Page 1

Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change Status of Rural Texas Series, 2006


OFFICE OF RURAL COMMUNITY AFFAIRS Executive Committee Michael W aters, Chair

Rick Perry Governor

David Alders Nicki Harle Carol Harrell William Jeter

Charles S. (Charlie) Stone Executive Director

W allace Klussmann Lydia Rangel Saenz Ike Sugg Patrick W allace

January 1, 2007 The Honorable Rick Perry Governor, State of Texas

The Honorable Tom Craddick Speaker of the House of Representatives, State of Texas

The Honorable David Dewhurst Lieutenant Governor, State of Texas

The Honorable Members 80th Legislature

House Bill 7 (77th Legislature) created the Office of Rural Community Affairs (ORCA) and set forth the following requirement: “The office shall…compile an annual report describing and evaluating the condition of rural communities.” The following report is offered in fulfillment of the requirement and provides a snapshot of where rural Texas stands today. The report speaks to the broad spectrum of issues that affect rural communities across our state. Currently, the population of rural Texas exceeds the population of 22 individual states and is greater than the combined populations of Alaska, North Dakota, Vermont, Wyoming, and the District of Columbia. Each rural community contributes significantly to the people of the state of Texas and Texas’ economy. In addition to offering a vast array of tourism and recreational opportunities, rural Texas is the primary source of agricultural products, livestock, water, and mineral wealth that enhance the vitality of the Texas economy. In every sense of the word, rural communities are partners in the past, present, and future successes of Texas. Indeed, the viability of rural Texas is critical to the viability of Texas as a state. And because rural, suburban, and urban areas of Texas are inextricably linked, successes in rural Texas are successes for all Texans. It is our hope that this fifth report on the status of rural Texas will contribute to the ongoing dialogue that is shaping Texas’ future. The report highlights some of the complex and diverse issues affecting rural Texas. We will continue to monitor developments with all interested parties to maintain an objective focus on the status of life in rural communities. Thank you on behalf of the Executive Committee and the staff of the agency for the opportunity to contribute to the future of our rural communities. Respectfully submitted,

Charles S. (Charlie) Stone Executive Director


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change Table of Contents RURAL TEXAS ........................................................................................................................................... 6 Characteristics of Texas' rural population Rural Texas continues to grow (slowly) .................................................................................................. 3 Rural population as a percentage of Texas’ population decreases .......................................................... 3 Recent growth among young adults (ages 18 to 24)................................................................................ 4 Racial and ethnic makeup of rural Texas shows little change ................................................................. 5 Net migration increases in rural Texas .................................................................................................... 5 Fastest growth rural areas are adjacent to urban areas; nonadjacent rural areas show improved growth too............................................................................................................................................................ 6 Overall rural poverty decreases, urban poverty remains constant ........................................................... 6 Educational attainment in rural Texas ..................................................................................................... 7 Economy Employment and unemployment ............................................................................................................. 8 Rural per capita income up, still lags behind state average ..................................................................... 8 Median income has decreased in many rural counties ............................................................................ 8

Healthcare in rural Texas Disparities in number of healthcare providers highlight ongoing need for rural-focused recruitment and retention programs................................................................................................................................... 9 Rural Texans more likely to be uninsured ..............................................................................................10 Housing Rural Texas has a higher percentage of older housing stock ..................................................................11 Fewer rural Texans have housing with available phone service.............................................................11 Focus on rural youth While rural childhood poverty decreases, rates remain high ..................................................................12 Number and percentage of rural children receiving TANF down .........................................................13 Rural Medicaid enrollment increases .....................................................................................................13 Texas Children’s Health Insurance Program ..........................................................................................14 Juvenile violent crimes decrease in rural Texas .....................................................................................14 More rural children are living in single parent families .........................................................................14 Higher rates of rural children live in family violence shelters ...............................................................15 Number of confirmed victims of child abuse increases markedly ..........................................................15 Child deaths in rural Texas .....................................................................................................................15


Texas’ rural and urban counties

Legend

Rural

Urban

What is rural? For the purposes of this report, we use the 1993 U.S. Office of Management and Budget classification scheme for counties. If, under this classification, a county is considered to be part of a Metropolitan Statistical Area, in this report the county is “urban.” If, under the 1993 classification, a county is outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area or Nonmetropolitan, in this report the county is “rural.” In some cases, the 2003 U.S. Office of Management and Budget classification scheme is used. In these instances, we indicate that the 2003 classification is being used.


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Summary

Rural Texas – In 2005, with 3,256,691 residents, Texas has the largest rural population in the

1

nation. Recent trends indicate modest overall population growth and decreased poverty. Texas’ population, 2005

Legend Rural Urban Texas

14% %%

86%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Healthcare providers, 2006

1

Per capita income in Texas, 2004 $31,844

100% 80%

$30,732

$23,427

60% 40% 20% 0%

PCP

Dent.

Pharm.

PA

NP

RN

Rural

10%

9%

10%

12%

9%

9%

Urban

90%

91%

90%

88%

91%

91%

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service2

Source: Texas Department of State Health Services

Educational attainment, 2000

Housing units with no telephone service available, 2000

35%

12%

30%

10%

25%

8%

20%

6%

15%

4%

10%

2%

5%

0%

Rural

Urban

Texas

Owner occupied

3.1%

1.3%

1.6%

Renter occupied

10.6%

5.3%

5.9%

0% < HS

HS Grad.

Some coll. or assoc.

Bach.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

1

Grad.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

PCP-Primary care physicians; Dent.-Dentists; Pharm.-Pharmacists; PA-Physician Assistants; NP-Nurse Practitioners; RNRegistered Nurses 2 2003 U.S. Office of Management and Budget classification scheme is used for this chart.


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Summary

Rural Texas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Currently, the population of rural Texas exceeds the population of 22 individual states and is greater than the combined populations of Alaska, North Dakota, Vermont, Wyoming, and the District of Columbia.

Uninsured population, Preliminary estimates, 2002

Poverty, 2002

40%

30%

18%

20%

10%

15%

0%

Under 19

19-64

Under 65

Rural

16%

34%

28%

Urban

14%

27%

23%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program

Source: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

3

Employment (total jobs)

Children in family violence shelters, Per 1,000 3.6

Rural

2003 2004

Urban

3.2

Rural 1,445,414 1,465,643

Urban 10,998,155 11,186,624

Unemployment rate 2004 2005

2.8

Rural 6.2 5.5

Urban 6.1 5.3

Texas 12,443,569 12,652,267

4

Texas 6.1 5.3

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service 2.4 2000

2001

2002

2003

Source: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

3 4

2003 U.S. Office of Management and Budget classification scheme is used for this chart. Ibid.

2


Characteristics of Rural Texas’ Population

Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Legend

Rural Texas continues to grow (slowly) In 2005, with 3,256,691 residents, Texas has the largest rural population in the nation. Between 1990 and 2005, the population of rural Texas grew by 15 percent (Texas’ overall population grew by 35 percent).

Rural

Urban

Rural population as a percentage of Texas’ population decreases From 2000 to 2005, according to Census estimates, the population of rural Texas as a portion of Texas’ overall population decreased from 17 to 14 percent as urban areas grew rapidly.

Texas, 2000

Texas, 2005

14%

17%

83%

86%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 Census Estimates

Between 2000 and 2005, population growth in rural Texas slowed down, according to Census estimates. From 2000 to 2005, rural Texas accounted for 7 percent of Texas’ overall population growth. From 1990 to 2000, rural Texas accounted for 9 percent of Texas’ overall population growth.

Rural

Urban

Texas

20,000

Texas' total population, all ages 2005 (est.)

3,256,691

19,603,277

22,859,968

19,500

2000

3,159,940

17,691,880

20,851,820

19,000

1990 Change 2000-2005, no. (%)

2,820,852 14,165,658 96,751 1,911,397 (3%) (11%) 435,839 5,437,619 Change 1990-2005 (15%) (38%) 339,088 3,526,222 1990-2000 (12%) (25%) Source: U.S. Census Bureau

16,986,510 2,008,148 (10%) 5,873,458 (35%) 3,865,310 (23%)

Population growth in Texas, 2000 to 2005 (in thousands) 3,280 3,260 3,240 3,220 3,200 3,180 3,160 3,140 3,120 3,100

18,500 18,000 17,500

Urban

Rural

17,000 16,500

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

3


Characteristics of Rural Texas’ Population

Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Recent growth among young adults (ages 18 to 24) Between 2000 and 2005, rural Texas accounted for 24 percent of the state’s growth in young adults (those between the ages of 18 to 24). Between 1990 and 2005, the number of young adults in rural Texas grew by 30 percent, slightly outpacing overall growth among young adults in Texas (28 percent). Texas’ 18 to 24 population

Rural

Urban

Texas

2005 (est.)

343,432

2,073,193

2,416,625

2000

292,225

1,906,656

2,198,881

1990

263,392

1,627,452

1,890,844

80,040 445,741 (30%) (27%) 51,207 166,537 (18%) (9%) 28,833 279,204 (11%) (17%) Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Change 1990-2005, no. (%) 2000-2005 1990-2000

525,781 (28%) 217,744 (10%) 308,037 (16%)

This trend accelerated between 2000 and 2005—from 1990 to 2000, the percentage of young adults in rural Texas grew by 11 percent; from 2000 to 2005, the percentage of young adults in rural Texas grew by 18 percent. The reasons for this trend are not immediately clear.

4


Characteristics of Rural Texas’ Population

Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Racial and ethnic makeup of rural Texas shows little change From 1990 to 2000, the changes in the racial and ethnic makeup of rural Texas’ population showed no significant differences from Texas overall. Following statewide trends, the Anglo population, as a percentage of the overall population decreased slightly, while the Hispanic population increased. Proportion of the Population in each Race/Ethnicity Group in 1990 and 2000 for the State of Texas and by Rural/Urban Status

Race/Ethnicity, Percent change, 1990 to 2000 8

Percent of Population Anglo Area Name State of Texas Urban Central City Urban Suburban Rural Adjacent Rural Nonadjacent

African American

Hispanic

4

Other

1990

2000

1990

2000

1990

2000

1990

2000

61

53

12

12

26

32

2

3

55

46

13

13

29

37

3

4

78

73

8

8

12

16

2

4

0 -4 -8

67

63

9

9

23

27

1

1

70

65

7

7

23

27

1

1

Anglo

Between 1990 and 2000, rural areas of Texas (both adjacent and nonadjacent to urban areas) saw an increase in net migration5. Between 1990 and 2000, rural areas adjacent to urban areas saw the largest influx and achieved a net migration rate of 10 percent. During the 1980s, migration to rural areas adjacent to urban areas had been negligible.

Between 1990 and 2000, nonadjacent rural areas reversed the population loss experienced during the 1980s. Still, net migration rates were lower in nonadjacent rural areas when compared to adjacent rural areas—the net migration rate for nonadjacent rural areas was half that of adjacent rural areas during the 1990s. The higher net migration rates of rural areas adjacent to urban areas reflect the ongoing suburbanization and exurbanization1 of Texas.

Hispanic

Other

State of Texas

-7.5

0.0

6.4

1.1

Rural Adjacent

-3.7

-0.2

3.8

0.1

Rural Nonadjacent

-4.8

0.3

4.3

0.2

Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

Net migration increases in rural Texas

African American

Urban Central City. Each urban area begins with an urbanized area. To be part of the urban central city, 50 percent or more of the county or tract population must be within the urbanized area (e.g., Harris County). Urban Suburban. Once the urban central city is established, nearby counties or tracts are examined to determine whether a “high degree of economic and social integration” exists with the core. Commuting flows to and from the urban central city (the number commuting in either direction as a percentage of resident workers) are used to measure integration (e.g., Waller County). Rural adjacent. These are nonmetropolitan counties that are physically adjacent to urban areas (e.g., Burnet County). Rural nonadjacent. These counties are not physically adjacent to urban areas. These counties can be considered “deeply rural” (e.g., Loving County).

Net Migration, Net Migration Rates, and Annualized Net Migration Rates 1980-1990 and 19902000, and the Percent of Population Change Due to Migration for Urban and Rural Areas in Texas, 1990-2000 Percent Annualized Change Net Migration Net Migration Net Migration Due to Rate (Percent) Rate (Percent) Net Migration 1980199019801990198019901990Area 1990 2000 1990 2000 1990 2000 2000 Urban Central City

460,477

835,380

5

7

0.5

0.7

35

Urban Suburban

511,956

879,913

28

35

2.8

3.5

77

Rural Adjacent

4,466

190,692

0

10

0.0

1.0

70

Rural Nonadjacent

-35,250

40,044

-4

5

-0.4

0.5

59

Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

5

Net migration is the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time. A positive value indicates that more people are entering an area than leaving it.

5


Characteristics of Rural Texasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Population

Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

While the fastest growth rural areas are adjacent to urban areas, nonadjacent rural areas show improved growth too Between 1980 and 1990, rural areas adjacent to urban areas grew more than three times faster than nonadjacent rural areas. Between 1990 and 2000, this trend continued with rural areas adjacent to urban areas growing by 14 percent. From 1990 to 2000, nonadjacent rural areas showed increased strength by gaining population at a rate four times higher than in the previous decade. Population and Population Change for Urban and Rural Areas in Texas, 1980-1990 and 1990-2000 Population Area

Numerical Change

1980

1990

2000

Urban Central City

9,731,481

11,615,291

13,993,705

1,883,810

2,378,414

19

20

Urban Suburban

1,811,073

2,550,367

3,698,175

739,294

1,147,808

41

45

Rural Adjacent

1,841,723

1,962,353

2,234,027

120,630

271,674

7

14

844,914

858,499

925,913

13,585

67,414

2

8

Rural Nonadjacent

1980-1990

Percent Change 198019901990 2000

1990-2000

Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

Overall rural poverty decreases, urban poverty remains constant Rural Texas continues to have higher poverty rates when compared to both urban Texas and Texas as a whole. Between 1998 and 2002, poverty in rural Texas decreased by 1.5 percent. During that same time, urban poverty remained constant. In 2002, rural Texans accounted for 17 percent of Texasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; population living in poverty. Percentage of rural Texans living in poverty, 1998-2002 Total poverty Percent of Year population Total population population Rural

Urban

Texas

1998

587,445

3,076,638

19.1%

2002

565,344

3,210,609

17.6%

1998

2,515,125

16,682,976

15.1%

2002

2,775,901

18,569,284

14.9%

1998

3,102,570

19,759,614

15.7%

2002

3,341,245

21,779,893

15.3%

Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

6


Characteristics of Rural Texas’ Population

Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Educational attainment in rural Texas

Educational attainment in Texas, 2000 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% < HS

HS Grad.

Some coll. or assoc.

Rural

30%

32%

Urban

23%

24%

Bach.

Grad.

24%

9%

4%

28%

17%

8%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

Compared to urban areas, rural Texas has a higher percentage of individuals without a high school education and fewer individuals that obtain bachelor’s or graduate degrees. These percentages may be skewed due to rural Texas’ older population, but also reflect differences in access to institutions of higher education.

Educational attainment in Texas (2000) 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% < 9th

9th to 12th HS graduate

Some college

Associate degree

Bachelor's degree

Graduate degree

Rural

14%

17%

32%

20%

4%

9%

4%

Urban

11%

12%

24%

23%

5%

17%

8%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

7


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Economy

Employment and unemployment From 2004 to 2005, the unemployment rate in rural Texas dropped from 6.2 percent to 5.5 percent. In 2004, 12 percent of Texas jobs were located in rural areas. Employment

120

Rural* 700 600

100

500

80

400

60

20

Urban

Rural

1,445,414

10,998,155

12,443,569

2004

1,465,643

11,186,624

12,652,267

Unemployment rate (percent)

200

2004

6.2

6.1

6.1

100

2005

5.5

5.3

5.3

Source: USDA Economic Research Service * For this table, urban and rural (metropolitan and nonmetropolitan) definitions are based on the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) June 2003 classification.

0

19 90 19 9 19 1 9 19 2 93 19 9 19 4 9 19 5 96 19 9 19 7 9 19 8 99 20 0 20 0 0 20 1 02 20 0 20 3 04

0

Total

2003

300

40

Urban*

Total number of jobs

Thousands

Thousands

Unemployment in Texas 1990-2004

Source: Texas Workforce Commission

Rural per capita income up, still lags behind state average From 2003 to 2004, per capita income in rural Texas increased slightly and by a slightly greater rate than per capita income in Texas overall. Income Rural*

Per capita income in Texas, 2004 Urban*

Total

Per-capita income (2004 dollars)

Rural

$31,844

Urban

2003

22,999

31,352

30,236

2004 Percent change

23,427 1.9

31,844 1.6

30,732 1.6

$30,732

$23,427

Texas

Earnings per job (2004 dollars) 2003

27,919

46,409

44,261

2004 Percent change

28,366 1.6

47,377 2.1

45,175 2.1

Source: USDA Economic Research Service * For this table, urban and rural (metropolitan and nonmetropolitan) definitions are based on the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) June 2003 classification

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service6

Median income has decreased in many rural counties Between 2000 and 2002, median income decreased in 80.6 percent (158 of 196 counties) of rural counties in Texas, compared with a decrease in 70.7 percent (41 of 58 counties) of urban counties 7. This is a marked change from the period between 1997 and 1999, when only two urban counties and 25 rural counties experienced a decrease in median income. Using the most recent data available, it is clear that from 2002 to 2003 the median income in many Texas counties showed improvement and increased above the 2000 median income level; however, in 2003, 89 rural counties (45.4 percent) still had median incomes below the 2000 level and so did 20 urban counties (34.5 percent). These data indicate that economic conditions are improving across Texas, but that rural counties still lag behind urban counties in regaining income. 6 7

2003 U.S. Office of Management and Budget classification scheme is used for this chart. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program (SAIPE).

8


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Healthcare in Rural Texas

Disparities in number of healthcare providers highlight ongoing need for rural-focused recruitment and retention programs Number of Texas healthcare providers (2006) 150,000

This chart shows the number and distribution of healthcare providers8 in rural and urban areas of Texas in 2006.

100,000 50,000 0

PCP

Dent.

Pharm.

PA

NP

RN

Rural

1,580

764

1,719

436

417

13,679

Urban

13,718

7,689

16,057

3,194

4,055

136,269

Source: Texas Department of State Health Services

Distribution of Texas healthcare providers (2006)

In 2006, rural Texans accounted for 14 percent of the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total population. The percentage of healthcare professionals is lower than the overall population in six key categories: primary care physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and registered nurses.

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

PCP

Dent.

Pharm.

PA

NP

RN

Rural

10%

9%

10%

12%

9%

9%

Urban

90%

91%

90%

88%

91%

91%

Source: Texas Department of State Health Services

Texas healthcare providers per 100,000 (2006) 800

When looking at healthcare providers per 100,000 persons, rural Texas is below the state average in six key categories: primary care physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and registered nurses.

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

PCP

Dent.

Pharm.

PA

NP

RN

Rural

47

23

51

13

12

406

Urban

68

38

80

16

20

678

Texas

65

36

76

15

19

639

Rural Texas comes closest to matching state and urban levels for physician assistants. Source: Texas Department of State Health Services

8

PCP-Primary care physicians; Dent.-Dentists; Pharm.-Pharmacists; PA-Physician Assistants; NP-Nurse Practitioners; RNRegistered Nurses

9


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Healthcare in Rural Texas

Rural Texans are more likely to be uninsured In Texas, according to preliminary estimates from 2002, Texas had the following rates of uninsured: Under 19 years, 14 percent; 19 to 64 years, 28 percent; and Under 65, 24 percent. Uninsured Texans, 2002 preliminary estimates 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Age 19

19 - 64

Under Age 65

Rural

16%

34%

28%

Urban

14%

27%

23%

Source: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

In 2002, in all ages groups, rural Texans were more likely to be uninsured when compared to urban Texans and Texans overall.

10


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Housing

Rural Texas has a higher percentage of older housing stock Rural Texas contains 15 percent of Texasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; occupied housing stock. Compared with urban areas of Texas, rural areas have a higher percentage of occupied housing stock built prior to 1950 for both renter- and owner-occupied housing (Renter-occupied: rural, 18 percent rural; urban, 9 percent. Owner-occupied: rural, 17 percent; urban, 10 percent).

Owner occupied housing, by period of construction

Renter occupied housing, by period of construction 60%

50%

50%

40%

40%

30%

30% 20%

20%

10%

10% 0%

0%

Pre 1950

1950-1979

1980 to present

Pre 1950

1950-1979

1980 to present

Rural

18%

52%

30%

Rural

17%

44%

39%

Urban

9%

48%

43%

Urban

10%

44%

46%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

Fewer rural Texans have housing with available phone service Homeowners, in rural and urban areas, are more likely than renters to occupy housing with available telephone service. Two percent of homeowners in Texas live in housing that lacks available telephone service compared with 6 percent of renters.

Housing units with no telephone service available, 2000 12% 10% 8% 6%

Renters in rural areas are least likely to live in housing units with available phone service (more than twice as likely as renters in urban areas). Eleven percent of renters in rural counties, and 5 percent of renters in urban counties, occupy housing that lacks available telephone service.

4% 2% 0%

Rural

Urban

Texas

Owner occupied

3.1%

1.3%

1.6%

Renter occupied

10.6%

5.3%

5.9%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

11


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Focus on rural youth

While rural childhood poverty decreases, rates remain high From 1998 to 2002, child9 poverty in rural Texas decreased from 29 percent to 25 percent. Texas children living in poverty, 1998-2002 Child Total poverty childhood Percent of Year population population population Rural

Urban

Texas

1998

234,145

805,701

29.1%

2002

206,384

835,123

24.7%

1998

1,064,348

4,886,521

21.8%

2002

1,119,225

5,216,810

21.5%

1998

1,298,493

5,692,222

22.8%

2002

1,325,609

6,051,933

21.9%

U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program

In 1998, rural Texas children in poverty accounted for 40 percent of the rural Texasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; total poverty population. By 2002, rural children made up 37 percent of rural Texasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; total poverty population. Percentage of rural Texans living in poverty, 1998-2002 Total poverty Percent of Year population Total population population Rural

Urban

Texas

1998

587,445

3,076,638

19.1%

2002

565,344

3,210,609

17.6%

1998

2,515,125

16,682,976

15.1%

2002

2,775,901

18,569,284

14.9%

1998

3,102,570

19,759,614

15.7%

2002

3,341,245

21,779,893

15.3%

U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program

9

Those individuals between the ages of 0 and 17. 12


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Focus on rural youth

Number and percentage of rural children receiving TANF down Percentage of children receiving TANF 12% 10%

As part of a statewide trend, the number and percentage of rural children receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) 10 has decreased between 1993 and 2003.

8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Source: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

Urban

Rural

Texas children receiving TANF

Between 2001 and 2003, both the number and percentage of rural children receiving TANF decreased while the number and percentage of urban children increased. This may be due to decreased access to services or, conversely, tied to decreased childhood poverty.

Urban

Rural

7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1%

Source: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

0% 1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Rural Medicaid enrollment increases From 2000 to 2004, the number of rural children enrolled in Medicaid increased from 191,554 to 293,462â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a 53 percent increase over five years. However, Texas enrollment increased by 79 percent during the same time periodâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;from 994,238 to 1,778,467. In 2000, 19.3 percent of Texas children enrolled in Medicaid lived in rural areas; by 2004, rural children represented 16.5 percent of Texas enrollees.

Children enrolled in Medicaid, percent change from previous year

Texas children (0-18) enrolled in Medicaid 350,000

1,600,000

40%

300,000

1,400,000

30%

250,000

1,200,000

20%

1,000,000

200,000

10%

800,000

150,000 100,000 Rural

50,000

Urban

0

600,000

0%

400,000

-10%

200,000

Rural

0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1.0% -3.6% -9.0% 2.3% -0.2% 5.7% 22.7% 6.1% 11.4%

Urban -2.7% -6.7% -9.8% -1.4% 2.4% 8.6% 31.2% 20.7% 7.6%

Source for both charts: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

10

This chart includes data for TANF and its predecessor, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program (prior to 1997).

13


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Focus on rural youth

Texas Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Health Insurance Program Texas children enrolled in CHIP

From 2002 to 2003, the number of rural children enrolled in the Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Health Insurance Program decreased.

100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

Urban

Rural 2000

2001

2002

450,000 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0

2003

Source: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

Juvenile violent crimes decrease in rural Texas Number of juvenile violent crimes 620

In rural Texas, between 2001 and 2003, the number of arrests of children ages 10 to 17 for violent offenses decreased by seven percent.

4,650

610

4,600

600 590

4,550

580 4,500

570 560

4,450

Urban

Rural

550 540

4,400 2001

2002

2003

Source: Texas Department of Public Safety

More rural children are living in single parent families Percentage of Texas children living in single parent families

In 1990, 16 percent of rural children (0-17 years) lived in families headed by a parent without a spouse present in the home. Between 1990 and 2000, the percentage of such children grew to 20 percent.

Year

Rural

Urban

Texas

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

2000

166,673

20%

1,060,519

21%

1,227,192

21%

1990

125,355

16%

759,865

19%

885,220

18%

Change

41,318

4%

300,654

2%

341,972

3%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

14


Rural Texas: Wrangling with Change

Focus on rural youth

Higher rates of rural children live in family violence shelters Children in family violence shelters, per 1,000 Rural

3.6

Urban

From 2000 to 2003, the rate of rural children living in family violence shelters increased from 2.9 children per 1,000 to 3.5 children per 1,000.

3.2

2.8

2.4 2000

2001

2002

2003

Source: Texas Health and Human Services Commission

Number of confirmed victims of child abuse increases markedly Confirmed victims of child abuse (0-17) 12,000

60,000

10,000

50,000

8,000

40,000

6,000

30,000

4,000

20,000

2,000

Rural

From 2001 to 2004, the number of confirmed victims of child abuse in rural Texas grew by 25 percent (nearly 1,800 children). The numerical increase was from 7,281 in 2001 to 9,068 in 2004.

10,000

Urban

0

19 90 19 91 19 92 19 9 19 3 94 19 95 19 96 19 9 19 7 98 19 99 20 0 20 0 01 20 02 20 03 20 04

0

Source: Texas Department of Family and Protective Services

Child deaths in rural Texas Child deaths, Ages 1 to 14, 1990 to 2003 300

1,200

250

1,000

200

800

150

600

100

400

50

Rural

Urban

200 0

19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03

0

The number of child deaths in rural Texas fluctuates annually, but has shown an overall decrease since 1990. In 2003, 19 percent of child deaths in Texas took place in rural areas. In 2003, rural children represented 13 percent of Texasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; overall child population (824,217 of 6,108,755).

Source: Texas Department of State Health Services

15


About this report This report was prepared by Kim White and Eric Beverly, Governmental Relations, Research, and Policy Specialists with the Office of Rural Community Affairs Map prepared by Dave Darnell, Rural Health Specialist, with the Office of Rural Community Affairs

Other reports on the Status of Rural Texas Series The Status of Rural Texas, 2002 The Status of Rural Texas, 2003 The Status of Rural Texas, 2004 Small Town Texas, 2005

16


1700 N. Congress, Suite 220, Austin, Texas 78701 P.O. Box 12877, Austin, Texas 78711 Phone: 512-936-6701 Toll Free: 800-544-2042 Fax: 512-936-6776 Email: orca@orca.state.tx.us Web: www.orca.state.tx.us

Field Offices Alice Field Office (Jim Wells County) Jim Wells County Courthouse 200 N. Almond Alice, TX 78332 Phone: 361-661-1665 Fax: 361-661-1675

Levelland Field Office (Hockley County) 1611 FM 300 Levelland, TX 79336 Phone: 806-897-1113 Fax: 806-897-1114

Bedias Field Office (Grimes County) 3512 E. Main Street Bedias, TX 77831 Phone: 936-395-2456 Fax: 936-395-2457

Nacogdoches Field Office (Nacogdoches County) 202 East Pilar, Room 303 Nacogdoches, TX 75961 Phone: 936-560-4188 Fax: 936-560-9182

Carrizo Springs Field Office (Dimmit County)* 307 W. Nopal Street Carrizo Springs, TX 78834 Phone: TBA Fax: TBA * To open early 2007.

Sweetwater Field Office (Nolan County) 201 Elm Street Sweetwater, TX 79556 Phone: 325-236-9672 Fax: 325-236-9722

Kountze Field Office (Hardin County) Hardin County Courthouse Annex 440 Monroe (Highway 326) Kountze, TX 77625 Phone: 512-914-3723 Fax: TBA

Vernon Field Office (Wilbarger County) Vernon College 4400 College Drive Vernon, TX 76384 Phone: 940-553-3556 Fax: 940-553-3560

LaGrange Field Office (Fayette County) 254 North Jefferson Street, Room 100 LaGrange, TX 78945 Phone: 979-968-6764 Fax: 979-968-8714

Hard copies of this report are printed on 30% recycled paper. To obtain copies of this report, contact us or access the report online at www.orca.state.tx.us

2006 Status of Rural Texas - Wrangling with Change  

A demographic report on conditions and trends in rural Texas.

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