the Hullcar Aquifer, with the end goal of ensuring agricultural practices are consistent with the provision and protection of clean, safe drinking water. Due to high levels of nitrates, the Interior Health Authority issued a water quality advisory for residents in Hullcar Aquifers 102 and 103 on July 14, 2014. The Ministry of the Environment said the most common sources of nitrate substances are human activities, including agricultural activities, wastewater treatment, and discharges from industrial processes and motor vehicles. Most nitrate reduction in the soil occurs through plant uptake and utilization, Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E NEWS ES&E NEWS whereas surplus nitrates readily leach into groundwater. In the announcement, the Minister said an independent, respected expert is being commissioned to lead the review, which was due to the government by the end of September 2017. The review will look at decisions and actions taken to date with respect to pollution in the Hullcar Aquifer. It is expected to provide forward-looking recommendations to help inform best practices for the agricultural sector and improvements to regulations that can be applied province-wide.

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Ontario announced it is investing in local projects to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipalities. According to the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), this initiative is part of Ontario's Climate Change Action Plan and is funded by proceeds from the province's carbon market. Chris Ballard, Minister of the Environment and Climate Change, made the announcement at the annual Association of Municipalities of Ontario conference in Ottawa. The new Municipal GHG Challenge Fund will support energy-efficiency upgrades to drinking water or wastewater treatment plants, as well as renewable energy and energy efficiency retrofits to other municipal facilities such as arenas. Up to $100 million of proceeds from Ontario's carbon market will be invested in the fund in 2017/18. The MOECC said any municipality with a community-wide greenhouse gas emissions inventory, emissions reduction targets and a strategy to reduce emissions is eligible to apply. Municipalities may request up to $10 million per project and applications are being accepted until November 14, 2017. According to the MOECC, municipalities with a population of less than 10,000 that do not have a community-wide greenhouse gas emissions inventory, reduction targets and a plan, may be eligible for the Very Small

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October 2017  |  69


ES&E NEWS INTERPROVINCIAL CORROSION CONTROL Leaders in the Cathodic Protection Industry…Since 1957 CORROSION CONTROL PRODUCTS Burlington, Ontario Canada Regional Offices: Montreal, Calgary Lewiston, New York, USA

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Municipalities Stream. The Climate Change Action Plan and carbon market are what the MOECC calls the "backbone" of Ontario's strategy to cut GHG pollution to 15% below 1990 levels by 2020, 37% by 2030, and 80% by 2050. The government said it will report on the plan's implementation annually and review it at least every five years. www.news.ontario.ca

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The Bow River Water Management Project report outlines both short- and long-term options to build multiple layers of resilience throughout the Bow River basin to address both flood and drought concerns. It was produced by the Bow River Working Group and submitted to Alberta's Minister of Environment and Parks earlier this year. According to the report, the 2005 and 2013 floods surpassed any observed levels since 1932 and "illustrate the risks to public safety and infrastructure associated with populations and developments in the floodplain." In addition, droughts pose a risk to reliable clean water supplies and present significant environmental and economic risks. Based on the report’s findings, Alberta said it is working with TransAlta, and other stakeholders to begin implementing some of the short-term solutions identified. These include: • Discussions with TransAlta to extend and expand the current agreement on modified operations, including the addition of Spray Lake and Lake Minnewanka to the agreement and using Barrier Lake for flood mitigation purposes rather than drought mitigation. • Discussions with Irrigation Districts to improve water retention for agricultural use downstream of Calgary.

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NB ANNOUNCES WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS

Construction on two projects to

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine 2014-11-12 10:29 AM


ES&E NEWS ES&E NEWS upgrade wastewater infrastructure will The Jellyfish Filter, which was invented www.imbriumsystems.com/jellyfish begin this fall in Shediac and Pointe-du- in Canada, is a stormwater quality treatChêne, New Brunswick. ment technology that protects waterThe projects in Shediac include the ways by removing high levels of pollut- WSP ACQUIRES LBG renewal of a lift station on Wayne Street ants from stormwater runoff, including WSP Global Inc. has announced its and the addition of a standby generator. TSS, phosphorus, nitrogen, metals, oil, acquisition of Leggette, Brashears and Other standby generators will be installed trash and other debris. continued overleaf… at lift stations on Pleasant Street, Paturel Street and Pussyfoot Lane. In Pointe-duChêne, work includes upgrades to the lift station on Jarvis Street and the renewal of 455 metres of sanitary sewer and six manholes along St. John Street. These projects, valued at about $1.68 million, are funded by the Gas Tax Fund and the Clean Water and Wastewater Fund. Work will be performed by the Greater Shediac Sewerage Commission. In May, the government announced about $3 million in infrastructure and research investments to support water quality improvements at Parlee Beach. In August, the government said the majority of these projects are well underway or completed. In April, the government announced measures to improve water quality monitoring, in accordance with the Guidelines for Canadian Recreational Water Quality, and to improve communication with the public. Water quality test results have been posted online on a daily basis since the beginning of the season. www.gnb.ca

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ES&E NEWS Graham, Inc. (LBG), a 150-employee groundwater and environmental engineering services firm based in the U.S. WSP said the acquisition will “bolster” its water and environment practice by “increasing its groundwater geology capabilities, strengthening its environmental services expertise and expanding its national footprint.” LBG brings seven decades of wide-ranging expertise in hydrogeology, groundwater and surface water modeling, dewatering and depressurization, environmental investigation and remediation, according to WSP. Following this acquisition, WSP said its water and environment business line in the U.S. now comprises more than 600 employees in 40 locations across the country. www.wsp.com

HYDRO INTERNATIONAL ANNOUNCES VP OF SALES FOR AMERICAS

conducted inspections in 2014 and identified instances where tetrachloroethylene was being sold to owners and operators of dry-cleaning facilities who did not meet regulatory standards. As a result of ECCC's subsequent investigation, Dalex Canada pleaded guilty to selling tetrachloroethylene to an owner or operator of a dry-cleaning facility who was not in compliance with the regulations. In addition to the fine, the court ordered Dalex Canada to publish an article in an industry publication, subject to ECCC’s approval. The company is also required to notify Environment and Climate Change Canada before resuming sales of the regulated product to dry cleaners. As a result of this conviction, the company’s name will be added to the federal Environmental Offenders Registry. www.ec.gc.ca

INJECTING MANURE INTO SOIL REDUCES ESTROGEN RUNOFF

dairy cattle, but estrogens are a component in the waste stream of not only dairy, but all livestock and humans. Although this study focused on ubiquitous natural estrogens, synthetic estrogens also can affect water quality, such as ethinylestradiol, the active ingredient in birth control pills or synthetic androgens such as trenbolone, often given as ear implants to beef cattle. "The method of animal manure application can influence the availability of nutrients and estrogens to runoff water," said lead researcher Odette Mina. "Several studies have shown the potential benefits of shallow disk injection for reducing phosphorus and nitrate transport in surface runoff compared to surface broadcasting. Our research demonstrated significantly reduced estrogen transport in runoff from shallow disk injection plots relative to surface broadcast plots." Researchers saw a striking difference between estrogen loads and concentrations in runoff following precipitation events, Mina pointed out. When manure was injected into the soil, estrogens were far less likely to leave the field. A rainfall event that occured two days after manure was applied caused a really big movement of estrogens, carbon and phosphorus from the surface-broadcast plots, said Mina. But that same event was not enough to even trigger runoff from the plots that had undergone shallow disk injection of manure. That first flush washed off really high concentrations of phosphorus and estrogens relative to the entire rest of the study, but there was nothing from the shallow disk injection plots.

Hydro International, a global supplier A new study shows that applying of stormwater and wastewater manage- manure to crop fields by means of ment solutions, has announced the shallow disk injection into the soil, addition of leading sales and market- rather than traditional surface broading professional, Mark Dennis, as the cast, significantly reduces estrogens in company’s Vice President of Sales. surface runoff. Conducted by researchDennis will lead the Americas storm- ers in Penn State's College of Agriculwater sales and marketing organization tural Sciences, the study suggests that and provide strategic direction for Hydro’s manure-application methods can be operations throughout North and South used to control the mobilization potenAmerica, focusing on the company’s vari- tial of estrogens and points to opportuety of stormwater management devices. nities for protecting downstream water www.hydro-int.com quality. The research also investigated how manure-application methods affected COMPANY FINED FOR runoff of total dissolved phosphorus www.news.psu.edu and dissolved organic carbon. ResearchCONTRAVENING DRY-CLEANING ers found that transport rates of those REGULATIONS Dalex Canada Inc., Concord, Ontario, nutrients, to a lesser degree, also were WATER RESEARCH FOUNDATION has pleaded guilty in the Ontario Court lower after manure injection than after REPORTS ON MICROPLASTICS IN of Justice to one count of contravening surface broadcast. WATER The application of livestock manure the Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Recent media coverage has highCleaning and Reporting Requirements) to agricultural fields provides essential lighted the risk of microfibres and microRegulations made pursuant to the Cana- nutrients for crops and adds organic plastics in water. The Water Research dian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. matter to soils. However, manure also Foundation has gathered helpful inforThe company was fined $100,000, which introduces emerging contaminants to mation to assist in understanding the will be directed to the Environmental the environment, including the natural issues involved. estrogens 17 alpha-estradiol, 17 beta-esDamages Fund. Microplastics are defined as plasEnvironment and Climate Change tradiol, estrone and estriol. tic particles under 5 mm. Some plastic Canada (ECCC) enforcement officers The researchers used manure from is manufactured as microplastics (e.g., 72  |  October 2017

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


microbeads) and washed down drains, while larger plastic debris degrades into micro-sized particles over time with exposure to sun and water. They have also been found to adsorb and transport ambient pollutants such as PCBs (coolants), PBDEs (flame retardants) and other persistent organic pollutants. Microfibres, a type of microplastics, are derived from synthetic textiles and slough off during daily use and machine washing of clothing (such as fleece jackets, etc.). Most microfibres released in water are between 0.1 mm – 0.8 mm in size. They have been found in fish and marine animals. However, the toxicology of microplastics, including microfibres, and overall relevance for fresh waters, drinking water, and human health needs more research. The ability to remove microplastics from water depends on their size. A European study found 90% – 99% of microplastics were removed in wastewater treatment plants, but removal efficiency of smaller particles (20 µm –300 µm) was lower. A second study found 98% removal of microplastics through a wastewater treatment plant, though the remaining amount of microplastics discharged to receiving waters was still estimated at 0.25 microplastics/L per day. During conventional wastewater treatment, microplastics are mainly retained by sedimentation. Other research has shown removal by membrane filtration. Larger particles, as investigated in many studies, should presumably be retained during membrane filtration, media filtration, bank filtration, or underground passage. Water suppliers using surface water supplies impacted by upstream wastewater discharges may have microplastics, including microfibres, in their raw water prior to treatment and possibly in their treated water. Measurement methods for microplastics vary significantly, and there is no universal protocol for sample preparation, which can make results hard to compare. Water Research Foundation is partnering with the Global Water Research Coalition to co-fund an inter-laboratory comparison of microplastic analytical techniques. www.waterrf.org

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QUEBEC WATER AND WASTEWATER PROJECTS TO GET FUNDING

The governments of Canada and Quebec are investing in projects to ensure that water and wastewater systems in the province are up to date and efficient and meet communities' increasing capacity needs. They will invest more than $157.7 million for 39 water and wastewater projects in the Quebec region under the Clean Water and Wastewater Fund (CWWF) and the Large Urban Centres Component of the Building Canada Fund (BCF-LUCC). Financial support granted to 25 municipalities will contribute to maintaining, renewing or developing their infrastructure to ensure the production and distribution of high quality drinking water for residents, or the proper disposal and treatment of wastewater. The Government of Canada is investing more than $93 million in these projects. The Government of Quebec is providing more than $64 million, for a total joint contribution of over $157.7 million. Municipalities will provide the balance. The approval of the projects under CWWF was made possible by the signing of a bilateral agreement between Canada and Quebec in July 2016, which made funding available for water projects across the province. Thanks to this, the Municipality of Kingsbury now has a new wastewater treatment system. The Municipality received $1.8 million in government funding for the installation of two pumping stations and the treatment plant. Of this amount, $1,593,750 came from the Quebec Municipalities Infrastructure Program, and $182,324 from the federal Gas Tax Fund and Quebec's contribution. The Municipality provided the remaining funding for a total investment of over $2 million dollars.

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Company Page ACG Technology........................................75 Aerzen Canada..........................................27 Associated Engineering...........................22 Blue-White.................................................11 Chemline Plastics.....................................52 Crane Pumps & Systems .........................36 Denso ........................................................23 Endress + Hauser........................................5 Engineered Pump.....................................12 Envirocan .................................................75 FCI - Fluid Components International......8 Festo..........................................................16 Force Flow.................................................43 Great West Life..........................................29 Greatario...................................................44 Halogen Valve Systems............................46 Hoskin Scientific................................. 26, 45 Huber Technology....................................39 HydroFLOW Canada.................................47 Hydro International.................................35 Hydro-Logic..............................................57 Imbrium Systems.......................................2 IPEX............................................................13 Kemira.......................................................31 KSB Pumps ...............................................48 Markland Specialty Engineering.............56 Master Meter ..............................................3 MSU Mississauga........................................7 NETZSCH Canada......................................50 NWWC........................................................64 Orival.........................................................63 Parsons......................................................57 Pentair Canada.........................................38 PICA...........................................................25 Pollutech...................................................49 Pro Aqua......................................................9 ProMinent.................................................76 RJ Burnside...............................................61 RV Anderson..............................................59 SciCorp International...............................14 Sherwin-Williams.....................................19 Smith & Loveless......................................21 Stantec......................................................52 Thomas Nutrient Solutions.....................37 Thompson Pump......................................53 USF Fabrication........................................12 Victaulic.....................................................33 Waterra.....................................17, 30, 41, 55 WTP Equipment Corp...............................15

October 2017  |  73

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WATER

The study looked for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals in the organs and muscles of 10 fish species, including walleye and rock bass (inset photo).

Antidepressants found in Great Lakes region fish brains

H

uman antidepressants are building up in the brains of fish common to the Great Lakes region, scientists say. In a new study, researchers detected high concentrations of these drugs and their metabolized remnants in the brain tissue of 10 fish species found in the Niagara River. The Niagara River connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, via Niagara Falls. The discovery of antidepressants in aquatic life in the river raises serious environmental concerns, says lead scientist Diana Aga, PhD, the Henry M. Woodburn professor of chemistry in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences. “These active ingredients from antidepressants, which are coming out from wastewater treatment plants, are accumulating in fish brains,” Aga says. “These drugs could affect fish behaviour. We didn’t look at behaviour in our study, but other research teams have shown that antidepressants can affect the feeding behaviour of fish or their survival instincts. Some fish won’t acknowledge the presence of predators as much.” Randolph Singh, PhD, a recent University at Buffalo graduate, says that the 74  |  October 2017

levels of antidepressants in fish do not pose a danger to human health, especially in places where people do not eat organs like the brain. “However, the risk that the drugs pose to biodiversity is real, and scientists are just beginning to understand what the consequences might be,” Singh says.

change fish behaviour generally comes from laboratory studies that expose the animals to higher concentrations of drugs than what is found in the Niagara River. But the findings of the new study are still worrisome. The antidepressants that Aga’s team detected in fish brains had accumulated over time, often reaching concentrations that were several times higher than the levels in the river. In the brains of smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, rock bass, white bass and walleye, sertraline was found at levels that were estimated to be 20 or more times higher than levels in river water. Levels of norsertraline, the drug’s breakdown product, were even greater, reaching concentrations that were often hundreds of times higher than that found in the river. Scientists have not done enough research yet to understand what amount of antidepressants poses a risk to animals, or how multiple drugs might interact synergistically to influence behaviour, Aga says.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IS BEHIND THE TIMES According to Aga, wastewater treatment focuses narrowly on killing disease-causing bacteria and on extracting solid matter such as human excrement. Antidepressants, which are found in the urine of people who use the drugs, are largely ignored, along with other chemicals of concern that have become commonplace. “Wastewater treatment plants are focused on removing nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon but there are so many other chemicals that are not prioritized that impact our environment,” she says. “As a result, wildlife is exposed to all of these chemicals. Fish are receiving this cocktail of drugs 24 hours a day, and we are now finding these drugs in their brains.” The problem is exacerbated, Singh says, by sewage overflows that funnel large quantities of untreated water into rivers and lakes. The Buffalo News reported that between May and August 2017, a 1.8 billion litres of combined sewage and stormwater had flowed into local waterways, including the Niagara River

A DANGEROUS COCKTAIL OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS IN THE WATER Contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, antibiotics and endocrine disrupters are a growing concern, especially as the use of such chemicals expands. The percentage of Americans taking antidepressants, for instance, rose 65% between 1999-2002 and 2011-14, according to the National Center for Health Statistics. Aga’s new study looked for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals in the organs and muscles of 10 fish species: smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, rudd, rock bass, white bass, white perch, walleye, bowfin, steelhead and yellow perch. Antidepressants stood out as a major problem. These drugs or their metabolites were found in the brains of every fish species the scientists studied. Evidence that antidepressants can www.buffalo.edu

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October 2017  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s October 2017 issue. Featuring a special focus on Water and Wastewater Plant Efficiency. Arti...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October 2017  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s October 2017 issue. Featuring a special focus on Water and Wastewater Plant Efficiency. Arti...