Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 2004

Page 1

November 2004


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Contents ISSN-0835-605X

November 2004 Vol.17 No. 5 Issued November 2004

fS<SÂŁ invites articies (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, fiazardous waste treat ment and otfier environmental protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an arti cle for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. reserves the right to edit ail submis sions without notice.



22 The engineer as educator

Bacteria, not bullets, are the biggest kiiiers Editorial comment by Tom Davey 10

23 The challenges of a changing workforce

Cover Story - Kamloops turns to low-pressure

24 Is the consulting industry in danger of slipping?

membranes for water quality 14

Tanks provide innovative filtration system to protect

25 Selling the value of water

downstream habitats

26 Who's driving or stalling our economic


Ontario postpones mandatory brownflelds cleanup


Does mixing hold the key to high quality drinking water?


"Defined-concept" design-build approach used


for Button's new wastewater treatment plant 33

Turning wastewater into electricity


Odour complaints stopped at large sewage transfer line



New technology used to remediate hydrocarbon

38 New standard for storage vaults

contaminated site

40 52 54

Treatment of drinking water with UV-oxidation

Thames Centre builds new water treatment

plant to meet new regulations

Minimize contractual disputes and get paid at the end of the job

42 Linking spills response to municipal emergency response plans


Legislation targets lone worker protection


Ontario's new Clean Water Centre - another Mirabel?

44 Specifying rotationaliy-molded RE storage tanks

Publisher's comment by Steve Davey

46 Innovative secondary containment design in Northern British Columbia



Test site located in New Brunswick

for greenhouse gas reductions Feedback




Environmental News


Professional Cards


48 Oil/water separator tank installation for airport expansion

Literature Reviews


Ad Index


50 Basement oil storage tanks can be ticking

Product Showcase


4 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

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Bacteria, not bullets, are the

biggest killers

The name Florence Nightingale

is inextricably linked to advances in medicine, perhaps eclipsing the fame of Harvey,

who discovered the circulation of

cleansing and care of the troops, who memorialized her as: 'The lady with the lamp.' But, according to Reputations, a BBC documentary, reviewed some time ago in The Guardian Newspaper, the real killer was the hospital itself as Scutari was built over a cesspit. Nancy

Ardern, Lockett and Fowler, discover ers of the activated sludge process in Lancashire, still a benchmark process in wastewater treatment, or the French

Banks-Smith of The Guardian, in

The Revolution and pleaded for two more weeks to conclude his experi

reviewing the documentary, wrote that the medical efforts were really white washing a sepulcher. "When Lord Palmerston, a neighbour of the Nightingales, sent a sanitary commis sion, they flushed, aired and ventilated Scutari, and the death toll dropped from 42% to 2%. Strictly speaking we should erect a statue to a plumber in Trafalgar Square", concluded Ms. Banks-Smith.

blood, or even Hippocrates, the leg endary father of medicine in Ancient Greece. In an age when women were

kept out of virtually all of the profes sions (except the oldest one) she courageously used her upper class con nections to become a nurse. Her vision

scandalized her family who thought male nakedness was simply not proper for a lady to witness.

... Ms. Banks-Smith should

in history. This was a formidable woman. Sidney Herbert, then British Secretary of State at War, capitulated to her repeated requests and sent her to the Scutari hospital in Turkey during

chemists in her witty rejoinder...

history repeatedly shows that these two professions have constantly

been in the vanguard of public health initiatives.

Florence Nightingale's fame coin cided with the inventions of photogra phy, and sound recording. Indeed, Thomas Edison recorded her voice, giving us two rare flashbacks of her era.

Like Darwin, she took to her bed

2,000 British soldiers who were laid:

health initiatives. While born into the

corridors." As she and her nurses

ranks of wealth and privilege she rejected the offer of a State Funeral and burial at Westminster Abbey. Appropriately, it was common soldiers

ly angry, complaining to Sidney Herbert: "No mops, plates, forks, spoons, nor even scissors for cutting the men's hair which is literally alive" (from lice). Although the Crimean War was brutal, ten times more men died from infection than from military wounds. Certainly she must have saved hundreds of wounded soldiers with her

By Tom Davey, Editor

ments. The tribunal declared that: "The state has no need of chemists." His

request denied, he was guillotined, tak ing much of his knowledge with him. In 1847, years before Joseph Lister and Louis Pasteur made their giant strides in medicine, a young

Hungarian doctor, Ignaz Semmelweis linked the high mortality rates in maternity wards to a lack of simple hand washing by doctors in between treating patients. His superiors scoffed, was to do some five years later when Dr. John Snow postulated that a cholera outbreak in London was water-

borne. The findings of both these med ical pioneers were the subject of scorn for many years and both died in rela tive obscurity. And who knows of John Walker of

"Like paving stones in four miles of cleaned, fed and comforted wounded and sick soldiers, she grew increasing

larly phosphorous, but was arrested by

England, who, in 1827, invented the

for years but kept up a barrage of com plaints and suggestions for public

the Crimean War. She found some

Lavoisier, who, in 1780, made mile stone discoveries in chemistry, particu

as the British medical establishment

have included engineers and

But Florence was both determined

and well connected. She spoke and wrote Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian, and was deeply interested

nobleman/scientist Antoine-Laurent

who carried her coffin to burial.

Actually I think Ms. Banks-Smith should have included engineers and chemists in her witty rejoinder on plumbing,for history repeatedly shows that these two professions have con stantly been in the vanguard of public health initiatives. Equally, their antici pation of designs of water and wastewater treatment systems and processes have usually been ignored by historians. To design a war weapon is to immortalize your name for eons; wit ness the Bren, Browning, Colt, Kaliznakov, Smith & Wesson, Webley, etc. But who knows the names of

'Lucifer' match, making phosphorous a commercial commodity and perhaps

an important contributor to the Industrial Revolution as it provided a cheap, portable means of combustion. Can you imagine running a household or factory, with no way to ignite cook ing or process appliances? Try camp

ing without matches or lighters if you're not convinced. 'Lucifers' were very popular among troops in the awful trenches in World ' War I as they permitted troops to smoke between barrages. A favourite song among British troops at the front went: "While you've a Lucifer to light your fag (cigarette), smile boys all the while." We should learn the lessons of the

Scutari military hospital. While the Prime




Premiers are fighting for more health spending, they might be reminded that 'The Invisible Professions' of chem

istry and engineering are fundamental health services which are in the front

line of our public health systems but at the back door for funding. After Cain slew Abel, water-borne diseases went on to kill more humans than all the

recorded wars in history. â–

November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 7



& Engineering Editor


E-mail: tom@esemag.com Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denlse@esemag,oom Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virglnla@esemag.CGm Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: carol@esemag.cam Publisher


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario


I was glad to read in the article "Program hooks up truckers to power units" in the January issue of ES&E,

that something is actively being done to cut down on air pollution from vehi cles. Next, somebody should address the issue of cars idling in drive-thrus at fast food restaurants/banks. Drive-

Mr. Davey,

thms are becoming more popular and numerous in city centres. Is anything being done to reduce the pollution and all the associated problems (urban heat, breathing conditions, etc.) caused

In the Health News section of the

by drive-thrus? Kate Magolan, London, Ontario

September issue ofES&E, your maga zine is writing about a health advisory issued by Health Canada. As a French Canadian mining engineer working in the chrysotile asbestos mining camp of Thetford Mines, I would have appreci ated it if the term tremolite asbestos contaminated vermiculite had been

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HiiL Canada Limited, Ontario

Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering (Ont.) Ltd., Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine

ADiSystems inc., New Brunswick

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Anaiytical Services, British Columbia Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Tom, I was reading Chris Hansen's article on uranium removal in the September 2004 edition and he noted that the

guideline value is 20 mg/L. That should be 0.020 mg/L or 20 pg/L. Judy MacDonald,P.Eng. Supervisor, Drinking Water Management, Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour Water and Wastewater Branch

British Coiumbia Marie Meunier

John Meunier/USFilter, Quebec

Environmentai Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Pubiications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained In ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the Information contained In this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility Is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide informa tion rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowiedge the financialsupport of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward our editorial costs.

Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail

many years in Atlantic Canada. We wanted to clarify the discrepancy. Thanks for letting us set the record straight. Stephen Smith, Fluid Handling Division, Atlantic Purification Systems


used instead of plain asbestos. That difference is made in the official advi

sory by Health Canada. 1 do make a living from chrysotile asbestos mining and I am not ashamed of it because I strongly believe that it

could be used in safe ways and help to improve the environment because it is a durable product (chryso-cement shingles are an example). I know a lot about risks and dangers and I realize that people don't know the truth about day to day risks. Asbestos is not a sub stance by itself; it is a family of miner als and it is divided in two groups. Although chrysotile asbestos is a known carcinogenic substance, it is believed to be a lot less aggressive and biopersistent than tremolite and other amphiboles. I would like to see an article about

the dangers associated with the 0.5 to

Re: Article - Atlantic Canada's 1st Low Pressure Membrane Filtration Water Treatment Plant

I thought I would drop you a line to

1.5% benzene content in gasoline. By the way, are you aware that benzene is classified by the lARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer)in the same group as chrysotile asbestos? People are not afraid (maybe by the price?) when they fill up their cars but the risk is not zero. They are using cel lular phones close to their brains and there is no proof that in the long run

.r-hi.. n

Product Agreement No.40065446 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 for one year , (plus $5.25 GST). All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent

to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

mention that we read with interest the article about the first membrane water

treatment facility in Atlantic Canada, namely in St. John's, Newfoimdland, in the May issue of your magazine. We want to let you know that actu ally, the first unit was started in 1996, in Rothesay New Brimswick. This was done by a Canadian manufacturer, Zenon. Atlantic Purification Systems has been a representative of Zenon for

8 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

there will be no harm.

Jean Garant,Eng. M.Sc., Thetford Mines, Quebec

Mr. Garant: Thank youfor your letter. We have published many articles on diverse toxic substances including gasoline and other chemicals. Reader

response such as yours helps the debate on many complex issues. Tom Davey, Editor


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Cover Story

Kamloops turns to

low-pressure membranes for water

safety By Brian Comerford and Troy LaPlante

The waters of the North and

ZeeWeed membranes are immersed directly into the process tanks at the River Street Water Treatment Riant and are capable of producing up to 160 MLD of potable water for the community.

Springtime turbidity spikes Today, this city of 82,000 is most aware of these problems in the spring,

South Thompson Rivers that meet in Kamloops, British Columbia, have long influ enced settlement in this growing city. Surrounded by sprawling arid grass lands and rolling mountains, the con fluence of the rivers has drawn people to its banks ever since the native, seminomadic Secwepemc people gathered there to trade goods and enjoy the pris

river, causing turbidity spikes in the range of 30 to 50 NTU, but these can go as high as 500 NTU. Although the problem is short lived, lasting only a week or two during the peak spring runoff period, the existing chlorination system cannot remove the suspended


solids from the water.

waters. The native fur trade

attracted the first European settlers to this area and the gold rush of the 1850s brought the railway, which facilitated the rapid expansion of the city. For generations, the river has always provided aboriginals and the early settlers with an abundance of pure, safe drinking water. As the trad ing post became a settlement, and the settlement grew to be a city, the river began to show signs of decline, and many residents became concerned about the river's water quality. In the early 1940s the City of Kamloops began chlorinating the munic ipal water supply to reduce the risk of ill ness from water-borne pathogens. Until recently, pre-screening and chlorination were the only treatments that the City provided for the drinking water supply. However, as the population of the City and the surrounding area continues to grow, the increasing activities along the watershed are adversely affecting the river water quality. Forestry, agriculture, mining, recreation, construction, and transportation are all producing an increase in the sediment and pollutants from point and non-point sources that are entering the river.

when silted debris washes down the

In addition to increasing the chlori nation levels to combat the rising tur bidity, the City also advises residents to boil water for additional protection whenever turbidity rises above 5 NTU. But troubling outbreaks of water-borne illnesses in nearby communities left many Kamloops residents wondering if they are at risk of a similar occur rence.

examined by the Committee that included improvements to the water shed to reduce pollutants and sediment in the river, development of alternative water sources from the Clearwater

River or a new groundwater source, purchasing water from a neighboring aboriginal band, and the construction of a new water treatment plant. The Community Advisory Commit tee recommended that a new water

treatment plant would be the best solu tion for Kamloops to ensure a stable, long-term, high quality water supply. The Committee also recommended that membrane filtration should be fur

ther investigated as an option to a con ventional, sand filtration plant. Pilot studies of four leading mem brane systems were conducted during 2000, and the results were presented to city council in May 2001. The results

Committee looks for solutions

showed that membrane filtration could

In 1997, the City formed the Committee on Drinking Water Quality to specifically address the water quali ty issue. During the Committee's review process the Thompson Health Region applied new conditions to the City's operating permit for potable water production. The changes required the City to reduce potable water turbidity to below 1 NTU 95 per cent of the time, eliminate at least 99.9 percent of Giardia and Cryptospor-

provide higher quality water to the City, and was easier to operate than a conventional sand filtration plant. The study also showed that the capital cost of constructing a new membrane filtra tion water treatment plant would be about the same as that of a convention

al plant. Membranes selected

idiiim, and maintain trihalomethane

In September 2001 the Kamloops city council selected membrane tech nology as the best solution for the new plant, and a year later, in September

concentrations below 100 pg/1.

2002, awarded ZENON Environmental

The Committee continued


developing strategies to ensure com pliance with the new operating condi tions and issued a final report in January 2000. Several options were

10 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

Inc. with the contract to supply immersed, low-pressure ultrafiltration membranes for the project. ZENON was selected over three other mem-

continued overleaf...

Bill DeAngelis Joins Associated Engineering Associated Engineering welcomes Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng., MBA to our team. Alistair Black, P.Eng., President and CEO is pleased to announce Bill's appoint ment as Vice President and General

Manager of our Ontario operation. Bill brings 25 years of experience in both the public and private sectors. His expertise includes business man agement, utilities management, and

operations and maintenance of major water and wastewater treatment facili

ties. He is often a featured presenter at

industry conferences, and has authored numerous papers on wastewater treat

ment process optimization, wastewater utility management, and best practices.

"Associated Engineering shares my

A member of several industry associa

values... a dedication to quality and

tions, Bill was also the Past President

service to our clients, and commitment

of the Water Environment Association of

to training and mentoring our staff. I'm excited about my new role, working

Ontario. Complementing his technical

with the Associated Engineering team,

expertise. Bill has a successful track

and look forward to a continuing

record in facilitation and public relations

successful working relationship with

- always an asset to clients working with stakeholder groups on industry

our partners and clients." Bill DeAngeus, P.Eng., MBA Vice President & General Manager, Ontario Operations


Associated Engineering provides consulting engineering, project management and asset management

to .

services in the water, environmental.

Infrastructure and transportation sectors. For more information, visit www.ae.ca.



Cover Story brane suppliers after a detailed review process which, in addition to the pilot testing, also included company experi ence and qualifications, product quali ty, and project lifecycle costs. Construction of the new $48.5 mil lion River Street Water Treatment

Plant(WTP) began in April 2003 and the plant is expected to be fully opera tional by the end of 2004. When com pleted, the plant will be Canada's largest low-pressure, enhanced coagu lation membrane water treatment plant and will be capable of supplying up to 160 MLD (42.3 MGD)of clean drink ing water to the community, regardless of the turbidity in the raw river water. How the plant works The City's new membrane ultrafiltration WTP will pump water from the South Thompson River to a low lift pumping station for screening and coagulant addition to aid in the removal of total organic carbon(TOC).

for several minutes to facilitate floe formation and then release it to the

membrane process tanks. The flocculated water will flow by gravity to the membrane process trains. The plant is equipped with 12 process trains; however, water produc tion is handled by 11 trains to enable one train to be removed from produc tion for maintenance cleaning. ZeeWeed® membrane cassettes are

immersed directly into the process tanks. Thousands of membrane fibers

chlorine will be added as a disinfectant,

hang loosely in each membrane cassette and a slight vacuum is applied to the

prior to releasing the water to the municipal distribution system. Future expansion

end of each membrane fiber to draw

water through microscopic pores and

The River Street WTP has been

into the hollow fibers. With a nominal

constructed with community growth in mind and, when required, additional

pore size of 0.04 pm, the membranes form a physical barrier to suspended solids and provide greater than 4-log removal of pathogens such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Rejected parti cles remain in the process tank.

The removal of TOC minimizes the

formation of any chlorination byprod ucts such as trihalomethane which are

suspected carcinogens. Six flocculation tanks will mix the incoming water

membranes and can treat up to 12.5 MLD (3.3 MGD)of reject water from the first stage. Any reject water from the secondary stage will be returned to the headworks of the plant and mixed with the incoming raw water for further processing. This configuration enables the plant to recover 99 percent of potable water from the river and also substantially reduces the cost of raw water pumping and the waste stream to the sewer system. In the final step,

The River Street Water Treatment

plant incorporates a two-stage filtration process that enhances the recovery of potable water from the river. This sec ond stage has six trains ofZeeWeed UF

membrane cassettes can be added to

the process tanks to increase capacity to a total of 200 MLD (52.8 MGD). Each process train currently holds six membrane cassettes, but space is pro vided for eight cassettes, enabling water production capacity to be increased incrementally as necessary. Leadership in sustainable design In addition to providing a safe

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Cover Story

The River Street Water Treatment Plant is Canada's only water plant to achieve silver accreditation under the Leadership In Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)program.

drinking water supply, the new water treatment plant will demonstrate the City's leadership in water conservation

and environmental stewardship. The facility was designed and constructed according to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria to reduce the environmental impact of the construction and operation of the plant. The building meets the silver cer tification level of the LEED program and is currently the only accredited sil ver LEED water plant in Canada.

Responsible land use is achieved by constructing the new plant on a brown-

field site with 45 percent of the site to be restored to wetlands or planted areas. Fossil fuel consumption is reduced by using high efficiency lights and natural light wherever possible, as well as designing the HVAC system to reject heat during the warmer months into the incoming raw water and elim inating the need to use cooling towers. Water is conserved by low flow plumbing fixtures and rainwater col

lection for non-potable uses. A green roof will reduce run off and absorb heat while overflow from the roof and

the porous pavement of the parking lot

will be redirected to a constructed wet

lands. Grey water from the plant processes will provide irrigation to city parks and an adjacent sports field. Even the building itself incorporates recycled materials in the concrete, alu minum, insulation, and drywall,just to name a few.

Brian Comerford is Utilities Manager, City ofKamloops and Troy LaPlante, M.Sc, P.Eng., is Project Manager Municipal Systems, ZENON Environmental Inc. Contact: bcomerford @kamloops.ca.

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 13



Tanks provide Innovative filtration system to protect downstream habitats

The Napa River, one of

California's largest Central Coast Range rivers, drains 426 square miles on its 50-mile journey from Mt. St. Helens to the San Pablo Bay. An estuary system compris es the last 17 miles of its journey. Over the years, stream bank erosion and plant life removal have created sig nificant river sedimentation. In fact, 70,000 to 200,000 tons of sediments enter the Napa Valley watershed every year due to development, roads and hillside vineyards. Unfortunately, the sediment deposits into stream channels and ponds which impair fish spawning and reduce habitat diversity and the food supply for fish. In an effort to protect the river's ecosystem, the state has identified the Napa River as a 303(d) body of water in the Clean Water Act. Section 303(d) identifies bodies of water whose effluent limita tions are not sufficient to meet state

and federal water quality standards. In April 2003, when work began on

the US$31.5 million Maxwell Bridge replacement project over the Napa River, maintaining the river water quality was key. The state's Regional Water Quality Control Board requires that water discharge not exceed 10 per cent in areas where natural turbidity is greater than 50 NTU. "By August, we had six, 48-foot deep cofferdams in the middle of the Napa River that we had to dewater," said Shane Dees of C.C. Meyer, the project contractor. Using four 4-foot wide, 65-footlong interlocking steel plates, C.C. Meyer created a series of temporary watertight enclosures that could be pumped dry to expose the river bot tom. Only then could the contractor build footings, columns and drive piles 30 feet under the river to support the bridge. Once the footings and columns were completed, the cofferdams were backfilled up to the riverbed and pulled out ofthe river. "During excava tion, we were stirring up a lot of mud

14 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

in the cofferdam," said Mr. Dees. "It

was very difficult to pump 1,000 gal lons of water a minute and try to keep it clean."

At various times during the monthslong excavation and installation proj ect, the cofferdams became so muddy that the water could not be cleaned

without operating up to three filtration systems."We didn't have the money or the space for such a large set up," said Mr. Dees."With a lot of work, we were able to convince the state environmen

tal agencies to allow us to pump from one cofferdam to the other, and wait for the sediment to settle."

Creating a successful filtration solution

Two filtration systems were put in place - one on the east side of the river and one on the west side. The systems consisted of 15 Baker Style (US) 20,000-gallon settlement tanks, three 4-pod sand filters with Flygt sub mersible pumps, two Baker Roll-off continued overleaf...

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Sediment Removal boxes, carbon filters and berms to pro vide secondary containment. "It was a pretty tight space. We needed to design the system to fit within the confined space and allow room to drive 130 foot piles into the river," said John Coon of Baker Tanks. "In order to meet space requirements, we had to build platforms and lift the tanks in by crane rather than drive them onto the jobsite. As a result, the decreasing elevation of each tank allowed the water to cascade from

tank to tank to maintain the necessary

California's Regional Water Quality Control Board's water quality regula tions, upstream and downstream read ings had to be taken at various inter vals. A turbidity meter was used to conduct the readings. The turbidity levels had to be brought down from 1,000 NTUs to the natural turbity of the river.

Given the high turbity levels, Napabased ProTech General Contracting Service was brought in to institute a multi-step suspended material clarifica tion process. A chemical coagulant was

water flow."

added to the influent water and mixed to

Baker T-style tanks were chosen due to their smaller footprint and ease

form a dense flocculant that settled out

of modification. "We were able to

lected in a series of settlement tanks.

make different size valve alterations to

This is a particularly efficient method to remove suspended material as it effec tively removes more than 90% of parti cles greater than 25 microns. To meet the specific needs of the bridge replacement project, ProTech also used an aluminum chlorhydrate coagulant, which is a high-molecularweight polymer specifically designed for water treatment systems. The coag ulant was injected into the influent

the tanks to accommodate high and medium discharges allowing for set tling and skimming of cleaner water," said Mr. Coon. "We customized each

tank with two 10-inch pipelines to maintain the (US) 1,000-gallon-aminute flow, and manifolded the tanks so we could add equipment if needed." Testing the waters To comply with the State of

by gravity. The flocculant was then col


we were able to work on other areas of

the job during high tide which allowed us to churn out close to one million

gallons of water a day - a couple of times we were running 24/7," he said. Forfurther information contact Baker Tanks at Tel: (562) 430-6262 or email: AReiiners@BAKERTANKS.com.

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water at 50 ppm, using a metering pump that can maintain a system flow rate of 500 gpm rurming 24 hours per day. Because proper mixing of the coagulant and raw water was neces sary, the coagulant was injected into the line at least 20 feet upstream from the filtration system. This method helped prevent violent agitation or high-speed mixing which can decrease coagulant activity. Gravity settled the Napa River sediment in the clarifier tanks. The water was routed through a sand filter for final polishing. Careful planning ensures efficient filtering To avoid delay and extra expense involved in filtering at high tide, Mr. Coon took it upon himself to consult the tide charts. "With carefiil planning,

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Process Products and insxmmenmm-SOlUTtONS 16 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

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New brownfields law effective October 1

but mandatory clean-up postponed By Barry Spiegel,Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP

New voluntary clean-up regulations wil limit liabil

ity of owners, lenders and purchasers to MOE orders. However, there is no protection from civil

lawsuits, or for off-site contamination.

The new regime replaces the MOE Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario with a new Record of

Site Condition Regulation, a public Environmental Site Registry, and designation of regulated professionals as "qualified persons" permitted to supervise and certify clean-ups. The government has postponed proclamation of the mandatory change of land use clean-up provisions. When the Environmental Protection Act's (EPA) s. 168.3.1 is pro claimed in future, most land use changes to more sensitive uses (e.g. from industrial to residential) will require clean-up and filing of a Record of Site Condition (RSC). Until the government proclaims this section, RSCs and clean-ups will continue to be 'voluntary' - i.e. required by purchasers, lenders, insurers or municipalities, but not by provincial law. Brownfields Amendments were scheduled to take effect

on October 1, 2004, amending the Environmental Protection Act, Ontario Water Resources Act, Education Act and the Municipal Act, 2001. The Record of Site Condition Regulation (O. Reg. 153/04) under the EPA will also take effect on that date.

The new legal regime includes: • Property tax incentives • Liability protection for owners

• Regulated standards for clean-up and redevelopment of contaminated sites

• Definition of classes of"qualified persons"(QP)permit ted to conduct and supervise clean-ups and certify Records of Site Condition (RSC) • Mandatory QP insurance requirements • An Environmental Site Registry. Highlights Details are set out in the Record of Site Condition

Regulation - O. Reg. 153/04, including definitions of Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) standards, transi tional provisions, mandatory contents of RSCs, and risk assessment reports.

Clean-up standards are published in "Soil, Croundwater and Sediment Standards for Use under Part XVI of the

Environmental Protection Act" (March 9, 2004). These standards, incorporated by the regulation, will replace the Tables in the Guideline.



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and transmits a signal to a remote receiver that provides a verbal alarm that can be sent out over telephone or radio. A relay contact is also available at the receiver for additional alarms. Should the worker be

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Each pocket sized transmitter runs from a 9 Vdc battery and the receiver operates from 115 Vac and has an Internal battery back-up in the event of a power failure.


Only petroleum hydrocarbon standards have been changed from the Guideline. Now fractional analysis is required - more precise, more expensive. Ontario labs are gearing up to provide this analysis, which is the CCME standard used in most other provinces. "Qualified Persons" include three levels of QP who can certify RSCs, and a fourth category of QP who can conduct and supervise risk assessments.(MOE is developing new QP criteria that will replace these in 2006.) Individuals registered under the governing statutes as professional engineers, professional geoscientists, certi fied engineering technicians and technologists and archi tectural technologists, professional agrologists, and char tered chemists will be able to conduct and certify Phase I ESAs and RSCs. Only engineers, geoscientists, agrolo gists, and chemists can conduct and certify Phase II ESAs and RSCs.

Only engineers and geoscientists can certify RSCs based on risk assessment. Prescribed educational and experience requirements apply to professionals conducting or supervis ing risk assessments.

MOE has issued Technical Updates setting out transi tional requirements and deadlines for grandfathered sub missions under the Guideline.

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18 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

As noted above, the government has not proclaimed the provisions that will require clean-up and filing of an RSC for changes to a more sensitive land use.

Contact Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, Direct phone: 416-862-4845.


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Water Environment Association of Ontario Annual

Technical Symposium and Exhibition April 17-19,2005 Deerhurst Resort,Huntsville,Ontario Exciting new location for 2005 Originally built in 1896, Deerhurst Resort, located in Ontario's famous Muskoka region has become one of Canada's finest conference resort locations. It offers WEAO conference delegates state of the art meeting and convention facilities, economical room rates, fine dining and an idyllic setting. Visit www.deerhurstresort.com.

Learn about the issues facing Ontario's wastewater industry Small Community Issues Utility Management Sewer Use Bylaws and Enforcement

Alternative Delivery

Finance and Partnering Watershed Management Collection Systems Stormwater Management Biological Treatment

• Biosolids Odour Control

• New Technologies Management and Research • Operations • Septage Disposal

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100-booth tradeshow Organized by the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association, this event is a showcase for the latest technical and scientific developments in the wastewater industry. For further information on registering, please contact:

Julie Vincent, WEAO Executive Administrator, P.O. Box 176, Milton, Ontario, L9T 4N9 Tel:(416) 410-6933 • Fax:(416) 410-1626 • E-mail: weao@weao.org • Web: www.weao.org.

Consulting engineering - invisible value from solid infrastructure assets

Few of the general public realize the contribution of consulting

engineers. Surprising really considering that the majority of Canadian environmental infrastructure projects were designed by consulting engineers working in liaison with city engineers. Most bridges, highways, water and wastewater projects were designed by con sulting engineers. They are worth billions of dollars today, with the origi nal design fees long amortized into insignificanee. The value of engineer ing design is profound. Over the years, ES&E's Consultants' Forum has received wide acceptance among all sectors of our readership. Municipal engineers, analytical chemists, government agencies and technical people in the industrial sector, all rely on experience and skills of consulting engineers. Each year, ES&E invites consultants to submit their opinions on any topic and some key engi neers have contributed.

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The Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute is a Canadian Association of manufacturers of corrugated steel pipe and material suppliers. With production facilities and technically trained sales staff in communities throughout Canada, we work with you to create flexible and versatile solutions to meet your unique requirements. Through CSPI, we share our vast resource of knowledge and experience in order to bring to you the greatest value for today's dollar. Members: Fabricators: Armtec Limited, Atiantic Industries Ltd., Canada Cuivert & Metal Products, FSI Cuivert Inc., E.S. Hubbell & Sons Ltd., Prairie Steei Products Ltd., Soieno inc., SPIR-L-OK industries, Steeicor Cuivert Ltd., Twister Pipe Ltd., Westman Steei Industries. Steel Producers and Associates: Dofasco Inc., Steico Inc., Noranda Inc., Sorevco.

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The engineer as educator By Bill DeAngelis, MBA, P.Eng. Vice President & General Manager Associated Engineering (Ont.) Ltd.

Clients have traditional y hired

consulting engineers to design their facilities, prepare their reports and manage their proj ects. We brought a complementary skill set to the municipal toolbox, the ability to assist with the implementation of operating and capital projects in water, wastewater, infrastructure renewal, planning and modeling, routinely pro viding direction and advice on technol ogy selection and application. These days, the consultant's role is changing - many clients are becoming

better educated in the ways of engi neering design, strategy formulation and project management. Clients used to ask us what they needed; now they tell us what they want, then rely on us to deliver it. Maybe a slight distinction, but an important one nonetheless. We are, in many cases, being asked

out question. This phenomenon is not unlike the medical profession, where patients put their faith in their doctors and accepted without question their treatment recommendations. With our

increased level of medical knowledge we now question diagnoses and seek second and third opinions before accepting a course of treatment. Parallels are seen in the conduct of

engineering assignments. A bettereducated client is more likely to ques

to confirm decisions/directions/tech

tion or test a consultant's recommend

nologies, rather than setting or select ing them. In such cases, we are becom ing a sounding board as much as a determiner of technology, as much educator as engineer. What is driving this change? As more engineers and technical profes sionals from the consulting world make the transition to public sector roles, the level of knowledge and expertise within those enterprises increases. In those municipalities, the consultant's role is evolving from a leading to a supporting one. A more highly educated client is less likely to accept conclusions with-

ed approach to resolving a particular problem, reviewing the issue from dif ferent frames of reference for valida

tion. At the end of the process, the client moves forward on project imple mentation with a level of comfort.

The need for ongoing education applies to the consultant as well as the client. It is imperative that we remain abreast of the latest developments in the water and wastewater fields,

through applied research, pilot testing, optimization, equipment trials and sur veys, to be able to advise our clients accordingly. We must continue to par ticipate in technology transfer initia tives such as conferences, seminars

and trade shows, sharing our ideas and experiences with each other thi-ough papers and presentations. As roles of client and engineer change, so do responsibilities. The new model requires better communi cation and a greater exchange of infor

Mad/iro MacViro Consultants Inc. Engineering and Environmental Science

Anita Smith

mation than ever before. Clients are Eric MacDonald

On behalf of the Board of Directors of MacViro Consuitants inc., Sid Giilespie is pieased to announce that Eric A.D. MacDonaid, M.Sc., REng. has been appointed Chairman and CEO, and Anita L. Smith, M.Eng., REng. has been appointed President.

Eric has over 35 years of engineering experience in Canada and overseas focused on design, construction and project management reiated to water and wastewater environmentai projects. For the past 25 years he has held corporate

now assuming greater responsibility for project deliverables by virtue of increased participation and direction. Collaborative processes are being employed through workshops and value engineering exercises, often resulting in process innovation, short er delivery times and reduced capital costs. However, we need to be cau

tious about getting caught up in groupthink; at the end of the day we cannot forget that our role is to pro

management positions.

Anita has over 20 years of environmentai consuiting engineering experience in Canada. She joined MacViro as Executive Vice President in 2003 and brings extensive experience in the water industry. In her corporate leadership roie, Anita will lead the next stage in the company's growth. MacViro is an employee owned, multi-disciplined consulting engineering firm located in Markham, providing engineering, planning and scientific service to its clients In Ontario and overseas.

MacViro Consultants Inc.

vide the client with our considered

professional opinion. The engineering fraternity needs to acknowledge these changes in the use of consulting engineering services and adjust its service provision model as required to meet client requirements. If it means doing less directing and more supporting, so be it. By educating our clients, we educate ourselves.

90 Allstate Parkway #600, Markham ON L3R 6H3 Tel: 905.475.7270 Fax: 905.475.5994 E-mail: reception@macviro.com Web: www.macviro.com

Contact e-mail: deangelisb@ae.ca. 22 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004



The challenges of a changing workforce

In pastES&E Consultants'Forums,we have read about some of the chal

lenges that face the environmental consulting sector, including: • The consultant selection process, specifically price-based selection rather than quality-based selection, and its inherent problems; • The increasing level of competition in our industry and how it perpetuates price-

of opportunities exists for capable engi

By Stephen G. Nutt,

neers, both within the environmental con

M.Eng., P.Eng., Partner, XCG Consultants Ltd.

sulting industry and elsewhere. Meeting the challenge It starts, obviously, with hiring the right staff. Then, we must train them and retain them. It will be important to identi fy key individuals in our organizations and show them a clear career path. Plans to transfer the institutional knowledge and

based selection;

culture to our future leaders will need to

• Out-sourcing of engineering to cheap

be developed. Our mentoring programs will need to be improved and new oppor tunities provided for staff growth. Succession plans will need to be devel oped to manage the change in leadership.

er labour markets; and,

• The consolidation of the engineering consulting industry into a smaller number of larger multi-national firms. While these challenges are certainly significant, a major topic of conversation at recent gatherings of consultants is the difficulty in recruiting and retaining staff. Arguably, this may be the most significant challenge facing our industry over the next five to ten years. Demographics represent part of the challenge The Baby Boomers, currently in the age range from 40 to 59, are the largest generation in history. The Next Generation (Gen-X, currently in the age range from 20 to 39) is one of the smallest. As senior staff members begin to reduce workload and phase into retirement, replacing them will be a challenge. According to the EKOS Research Associates 2002 National Survey of Professional Engineers conducted


behalf of the



Associations like the Water Environment Association of

Ontario and the Ontario Water Works Association, through their Young Professionals programs, help to keep staff in our industry by involving them in their professional associ

ations. Our challenge, if we are to sustain growth and con tinue to meet our clients' needs, will be to provide the opportunities for staff to realize their potential. Contact e-mail:stephen@xcg.com.

One Team.


Infinite Solutions.

Professional Engineers, 25 percent of engineers are over 50 and only one in six is under 30. The recruiting challenge will be compounded by the need to hire additional staff to sustain a growing industry. The same EKOS 2002 National Survey found that employ ment in engineering in general grew by about 4 percent from 1997 to 2002. Employment in the Environmental

Industry Sector over a similar period (1996 to 2002) increased by about 15 percent, according to Statistics Canada. This is at a time when, according to the Canadian Labour and Business Centre, the annual growth rate in the labour force has declined to about 1.5 percent and will fur ther decrease to about 0.5 percent per year over the next ten years.

This change in demographics will leave a void in the

Providing professional services in:

workforce as the environmental consulting industry com


petes with the expanding public sector for qualified and experienced staff. Competition for capable staff will be

Wastewater Process

Automation & Information Management


Core values are changing

There has been a significant change in the core values of the workforce and in worker expectations that has occurred in parallel with the changing demographics. While the Baby Boomers looked for stability, Gen-X and Nexters look for opportunities for advancement, a challeng ing work environment, flexibility, and a balance between work and private life. They expect recognition and reward. There is a "free agent" mentality, and an increased level of mobility that has led to shorter staff tenure. A broad range

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 23



Is the consulting industry slipping?

â– In a November 2003 article in the

By Rui De Carvalho, M.Eng., P.Eng., President,

Consultants' Forum series, entitled "The ethics of body snatching", Bill DeAngelis, P. Eng. (now with Associated Engineering), discussed the

RJ Burnside & Associates

issue and concerns that relate to the lur

ing ofstafffrom one firm to another. He discussed the factors and measures that

employers need to adopt if they are to retain valuable staff. In reality these measures come down to making the appropriate investment in our most valuable resource, our staff.

The consulting industry's track record, just like governments, is not impressive. Over the last ten to twenty years, many bright young professionals with degrees in engineering or applied sciences have had stints in consulting, then decided to look to greener pas tures, in commerce,finance, marketing, etc. Most of us that have been around

for more than a few years are actually aware that, at times, the economic envi ronment was not particularly favourable and resources somewhat scarce. Most

of us are aware of some very promising individuals who left our industry. It is well known that financial reward

is not necessarily the one and only attraction with some excellent firms that

were able to maintain their bright young professional staff and major contribu tors even through slow times. These firms likely provide a number of intan gibles that don't show up on a pay cheque. These include positive corpo rate cultures and work place environ ments, opportunities for career growth


and development, positive feedback and recognition, mentoring by senior profes sionals and opportunities for equity. Many oftoday's young professionals are also looking for a balance between thencareer and their personal life. In case some of our industry leaders haven't noticed, the boot camp atmos phere, even with high levels of finan cial remuneration, no longer makes the cut and is not sustainable over the

longer term. It is much more costeffective to invest in retaining employ ees, rather than in recruitment. Employers who take time to get to know what is uniquely important to highly talented employees are well on their way to becoming the employers of choice in the consulting industry. There is no question that in order for us to provide the rewarding and balanced career opportunities, there is a need for not only progressive man agement but also for appropriate financial resources. In an industry


te' 905 459 4780



905 459 7869

where profit margins are at times just a bit better than those of the airlines -

and worse than those of grocery stores - historically we have not really had a great deal of financial flexibility. It's interesting, however, that we do observe the supply price of a barrel of crude oil climbing because of an appar ent shortage in supply, having a direct impact on the cost to fuel a vehicle. At the same time, in our industry, many firms are also finding a significant shortage of experienced engineers and scientists to join their project teams. We still observe many instances where the consulting industry continues to significantly undervalue its services. The result continues to be the cycle of scarce resources for the same industry to provide the appropriate conditions to attract, retain, and develop the best graduates in a number of disciplines, and with significant consequences. Just as our governments have failed to provide the resources so that we no longer lead in environmental innova tion, the consulting industry is also in danger of slipping from a leadership role, to a mediocre level where perhaps the services that it provides to its clients will, in fact, be of decreased value. In an effort to better reward share

holders and staff, we must have pride in our work and respect for its value, and provide the greatest value possible to our clients based on our technical

competence and management capabil ities. In turn, we should not be afraid to earn appropriate returns, which will allow for appropriate investments. Contact e-mail: rui@rjburnside.com.



KMK Consu rants






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^ Urban and rural residential

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developments ^ Resort developments

- System modeling and analysis

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24 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

pumping stations

- Roads and tunnels

- Class environmental assessments

- Process optimization and modeling - Plant condition assessments and j

facility plans - Treatment technology evaluation . and selection

- Treatment plant design and construction management

- Blosoiids and residue management: - Operations and maintenance consulting; - Regulatory compliance and operations planning



Selling the value of water

Giving consultants 500 words to

moting a utility culture that educates its

say whatever they want seems By Herschel Guttman, P.Eng. own staff on the value of water, and trains like giving them the keys to the R. V. Anderson Associates Ltd. them to communicate those values to kingdom. However, rather than everyone they interact with in their lives. using this soapbox for consulting engi It should continue with an organized neering, I would rather use it to talk to plan to communicate with every citizen group within your customer base. consultants' municipal clients directly about educating their customers on drink Industrial and commercial customers ing water issues. need to know what it takes to provide day in day out reliable water supplies and fire If you work for a municipality that reg ularly communicates effectively with protection. Service clubs like Rotary or your customers on drinking water issues, Lions are not only influential in the com that talks to service clubs, the youth, the munity, but are always looking for speak professions, and the media in your com ers. Students are eager to learn about munity, and that trains all your staff to do environmental issues, and they also repre sent your future customer base. When you run out of those so, including the water main repair crew and the accounts clerk, then read no further. groups, consider the professions and emergency response For the rest of you, ask yourselves this question: What is services, or even public advocacy groups. Finally, do not forget to educate the local media on water issues, before the single major impediment to the provision of safe, suffi cient and sustainable drinking water in your community? you have a crisis. The answer is the same for every town and city. Simply put, The bottom line is: If you want the funds to do your job the rates for drinking water are much too low. Rates are too well, you need to get out there and sell the value of a safe low because the politreliable water supply directly to your customers, face-toical will is not there

face. Sustainable water rates are bound to follow in time.

to raise rates. Given

that most politicians respond best to the will of the voters, leads one to conclude that there is also

insufficient public support for higher

Contact e-mail: hguttman@rvanderson.com.

ÂŽ BurnsIde

sustainable rates.

As Deep Throat said in the movie All the President's Men:

Burnside has been helping clients find

"Follow the money".

cost effective and innovative solutions to

The trail starts with

their environmental needs for more

your customers who are your primary source of funding. The politicians will ultimately obey the will of the people. Therefore you need to get public support first, and the politicians will follow. The message you need to communicate to the public is about the value of a safe reliable water supply to your com munity. Indeed, its public health and safety aspects need to be stressed as being akin to access to good medical care.

than 30 years. Water Supply and Treatment Groundwater, Wastewater and Stormwater

Management Solid Waste Management and Site Remediation GIS Applications and Satellite Remote Sensing

Your customers need to know that water is not free. It

takes money to protect water supply sources from pollution. It takes money to treat water to make it safe to drink. It takes money both for maintaining and investing in water mains and their renewal. This is money that your customers should demand to pay, for the price of a safe water supply and pub lic health peace of mind. Indeed, I have often told service clubs that they "should demand that rates double for their own public health protection". Public education and communication efforts need to be

519 941-5331

www.rjburnside.com We are always interested in speaking with progressive and talented people who wish to share their career with us. Visit our website to view

current opportunities.

carried out every year all year. This should start with proNovember 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 25



Who's driving or stalling our economic growth?

Our continued growth is

mental impacts. Neither side, perhaps, has thefull-picture viewpoint. Infrastructure projects inevitably cause a level of environmental disrup MacViro Consultants Inc. tion during the construction phase, albeit while working within stringent environmental controls. However, some projects drawing criticism may and/or terrestrial media are to be well be providing, not just the needs of applauded. However, questions arise growth, but real and long-term environ when these delayed projects are public mental benefits. For example, a surface works assignments being prepared in water project such as a pipeline, may accordance with approved Official provide relief to a stressed groundwater Plans, e.g. residential and/or commer aquifer if a groundwater supply is cial developments. The point being, being replaced. that the community as a whole has endorsed Official Plans Equally, is it not so that a wastewater collection/treatment which, if supporting a growth philosophy, then require proj system is the environmental superior of an overloaded septic ects to be constructed to realize the growth projections. tile system, which may be polluting a sub-surface aquifer? The question arising is: Can we maintain the pace Then again, what is wrong with a solid waste management demanded for our economic development and still allocate philosophy that endorses gasification (yes, a form of incin the time needed to address the expectations of other project eration) whereby air emissions are well within regulated stakeholders? The concerns of the regulatory bodies and guidelines? Is it not true that such a disposal process for our environmentalists are, of course, focused on the environ residual solid waste is more enviromnentally friendly than ment, not growth, which sometimes put them in conflict say, 150 large garbage trucks emitting fumes down Highway with project schedules. One side requires an aggressive 401 taking waste across international borders? schedule while the other side is concerned with the environThe conflicting issues seem to beg the question, have we lost a balanced viewpoint of who is responsible for provid ing an enviroiunental vision for the Province while consid ering the growth needs? Is it the few, who have their envi R.V. Anderson ronmental opinions, but offer a narrow view of the big pic Associates Limited ture; or is it the regulatory agencies who also may have a environment • Infrastructure biased view of construction projects; or is it the provincial govermnent which, surely, should be showing leadership? The process is flawed, tending to be influenced by narrow K. A. Morrison, president, is viewpoints rather than the full picture of society's need of pleased to announce the mandated growth through the Official Planning processes. appointment of Zoran Fiiinov as Even projects that have gone through a 'healthy' Class Manager, Water Supply of R.V. EA process can be threatened with time-delaying demands Anderson Associates Limited. for individual EAs with project schedules and costs being Zoran is a registered professional engineer in Ontario, negatively impacted. with over 20 years of experience in the industry. He has The message is that the Province must not forsake its a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from the provincial planning role, while playing backstop with regu University of St. Cirii and Methodius in Skopje, latory enforcement.

increasingly being slowed as municipal infrastructure proj ects are required to be con structed in an environmentally-friend ly manner. Undoubtedly, increasingly stringent regulations that enhance our air, water

By Eric A.D. MacDonald, M.Sc., REng., CEO,


Contact: esaar@macviro.com. Zoran's new responsibilities include providing leadership for the continuing development of the firm's water supply and environmental engineering practice. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited has been engaged in the provision of professional engineering, operations, and management services since 1948. The organization comprises environmental and infrastructure specialists for water, wastewater, transportation, and urban development in Canada, and internationally.

/ "


2001 Sheppard Avenue East Suite 400 Toronto Ontario M2J 4Z8 Tel 416 497 8600 Fax 416 497 0342


26 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004



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Drinking Water Treatment

The quality of Canadian drinking water: Does mixing hold the key? By Larry Rice, B.S.,iVI.B.A.,and Bruce Morgan,B.Tech.

The majority ofCanadians sim

ply turn on the water tap and draw a tall glass of water with absolutely no thought as to the quality, much less the age ofthe water. After all, we don't live in some unciv

ilized, third-world outpost, we live in Canada, and our water is certainly pure and trustworthy. Or is it? During the past few years and after a couple of widely publicized "acci dents", the safety of drinking water in the developed countries of the world has come under great scrutiny. Recent research has begun to explain the relationship between stagnation and water age. As late as the September issue of the AWWA Journal, Dr. Walter Grayman warned: "As water ages, the potential for bacterial regrowth and the formation of disin fectant by-products increases while the disinfectant levels decrease."

In an earlier published work. Rice

wrote; "When water is stored for an extended period of time, the water tends to stratify. Older water tends to float atop newer water. In this condi tion, the water does not mix well and may become stagnant." So, what is the key to maintaining peak water quality in distribution stor age? Without question, there is a need for adequate mixing and blending of

all drinking water in distribution sys tems to ensure adequate treatment and disinfection. As Grayman wrote in his conclusion:"To discourage the forma tion of zones of stagnant, older water, distribution system storage facilities should be designed and operated to encourage good mixing." How does the water lose its disin

fectant in distribution storage? Think about the production of carbonated beverages. When they are manufac

tured, CO2 gas is injected into the liq uid to carbonate the beverage. When

the container of beverage is sealed, the

CO2 gas molecules are trapped between the liquid molecules. They remain in solution as long as the con tainer is sealed. When the container is

opened the CO2 gas immediately begins to escape and the beverage is said to "go flat". The beverage is still

the same, but the CO2 gas molecules have escaped. Similarly, diatomic chlorine gas molecules are injected into pure, fil tered water as a disinfectant. These

molecules begin to escape the water as the water enters distribution storage tanks. Storage tanks are at atmospheric pressure. The water was under pressure in the piping of the distribution system because the pumps pressurized the water to move it, and the pipelines kept the water constrained and under pres sure. This pressure keeps the chlorine molecules in solution just like the pres sure in a carbonated beverage contain er keeps the carbon dioxide in solu tion. As the water moves from the

pipeline (an area of pressurization) into non-pressurized tanks, the chlo rine gas molecules escape the water, thus reducing the disinfectant. Adequately mixing and blending of the water in distribution helps to assure continued quality by always mixing new water with stored water, thus maintaining adequate disinfec tant levels, reducing the level of disin fectant by-products, and in general reducing the average age of the water in the system. So, what is the right way to mix the water in water storage facilities? Several technologies have been tried in the past several years. Unfortunately, some have serious drawbacks or are

As the water moves from the pipeline (an area of pressurization) into non-pressurized tanks, the chlorine gas molecules escape the water, thus reducing the disinfectant. 28 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

expensive to operate and maintain. To adequately mix the water, and ultimately reduce water age, engineers must address specific problems in a specific tank and take into account the water quality needs of the utility and their customers. In addition, the oper ational parameters of the tank must be considered. Simply "throwing hard ware" at the problem and then boasting

Drinking Water Treatment about a mixing "system" is not enough. The tank must be closely eval uated and an engineered system must be designed specifically for that tank to truly solve the specific problems of each tank. Water storage tanks are like snowflakes, no two are alike. Various technologies have been tried. These include: mechanical mix

ers, pump-arounds, baffles, valves or orifices, and most recently "portedconduit" systems. Mechanical mixers are just what

way to force new water to blend with old water.

Baffling is simply an arrangement of a series of labyrinthine walls of var ious shapes that attempt to mix the water as the water flows between the

inlet and the outlet of a storage tank by forcing the water to flow around these shapes. Unfortunately, when there is a temperature differential between the inlet water and the stored water, the

water simply "snakes" around the baf fles, finding the outlet. The warmer

water in the upper strata of the tank may not contact the new water under these circumstances.

Drafting tubes are the simplest of all attempts at water mixing. A section of pipe is mounted vertically several inch es off the floor of the tank and directly

above the inlet pipe. Theoretically, as the water flows out of the inlet and up

through the section of pipe suspended above it, this new water pulls older water already in the tank up through the continued overleaf...

you would expect. An electric motor, suspended about the water surface, turns an impeller or propeller mounted on a shaft in the water. Though these

will "agitate" the water locally, they can only truly mix the water if the tank is of a relatively small size. However, far worse is the sense that a problem is being addressed when the mixer may,



in fact, be exacerbating the problem. Think of a soft drink—if you shake the

can, more of the CO2 will escape than if you simply open the can. In the same way, water will lose more of its disin

fectant (CI2) if it is agitated and more of the water's surface area is subjected

to the atmosphere. The disadvantage of mechanical mixers is in the cost of the

energy required and the labor needed to maintain the motors and provide regular inspections, etc. These mixers only mix the water in the tank, and have no way to force new water to

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blend with old water.

diverse collection of environmental-related literature.

Pump-arounds have been around for years. Water is taken from one part ofthe tank and pumped to another area of the tank where it is reinjected. Pump-arounds mix the water to a cer tain extent, particularly when all the water is approximately the same tem

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perature. However, when water is a dif ferent temperature in different parts of

• International journals • Conference papers and proceedings

the tank (the usual situation) this prac tice can lead to short circuiting, a situ

• News

ation where a stream of colder water taken from the bottom of a tank is

• U.S. federal and state government reports and agency materials (Including waste site data and hazardous materials information)

• Consumer and trade magazines

pumped around and put back into the top of the tank where it simply "chan nels" directly down through the warm water and back to the bottom of the

tank. This is especially true in the sum mer months. The disadvantages include the energy required for the

pumps and the labor to maintain pumps, provide regular inspections, etc. All ofthis contributes to a high life

cycle cost for this technology. As with mechanical mixers, these mixers only mix the water in the tank, and have no

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 29

Drinking Water Treatment draft tube thus mixing new water with old water.

As the water reaches a storage tank it is under pressure. This pressure

areas ofthe tank back into the distribu

tion system.

Valves or orifice nozzles are the

drives the water into the tank. This


most complex of the mixing tech niques, and inherently require the greatest maintenance and inspection burden. In addition, these systems may result in loss of head, increased pump

water, under pressure, possesses poten tial energy. The storage tank is at atmospheric pressure. As this water, with its potential energy, reaches an area of atmospheric pressure, the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. This energy differential (the difference between the potential energy and kinetic energy) is the ener gy that is utilized to cause the water to flow throughout all areas of the tank. So, for the fill cycle, the secret is to harness the energy to horizontally

It is absolutely essential that all water storage tanks are operated in a way that ensures that the water is mixed during every fill and every draft cycle; and that the age of the water is continually minimized. This practice is necessary to ensure adequate levels of

ing costs, and reduced fill times. The water is directed up from the inlet

through a header "standpipe" extend ing high into the tank, and out through a limited number of valves or restric tive orifices.

Ported-conduit systems have proven to be a cost-effective solution to the

problem. They also assure mixing and blending of the water during both the fill and draft cycles. As water enters a storage tank through the inlet, it is directed through a series of conduits to various areas of the tank. The water

exits these conduits through hundreds of ports located on the sides of the con duits. These ports create streamlines that take the water to the far walls of the tank. These streamlines cause the "new" water to infiltrate the ambient

water, causing total mixing.

direct the water to all areas of the tank.

During the normal drafting cycle, ported-conduit systems draft the water back through the same port and con duit system. The water enters the ports from areas immediately above the ports, and continues along the conduits to the distribution system. Gravity pushes the water into the ports as water is taken by the conduits back into the distribution system. During the draff cycle, the secret is to use gravity to vertically direct the water from all

disinfectant and to assure continued

peak water quality. Lariy Rice, BIF WATER. Contact email: lrice@bifwater.com. Bruce Morgan, Metcon Sales & Engineering. Contact e-mail: brucem@ metconeng.com.

1 P' Larry Rice

Bruce Morgan

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Successful implementation of 'defined-concept"design-build approach By Vincent Nazareth,Valera Saknenko, Laura McDowell,Martin Tourangeau and James W.Lunn

The new Sutton Water Pollution


Control Plant (WPCP), a fully automated tertiary treatment plant with a rated plant capaci

ty of 3,412 m^/day, is located in the community of Sutton, the Town of Georgina in the Regional Municipality of York, Ontario, servicing Sutton and Jackson's Point. The old Sutton WPCP

consisted of an aeration basin, a final

clarifier and an effluent polishing lagoon providing capacity for approxi mately 4,500 people. The final effluent was discharged to the Black River. Construction of the new wastewater

treatment plant had been contemplated by York Region since the early 1990s. In 1997, a Secondary Plan for the Community of Sutton was approved by

York Region for an ultimate design population of 16,500 by the year 2016, representing an increase of 12,000 peo ple. The Environmental Assessment process, completed in 2001, included a

phased expansion approach. A pre ferred option would involve a Phase 1 expansion for a serviced population of 7,500 people (average daily flow of

Aerial view of the new Sutton Water Pollution Control Plant, showing SBR tanks, effluent equalization tank and process building. approach has been selected for this project. The RFP contained informa

Environment and summarized in the

tion about capacities and performance requirements, equipment specifica tions, redundancy provisions and process narrative, which allowed York Region to establish minimum design requirements, but left the selection of the specific equipment and conceptu alization of the design to the propo

table below:

nents. This RFP also included a one-

3,412 m^/day), and Phase 2 - for 16,500 people (average daily flow of

7,510 mVday). New effluent criteria were devel




Total Phosphorus Ammonia, as N

Total Suspended Solids Total BOD

Fecal (E.Coll) Conforms



0.18 mg/L (224 kg/year) 3,0 mg/L (winter) 1.0 mg/L (summer) 15 mg/L 15 mg/L <100 per 100 mL

In order to shorten the project time line, York Region, in association with local private developers, decided to proceed with the project on a designbuild basis. The region retained R. V Anderson Associates Limited(RVA)to prepare a Request for Proposal (RFP), to assist the Region with the selection of a design-build contractor. A "Defined-Concept" design-build

year operation period. Quality of the final product is one of the principal concerns with any project delivery method. However,

with a design-build project, obtaining quality needs more attention through the various stages of the project. It must begin early in the selection process and it should start with the

consulting team). Technical proposals were independently scored and subse quently price proposals were opened, scored and the combined scores calcu

lated. Azurix North America (now AWS Engineers and Planners Corp.) was the successful proponent. Construction of the new facility commenced in spring 2002 and was completed in September 2003. After a one-year operating period by AWS,the new Sutton WPCP was handed over to

York Region on October 1, 2004. It was designed for a 'Phase 1' average

daily flow of 3,412 m^/day and a peak capacity of 12,212 m^/day. The major process components of the Sutton WPCP include the following: • Headworks with one automatic self-

Evaluation of the submissions was

cleaning fine screen with a screenings washer/compactor, a manual screen and two vortex type grit removal tanks with a grit classifier; • Septage receiving; • Sequencing batch reactors, which utilize so-called Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS) process that provides both nitrification

carried out by four separate individuals (two from the Region and two from the

• Tertiary filtration, consisting of six

identification of bidders who are best

qualified to do the work. The Sutton WPCP selection process took the fol lowing steps: Pre-Qualification, Request for Proposal, Evaluation, Interviews (as part of evaluation). Negotiation and Award.

and de-nitrification;

November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 31

Wastewater ment plant. Operational parameters of the various treatment processes were optimized, and training provided to

York Region's operations staff, includ ing a period of shadowing for about four weeks.

This "Defined-Concept" DesignBuild approach with a one-year oper ating contract has proven to be a cost-

effective alternative project delivery method if properly managed and administered. The one-year operating period also allows for increased inte gration between the owner's operation staff and the contractor, allowing a smoother transition at handover.

Building in specific owner require ments and defining quality in the RFP are key to a successful design-build project.

Close-up of one SBR tank at the Sutton WPCP. continuously backwashed sand filter modules; • UV disinfection;

• Sludge handling, chemical addition, odour control, existing storage lagoon and outfall to the Black River. All

sludge generated at the Sutton WPCP is hauled off site for disposal at the Duffin

Creek WPCP for further processing. All processes at the Sutton WPCP are controlled by a computerized Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA). During the 12-month operation period, AWS Engineers & Planners staff were in fldl control of the treat

Vincent Nazareth and Valera Saknenko are with R. V Anderson Associates

Limited, Laura McDowell is with The

Regional Municipalit}> of York, and Martin Tourangeau and James W. Lunn

are with AWS Engineers & Planners Corp. Contact e-mail: vsaknenko@ rvanderson.com.

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Turning wastewater Into electricity

The Water Environment Research

Canadian environmental

Foundation (WERE) Endow ment for Irmovation in Applied Water Quality Research, pre

sented the Paul L. Busch Award to

professionals have had a decades long

Bruce Logan, Ph.D., at its aimual sub

association with WERF.

to make wastewater treatment more

scriber luncheon at WEFTEC 2004. Dr.

Logan was selected for his research on microbial fuel cells and their application in the wastewater treatment process. The Busch award carries with it a $100,000 research grant that will aid Logan in fur thering this important work. Bruce Logan and his research team have discovered that electricity can be produced from wastewater using bacte ria in a microbial fuel cell, while at the

same time accomplishing wastewater treatment without the use of additional

chemicals. Logan has created a new hybrid technology whereby wastewater is efficiently treated anaerobically using a bacterial biofilm growing on one elec trode of the fuel cell. This new technol

ogy could lead to a process that not only reduces operating costs for wastewater

more than a billion people in the world lack adequate sanitation and cannot afford to build or operate traditional wastewater treatment plants. In order

treatment but also creates excess elec

tricity production at treahnent plants. "It's a remarkable discovery with the potential to significantly impact conventional wastewater treatment,"

says Glerm Reinhardt, executive direc tor for WERF."By creating a treatment process that generates a product with market value, such as electricity, the substantial costs of building, operat ing, and maintaining wastewater facil ities may be offset." Perhaps of more importance is the potential of this research to create viable, self-sustaining wastewater treatment facilities for developing countries. Although industrialized nations can afford to operate conven tional wastewater treatment facilities,

affordable for all nations, new process es and approaches to treatment such as these must be developed. Dr. Logan is the Stan and Flora Kappe Professor of Environmental Engineering at Pennsylvania State University, and Director of Penn State's H2E(Hydrogen Energy) Center and the College of Engineering's Envi ronmental Institute. The Water Environment Research

Foundation is a not-for-profit organi zation which addresses water quality issues with a commitment to environ

mental protection, economic conser vancy, and enhanced quality of life. WERF subscribers consist of waste-

water utilities representing more than 70% of the U.S. sewered population and corporations sharing concerns for water quality issues.



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Wastewater Operations

Odour complaints stopped at large sewage transfer line

Management at Jefferson County Environmental

Services in Alabama reports it has solved a long-running odour problem by tapping a 30,000 cfm-capacity biofilter array into a 14 mgd average,(US)55 mgd maximum sewage transfer line. The 6-unit Basys''''^ array, which is also said to reduce cor rosion, was manufactured by Biorem Technologies Inc. of Guelph, Ontario. The array handles hydrogen sulphide at average concen tration of 5 ppm, and maximum of 25 ppm, as well as other odour-causing compounds, such as methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide (DMS), dimethyl disulphide (DMDS), and other Total Reduced Sulphur (TRS) compounds. The County has ordered five additional systems from the manu facturer for one of its wastewater treatment plants. "Our main purpose was to stop the dozens of odour com plaints we received over four or five years where the trans fer line ran near a shopping mall and a residential area," recalled Clyde C. Osbome, wastewater treatment plant superintendent. "Helping to reduce corrosion that was found during a routine inspection was a welcome by-prod uct. When you go to that site now, you don't smell anything. Once the system became fully operational, the complaints stopped." Osborne said a high-stack exhaust fan had apparently been solving the problem up- and downstream of the sensi

Long-running odour problem tvas solved by tapping a 30,000 cfm-capaclty biofilter array Into a 14 mgd average, 55 mgd maximum sewage transfer line. 34 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

tive area for about 7 years, but complaints had persisted in the immediate area, stimulating a search for an alternative solution.

"We considered activated carbon towers, which we had

used at a pretreatment facility upstream, but we didn't like the expense of having to change media every three or four years, or the need to dispose of a hazardous material," he said. "That led us to biological filtration, with presentations from three vendors. Biorem was chosen because their media

was more uniform, and didn't seem to present risks of filter clogging or attracting rodents." "Construction started early in 2002, with a local contrac tor able to handle the installation. Startup was in August, 2002, with media expected to last for 10 years. We're expecting a low-maintenance, long-running solution to the problem. They provided sample testing three or four times the first year, and then we contracted for more, and haven't seen any problems." The 60", 35-mile concrete transfer line, built in 1987, receives effluent from about one-quarter of the system's 164 pump stations, which range in capacity from 100,0005,000,000(US)gpd. Corrosion had been enough of a prob lem to require activated sludge pretreatment, upstream from the odour complaint area, that was related to input from dairy product and soft drink plants. Consulting engineering services for the odour-control project were provided to the

Biofilter array has six 5000-cfm Integrated, modu lar biofilter units, set up as two master units han dling 15,000 cfm each, with separate exhaust fans.

Wastewater Operations media, also suitable for VOC removal, was designed specif ically to handle a wide range of odour-causing compounds, including TRS and others, as opposed to the traditional focus on hydrogen sulphide only, a focus which it says is represented by alternative technologies such as carbon adsorption, chemical and wet scrubbing, and bio-scrubbing. "It's important to remove all odourous compounds, because these additional ones are a significant contributor to odour complaints even when they are present in minute amounts," noted Derek Webb, REng., the company's direc tor of design and production engineering. "This is because they have very low odour detection thresholds, such as dimethyl sulphide @ 0.0001 ppm; crotyl mercaptan @ 0.000029 ppm; and ethyl mercaptan @ 0.00019 ppm." The media is said to maintain a balance between optimal growing conditions for the microbes, while offering ideal pressure drop through the media, high moisture retention, long operating life, and resistance to decomposition and compaction, while providing a surface on which the biomass film can flourish.

Dampers on inlets and outlets to modular bioflltration units allow for Isolation of each unit.

County by F.W. Daugherty Engineering & Associates, Inc. of Birmingham, Alabama. The odour control system operates under negative pres sure, with a main collection duct evacuating the headspace of a subterranean junction box that receives discharge from

It is described as consisting of inert, uniformly-shaped hydrophilic cores that are produced with nutrient-rich organic and inorganic adsorbents. These characteristics are said to decrease residence time, and increase serviceable life to more than 10 years. Its high surface area-to-volume ratio is said to result in requiring only one-third the space needed by organic medias.

Contact Biorem Technologies Inc., info@bioremtech.com.


the transfer line. Air is also received from other sewer lines

emptying into the box, thereby adding some corrosion con trol benefit. The collection duct branches above ground to the biofilter array. Flanges on the duct provide for pre-con ditioning of the air via a pneumatic humidification mani fold prior to its entry to the biofilters. Treated air leaving the biofilters is drawn out through the stacks of fans for dis charge to the atmosphere. A shed enclosure houses the com plete humidification system, including compressors, pumps, and all instrumentation and controls. The biofilter array is set up as two units handling 15,000 cfm each, with separate exhaust fans. Normal deployment is for redundancy against operational interruption, with simultaneous operation available for maximum removal of hydrogen sulphide and other odour-causing TRS com pounds. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen sulphide in the entering air guides the level of operation. Biorem pro vided six of its 5000-cfm Basys™ integrated modular biofilter units. Capaeity could be added by eonnecting more filter modules.

Quarterly, preventive-maintenanee media testing, within a 10-year eontraet program, has already begun. Testing con sists of measurement of critical parameters such as pH, nutrient levels, and bacterial and fungal speciation and enu meration, as well as physiochemical properties such as moisture content and particle size. The company maintains that such testing has been a critical factor in achieving con tinuous, reliable performance for any biofilters, and says it has over 80 installations of its biofilters in North America.

The Hycor® Monoscreen™ Automatic Escalating Screen is designed for fine screening with



Available with openings of 0.5 to 5 mm (0.020" to 0.200") for clean water flows from 4.4 to

1752 L/S (0.1 to 40 MGD), the Monoscreen has rows of self-

cleaning bars in an escalating

staircase configuration with increasing pitch step. It operates intermittently, and forms a unique pre-coat mat to capture solids even smaller than the screen openings. This particular feature means the Monoscreen will typically trap 40% more solids than similar screens. Your pumps and downstream equipment and processes will be well protected. Parkson Canada 9045 C6te-de-Liesse Suite 201



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The company adds that its Biosorbens'"''^ biofiltration November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 35

Site Remediation

New technology used to remediate hydrocarbon contaminated site

Ivey-sol® works at the molecular

level, on site remediation using designed phase transfer mixtures that interact with the full range of organic LNAPLs (light non-aqueous phase liquids) and DNAPL (chlorinated solvents). This is a patented technology comprising mixtures of environmental ly safe constituents that encapsulate and

separate hydrocarbons from contami nated soil, bedrock, groundwater and solid wastes. In doing so, this allows for the rapid recovery of the "dissolved" contaminants for treatment.

The "selective" aspect means there are several different mixture options and two processes, enabling it to accurately target everything from light hydrocar bons like gasoline to heavy Bunker-C oil among other contaminants. Earlier this year, the company secured its first remediation project in Alberta. This patented technology is

being used to treat extensive soil and groundwater contamination at an

has more than 1,000 different compo nents, how can one mixture treat gas,

active service station in Red Deer. As

diesel or Bunker-C?"

there is a residential area nearby, the environmental sensitivity is relatively high. Past excavation efforts following the original spill failed to clean-up soil and groundwater contamination. Ivey reported that greater than 85% of the contamination was cleaned up within the first six months, adding that the whole site would be cleaned within

12 months, rather than the industry average of five to seven years. "Versatility is important," says founder and CEO George Ivey, whose background in organic chemistry and

geological engineering led to his breakthrough discovery between 1993

By applying the various Ivey-sol mixtures in situ monthly or bi-monthly

through injection wells or injection galleries, the company's case studies show that 95 per cent of project goals are achieved within 18 months, and

typically within 12."We get the petro chemical hydrocarbons dissolved, making them more mobile - and then we recover and remove them from the

soil and groundwater contaminate plume," said Mr. Ivey. The ex situ method involves the addition of contaminated soil and/or solids into a rotation treatment unit

and 1998. "We can selectively encap sulate different classes of organic com

(RTU), which contains water and Iveysol. The subject solids are treated to compliance with applicable guidelines

pounds within gasoline and oil and get them dissolved in water. As gasoline

tons per hour, with contamination



on a continuous basis at a rate of 12-15





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Site Remediation Drinking water was contaminated and Clark looked at a number of technolo IG

gies. "They wanted to put recovery towers in and stripper systems costing


more than $100,000," he says. Clark was told remediation would take five

to seven years. But Ivey-sol did it in less than 18 months saving some

$60,000, while meeting stringent envi ronmental standards.

Ivey-sol may allow industrial and commercial clients to begin remedia tion otherwise deemed unfeasible. For

instance, at sites where there is a risk of damaging a building's structure to access underground contaminants beneath foundations, the product can be applied right through the basement floor. The injection and clean-up

Injection and clean-up processes can proceed without the risk of

process can proceed without incurring

structural problems.

the structural liability faced by some other technologies.

loads starting at > 20,000 ppm. Once treated, soils can be removed and the hydrocarbons recovered. ivey-soi mixtures are not signifi cantly affected by the presence of met als, chlorinated compounds or salinity, which is especially important in the

silty to salty soils of Alberta and coastal B.C.

Peter Clark, president of Clark Oil Co. Ltd. (Ultramar), credits this tech nology with saving his East Coast company tens of thousands of dollars after using it to treat a fuel-oil spill.

It can also be used on off-shore oil

spills, oil and gas and petrochemical wastes, heavy metals, chlorinated sol vents among many others. Contact Ivey International Inc.. e-mail budivey@island.net.

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 37


A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

New standards for storage vaults By Tony Smethurst, LADEN Steel Fabricators Inc.

Standard Class Number 6049 "Flammable and Combustible

Liquid Storage Buildings" and are currently under investi gation by Underwriters' Laboratories Inc. covering the QRNZ Category "Commercial & Industrial Buildings". In addition, they meet and exceed the guidelines as established by CCME, NFPA 30, OSHA 1910.106, the National Building Code, the National Fire Code and the National Electrical Code.

Flistorically, what do these documents and specific adherence to the appropriately required codes really offer to the end user?

Model HW22 Storage Solution.

There is an increasing need to upgrade environmental products and services. LADEN Steel Fabricators Inc., the manufacturer of PRO-TEC Storage

Solutions has worked with the Underwriters'

Laboratories of Canada (ULC) over a two year period to develop a standard for "Storage Vaults". This standard has now evolved into the "Other Recognized Document" ULC/ORD-C142.6 "Storage Vaults". The purpose and intent of the ULC listing document was to clarify design requirements necessary for structures that are larger than cabinets, and smaller than what is normally considered a building by industry at large. The issues that are most commonly raised with respect to the installation and use of this category of structures, are typically the same issues faced with larger buildings, but in many cases not applicable to these smaller structures. The fundamental pur pose of the ULC listing is to simplify, once and for all, the relevant issues and the process of building, installing and using these hazardous materials storage buildings. These storage solutions are designed and fabricated for the safe use and storage of dangerous goods,flammable and combustible materials, hazardous materials and crop pro tection products. They are tested and listed to ULC/ORDC142.6 "Storage Vaults", Factory Mutual Approval 38 Environmentai Science & Engineering, November 2004


ULC Pool Fire Test.

The ULC test protocol, coupled with numerous inde pendent engineering reviews conducted by such prestigious engineering firms as The Cohos Evamy Partners, Earth Tech, and Randall Brown and Associates Ltd., has allowed us to provide not only a measure of due diligence, but ours is an independently tested and evaluated product.

Tony Smethurst is with PRO-TEC Storage Solutions. Contact: www.protecstorage.ca.

MAKES A DIFFERENCE While we can't promise iemon-fresh, Con Cast Pipe's ecoStorm product faces the tough stuff head on by meeting pollutant removal regulations in industrial, commeroiai and residential applications.


Specifying ecoStorm is your best management practise because it's:

Engineered site specific for your application

Cost-effective - a single structure design that limits footprints & reduces excavation costs

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Tanks Concafnment A

Thames Centre builds new water treatment

plant to meet new regulations

The Municipality ofThames Centre needed to build

a new water treatment plant and two water tanks, in Dorchester, Ontario, in 2003, in order to meet requirements for water under new regulations. The Municipality had previously provided chlorination and iron sequestering through the use of a small water treatment plant. The plant did not provide enough treat


ment for the anticipated growth of the community. In the event of a power loss, the plant could only provide enough water for one hour at peak flow rates. Additionally, the water system did not provide enough chlorine contact time under the new regulations. While dealing with these issues, the Municipality hired Stantec Consulting Ltd. from London, Ontario, to design a new water treatment plant. The new water system provides

water for approximately 1,750 households or 5,500 people in the Municipality. Also in the event of a power loss, the new water reservoirs can provide enough water for 2-3 days at peak flow. The new rated capacity of the plant is approximately twice the old plant and still provides chlori nation and iron removal rather than iron sequestering. During the design stage, it was decided that the treated water would be stored in glass flised to steel tanks due to

their long life and cost-effectiveness. The tanks were designed, sold and constructed by Greatario Engineered Storage Systems of Irmerkip, Ontario and were manufac

tured by Engineered Storage Products Company (formerly A.O. Smith) of Dekalb, Illinois. Temcor of Carson,

California, manufactured the aluminum geodesic domes. The new system still did not provide adequate contact time before the first user, so internal baffles were designed and installed in the glass fused to steel reservoirs. Notably, there are 120 sheets of glass fused to steel required to build each tank and 80 sheets of

not rust

glass fused to steel inside each tank to act as the baffle walls. The baffles

were specifically designed for contact with potentially freezing water in order to resist the spalling process.


Each side of the steel sheet was coated

with cold climate glass that is inher ently white in colour. Waste Water, Septic & Sewage Holding Tank Systems


are maintenance-free with a

unique two chamber design that provides better separation and less carry-over of scum & sludge.

Domestic fuel ail

storage tanks virtually eliminate the risk of

Fiberglass storage tanks- more than twice life of other tanks Corrosion free internally and externally, all

environmental contamination due to corrosion leaks. Also

safely stores diesel fuel for emergency stand by generators.

ZCL tanks provide you with continuous protection against leaks due to corrosion,

oil/Water Separator Tanks provide high performance solutions for reducing oil and fuel in run-off water streams. No moving parts and only minimal maintenance is required thanks to corrosion free internal and external components.

Ideal for bulk fuel plants, truck stops, vehicle repair shops and parking lots.




designed to meet a baffling factor of 0.5 under the new regulations. The baffling calculations were provided by Abacus Engineering of Stayner,

ideal for safe storage of ail fuel types, water and most hazardous liquids.



Ontario, and the tanks are used for potable water storage and chlorine contact time.

The complete water treatment plant was built for $4.2 million by Envirocon Ltd. of Guelph, Ontario, of which million was funded through the OSTAR program and the remainder of

the money was debentured and paid by



Oilfield service tanks

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that comply to environmental regulations and meet guidelines for 100% secondary containment.

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Article by Scott Burn, Greatario Engineered Storage Systems, with the help ofSteve McAuley and Jarod Craven, Municipality ofThames Centre. Contact, e-mail:

sburn@greatarioengsys.com 40 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

ACO Container Systems www.acotainers.com

ACO Container Systems AGO Container Systems is a leading North American manufacturer of quality rotationally moulded products. All ACO tanks are available In a wide


range of sizes. ACO Container Systems can also custom-design and manufacture a tank system engineered to meet your specific needs.

Visit us on the web at: AGO Container Systems Ltd.,


794 McKay Road, Pickering, Ontario, L1W 2Y4

Browse our comprehensive on-line product catalogue, and download a PDF copy for easy reference. ■ Telephone:(905) 683-8222 ■ Fax:(905) 683-2969 ■ Toll Free: 1-800-542-9942 ■ Toll Free Fax: 1-800-542-4722

Access product drawings in PDF-format, or get the complete ACO Container Systems PDF library compressed in a single ZIP file. Contact our Sales Specialists by telephone, or by e-mail at: custserv@acotainers.com

containment ^ SjDiHs

Linking spills response to municipal emergency response plans By David Clunas,

Clunas Environmental Consulting

Imagine a track transporting radioactive material during

the early hours of the morning through a community. Suddenly the unexpected occurs. The truck and its radioactive material are now an accident scene. A spills responder arriving at the event could simply secure the site with the assistance of fire and police, contact the appropri ate federal and provincial authorities and contribute to the resolution of the spill event. What is wrong with this picture? The spill responder did the right thing ...or did he? What about the rumours and news headlines the next day? What will the elected officials of the community say about the apparent cover-up and lack

of concern for the health of the people in their community? This imaginary situation may seem unlikely and umeasonable but the news headlines which occur the day after a significant event are not. The actions taken by all personnel at a spill event could be appropriate, however, the existence of a contentious sit uation and its potential impacts are often not effectively conveyed to responsible officials and elected representa-

Railroad Track Spill Containment

The Ounce of Prevention to Preclude a Ton of Headaches! Unique, Relocatable Spill Containment Pans with Rolling Ralncovers. Opens When You Need It and Closed and Locked When Not Needed. Avoid Collecting Snow, Rainwater and Debris! Lower Your Environmental Llabllltyl


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42 EnvironmentalScience & Engineering, November 2004

tives in municipalities. Spill responders are often the first representatives of a municipality to investigate and initiate actions dealing with environmental spills or situations such as accidents and derailments. Fire and police representatives may also be on the scene of an incident at the breaking moments of a spill event. There is, however, the potential that the event could have significant impact on persons and the community in the vicinity of the spill. Fire and police agencies will attend to the health and safety of the immediate neighbourhood but will only report an escalating situation through their own specific reporting structures. Often public health depart ments and elected representatives will not be informed of events occurring and any significant potential risks at a spill attended by environmental, fire and police responders as the event is initially occurring. Rail derailments, accidents involving the transportation of radioactive waste, sewage leaks/discharges affecting public water supplies, sensitive receivers such as hospitals and senior citizen homes downwind from a spill, spills associated with fire and explosion potential are examples of situations that can quickly escalate to major news events in a community. Mayors, councilors, directors and managers all require as much time as possible to assess and respond to an event to ensure an effective and appropriate management response on behalf of a municipality. This advance warning can be provided by spill respon ders in a simple and effective manner in municipalities. The advance warning can be achieved through the establishment of a reporting mechanism for the spills responder when cer tain situations or materials are involved at a spill event. Full management commitment to the reporting mecha nism is required to ensure that the reporting ofthe situation is taken seriously. Any direct reporting to Emergency Response Planning staff should be done by a management representative. The reporting mechanism must be cus tomized to the needs and structure of the municipality. For example,the reporting mechanism could include the department which handles spills response and on call pub lic health inspectors. The reporting protocol would only require that the spills responder report the particular event of concern to their immediate supervisor and the on call health inspectors. Further escalation concerning a response to the event is then dependant upon various levels of man agement and the different departments which should be involved communicating quickly and effectively. The establishment of a reporting mechanism for spills responders regarding significant situations at a spills event can assist municipalities in responding to and dealing with dangerous situations and potentially newsworthy events in a community. The reporting mechanism must be customized to the particular structure and needs of the municipality. Contact e-mail: david.clunas@rogers. com

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Contminmmnt Mi Sf>r//s

Specifying rotationally-molded PE storage tanks By Darrell Oltman & Mike Auber

Each of the commonly used materials of construction for

polyethylene (PE) bulk storage and processing tanks has advantages and disadvantages in

ric acid, and sodium hydroxide. PE tanks are highly impact resist ant, have homogeneous wall construc tion, good weather ability, broad chem ical resistance, excellent adaptability for numerous nozzle (outlet) configu

do not involve these conditions, rotationally molded polyethylene

particular use conditions. For some applications, several mate

tanks should be considered.

rials of construction may be acceptable. The key is recogniz ing each material's strengths and weaknesses and applying them to the application requirements. Applications Polyethylene tanks can be used successfully in a variety of liquid and dry material applica tions. Rotationally molded PE tanks are also acceptable for storing many liquids at atmospheric pressure and can be designed for use with cor rosive liquids, commonly used in the water and wastewater treatment indus

try, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hypochlorite, hydrofluo

Some engineers are not aware of the versatility of rotational molding. HDLPE tanks are mold ed for a wide variety of applica tions in vertical, horizontal, and conical bottom configurations.

Sizes range from five gallons to 16,500 gallon vertical formats. Wall thickness varies from 0.125 inches rations. These attributes make PE tanks an alternative to FRP and metal lic fabricated vessel assemblies. A

result of stress-free construction, PE resists cracking, does not dent, and is rotationally molded seamless. These tanks are not suitable for


the 2003-2004

OOUI^TORE' Tanks&Oomes

Greatario Engineered

Storage Systems






Polyethylene tanks are extremely durable and may be constructed from both crosslinkable

and linear PE

resins. The two resin types have simi larities, but also have some very basic differences. Linear versus crosslinked

polyethylene Linear polyethylene is a long-chain polymer consisting primarily of ethylene groups. On the molecular scale, it may be described as a long chain of repeating groups, each having one car bon atom cormected to two hydrogen atoms, one on either side. At each end, the carbon of one group is connected to another group. Individual molecules are very long, generally containing between 10,000 and 100,000 atoms in the carbon back bone of each molecule. The solid poly mer contains millions of those long molecular chains entangled together. The strength of the molded polyethyl ene part lies in the complexity of that entanglement, which mechanically resfricts the polymer from changing shape. Crosslinked PE resins contain a

Tel:(519) 469-8169 Fax:(519)469-8157 •a www.greatario.com ; sales@greatarioengsys.com


high heat (over 150°F), pressurized applications, and exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated solvents, some aliphatics, and chemical reac tions or processes that release free oxygen molecules. In applications that

[t] and counting

44 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

small amount of a crosslinking agent dispersed throughout a,linear polyeth ylene material. The crosslinking agent is designed to decompose at a selected temperature during the rotational molding process. During the decomposition se quence, crosslinking agents break down into two reactive products, each of which strips a single hydrogen atom from the carbon backbone of the near-

Tanka Con C3rnm@nt

est PE molecules. Stripped of their hydrogen, the remaining carbon atoms

crack resistance and can develop a high tensile strength if processed correctly.

are reactive and combine with each

Crosslinked PE resins are not FDA

other, thus "crosslinking" the carbon

approved because of the by-products of the crosslinking agent decomposi tion during the rotational molding process. A crosslinked resin, even with

chains of two molecules.

Strength of the crosslinked PE depends solely on the links, usually no more than one or two for every 1000 carbon atoms. The strength of crosslinked PE no longer depends solely on the mechanical entanglement of molecules, but is reinforced by a network of chemical bonds. These basic differences between

the resins cause variation in proper ties. Linear PE is capable of being recycled and welded (repaired), has good cold impact resistance, excellent elongation characteristics, meets the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Regu lation 177.1520, has good environ mental stress-crack resistance and can

develop high tensile strength. Crosslinked PE is a tough material that cannot be recycled or welded (repaired), has excellent cold impact resistance, good elongation character istics, excellent environmental stress-

a linear liner, should not be used for

food processing or potable water applications. Different materials and processing methods can also cause variations in

other physical characteristics of the material. Discuss each application with the rotational molders' representative. Type of chemical, concentration, specific gravity, temperature range, dimensions, mechanical loading, indoor or out-of doors exposure, and physical location of tanks are just a few of the considerations that must be

analyzed during the specification phase of PE storage tanks. Compare competitive quotations to ensure they are for similar conditions. Here are some points to consider:

ensure they are of comparable con struction and quality. • Specify that the manufacturer will use only virgin materials (no regrind material).

• Larger tanks are heavy; insist on lifting lugs. The best lifting/tie down lugs are rotationally molded as part of the vessel; no drilling, no expensive alloy hardware. • Insist on ample flat areas on the dome of the vessel for fittings and accessories.

• Full drainage molded-in FNPT inserts available in hastelloy, titanium, or stainless steel make tank draining and cleaning chores "routine." • When working with double wall tank assemblies, insist on a UFO (Unified Fitting Outlet) design that allows side wall fittings to be installed and safely sealed through both walls, primary and secondary. Darrell Oltman is an Industrial

Products Engineer with Snyder

• Have the tank described to a consis

Industries, Inc., and Mike Auber is the

tent spec such as ASTM D-1998-97. • Check the accessories quoted to

President ofDiverse Plastic Tanks, Inc. Contact e-mail: tanks@plastictanks.ca.

Containment Manufacturing Speciaiists M A l\i U F A C T U R E


I l\l S T A L L A I!0 ni


i Layfield is a vertically integrated, ISO 9002


certified company which manufactures and


fabricates a wide range of geomembranes and specialty geosynthetic products. To

better service our customers, we provide a large selection of stocked liner sizes available from our various North American


• Polypropylene (U) • Enviro Liner®

• Layflex® • Tantalum |TTL®) • Vapor Barriers

locations. We also provide quick delivery Additional service on all custom orders.

Fabricated Products

Layfield is a leading supplier of floating

• Floating Cover Systems • Baffle Curtains

cover systems and cover technology. We also produce fixed and floating baffle curtains and turbidity curtains.

• Turbidity Curtains • PVC, RPE®, PP (S), • Hazgard®(ULC), Hypalon






Contact us at(800)840-2884 www.geomembranes.cotn November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 45

Tanks co ri C3r n m e n t


Innovative secondary containment design in Northern British Columbia

In the winter of2002 a major inter By Dave Martin,P.Eng.

national oil and gas producer faced the challenge of providing second ary containment for a series oftank







Northeastern B.C. Adding to the chal lenge was the need for winter installa tion as the sites were accessible only by a winter road which would be decommissioned in late March.

The three sites were located on very soft soils and a significant amount of settlement was anticipated in the regions directly under the tanks. Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd. was contacted early in 2002 to provide a containment design for this project. This project was completed on an extremely fast track, with the design and fabrication completed within weeks ofthe project initiation; this was

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Tel:(519) 469-8169 flOUflssSTORE Fax:(519) 469-8157 Tanks & Domes www.greatario.com sales@greatarioengsys.com

necessary to allow the construction phase to be completed before site access was lost.

The final approved design involved an iimovative combination of a modu

lar, steel containment system, HAZGARDÂŽ 1000 georaembrane, and a spray applied polyurea coating. The owner determined that the project required an Underwriter's Labora tories of Canada (ULC) registered geomembrane liner in order to meet the requirements of the National Fire Code of Canada. HAZGARDÂŽ 1000

was selected as it meets the require ments of ULC ORD C58.9 (1997) Secondary Containment Liners for Underground and Aboveground Flammable and Combustible Liquid Storage Tanks. It was also a natuiul choice for a

winter project, as it remains flexible enough to withstand the rigors ofinstal lation down to temperatui'es of-20 C.

tainment panels were ideal for on-site modifications. Some panels were cut and welded on site to meet the com

plex containment requirements. A foundation ring was placed around the tank piles and a spray applied polyurea lining was applied to the area within the ring. This method was chosen because, with the tanks and piles in place, it would have been impossible to use a standard geomem brane and get a leak tight seal against the existing piling, due to the space limitations. It was also felt that the

spray applied lining would elongate in the case of localized settlement of the

piles under the tanks, and, if it stretched to the breaking point, it could be easily repaired. The geomembrane was attached to the perimeter dike walls and to the outer surface of the foundation rings using a steel batten bar. Sufficient slack was allowed for in the geomem

The containment berms around the

brane to maintain its attachment to the

perimeter of the tank farms were con structed from a modular steel system.

perimeter wall if the area inside the containment sank up to 18 inches.

The steel panels were bolted together on site to provide a continuous imper

Dave Martin is Research &

meable barrier. The steel berm was

welded onto mounting piles to prevent them from sinking into the soft muskeg. The heavy, durable steel con

Greatario is the ieading company for the saie and construction of storage solu tions in the Municipal and industrial marketplace in Eastern Canada. We are looking for a Sales Account Manager based in Ontario, who will help us service our current customer base

and also develop new markets. The person we are looking for will be cus tomer oriented driven by the need to succeed.

If you have previous sales experience, enjoy sales and marketing and want to join a company where you can make a difference, give us a call. We offer a vehicle plan, benefits, a base salary with unlimited potential for the right person. Please forward your resumes to sales@greatarioengsys.com or call us at 519-469-8169.

46 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

Technology Manager at Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd. Contact e-mail: dmartin@ layfieldplastics.com.

Tank® Co n ca i n fT*«^t

Test site located In New Brunswick for

greenhouse gas reductions

As part of Canada's commit

ment to the Kyoto Protoeol, researchers are attempting to reduce greenhouse gases and

better manage odours emanating from farms. Geomembrane Technologies Ine.(GTI) of Fredericton, NB, in con junction with Agriculture Canada, The Canadian Pork Council, Daily Farmers of New Brunswick, equipment manu facturers including Bodco, Fabrene, and Pactin, has developed a phased-in approach with regard to the manage ment of manure, the largest source of greenhouse gases in farming. Claude DeGarie, an engineer at GTI, says: "In order for a solution to be feasi ble from a farmer's perspective, the implementation ofnew teehnology must produce measurable benefits, and be an affordable solution. In the past, farmers may have wanted to implement odour control systems, but they were cost-pro hibitive, or not practical, or both. This new system has proved to be easy to implement and is not overly expensive." GTI's solution adds a permanent, her metically sealed cover to existing hold ing tanks and lagoons as a first phase. Farmers immediately realize benefits from this first phase in the form of:

process is the elimination of e-coli and pathogens. The digested manure ereates a product which is odourless and free of harmful baeteria. It can then be spread on land or sold as a soil enhancement, alleviating adjacent landowners con cerns with odours or potential wellwater or stream contamination. The first installation ofthis technol

ogy is at the Henderson farm in Irishtown, New Brunswiek. The instal lation was completed on August 1, 2004, and has received favourable

reviews from farmers who have visited

the project site. The Henderson farm is already looking into adding a digester system to create their own electricity and process hot water for use on the farm. "The positive results are appar ent. We like the idea of progressing to phase two and generating our own electricity," states Seott Henderson. Contact: Claude DeGarie, P.Eng., Geomembrane Technologies Inc., Tel: (506) 452-7304.

Diverse Plastic Tanks

The source for all your tank requirements. The Engineered Difference In Tanks.

Double Wall Tanks

Horizontal Tanks

Narrow Tanks

vertical Tanks

Intermediate Bulk Containers

Batch/Mixing Tanks

• Reduetion in manure volumes due to the elimination of rainwater.

• Improvement in manure quality as a fertilizer by capturing more ammonia, resulting in a higher nitrogen content, whieh is beneficial to crops. • Reduction in the need and expense of adding ehemical nitrogen. • Aecumulation of greenhouse gas credits resulting from the combination of less ammonia escaping to the envi ronment and less chemieal nitrogen. • Reduetion in odours that can be a

nuisanee to adjaeent landowners. • Elimination of the presence of flies and insects. Once a farmer has derived the ben

efits from the first phase, a digester system can be added. The additional benefits of the second phase are plen tiful, including the generation of biogas, which can be converted to electrieity and process heat for use on the farm, resulting in additional green house gas credits to the farmer. A significant benefit ofthe digestion


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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 47

Tanks Concainment: m

Oil/water separator tank installation for airport expansion By Thomas Schoendorf

The expansion ofPennsylvania's

Susquehanna Area Regional Authority's Capital City Airport runways, taxiways, and parking area made it necessary to update the stormwater drainage system

to accommodate increased flow rates.

Buchart Horn, Inc., of York, Penn

sylvania, was lead design engineer for the expansion project and upgrades to the stormwater drainage system. The engineers specified an Oil/Water Separator system to satisfy the Airport's National Pollutant Dis charge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The EPA requires facilities that engage in regulated industrial activities to obtain NPDES permits before discharging to stormwater. The Airport's de-icing and fueling facili ties are specifically identified as industrial activities subject to the NPDES regulations. The engineers selected the Highland Tank Model HTC-30,000 US gallon "EZ Access" Oil/Water Sepa rator designed for the treatment ofcon

tleable solids from the wastewater.

The unit is designed with an oil/water separation chamber contain ing an inclined parallel plate coalescer with removable, corrugated plates, sloped toward the sediment chamber, and built in accordance with API-42I

sizing calculations. The parallel plates direct the flow of the separated oils to the surface of the tank and separated solids to the bottom. A sectionalized

removable screen, polypropylene impingement coalescer, designed to intercept oil globules of 20 microns in diameter or larger, is located at the effluent end of the oil/water separator tank for further treatment of the wastewater.

Upstream ofthe oil/water separator, the engineers specified an additional Highland Tank treatment vessel with a Model HT-DB 15000 gallon Inter ceptor Tank. The double basin inter ceptor is engineered to intercept and collect sand, grit, grease and some free oils before entering the primary treat ment tank. The primary function ofthe Interceptor is to retrofit with the exist ing 30" concrete stormwater pipe at

taminated stormwater runoff at 0-3000


gallons per minute discharging, with a qualified/certified effluent quality of 10 ppm of free oil and grease. These separators

equipped with an Overflow Bypass to direct the target treatment rate of 3,000






US GPM to the oil/water separator and prevent overloading of the oil/water separator in the event ofa major storm. Both vessels were built with Double

Wall Type-1 construction (360 degree) steel secondary containment. The inner steel tanks are completely con tained within the outer tanks and

equipped with a leak detection system. The tanks were fabricated in strict

accordance with HighGuard™ Corro sion Control System with a 30-year warranty and meeting UL standards. The HTC-30,000 gallon Oil/Water Separator was supplied with a hi oil level alarm (audio/visual) and an EZ Access Manway design. The EZ Access design utilizes large rectangu lar manways located above the corru gated plates and Petro-Screen™ allow ing personnel to inspect and maintain the unit from grade level. Also the large manways allow access to the removable plates and screens. Every effort has been made to ensure that stormwater discharge from the expanded facility will offer no threat to water quality.

Thomas Schoendorfis with Highland Tank & Mfg. Co. Contact e-mail: tschoendorf@highlandtank.com.

meet the new Under

writer's Laboratories, Inc. SU22I5 design, construction, and per formance standards for

engineered Oil/Water Separators rated at 10 ppm oil and grease. Currently, code enforce ment officials consider UL-SU2215 certifica

tion as being the preem inent national consen sus standard for oil/




struction and perform ance. The separator is designed for gravity separation of free oils (hydrocarbons and other petroleum products) along with some set48 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004


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Ticking time bomb - oil storage tanks in the basement of office and apartment buildings

Thousands of apartment and

office buildings have old steel heating oil storage tanks in or

the overall structural integrity of most of the steel tanks we examine is almost

term effect of a leaking tank and the environmental cleanup process, he responded, "We don't do environ mental studies or cleanups, so I

1960s and they are much larger than doors, stairs and hallways connecting their location to the outside. With age

as good as the day it was installed. The problems come from isolated corro sion cells making minute permeations through the steel shell of the tank. Allowed to grow, these corrosion per meations can go from a minor weeping to a quarter inch hole if not addressed. A lot of oil can escape from a small

these tanks can deteriorate and leak

hole, and it doesn't take a tanker load

When asked about the costs related

fuel oil into the ground. New technolo gies now make it easy and cost-effi cient to refurbish these tanks in place, saving thousands of dollars in replace ment costs and virtually eliminating potential pollution problems. Armor Shield Tank Lining and Repair goes right inside steel tanks, sand blasting, repairing and then virtu ally making a fiberglass and plastic

to cause a pollution problem." He explained,"The refurbishing is sort of like a tank in a tank approach. The fiberglass and plastic lining we

to the process, he commented, "Depending on the size and location of a tank, it can run from 10% to 30% of the final costs related to replacing a

fabricate inside the steel tank adds an

tank." He continued,"What we do isn't

additional structural wall and is not

rocket science, it's just good, sound engineering process." The Armor Shield Tank Lining and Repair Network has lined and repaired

below their basements or sub-

basements. Many of these oil tanks were installed at the time the buildings were built in the 1940s, 1950s and

tank on the interior of the older steel tank. Jeff Coner ofArmor Shield states

that "corrosion is a funny animal, and

subject to corrosion. The sandblast ing process conditions the interior steel tank wall before we add the

fiberglass and plastic. This helps guard against future internal corro sion problems." When asked about what the long-

wouldn't comment about that. It's our

job to find minor problems, or situa tions before they become problems, and remedy them, before you get to the point of needing environmental services."

over 100,000 tanks since 1967.

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1 i

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inside a tank to house vaives, heaters, ievel controls, and spill containment. Enviro Vauit can be instalied in new single and double walled tanks, and also into in-service tanks utilizing our newly designed "Boit-in" or "Weld-In" designs.



ll' ■r


Service Applications? The Enviro Vauit can be instailed in any type of tank for any specific service appiication you may have. The Enviro Vault can address oil & gas, chemical, fuel storage, and fresh water applications.

The Benefits? Enviro Vauit can eievate your corporate image and commitment to environmental protection and operator safety. Spiiis at valve level are contained within the Enviro Vauit reducing the iikeiihood of contamination of soii, groundwater, or flooring. Safety is also enhanced for Operator's as it keeps these individuais off of ladders and out of confined spaces. Access to the tank's main operating equipment is contained inside the Enviro Vauit.

How many Enviro Vault equipped tanks are In service? over 6,goo Enviro vault equipped tanks are in the field operating seamlessly with positive feedback from our clients and their operators (recent client survey results - 4.53 out of 5 points rating for overall product satisfaction).

Partnership Opportunities Enviro vault Ltd. currently has alliances in place with manufacturers of upstream petroleum storage tanks across the Prairie Provinces. We are seeking partnership opportunities with Eastern Canadian tank manufacturers who supply tanks to various industries in becoming licensed. Contact our corporate head office for more information.

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50 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

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Chemical tank cleaning Vortex Mixing System can be used



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suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel:

519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157, E-

mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com. Web: www.greatario.com. Greatarlo Engineered Storage Systems

Tank surfaces in contact with water will

accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC

Cost-effective and safe, this highly efficient below grade oil/water separa

numbers. Heavy deposits lead to

tor provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs.

increased corrosion and reduce the life

time of surface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and fil







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ter surfaces. Tel: 800-387-7503, Web:

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ZCL coalescing separators provide substantially higher design flows than gravity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MPak® design removes oil droplets as small as 20

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microns! Effluent oil concentrations

are reduced to as low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass reinforced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal maintenance. Tel: 800-661-8265, Fax: 780-466-6126, Web: www.zcl.com. ZCL Composites Inc.

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light weight and easy to install. Tel: 604-448-2710, Fax: 604-275-7867,

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Tank solutions

open top ver tical tanks in flat or cone bot tom

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holds over 50 gallons. Pouch resists acids, oils and solvents. Avoid long traffic delays at a haz-mat accident scene. Tel: 434-975-2872, Toll Free:

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Stay ahead of the regulators with Layfield's Floating Silt Curtain (FSC). It is designed to contain soil fines and other harmful particulates from enter ing aquatic environments during

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 51

Water Treatment

Treatment of drinking water with UV-oxidation By Christian Williamson,Ph.D.and Adam Festger,M.S.

Even in water-rich Canada,there is a pressing need to preserve

the quality of available water resources. UV-oxidation (UV combined with hydrogen peroxide) is gaining in popularity as a multi-func tional part ofa water treatment process that can provide both disinfection and treatment of chemical contaminants.

As stated by the EPA; "Although ground water has historically been thought to befree ofmicrobial contam some ground waters are a source of

these deadly microbial contaminants remained in the distribution system. This tragedy underscores the impor tance of disinfection of groundwater, both primary disinfection and residual

waterborne disease."


ination, recent research indicates that

The effects of this microbial con

tamination can be especially serious for sensitive subpopulations such as

To achieve high-quality water, many applications require a variety of treat ment steps. This is true of municipal, surface water applications, but it is also true of groundwater remedi ation applications where a variety of contaminants that require different treatment technologies are often pres ent. For example, some water providers in Southern

and UV for the treatment of N-nitroso-

dimethylamine. In addition, the need to disinfect groundwater is underscored by the United States Enviromnental Protection

Agency's proposed Groundwater Rule.

issue that many more water providers have





sources of chemicals in the

water supply are varied. Watersheds are under pres sure from industry, agricul ture, animal feeding opera tions, and wastewater dis charge, among many other soru^ces.

In a recent study, the United States Geological Survey found that in vulner able watersheds that were downstream of urban areas

California use a treatment

train that includes air strip ping for volatile organic compounds, biological treat ment for the removal of perchlorate and other ionic compounds,

Increasingly, chemical contamina tion of source waters has become an

The pilot facility at CFB Vaicartier.

arid animal production facilities, one or more investigated chemicals was detected in 80% of the sam

the elderly or young children. One of the conclusions from the report on the Walkerton Incident in 2000 was that E.Coli. bacteria entered the distribu

tion system though contamination of a shallow well following a heavy rain fall. Without adequate disinfection.

ples collected. Examples of the chemi cals investigated include the steroid coprostanol, the insect repellant N,Ndiethyltoluamide, the pesticide diazinon, and the non-prescription drug caf feine. Similar studies with similar

results have been conducted in Europe.


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52 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

Water Treatment Some contaminants are difficult to remove

Canadian regulations require that trace organic contaminants be treated. For many contaminants, this can be accomplished easily with carbon or air stripping. However, a growing list of contaminants cannot be treated with

these conventional technologies. For example, the solvent stabilizer 1,4dioxane has been detected widely across North America as part of exist ing solvent plumes. This additive, added to prevent the breakdown of the solvent due to acids generated during the degreasing process, has proved to be a stubborn groundwater contaminant. It travels farther and faster in groundwater than the host solvent (often trichloro-

ethylene or 1,1,1-trichloroethane) due to its low affinity for carbon materials in soil. As a semi-volatile contaminant,

it also does not volatilize, making air stripping ineffective. Therefore, an oxi dation process has become the pre ferred method of treatment.

In treating chemical contaminants with UV, there are two photochemical processes at work: UV-photolysis and UV-oxidation. UV-photolysis involves UV light alone; UV-oxidation requires the addition of hydrogen peroxide. UV-photolysis is the process by

water, hydroxyl radicals are formed. Hydroxyl radicals are highly reactive chemical species that attack the con

cal process that will remove iron and manganese. UV-oxidation was chosen

taminant molecule. Second only to flu orine (a poisonous, corrosive and mal odorous gas), the hydroxyl radical is the most reactive species known. Some chemicals are preferentially treated by the UV-photolysis process; others are preferentially treated by the UV-oxidation process. In most cases, UV-photolysis and UV-oxidation act simultaneously to break down chemical contaminants. Applied in a treatment plant, water moving through an opti

due to its cost-effectiveness and its

mized UV reactor is both disinfected

and treated for organic chemicals. Thus, UV has the ability to act as a multi-flmctional part of a multi-barrier system. In 1997, trichloroethylene (TCE) was discovered on the property of the Canadian Forces Base(CFB)Valcartier in Loretteville, Quebec. The aquifer beneath the property is used for drink ing water. Iron and manganese are also present in elevated concentrations. The Department of National Defense has elected to use UV-oxidation for the

treatment of TCE following a biologi

as the treatment technology for TCE

ability to destroy TCE,rather than sim ply transferring it to another phase (such as the gas phase in air stripping or the solid phase in carbon treatment). To date, a demonstration system consisting of a TCE injection system,

an H2O2 injection system and a UVPhox^M Model 30AL50 UV reactor

from Trojan Technologies was installed and operated for approximately two months. This pilot has demonstrated that the technology is effective for the treatment of TCE. Full scale installa

tion of the UV-oxidation system is scheduled for early next year. Christian Williamson is Managing Director, Environmental Contaminant

Treatment, and Adam Festger is the Technical Communications

Coordinator, Environmental

Contaminant Treatment, at Trojan Technologies Inc. Contact e-mail: cwilliamson@troJanuv.com or afestger@trojanuv.com.

HOBO Weather Station

which chemical bonds of the contami

The new HOBO Weather

nants are broken by the energy associ ated with UV light. When light is inci dent on an object, the photons may be reflected, transmitted, or absorbed. When UV photons enter a medium (water, for example), they are both transmitted and absorbed by the medi um and its constituents (dissolved species including organic and inorgan ic substances). Photons that are absorbed may initiate a photolysis

Station records temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed and direction, solar radiation, barometric

pressure, soil moisture, soil temperature, etc.

• Smart sensors - just plug in and begin logging!

reaction. A contaminant molecule will

undergo the photolysis reaction if the contaminant molecules in water are

capable of absorbing UV photons (measured by the contaminant's molar absorption coefficient) and if the ener gy holding the chemical bonds in the molecule together is less than the ener gy of the UV photons absorbed. UV-oxidation is a photochemical process that breaks down organic con stituents in water by the process of oxi dation. The UV-oxidation reaction is

initiated by the UV-photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (or another oxi-

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dant). When UV photons are absorbed

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 53


Minimize contractual disputes and get paid By Cam Vatandoust,REng.

Three months have passed since

the commissioning of the works, and still, payment has not been made on many items in dispute. Although this scenario may seem unreasonable and unfair, many


unfavourable to most owners because

A contract simply is an agreement between two parties. Under the terms and conditions of this agreement, one party (the Owner) agrees to compen sate the other party (the Contractor) in return for completion of certain tasks

they often like to know exactly what the total contract price will be before awarding the contract. Tendering process The tendering phase is arguably the most important part of any contract. But today's typical contract is a com plex compilation of many different sections and separate documents from various sources. These may include:

as defined within the contract docu-

contractors find themselves in this sit

ment(s). Being well-versed in all con

uation. So what can contractors do to

tractual documents can make the differ

make certain this does not happen on the next job? My first job was working as a site engineer for a major construction com pany, installing sewer and watermain. On the first day on the job, I was told by my superintendent: ''The most important thing you always have to know is how we are getting paid." Whether working for a contractor, or as the owner's project manager, this has made me aware ofthe terms of pay ment under each contract, and hence to complete successful works on budget.

ence between a successful job and one which is delayed and over-budget.

Form of Tender, General Conditions,

the contract, owners often transfer

Special Provisions, and Contract Specifications. It is possible for some of these sec

risks to the contractor and hence

tions to contradict each other in defin

attempt to minimize their own liabili ties by requesting that the contract price include all appurtenances. This

ing the scope of the works or clarifying the exact rights and responsibilities of each contractual party. Such discrep ancies must be brought to the attention of the owner before Tender Closing, so

Risk transfer

Under the terms and conditions of

that Addenda and/or Clarifications

may be issued to resolve potential future disputes.

Contractors make a lot

A balanced tender

of money?

After opening of the tenders, the

The idea that contractors make a lot

owner must ensure that all submissions

of money is a common misconception. Let's face it, there is nothing wrong with making money from a job. Isn't that why we are all in business after all? But in today's competitive economy

are complete and meet the require ments of the contract. Such require ments may include provision of a bid bond, and proof of past experience on similar types of works. The owner or its agent must also ensure that the ten

and with our continuous move towards

"Value Engineering" and other main stream efficiency concepts, owners may dispute full payment once the works have been constructed. In fact, on larger contracts, it often takes sever al months for the final monthly progress payments to be issued. Because most contractors work with

in a relatively small profit margin, delays in getting paid, pose problems. In fact, larger contractors rely more on vol ume rather than profit margin from each contract to meet their fiscal goals and corporate objectives and therefore, ulti mately continue to remain in business.

may mean items such as dewatermg and removal of contaminated materi

als, for example, are to be included in the contract price. This uncertainty poses risks to the contractor. Hence, in

der is balanced. This means that not

order to ensure such costs have been

only the totals are correct, but also, the

included, the contractor is forced to increase the contract price to avoid the

cost for each item in the Form of

possibility of losing money on the job. Naturally, tender prices will come in much higher than the owner's estimate. A good contract will put in place methods for payment of such major items, in order to reduce total contract price. These can be included under Provisional Items, for example. But as

a result, the total contract price could vary widely depending on the amount of the Provisional Items, and that is

Tender corresponds to performing the tasks relating to that specific item only. Ensuring a balanced tender pro hibits the contractor from getting paid up front for items which may not be completed until the end ofthe contract, such as site restoration and landscap ing. A balanced tender is also benefi cial to the contractor because most contracts allow the owner to delete

items from the tender. Therefore, the contractor will be compensated fairly for the exact items that have been com



20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 Tel: (519) 751 -1080 Fax:(519) 751 -0617 E-mail: swildey@anthrafilter.net Web: www.anthrafilter.net

pleted under the contract. Disputes during construction In most cases, it is normal for dis

putes to develop during construction. Both parties must be flexible to resolve minor disagreements and achieve an understanding, and develop the neces sary cooperation for a smooth contract. The contract should

also include

processes to resolve potential disputes. 54 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

Business scope of the works, and take into

which could be through mediation

should have the same objective: Safe

and/or other means in accordance with

functional construction on time and on

account the intent of the contract;

the Canadian Contract Law.

In most disputes, the contractor is obligated to complete that item, but

budget. To achieve this, the following points are critical: • Both parties must be well versed in

• Flexibility and fairness, for both parties is the most important way to

can submit an extra claim on a time-

the contents of all contractual docu

and-material basis. This means the


contractor is requesting payment for the actual cost (including labour, equipment, and materials) that it took to complete that specific item under dispute. Some contracts request specific procedures to be adhered to in cases of

• Persons dealing with the contract must be reasonable, professional, impartial, and demonstrate a degree of care and due diligence; • Disputes must be acknowledged as soon as possible, and dealt with according to the processes set out in

The reality A contract is a legal binding agree ment between two parties. It must be administered and executed profession ally, without prejudice and bias. The single most critical factor is to have competent, professional, and fair per sons dealing with the contract, who are

conflict and contentious contractual

the contract;

items. For example, any extra claim

• In disputes, both sides must try to achieve an understanding, even if this may mean "agreeing to disagree";

must be submitted within a certain time of the start of work on the item

under dispute; otherwise, the claim may be dismissed according to the terms and conditions of the contract. Additional items and extras

Owners may request quotations from the contractor for items that have

not been included in the scope of the works by issuing a Request For Quotation (RFQ). Following submis sion of the corresponding quotation by the contractor, the owner can decide

• The terms of the contract must be

reasonable and fair and unprejudiced to both parties; • Both parties must demonstrate a spirit of co-operation and flexibility to get the job done; • Smaller items in dispute should be negotiated and agreed upon to resolve larger, more contentious items; • All negotiations must consider the

ensure success.

well versed in all contractual docu

ments. They must be completely com mitted only to the execution and administration of the contract.

This is fundamental to avoiding dis putes where either party makes unrea sonable demands outside the contract. Both sides must be flexible and com mitted to the intent of the contract to

settle claims. This is the only way to avoid litigation, where no one wins. Cam Vatandoust, P.Eng. is a profes sional engineer and professor. Contact e-mail: camvatandoust(aJvahoo.com.

whether or not this item will be added

to the contract. In such cases, usually, a Change Order (C.O.) is issued, revis ing the total contract price to include these additional items.

In simple cases, where only a Purchase Order (P.O.) is issued to the contractor, it is also vital to understand exactly what is included in the Purchase Order. Completing extensive works outside the Purchase Order can

cause problems especially if the origi nal Purchase Order amount has been

exceeded. The contractor must notify the owner in writing immediately, that the amount is approaching its maxi mum limit and that additional form of

payment should be arranged, or the Purchase Order needs to be revised.

Most contractors often complete additional work that is not part of their contractual obligations. This is done in order to provide more value and ensure future contracts from the same owner.

However, the owner must be made aware of such items, so that this does not translate into the expectations that the contractor will complete items without additional payment. Achieving successful results In order to minimize disputes, both contractual parties must be committed to the contract. After all, both parties


November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 55

Health & Safety

Legislation targets lone worker protection By Ross Humphry

Anyone who has worked alone on a jobsite or has been called in to work by themselves has often wondered what would happen should they ever

get into trouble. How would they get a message out for help? Working alone and protection of that lone worker has been a problem facing employers and employ ees for years. Now here we are, in the early years of the twenty first century and interest in protecting the Lone Worker is becoming the Topic du Jour. Why is it of interest now, after all these years? Well firstly, the emphasis on worker safety has grown exponen tially. Where safety officers were sometimes workers who had been hurt on the job and employers did not want to have them as lost time injury cases, one can now earn a degree in safety engineering and most firms are taking a proactive approach to worker safety. Some of the smaller firms (I include some municipalities in that group) have much to learn from the larger corporations in their approach to Health and Safety.

an emergency or if the worker is injured or ill. (2) Despite subsection (I), if effective electronics are not practicable or readily available at the worksite, the employ er must ensure that:

(a) the employer or another competent worker visits the worker, or (b) the worker contacts the employer or competent worker.

(3) The visits or contact under subsection (2) must be at intervals of time appropriate to the nature of the hazards associated with the worker's work.

There is nothing special that an employer can do to make a Lone Worker safer than a worker who works with others.

If they use their PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) and follow all the rules and guidelines set down by the employ er there is little more that an employer can do to ensure their workers' safety. What really needs to be addressed (see Alberta 394 (I)) is what is to be done should a worker be

injured, incapacitated or fall ill on the job when there is no one around to raise an alarm or summon help. Traditionally, wastewater and water treatment plants have not

What makes "Lone Worker Pro

tection" such a hot topic? Perhaps the large staff cutbacks we have witnessed over the last few years, as firms and municipalities "realign" their work forces has resulted in more single workers out there doing the jobs of two people. Where a couple of work ers may have been on shift in a wastewater or water treatment plant in the past, there may now only be one per son. The same goes for maintenance staff. Fewer maintenance staff may result in only one being on shift at a time. They could be anywhere in the facility and no one is monitoring their whereabouts or condition. If a plant equipment failure results in a maintenance staff member being called in to perform repairs, how do you ensure that, should they be injured or incapacitated, a prompt response is taken to get emergency services for this individual? Canada's four western Provinces (along with New Brunswick) have taken the lead in "Lone Worker Protection" legislation or recognition. Saskatchewan defines Working Alone as; to work at a worksite as the only worker ofthe employer or contractor at

addressed the Lone Worker issue. Yet, the risk to workers in this particular environment is high. Sewage treat ment plant operators have to deal with hazardous gases (internal and exter nal), pits, tanks, lagoons and lots of moving machinery. The most common methods used to address the Lone Worker issue have been:

(I) Telephone: This method requires the worker to call in on a reg ular basis to a supervisor or monitor ing station. If the worker does not call in on time, an alarm is raised and someone comes to the site to check on the worker. This method can be reversed to where someone calls in to check on the worker.

that worksite, in circumstances where assistance is not read ily available to the worker in event of injury, ill health or

(2) Radio: This method is similar to the telephone as the worker uses a radio check-in procedure. Some one must be monitoring this radio at all times. The radio can also be used to call for help in an emergency as long as the work er is conscious and capable of using the radio. (3)Video: In some cases, where the worker is only in one location, a continuous video monitoring system can be used. This also requires someone monitoring the video at all

emergency. Manitoba goes into greater detail to define


someone who works alone.

The most important issue with Lone Worker protection is the timeliness of the response, should a worker get into trouble. As mentioned before, workers in sewage treatment may encounter any number of potentially lethal hazards during workdays. Incoming raw sewage can contain any number of com-

Alberta states in its Safety code that these precautions are required. In "394": (I) An employer must provide effective radio, telephone or other electronic communication between a worker who

works alone and persons capable of assisting the worker in 56 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

Environmental NEWS bustible gases including methane, gasoline and others.

Toxic gases include hydrogen sulphide, gasoline (toxic long before combustion) and toxic solvents. Whatever any igno rant homeowners or industrial polluters need to get rid of can show up in treatment plants. In addition, there can be chlorine and other potentially hazardous gases and chemicals used in the treatment of sewage that can present a hazard to the worker. An opera tor or maintenance worker can be quickly overcome by any of the gases, rendering it impossible to radio or phone in an alarm.

Workers climbing down ladders or going down slippery stairs can slip and fall and be quickly rendered unconscious without the opportunity to call for help. Both of these scenarios and many others exist in the wastewater treatment field. Yet there may not be a proce dure or plan set up for the monitoring of Lone Workers for these types of incidents. Phoning or radioing in and out works only when the victim is conscious. Using a time for mat when the worker checks in or is checked on, by an out side source or supervisor/co-worker will work, but how long a time interval is acceptable? If a worker calls in at 10:00 o'clock with his next check in 2 hours away and then gets injured at 10:05, is it reasonable to allow a full 2 hours to elapse before an alarm is raised? Technology is now available to the municipal treatment plant worker that can monitor the worker continuously and send out an alarm within seconds of the worker being injured or rendered unconscious. GRACE Industries has recently introduced a number of new products to directly address the concerns of employers and their workers, who work alone. The firm's Lone Worker Protection System consists of a small battery operated motion detector worn by the worker. This small device uses a solid state accelerometer to monitor the movement of the

worker. After no motion for a predetermined period of time ie: 22 seconds (overall time durations are available in 15 seconds intervals, from 30 to 90 seconds) the device emits

a ramping audio alarm accompanied by flashing LEDs to alert the wearer that in 8 more seconds it will go into full audio alert. If the additional 8 seconds of pre-alert is ignored the motion detector sends a radio signal to a receiv er installed at a central location in the treatment plant. The receiver emits its own audio alarm (verbal) and has the capability of activating on site alarms and also an optional telephone dialer. This can call offsite to initiate an immediate emergency response for the downed worker. If the accident does not render the worker unconscious, the device has a pair of panic buttons that allows the worker to activate the system with the simple push of these buttons. A device like this can actually monitor a number of workers within a single facility. The motion detector can

send a signal back to the receiver up to one kilometer away. An optional remote antenna is available as are small perma nently mounted repeaters for larger facilities. This new technology takes away the concerns over radio/phones, check in times and eliminates the potential and critical wait time between a worker being injured and arrival of the emergency response personnel.

Globetrotting pollutants turn up on Toronto street Researchers at the University of Toronto have detected migratory pollutants from a forest fire in Quebec and even particles from a sandstorm in the Sahara in Toronto air, find ings that could someday give regulatory agencies an idea of who is contributing to the pollutants found in urban air. "It's a bit of detective work," says Greg Evans, a pro fessor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. "We happened to know when that forest fire was happening in Quebec and we realized that this mixture of different particles that we found in down town Toronto is a signature for a forest fire." With the dust particles from the Sahara, the researchers recog nized sand-like particles and were ultimately able to track their trajectory from the desert, across the Atlantic Ocean to Mexico, then north through the United States to Toronto.

The researchers used a device known as a laser ablation

mass spectrometer (LAMS), which pulls in air from

College Street and accelerates the pollutants to close to the speed of a bullet. As a particle passes by two lasers, sensors calculate its exact speed and tell the LAMS when to fire a third, high-powered laser that vaporizes a portion of the particle, sending fragments hurtling along a "flight tube". Lighter molecules take less time to travel down the flight tube, giving the researchers the particle's chemical signa ture. Evans says that once they build up a library of parti

cles, this research could make it possible to identify pollu tants without any kjiowledge of their origin. The findings appear in the October issue of the journal Atmospheric Environment, and were funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Environment Canada, the Toxic Substance Research Initiative, the Canada Foundation for Innovation and the

Ontario Innovation Trust. Contact: Greg Evans, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, E-mail: evansg@chem-eng.utoronto.ca.

Kyoto emission credits begin TransAlta Corp. has become the first Canadian company to begin trading carbon credits. Canada's largest private electrical utility has struck a deal with Chile's Agrosuper, the eighth largest pork pro ducer in the world, to buy credits generated by the capture and combustion of methane gas from hog manure, repre senting 400,000 tonnes of ozone-depleting greenhouse gases per year.

The multi-million dollar waste-management deal, which was finalized August 24 after years of planning, is believed to be the world's largest transaction yet under Kyoto, representing a 4 million tonne reduction of carbon dioxide over 10 years. Credits for 1.75 million tonnes were sold to TransAlta, and 2.25 million tonnes to Tokyo Electric Power Co. of Japan.

The deal was reached under Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism, or CDM, a market-based mechanism to

encourage commercial investment in sustainable develop Ross Humphry is with Canadian Safety Equipment Inc. Contact e-mail: ross@cdnsafety.com.

ment projects.

November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 57

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666


seepex Macerators

American LEWA

In addition to industrial and municipal

Metering and mixing of fluids, in con junction with other process steps, plays an important role in many pro duction plants utilizing process tech nology. increasing automation adds special importance to plant control with process displays, recording of operating data, and interfacing with supervisory process management systems. LEWA metering and mixing packages are designed and built to suit the specific application.

wastewater applications, seepex mac erators are used in a variety of indus tries. They grind solid and fibrous components in the conveying medi um. They increase reliability and life of both seepex pumps and process devices like centrifuges and belt filter presses. The degree of reduction can vary depending on flow rate, output speed and shear plate design. These parameters can be adapted to suit individual applications.

<.l1 I

Distributed by:

Distributed by:

Performance Fluid Equipment Inc. www.performancequip.com

Performance Fluid Equipment inc. www.performancequip.com

New Waterra catalogue Waterra has been providing customers with Simple Solutions for Groundwater Monitoring since 1985. Our product line has grown considerably to include footvaives, actuators, filters, water level and hydrocarbon detection equipment, 12 volt pumps, bailers and other accessories. To view these prod

New pipe design manual The 13th edition of the Concrete Pipe Design Manual for engineers who select the type, size and strength requirements of concrete pipe, is now available from the American Concrete

Pipe Association. The updated manu al provides the most current technical data and design aids needed to assist engineers in preparing efficient and cost-effective drainage solutions for sanitary sewer, storm drain and cul vert applications. Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-maii: infoÂŽ concrete-pipe.org. Web: www. concrete-pipe.org.

ucts and for more information, contact

Waterra to obtain a copy of the new 2004/05 Waterra Products Catalogue which is currently available. Tel: 905238-5242, E-maii: waterra@idirect.com, Web: www.waterra.com. Waterra


CSP standards and practices The CSP industry has, through the Corrugated Steel Pipe institute, devel oped product standards and recom mended design and installation prac tices to insure proper selection and economical design in CSP. Please tell us of your interest and we will be pleased to send technical information. Tel: 519-650-8080, Fax: 519-6508081, E-maii: info@cspi.ca, Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe institute

Engineering Guide now available!

The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide is a valuable tool with ail the necessary information

engineering guide




CON/SPAN System for many different design applications. Filled with numerous figures and charts, the Engineering Guide provides a refer ence of design parameters, standard detail illustrations, and limited design methodologies. Available in binder or CD Rom format. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-763-1982, E-maii: salesÂŽ concastpipe.com. Web: www.concast pipe.com CON/SPAN Canada


Controlling contaminated groundwater Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wail for groundwater contain ment and control, it is a new design of steel sheet piling featuring joints that

Canadian Brrnvnfieids

can be sealed after the sheets have


Canadian Brownfieids Manual

Editors: Ahab Abdel-Aziz, LLB. and Nathalie Chalifour, J.S.M.

This new Butterworths publication examines the barriers that have tradi

been driven into the ground and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo, it has patent/ patent pending status in several coun tries. Canadian Metal Roiling Mills assisted in developing the product.

tionally blocked redevelopment, and shows how emerging legislation and new programs are making redevelop ment both possible and profitable. For more information please visit the

Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-8560759, E-maii: info@waterioo-barrier. com. Web: www.waterioo-barrier.com

nexis.ca or call 1 -800-668-6481.

Waterloo Barrier inc.

LexisNexis Canada

58 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

Butterworths Bookstore at www.lexis

Product and Service Showcase Pollution control

Colorlmetrlc nutrient sensor



introduces the world's first on-line colorimetric nutrient sensor able to measure ammoni

um, nitrate or orthophosphate. The

Flex-Kleen, a leading supplier of dust collectors for product recovery/pollu tion control, now offers new initiatives

three sensors look alike and share the


same widely approved colorimetric


such as remote monitoring, alarming and control systems; on-site baghouse field services: lease-to-own programs;

ing principle. The EVITA" INSITU Nutrient Sensor is placed in the wastewater at the point where the concentra

Net Safety's combustible

â– h9k

flame and

smoke detection equipment

is accurate and reliable. Gas

IjU detection devices employ a full range of technologies, w including Infrared (IR), cat alytic bead, electromechanical and solid state sensors and these analog and smart digital sensors are complemented by multiple versions of microprocessor based transmitters and controllers. The

flame detectors meet the most rigorous requirements for fire detectors and use the latest in Ultraviolet, Infrared, UV/IR and Triple IR technologies. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630, Email: bsmith@daviscontrols.com, Web:

and the latest advance in dust collector

tion must be known. No external factors

timing control, the Smart Timer II. Tel: 630-775-0707, Fax: 630-875-3212, Email: flex-kleen@met-pro.com, Web:

829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630, E-mail: bsmith@davisconti-ols.com, Web: www.




Flex-KIeen Division, Met-Pro Corp.

Davis Controls

Davis Controls Ltd.

Trickling filters

Waterloo Biofilters' are efficient, mod ular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained

modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-

0757, Fax: 519-856-0759, E-mail: wbs@ waterloo-biofilter.com. Web: www. waterloo-biofilter.com.

Waterloo Biofilter Systems

Corrosion protection

influence the measurements. Tel: 905-

Concrete pipe design manual


Monitoring instruments

PIPEPACÂŽ software

The Concrete Pipe Design Manual' Version 1.4 is now available. A tool for

engineers who are responsible for selecting the type, size and strength requirements of pipe for the design and specification of precast concrete pipe for sanitary sewer, drainage and culvert applications. Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail: khunter@concretepipe.org. Web: www.concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Assoeiation

The best keeps getting better

Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specily over the design life of the project through three independent programs. Tel: 972506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail:

khunter@concrete-pipe.org. Web: www. concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association

A bridge for all reasons For many years, Armtec has stretched

your design dollar with its range of soil steel structures including Multi-Plate and Super-Span. Keeping pace with the need to pro vide econom

ical Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to pro vide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898, E-mail: sales@densona.


solutions, Armtec offers

Bridge-Plate Armtec is a leader in twin-wall HDPE

pipe systems through the BOSS prod uct line. BOSS products are used in

structures for

1160, E-mail: sales@armtec.com. Web:

com, Web: www.densona.com.

larger installations. Bridge-Plate has the deepest and strongest corrugation in the market today, enabling long span soil steel structures to be designed and built more economically than ever before. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 5I9-822-1160, E-mail: sales@armtec.com. Web: www.

www. armtec.com.


Denso North America Inc.



gravity storm sewers and culverts. Armtec is moving to full CSA certifica tion for the complete BOSS product line. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-

November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering

and Service Showcase


Dissolved oxygen monitoring


Ceramic filtration media

Arsenic removal

Kinetico Canada Incorporated now offers its Maerolite, ceramic filtration media for the upgrading or improve ment of pressure and gravity filtration applications. Maerolite is engineered to exceed all industry standards and will out-perform any granular media prod

Kinetico Canada Incorporated offers five distinet technologies for Arsenic removal. We will ensure you get the right technology for your application. With all Kinetico process applications you get our superior process warranty.

uct. Call for details. Tel: 800-432-1166,

432-1166, Fax: 440-564-7696, E-mail:

The Royce model 9810/98 Optical Dissolved Oxygen monitoring and con trol system uses a patented dissolved oxygen sensor that offers three year warranty on complete sensor assembly; no replaceable sensor caps; no recalibration program required; not affected by sunlight and has a state of the art microprocessor based analyzer with high degree of flexibility and various digital and analog outputs. Tel: 905678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774, E-mail: sales@spdsales.com. Web: www.spdsales.

Fax: 440-564-7696, E-mail: cws@

cws@kinetico.com. Web: www.kmetico.


kinetico.com. Web: www.kinetico.com.


SPD Sales

Kinetico Canada

Kinetico Canada

Moving-bed bio-reactor Parkson's Geo-Reactor™ is an attached

LexisNexis" r.-'s'-

Package water and wastewater plants

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biologieal growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result

is f*-.- J:

Call for more information. Tel: 800-


LexisNexis Environmental is a web-

DO, increased

We supply Package Water and Sewage

based research tool created for environ



mental research that you can use to run targeted searches on a wide range of today's key environmental issues from a diverse collection of global environ

of the mixed


liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the

mental-related information sources.

tank. Geo-Reactors offer efficient



BOD reduction and nitrification can

2826, E-mail: sales@lexisnexis.ca. Web: www.lexisnexis.ca/ln/products/

easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-6368712, Fax: 514-636-9718, E-mail: canada@parkson.com. Web: www. parkson.eom.

905-479-2665, Fax:

environmental. LexisNexis Canada

worldwide. The


Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.




Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low eost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loeation unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377, E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com. Web:


Bachelor's Degree in

TOC analyzer

Site Remediation


Seneca College in Toronto





sdOO probes



Analyzer is a rugged, low-maintenance analyzer designed to withstand se

National award-win






conditions. Loss

Environmental Site Remediation.

of sample

Included in this full-

loss of UV reac tor flow are stan

time program are field camps, paid co-op placements, and an integrated eurrieulum to prepare individuals to meet the growing demand for highly-skilled practitioners in the remediation industry. Ask about bursary and scholarship opportunities.


dard integrated advanced diag

The Model sclOO Controller reeeives

on.ca. Web: www. senecac.on.ca/

dual range NDIR detector and a multi-staged UV lamp reactor enable the analysis of high salts, high-suspended solids, and hardto-oxidize samples. Tel: 970-669-3050, E-mail: intl@hach.com, Web: www.

data from up to two sensors. Connect one or two Turbidity, Suspended Solids, EDO™ Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Conductivity or ORP probes for opti mum performance at a cost-effective price. Transmit data using MODBUS or 4-20 mA outputs. Tel: 970-6693050, E-mail: intl@hach.com. Web:




Seneca College

Hach Company

Hach Company

Tel: 800-572-0712/416-491-5050, Ext.

2521, E-mail: iesr.technology@senecac.

nostic features. A

60 EnvironmentalSeience& Engineering, November 2004

Product and Service PVC pressure pipe system

Sewer odor and corrosion

control system The new Vor tex Flow Insert


eliminates sewer odor and controls corro

sion using a high-tech, Comstock Canada Ltd.


has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc

nance design that has no moving parts. The device not only eliminates the need for high-

tion services to the Canadian water

maintenance bio-filters, air scrubbers

and wastewater sectors for almost 100

and sewer infrastructure, whether you

and manhole seals but also costly chemical injection systems. Appli cations include drop manholes or

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905-

are using open-cut or trenchless meth ods. Tel: 866-473-9462, Web: www. ipexinc. com.

pumping station with odorous dis charges. Tel: 866-473-9462, Web: www.ipexinc.com.

info(@comstockcanada.com, Web: www.



Comstock Canada Ltd.

TerraBrute'^" is the first AWWA C900

PVC pressure pipe system specifically engineered for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) and other trenchless applications. Now you can standardize on PVC throughout your potable water

Membrane Bioreactor(MBR)

Small drinking water systems

ZENON's ZeeWeed®

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane

MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater treatment. The proven system replaces con ventional filtration and combines clar

335-3333, Fax: 905-335-0304, E-mail: comstockcanada.com.

Noise control panels


ification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily

incorporated in large treat ment plants.

expanded in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hundreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MOD.Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: info(5)zenon.com. Web:zenon.com.

This ultrafil-

zenon. com.

Eckoustic" Functional Panels (EFPs) provide a more comfortable acoustic environment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFPs promote safety and help improve pro ductivity. EFPs can quickly add sound adsorption to compressor rooms, blow er rooms and pump rooms. Tel: 800563-3574, Fax: 613-543-4173, E-mail: eckel@eckel.ca. Web: www.eckel.ca

ZENON Environmental Inc.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Eckel Industries, Inc.

Data logger Hoskin Scientific is now offering the HOBO U12 Stainless Temp Logger, a

ITT Flygt has released a

stainless steel,

food-grade data logger designed for food and bev

erage, phar maceutical, autoclave, and other indus

trial applications where high-accuracy temperature data is critical. The logger,

tration system is cost-effec

tive, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistent ly producing high quality water. Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: info@zenon.com. Web: www.

Slim line submersible pumps further



slurry pumps



pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new 60Hz models, which can handle up to 55 1/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between 300 and 500 mm in diam

eter, with 3" and 4" hoses. They are made from cast aluminum and have an

Hoskin Scientific

695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web:

www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt

has next

most abrasive slur

outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514-

Web: www.hoskin.ca.


generation of slurry pumps. They are designed specifical ly to handle the

age bottleneck, measures and records temperatures from -40 to 125°C and can withstand process conditions from wash down. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281, E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca.



which fits into a standard-sized bever

pasteurization to flash freezing and

New 5100 and 5150

ries, in a wide spec trum of tough industrial environ

ments. The pumps have the latest ITT

Flygt technology incorporated, ensuring high efficiency, reliability and a long working life. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web: www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt

November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 61

Product and Service Showcase New Pipe Pac version 3

Earn your ES&H degree

Internal drop structure

now available

The new internal drop is an industry friendly alter native to the physical and economical challenges the external drop con

from home



struction, installation and

maintenance present. For your future work, insist on the internal drop struc ture to ensure a safe and

Pipe Pac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905, E-mail: mark.sabine@ ocpa.com, Web: www.ocpa.com.

economical drop connec tion solution. See your local precast concrete producer today for more details




The School of Environmental and

Emergency Management • Online MS Degree in Environmental, Safety and Health Management • Online BS Degree Completion for AA or AAS Graduates

• MS-level Certificate Programs in Emergency, Environmental, or Safety and Health Management

OCPA for further information. Tel:

905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905, E-

mail: mark.sabine@ocpa.com. Web:

Accredited by NCA Higher Learning Commission. Tel:



5316, Web: www.seem.findlay.edu.

Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

llniversitv of Findlav

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Series Stormceptor system the treatment of

ation as the well-known

ment areas, the

In-line Interceptors. Developed to treat run off from an area of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherit ed the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and

Waste receiving logger

Developed for

The Inlet Stormceptor System employs the same principles of oper

larger new





yj,' ing waste from



ploys the same operating principles as


monitor and log incom-

Stormceptor system


Logger allows

collection vehi






logger can be configured to

Stormceptor systems. The system receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which are treated in two separate treat ment chambers before recombining into a single outlet pipe. It effectively

suspended solids, pH,and conductivity. The V6 package can even operate an automatic sampler, or include screen ing grit removal systems. Billing and report generation is conducted via a

units installed in North America. Tel:

doubles the treatment area of the inline

standard web browser. Tel: 905-738-

800-565-4801, Fax: 416-960-5637,

system. Tel: 800-565-4801, Fax: 416960-5637, E-mail: info@stonnceptor.com. Web: www.stormceptor.com. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

2355, Fax: 905-738-5520, E-mail: metcon @metconeng.com. Web: www.metconeng

oil removed from stormwater run-off

remains trapped within the storage chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500

E-mail: info@stormceptor.com, Web: www.stormceptor. com.

Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Regulatory requirements for laboratory accreditation ACLAE

CABAL ~ CAEAL is recognised by regulators across Canada.

Accredited labs out-perform nonaccredited labs.

For analytical parameters.





Groundwater antifoulant

REMEDEX is specifical ly designed for use as a dispersant in pump and treat, bioslurpping and other extraction type groundwater remediation systems. The product is formulated with a unique carboxylated polymer dispersant used to minimize the deposition potential of ferrous and ferric iron, calcium carbonate, calcium

phosphate, and other low solubility salts on equipment. If effluent is dis charged to a surface water, REMEDEX is the right solution; the active ingredi ent was recognized by EPA as a "green" chemistry for its benign profile. Tel: 513-721-1389, Fax: 513-721-1654, Email: tmcdonald@covalentlabs.com.


Covalent Labs

62 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004




Metcon Sales & Engineering

Probe for level measurement




introduced the new

SITRANS® Probe LU (ultrasonic)



" (radar) continuous level transmitters for storage vessels, process vessels, and open channels in water and wastewater, food and chemi cal industries. The probe offers a longer measurement range and an improved

signal-to-noise ratio that enhances echo processing features, such as sonic Intelligence® and Auto False-Echo Suppression, for greater accuracy and reliability. Tel: 705-740-7540, Fax: 705-745-5259. Siemens Milltronics

Environmental NEWS 77 ORCHARD ROAD


Kitimat fined for fish



habitat destruction and

sewage spill The District of Kitimat in British Columbia has been fined a total of

$76,000, following two Fisheries Act

investigations, one involving the

High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services


TEL;(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning

destruction of fish habitat and another

involving a sewage spill. One incident, investigated by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), occurred in October 2002 when the

District destroyed approximately 350 metres of riparian (riverbank) and streambed in Sumgas Creek, a tribu tary of the Kitimat River. This occurred during work intended to


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Sludge Thickening Specialists

improve drainage. The other incident involved a dis

charge of approximately 576,000 litres of raw sewage to the Kitimat River and Sumgas Creek in February 2001. The Kitimat River is an extremely important fish habitat, supporting all six species of salmon as well as cutthroat, Dolly

O^ctopus floating fine bubble systems


Blo^Bloc fine bubble fixed-film

"Anti-Surge!Anti-Shock" 10-year warranty


Air ReleaseA/acuum Break Valves

for Ideal cold

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Varden and rainbow trout and other


freshwater species. This was a large spill into a highly productive river.

762 Upper James St., Suite 250 Hamilton, Ontario L9C 3A2

BC Ministry charged with polluting important trout stream

The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation has been charged with 10 counts under subsection 36(3) of the federal Fisheries Act for permitting the deposit of a deleterious substance into water frequented by fish. The alleged offenses took place between May 30,2002 and November 19, 2003. Environment



Fax: 905-777-8678

Pfione: 905-777-9494









After Hours Emergency Pager:(705)734-3277 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4X5

Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705)721-0138 E-mail: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca


charges on May 27, 2004, after a lengthy investigation. The charges stem from the exposure ofa high pyrite


rock formation near Pennask Summit

Since 1950

during the construction of Highway


97C, the Okanagan Connector in 1987 through 1990. Environment Canada alleges that this exposure has resulted

in significant Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) with metal leaching and dis charge into an unnamed tributary (commonly referred to as Highway Creek) to Pennask Creek. Pennask Creek is one of British

Columbia's most important trout-bear ing streams and provides brood stock for all southern interior lakes. The

annual value in fish production for this system is estimated at $30,000,000.

Water / Wastewater

10-2 Alden Road

Markham, Ontario L3R 2S1

Treatment Plants

Tel: 905-475-1545 • Fax: 905-475-2021


Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal Complete Services

.Tfimax Residuals an American Water Services'company

800-465-2115 www.trimaxenv.com|www.amerlcanwaterservices.com

November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 63

Areas of expertise:


• Environmental

Capital Inc.

Contract awarded for

• Industrial & Manufacturing

...Turning Experience Into Profit

» Steel Manufacturing

Lucy Casacia, B.Sc. Metallurgy

clean-up of former military site in Newfoundland

• Commercialization


• Advanced Technology

Conservation Minister Tom Osbome

• Entrepreneurial

recently armounced the awarding of a $788,583 contract to Matrix

President & C.E.O. Phone: 416.301.4958 or 905.464.2586

www.adventiscapital.com • E-mail: info@adventiscapital.com

Environmental NEWS



Environmental of Dartmouth, Nova


Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning Er engineering BARRIE



(705)726-3371 (613)966-4243 (705)445-3451





Scotia, for phase I of the environmen tal clean-up at the former military site in St. Anthony. The clean-up will involve the exca vation and shipment of PCB contami nated soil and PCB contaminated

debris to licensed disposal facilities outside of the province. The work is

expected to be completed in November

Creattng emalltySolutions Togetber

2004. The site will be evaluated at the end of the contract to determine what further work needs to be done.

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

ZENON honoured with

environment • infrastructure

national award Rafael Simon, Chief Operating Officer

tel 416 497 8600 web www.rvanderson.com

toronto welland Ottawa sudbury iondon moncton frederlcton ctiarlottetown bombay

of Oakville's ZENON Environmental

Inc., was presented with a national engineering ■ operations ■ management

environmental award on October 28, 2004, by David Powell, President of the Canadian Institute for Environ


Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Collingwood Tel.(70S)444-2555 EMail: lnfo@cctatham.com


Orlllla Tel.(705) 325-1753

Web; www.cctatham.com

Get a clear view of:

CLEARVIEW Geophysics Inc.


> UST's, burled metal, debris & fill ' Former excavations & structures

"Specialists In non-Intrusive ground Investigations"

' Leachate plumes

mental Law and Policy (CIELAP) in Toronto. The award, which is given for Advancing the Environmental Agenda, aims to recognize the achievements of individuals and organizations that have contributed to changes in behaviour toward environmental issues and sus-

tainability. "ZENON is an excellent example of a company that has developed important teclmologies to overcome environmental problems," said Anne Mitchell, Executive Director, CIELAP. "By producing clean, potable water, the company has made a major contri bution in protecting the environment and protecting human health."

> Voids and fractures

Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884

E-mail: clearview(ggeophysics.ca Web: www.geophysics.ca

> Stratigraphy > Pipes and utilities

Fresh Kills Landfill

contract signed Severn Trent Services announced that

Clunas Environmental Consulting

it began providing contract operations on September 1, 2004, at the Fresh

• policy and program development • hauled sewage programs • industrial wastewater assessment • MOB Cot As

Kills Landfill on Staten Island, New York. Registered on June 30, 2004, the eight-year contract awarded opera tions, maintenance and facilities man agement of the landfill's leachate con trol system to Severn Trent. The con

15 Robert St., Weston, ON M9N 2J6•Tel:(416)414-7656 • Fax:(416) 245-1986 • E-mail: david.cluna5@r0gers.com

tract is valued at $65 million (US). The leachate control system is

• updating of municipal sewer use bylaws • compliance with regulations/ sewer use bylaws • sampling

• • • • •

spill management plans ISO 14000 stormwater assessment pollution prevention plans NPRI submissions

64 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

Environmental NEWS



capable of treating up to one million US gallons per day, utilizing a combi nation of biological and chemical treatment. Severn Trent is also provid ing professional engineering, design and construction management servic es for facility upgrades and asset repairs, and daily removal, transporta tion and disposal of landfill gas con densate generated from the landfill's gas collection system. Fresh Kills Landfill is located on

the western shore of Staten Island, and


(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,


Municipal & Industrial

Tel:(506)684-5821, Fax:(506) 684-1915, Tel:(705) 235-5531, www.glrouxinc.com

Toronto • Ottawa


London • Hamilton


occupies 2,200 acres. The highly engineered site contains 50 years worth of refuse, primarily household waste. The landfill includes open waterways, intact wetlands and wildlife habitats with the potential to support broader and more active uses

Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

• Wafer £ Waslewater Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

• Industrial Treatment

• Environmental Impact

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Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive Teh (416) 441-4111

in the future. Established in 1948, the


landfill accepted its final shipment in





March 2001.

Final report released on oil field injection water The Government of Alberta has reeeived final recommendations

from a provineial stakeholder com






EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram 107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108



mittee that reviewed the use of non-

saline (fresh) water for underground injection. The Advisory Committee on Water Use Practice and Policy was estab lished to examine the use of water for

underground injection, including the enhanced recovery of oil (oilfield injection). This process was in response to concerns raised during the public consultations for the development of Alberta's Water for Life strategy. As part of a broader effort to con serve water, the committee noted that a concerted effort must be made to



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• Drinking Water Contamination Source Detection • Indoor Air Quality Services

• Ciyptosporidium & Giardia • Microscopic Particulate Analysis • Disinfection Efficacy Testing

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Gartner Lee Limited

environmental strategies&solutions

reduce, or eliminate, the use of water for underground injection on a caseby-case basis.

Environmental Science, Economics,

Planning & Engineering Solutions www.gartnerlee.com

The committee's recommendations

include strengthening the regulatory

process for assessing applications that use non-saline water for underground injection, reviewing existing water licences for these purposes, improving provincial groundwater information and investing in research for alterna tive enhanced recovery technologies. For further information on the

Advisory Committee on Water Use Practice and Poliey and to view the final recommendation report, visit www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca.

British Columbia I Alberta i Yukon I Northwest Territories I Ontario I Quebec

Geamat;rix Consultants Engineers, Geologists, and Environmental Scientists • Design of WaterAA/astewater/Air Treatment Systems • Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies • Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000) • Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, M/asfesj • Remedial Designs/Remedial Actions • Phase //// Environmental Site Assessments • Soil/Groundwater

Contaminant Remediations • Litigation Assistance www.geomatrixicom

Tel: (519) 886.7500

Fox: (519)886 • 7419

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 65

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Environmental NEWS

Hydromantis,Inc. [_H_ja

Consulting Engineers

electronics from landfills A new draft regulation would give the

210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tel: (519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224

Minister of the

1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G5 Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031

E-mail: info@hydromantis.oom Web: www.hydromantis.com

Bio-Environmental Specialists since 1977 67 Watson Rd., Unit #1

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Water & Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessment & Planning Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management I Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation

).L. Richards £( Associates Limited






613 728-3571

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KMK Consultants


Environment the

authority to direct Waste Diversion Ontario to develop a program to reduce any of the e-wastes in the regu lation from going to iandfiii. It also identifies more than 200 items that

lNT€GftnT€D CxPLORflliONS inc.

LAB Division

Ontario drafts

regulation to keep

could be designated, including com puters, telephones, broadcast equip ment, televisions and CD players, chil dren's toys, power tools, lawn mowers and navigational and medical instru ments; it has been posted for public comment. This allows the government to proceed with a program that will divert some products and expand the list of products in the future. While approximately 157,000 tonnes of e-wastes were disposed of in Canada in 2002, only 9,000 tonnes were disposed of through recycling, including 775 tonnes in several large Ontario municipalities. Estimates show that e-waste disposal will grow to 206,000 tonnes by 2010. There are currently 14 e-waste recy cling facilities in Ontario.

Expertise for the new world of Water and Wastewater Management

Guelph company fined for non-compliance

Providing Professional Services Since 1959

Rothsay Moorefieid, a division of Maple LeafFoods Inc., was fined a total

Offices in:

of$75,000 - plus victim fine surcharges - after pleading guilty to two counts

Brampton ♦ Pickering ♦ Kitchener ♦ Windsor ♦ Cobalt Telephone: 905-459-4780 Internet Site: www.kmk.ca

under the Environmental Protection Act E-mail: kmk@kmk.ca

Engineering &

(EPA) and one count under the Ontario Water Resources Act(OWRA). The company recycles animal and poultry by-products, including bones, trim, fat, and offal into a broad range of commercial tallow and protein products, from its plant in Mapieton, Ontario. To address complaints about odours from the company's operations. Ministry of the Environment (MOE) staff worked with company officials to have them modify equipment and operational procedures. As a result of these efforts, the company is author ized - through a certificate of approval (air) issued by MOE - to release an

Environmental Science

established level of odours into the air.

Lotowater Serving Ontario municipalities and industry with water well challenges from commission to compliance. Renowned for innovative solutions that rescue, rehabilitate and render reliable.

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The court heard that a November MacViro Consultants inc. 90 Allstate Parkway,Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994 E-Mail: reception@maoviro.com Web site: www.macviro.com

66 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004

2001 report MOE 2001,

odour compliance sampling submitted by the company to revealed that, in September Rothsay Moorefieid exceeded

Environmental NEWS

Marshall Macklin

the number of odour units permitted under its certificate of approval. The company was required, by October 1, 2001, to submit a consultant's report to MOE, detailing changes to be made to the facility's design, construction and operation to reduce odours to a new, lower limit. The company failed to meet this requirement. Finally, during a routine inspection in April 2001, MOE staff found that the company intended to install a belt-press to dry sewage sludge. At this time, MOE advised Rothsay Moorefield that an amend ment to its certificate of approval (industrial sewage) was required before installing the belt-press. At a follow-up inspection in February 2002, MOE staff observed the belt-press in opera tion, but the company did not possess the required amended approval. Justice of the Peace Calvin V Hurst


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby

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Qudbec; 1-877-462-9926 Atlantic Canada: 1-877-343-6090

Ma/xam Analytics Inc


Driven by Service and Science


convicted and fined the company on August 25, 2004 in the Ontario Court of Justice in Guelph, Ontario.

Gananoque fined for noncompliance with Ontario


CONTRACTORS 1-800-894-4924 ASBESTOS • LEAD • ABATEMENT • DEMOLITION • PCB'S • MOULD www.environmentalhazards.com • www.toxicmoid.ca E-mail: rec@restorationenvlronmental.com

Water Resources Act

The Corporation ofthe Separated Town of Gananoque has been fined $12,000, after pleading guilty to two counts of non-compliance with the Ontario Water

ISARAFINCHIN Consulting Engineers

Resources Act(OWRA). The Town of Gananoque owns and operates the J.W. King Water Treatment Plant that provides water to

Geotechnical, GeoEnvironmentai, Hydrogeoiogy, Geosciences, Construction QA

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area residents. The court heard that

during an inspection of the facility in July 2002, the Ministry of the Environment(MOE)found that on six different occasions fecal streptococci an indicator of adverse water quality -

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at various locations within the distribu

tion system between December 2001 and May 2002. Ontario Regulation 459/00 requires that the Town notify the MOE immedi

ately by phone when indicators of adverse water quality are detected in the water system. In addition, written notification must be provided within 24 hours ofreceiving such results. This

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was not done on these six occasions.

Emm Tradition ofExcellence

Since these incidents, the Town has


developed and implemented new reporting procedures and trained its employees on these procedures. There have been no further incidents of fail

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 67

Environmental NEWS Old Barns, Colchester County.

Additional testing to be

Environment and Labour Minister

performed on NS biosolids The Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour has con

firmed that it will test for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in biosolids being stored at Inglewood Farms in

trial chemicals and other contami nants. It will take about one month to

Kerry Morash said the testing is being

receive the results.

done in response to residents' eoncerns about safety. Samples have been col

The province updated its guidelines for the storage and land application of biosolids in May 2004. They are the

lected and will be sent to a lab in

Fredericton, for analysis. The lab will conduct tests for 12 pesticides, indus-

result of an extensive review that

included research and broad public consultation, and have been approved by one of the province's medical offi cers of health.

Tri-PiiaseEnvlronmentailnG. • Hazardous Site Ciean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition Tel: (905) 823-7965 Fax:(905)823-7932 www.pcbdisposai.cotn

•Asbestos and Mouid Abatement

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• Wastewater

The guidelines require companies to meet strict standards in regards to pathogen and metal content. Currently there are no provinces in Canada that test for POPs. All, except Newfoimdland and Labrador, allow biosolids to be applied on land. As sludges and biosolids are organ ic materials, it is against the law to bury them in landfills in Nova Scotia. The only other disposal options are land application and incineration.

Solid Waste Environmental Assessment



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Primary disinfection system selected for

Walkerton's drinking water

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Waterloo Hydrogeoiogic, inc.

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November 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 69


new Gle^n JNster Centre?^

another JMirctliel? *>'

Attend any real estate seminar

and the mantra you are most likely to hear is: "Location, Location, Location


thing the Ontario government seems to have forgotten. Recently, it announced the establishment of a new agency in Walkerton to focus on improving training for water system operators. This agency will receive $5 million in funding annually to: • Coordinate and deliver training for drinking water system owners and operators • Provide information, education

and advice about drinking water sci ence, treatment and technology, opera tional requirements and other environ mental issues related to drinking water, to owners, operators and the public • Provide adviee to the Minister of the Environment on research and

development priorities to achieve safe drinking water and sponsor drinking water research. The Walkerton Clean Water Centre will build on the work of the former

Clean Water Legacy Trust and Clean Water Centre of Excellence. These

agencies have been disbanded and their mandates merged to form the sin gle training-focused agency. Five members of the former agencies are part of the new agency. Until the mid 1990s, the Ontario

Ministry of the Environment ran its own operator training facility in Brampton, which was conveniently located close to several major high ways, Pearson International Airport and a large number of hotels. Traveling to Walkerton, which is not centrally


located and is a long way from the nearest airport or any 400 series high ways, could pose problems for a large percentage of Ontario's water treat ment plant operators. It is unfortunate that the Ontario

government did not read recent news paper articles and learn from the mis takes made with Mirabel Airport. Opened in 1975, at a cost of $500 million, Montreal's Mirabel Inter national Airport was the largest airport in the world in its day, servicing all international flights from 23 airlines. At the time it was some 27 times larg er than Dorval, Montreal's other air port, which was regulated to only han dling domestic flights and flights to the United States.

Mirabel's poor location. It is located some 60 kilometers north of downtown

Montreal and 50 kilometers away from Dorval Airport (now Pierre Trudeau Airport). A planned expressway expected to link Mirabel to Downtown was never built. This means that it

often takes an hour to make the trip by car or bus. Will the new Clean Water Centre

become another Mirabel Airport fiasco? With mandatory certification for water plant operators now a reality, maybe not. But certainly the long drive to and from Walkerton will be a thorn in



of the


When first proposed, Mirabel Airport was expected to handle some four million passengers a year with expectations that expansions might be necessary to handle 40 million passen gers within 50 years. These expecta tions proved to be hugely over-opti mistic. In fact, it was recently announced that Mirabel Airport will be closed to all passenger traffic and only handle air freight. So what went wrong? Since it opened, there has been widespread debate as to the reasons for the airport's under-use. For example, Mirabel's planners did not foresee the introduc tion of wide-body planes, such as the Boeing 747, with their much longer ranges. This meant that for transAtlantic flights, refueling stopovers at Montreal were no longer necessary. But many believe the main factor in

Environmental Science and


Engineering Magazine.


70 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2004






Ontario's water treatment plant opera tors for years to come. They will be wasting valuable time traveling, which would be better spent in the classroom. Locating the new Clean Water Centre in Walkerton may be seen by many as a political attempt to compensate a town, which was hit hard by a horrific tainted water tragedy. However, choosing a con venient location should have been the

top priority for this vital program rather than making it part of any localized eco nomic revitalization plan. Mirabel's planners ignored the real estate mantra of "location, location,

location", which ultimately has cost Canadians hundreds of millions of dol

lars. Will we now also have to pay for the cost of inconveniently locating the Clean Water Centre in Walkerton, which, while being very picturesque, is far off the beaten path? By Steve Davey, Publisher of

i-4' -r' â– > V



The benefit of bedding material in a concrete pipe installation has been underestimated for far too long. Current OPS specifications do not reflect the recent research by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) on the real impact of bedding. Data is now available from the three-yeat study that supports 20 years of research on the engineered value of Standard Installations. Recent recognition of Standard Installations by the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code should ease the mind of any design engineer. It's the most direct route to project success. Standard Installations (Concrete Pipe Bedding Specifications) put the designet back in the drivet's seat. Consider these benefits:

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