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Rural Texas by the Numbers THE STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Office of Rural Community Affairs Charles S. (Charlie) Stone, Executive Director


December 31, 2008 The Honorable Rick Perry Governor, State of Texas

The Honorable Tom Craddick Speaker of the House of Representatives, State of Texas

The Honorable David Dewhurst Lieutenant Governor, State of Texas

The Honorable Members 81st Legislature

House Bill 7 (77th Legislature) created the Office of Rural Community Affairs (ORCA) and set forth the following requirement: “The office shall…compile an annual report describing and evaluating the condition of rural communities.” The following report is offered in fulfillment of the aforementioned requirement and provides a snapshot of where rural Texas stands today. The report speaks to the broad spectrum of issues that affect rural communities across our state. Currently, the population of rural Texas exceeds the population of 22 individual states and is greater than the combined populations of Alaska, North Dakota, Vermont, Wyoming, and the District of Columbia. Each rural community contributes significantly to the people of the state of Texas and Texas’ economy. In addition to offering a vast array of tourism and recreational opportunities, rural Texas is the primary source of agricultural products, livestock, water, and mineral wealth that enhance the vitality of the Texas economy. In every sense of the word, rural communities are partners in the past, present, and future successes of Texas. Indeed, the viability of rural Texas is critical to the viability of Texas as a state. And because rural, suburban, and urban areas of Texas are inextricably linked, successes in rural Texas are successes for all Texans. It is our hope that this seventh report on the status of rural Texas will contribute to the ongoing dialogue that is shaping Texas’ future. The report highlights some of the complex and diverse issues affecting rural Texas. We will continue to monitor developments with all interested parties to maintain an objective focus on the status of life in rural communities. Thank you on behalf of the ORCA Governing Board and the staff of the agency for the opportunity to contribute to the future of our rural communities. Respectfully submitted,

Charles S. (Charlie) Stone Executive Director


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

About this report Highlights This report provides statistics and data for rural Texas. Highlights of this report include: • Updated estimates on rural Texas’ population (2008); • Updated estimates for the race, ethnicity, and age of the rural population (2007); • Updated estimates for rural housing units (2007); • Updated information on physicians in rural Texas (2008); • Updated county poverty rate estimates (2005); • New entrepreneurship indicators (2006); • Updated county unemployment rates (2007 annual averages); and • Updated personal income and per capita income data (2006).

Rural In this report, a county is “rural” if, under the 1993 U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) classification scheme for counties, that county is outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area or nonmetropolitan.

Urban In this report, a county is “urban” if, under the 1993 OMB classification scheme, that county is considered to be part of a Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Rural-urban continuum codes Rural-urban continuum codes form a classification scheme that distinguishes metropolitan or “urban” counties by the population size of their metro area, and nonmetropolitan or “rural” counties by the degree of urbanization and adjacency to a metro area or areas. Urban counties have continuum codes ranging from zero to three; rural counties have continuum codes ranging from four to nine. Description of the rural-urban continuum codes Code

Description

Urban counties: 0

Central counties of metro areas of 1 million population or more.

1

Fringe counties of metro areas of 1 million population or more.

2

Counties in metro areas of 250,000 to 1 million population.

3

Counties in metro areas of fewer than 250,000 population.

Rural counties: 4

Urban population of 20,000 or more, adjacent to a metro area.

5

Urban population of 20,000 or more, not adjacent to a metro area.

6

Urban population of 2,500 to 19,999, adjacent to a metro area.

7

Urban population of 2,500 to 19,999, not adjacent to a metro area.

8

Completely rural or less than 2,500 urban population, adjacent to a metro area.

9

Completely rural or less than 2,500 urban population, not adjacent to a metro area.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

Note: The rural-urban continuum codes in the table above will be referred to throughout the document.

1


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Texas counties by rural-urban continuum code

2


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Texas’ rural and urban counties

Legend

Rural (Codes 4-9)

Urban (Codes 0-3)

3


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Rural population, 2008 As of January 1, 2008, Texas had the largest rural population in the nation with 3,305,814 residents.1 Rural Texas has added nearly 145,874 people since 2000. 2000 Census count

January 1, 2008 population estimate

Numerical change, 20002008

252,316

257,324

5,008

313,612

328,545

14,933

1,648,785

1,750,876

102,091

680,562

695,974

15,412

163,526

172,282

8,756

101,139

100,813

(326)

3,159,940

3,305,814

145,874

Rural county type 4 - With urban population of 20,000 or more, adjacent to a urban area 5 - With urban population of 20,000 or more, not adjacent to a urban area 6 - With urban population of 2,500-19,999, adjacent to a urban area 7 - With urban population of 2,500-19,999, not adjacent to a urban area 8 - Completely rural or less than 2,500 urban population, adj. to urban area 9 - Completely rural or less than 2,500 urban population, not adj. to urban area Total

The population growth in rural Texas extends across all rural county types, with the exception of rural counties that are completely rural or less than 2,500 urban population and not adjacent to an urban area.2 Population change from 2000-2008, by rural county type 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 4

5

6

7

8

9

(20,000)

Most of rural Texas’ population growth (69 percent) between 2000 and 2008 has taken place in rural counties with an urban population of 2,500-19,999 that are also adjacent to an urban area.3

1

The source for the population estimate is the Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer. We use the 1993 U.S. Office of Management and Budget Classification Scheme and equate “metropolitan” with “urban” and “nonmetropolitan” with “rural.” 2 For this measure, the definition of “urban” is different. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service, “The Census Bureau made a radical shift in determining Rural-Urban boundaries by changing and liberalizing the procedures for delineating urbanized areas of 50,000 or more people, and abandoning place boundaries in measuring urban or rural population. The procedures used in defining Urbanized Areas were extended down to clusters of 2,500 or more people, based solely on population density per square mile. In this manner, lightly settled sections of municipalities were treated as rural and densely settled areas adjoining urban cores were treated as urban, regardless of whether they were incorporated or not.” 3 Ibid. 4


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Race, ethnicity and age of the rural population According to 2007 estimates from the State Demographer’s office, rural Texans represented 13.8 percent of Texas’ overall population. By age group, rural Texas had slightly fewer children ranging from birth to age five (expressed as a percentage of Texas’ overall population) and significantly more individuals 65 years or greater in age.

Rural Texas as a percentage of Texas' total population, by age group and ethnicity

Age range

4

5

6

Birth to 5 6 to 18 19 to 45 46 to 64 65+ All ages

21,990 47,160 103,461 53,950 30,740 257,301

30,494 64,895 119,177 71,273 42,337 328,176

142,062 316,783 598,693 419,092 269,017 1,745,647

Birth to 5 6 to 18 19 to 45 46 to 64 65+ All ages

11,878 23,907 43,948 17,573 7,554 104,860

15,423 30,792 49,846 22,282 10,323 128,666

55,896 112,911 191,070 77,480 32,261 469,618

Birth to 5 6 to 18 19 to 45 46 to 64 65+ All ages

2,232 5,711 14,653 5,757 2,597 30,950

2,979 6,917 12,423 6,564 3,106 31,989

11,542 26,806 61,988 30,550 16,606 147,492

Birth to 5 6 to 18

7,577 16,838

11,679 26,324

73,582 174,302

19 to 45 46 to 64 65+ All ages

42,966 29,767 20,275 117,423

55,202 41,468 28,537 163,210

339,793 306,683 218,331 1,112,691

7

8

Total population 57,959 11,423 122,033 28,965 227,275 53,130 164,772 47,409 123,102 30,869 695,141 171,796

9

Rural Texas total

Rural percentage

Texas total

6,649 16,002 29,343 25,831 22,855 100,680

270,577 595,838 1,131,079 782,327 518,920 3,298,741

11.9% 13.1% 11.8% 15.2% 22.1% 13.8%

2,267,413 4,538,952 9,590,867 5,160,152 2,346,996 23,904,380

1,908 4,263 7,359 3,333 1,951 18,814

115,423 232,585 394,214 165,771 73,466 981,459

10.4% 11.8% 10.0% 12.7% 16.3% 11.2%

1,109,287 1,978,890 3,945,873 1,308,485 449,451 8,791,986

Hispanic 27,767 2,551 54,657 6,055 91,061 10,930 40,141 4,962 18,944 2,433 232,570 26,931 African American 2,882 1,034 6,878 2,352 17,176 3,945 7,935 2,790 4,607 1,891 39,478 12,012 Anglo 27,072 7,783 59,665 20,353

532 1,305 2,298 1,282 932 6,349

21,201 49,969 112,483 54,878 29,739 268,270

8.2% 8.3% 9.8% 9.5% 14.8% 9.6%

257,739 605,178 1,142,013 576,328 201,618 2,782,876

4,199 10,306

131,892 307,788

16.2% 17.2%

815,698 1,789,665

117,167 115,287 98,889 418,080

19,471 21,031 19,839 74,846

612,425 553,501 412,214 2,017,820

15.1% 18.2% 25.4% 17.8%

4,059,550 3,046,828 1,625,973 11,337,714

10 128 215 185 133 671

2,061 5,496 11,957 8,177 3,501 31,192

2.4% 3.3% 2.7% 3.6% 5.0% 3.1%

84,689 165,219 443,431 228,511 69,954 991,804

37,826 39,265 26,343 131,570 Other Birth to 5 303 413 1,042 238 55 6 to 18 704 862 2,764 833 205 19 to 45 1,894 1,706 5,842 1,871 429 46 to 64 853 959 4,379 1,409 392 65+ 314 371 1,819 662 202 All ages 4,068 4,311 15,846 5,013 1,283 Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

Nearly 74 percent of rural children ranging in age from birth to 5 years of age reside in counties with a rural-urban continuum code of six or seven. Nearly 76 percent of individuals 65 and greater reside in those same types of counties. Rural counties with a continuum code of six have an urban population of 2,500 to 19,999 and are adjacent to a metro area. Rural counties with a continuum code of seven have an urban population of 2,500 to 19,999, but are not adjacent to a metro area.

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RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Rural Texas experiences an increase in net migration Between 1990 and 2000, rural areas of Texas (both adjacent and nonadjacent to urban areas) saw an increase in net migration4. Between 1990 and 2000, rural areas adjacent to urban areas saw the largest influx and achieved a net migration rate of 10 percent. During the 1980s, migration to rural areas adjacent to urban areas had been negligible. Net migration, net migration rates, and annualized net migration rates 1980-1990 and 1990-2000, and the percent of population change due to migration for urban and rural areas in Texas, 1990-2000 Net migration rate (Percent)

Annualized net migration rate (Percent)

19801990

19801990

Net migration 19801990

19902000

Urban central city

460,477

835,380

5

7

0.5

0.7

35

Urban suburban

511,956

879,913

28

35

2.8

3.5

77

4,466

190,692

0

10

0.0

1.0

70

-35,250

40,044

-4

5

-0.4

0.5

59

Area

Rural adjacent Rural nonadjacent

19902000

19902000

Percent change due to net migration 1990-2000

Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

Between 1990 and 2000, nonadjacent rural areas reversed the population loss experienced during the 1980s. Still, net migration rates were lower in nonadjacent rural areas when compared to adjacent rural areas—the net migration rate for nonadjacent rural areas was half that of adjacent rural areas during the 1990s. The higher net migration rates of rural areas adjacent to urban areas reflect the ongoing suburbanization and exurbanization5 of Texas.

Fastest growth rural areas are adjacent to urban areas Between 1980 and 1990, rural areas adjacent to urban areas grew more than three times faster than nonadjacent rural areas. Between 1990 and 2000, this trend continued with rural areas adjacent to urban areas growing by 14 percent. From 1990 to 2000, nonadjacent rural areas showed increased strength by gaining population at a rate four times higher than in the previous decade. Population and population change for urban and rural areas in Texas, 1980-1990 and 1990-2000 Population

Numerical change

Percent change

1980

1990

2000

1980-1990

1990-2000

19801990

19902000

Urban central city

9,731,481

11,615,291

13,993,705

1,883,810

2,378,414

19

20

Urban suburban

1,811,073

2,550,367

3,698,175

739,294

1,147,808

41

45

Rural adjacent

1,841,723

1,962,353

2,234,027

120,630

271,674

7

14

844,914

858,499

925,913

13,585

67,414

2

8

Area

Rural nonadjacent

Source: Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer

4

The net migration rate is the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time. A positive value indicates that more people are entering an area than leaving it. Exurbanization is a term describing the growth of a ring of rural communities beyond suburban areas that become dormitory communities for urban areas.

5

6


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Poverty 2005 Census poverty estimates (the most recent available) indicate that in 2005 the poverty rate in the United States stood at 13.3 percent and the overall Texas poverty rate stood at 17.5 percent. In 2005, the poverty rate for rural Texas stood at 19.7 percent. In 2005, poverty rates in rural Texas counties ranged from 7.3 percent to 45.7 percent. In Texas overall, county poverty rates ranged from 5 percent to over 45.7 percent. In 2005, poverty rates for individuals 18 and under living in rural Texas counties ranged from 10 percent to 55.5 percent. In Texas overall, county poverty rates for individuals 18 and under ranged from 7.2 percent to 55.5 percent. Census poverty estimates, 2005 35%

30%

25%

20%

15%

10% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Rural-urban continuum All ages

Under age 18

Texas

This chart shows poverty rates for Texas’ rural and urban counties by ruralurban continuum code. Codes 0 to 3 cover urban areas, with 0 being the most densely urban, 4 to 9 cover rural counties with 9 being the least populous and most isolated geographically.

U.S.

Percent of counties with poverty that is greater than average, by rural and urban county type, 2005

This chart shows the percent of counties (by each of the rural-urban continuum codes) that have a poverty rate greater than the state average for the total population (greater than 17.5 percent), under 18 (24.7 percent), and ages 5 to 17 (22.6 percent).

120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Rural-urban continuum Total population

Under 18

Ages 5 to 17

7

9

10


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Housing unit estimates, 2007 According to 2007 Census estimates for housing units, the number of housing units in rural Texas increased by 4.7 percent (from 1,381,471 to 1,446,247 units) between 2000 and 2007. Texas’ overall housing stock grew by 15.6 percent during the same period. Change in housing units from 2000-2007, by rural county type 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 4

5

6

7

8

9

Rural-urban continuum

Two subsets of rural counties were responsible for most of the estimated growth: • Code 6, which is a rural county with an urban population of 2,500 to 19,999 that is adjacent to a metro area. Code 6 counties were responsible for 54.8 percent of rural Texas’ housing stock increase between 2000 and 2007; and • Code 7, which is a rural county with an urban population of 2,500 to 19,999 that is not adjacent to a metro area. Code 7 counties were responsible for 18.5 percent of rural Texas’ housing stock increase.

Survey on the local perception of housing needs From March to May 2006, the Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs (TDHCA) conducted a survey of the housing and community development needs, issues and problems at the state, regional and local levels. The survey was distributed to state representatives, state senators, mayors, county judges, city managers, housing/planning departments, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) local offices, public housing authorities, councils of government, community action agencies, and Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) agencies for total of 2,529 individuals and entities. The survey had a 17.2 percent response rate. In an effort to assess top housing needs for rural Texas, the Office of Rural Community Affairs reviewed TDHCA’s survey and identified responses from rural communities’ and from entities representing rural Texas. Approximately 85 percent of the survey respondents were rural communities or represented rural communities. According to the survey responses, rural communities identified housing assistance, development of rental units, and energy assistance as their top needs. Assistance for homeless persons and capacity building assistance received the least needed ranking or was given a no preference response. 8


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Survey on the local perception of housing needs Answer Choice

Number of responses per need rank (1 highest, 5 lowest), and percent of total responses within each activity No Total 1 2 3 4 5 Opinion Responses 114

62

49

22

1

14

43.5%

23.7%

18.7%

8.4%

0.4%

5.3%

58

51

72

34

32

23

21.5%

18.9%

26.7%

12.6%

11.9%

8.5%

66

98

72

37

9

9

22.7%

33.7%

24.7%

12.7%

3.1%

3.1%

14

22

34

61

127

51

4.5%

7.1%

11.0%

19.7%

41.1%

16.5%

49

35

57

90

70

41

14.3%

10.2%

16.7%

26.3%

20.5%

12.0%

262

Housing Assistance

Development of Rental Units

270

291

Energy Assistance

Assistance for Homeless Persons

309

342

Capacity Building

Housing Assistance Over half of the respondents identified home repair assistance as the highest need for housing assistance. Almost a quarter of the respondents identified assistance to purchase a home as the highest need for housing assistance.

Development of Rental Units For the development of rental units, over a third of the respondents identified construction of new rental units as the greatest needed activity. Also, a third of respondents responded that the need for both new construction and rehabilitation of rental units is the same as the need for the development of rental units.

Energy Assistance Both utility payment assistance and weatherization and minor home repairs were identified as the top activities with the greatest need for Energy Assistance activities by respondents.

Assistance for Homeless Persons Over half of the respondents identified that there is minimum need for assistance for homeless persons, and 18 percent had no opinion on the issue. Ten percent identified homeless prevention services as the greatest need activity for assistance for homeless persons.

Capacity Building Assistance Over a quarter of the respondents identified assistance with operating costs as greatest need activity for capacity building assistance. Nineteen percent of the respondents indicated that training and technical assistance was the greatest need activity.

For more information on housing needs in rural Texas, see the Office of Rural Community Affairs’ Biennial Report. 9


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Physicians in rural Texas, 2008 According to September 2008 data from the Texas Medical Board, 230 of 254 counties in Texas reported having at least one physician. Of the 24 counties lacking at least one physician, all were rural. Seventeen rural counties had one physician and 20 rural counties had two physicians. Percent of Texas' physicians compared with percent of Texas' population, by county type, 2008 70% 60%

This chart shows the distribution of physicians in Texas compared with the distribution of Texas’ population.

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Rural-urban continuum code Percent of Texas' physicians, by county type

Percent of Texas' population, by county type

Male and female doctors, by county type 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Male

50%

Female

40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Rural-urban continuum

10

9

This chart shows the percentage of male and female physicians in differing rural and urban counties. In Texas overall, 73 percent of physicians are male. In rural Texas, 81 percent of physicians are male.


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Personal income and per capita personal income In 2006, per capita income was $36,714 in the United States and $35,166 in Texas. Rural per capita income continued to trail Texas’ overall per capita income at roughly 75 percent of the state’s average per capita income. From 2004 to 2006, per capita personal income in rural Texas grew from $23,313 to $26,243. During the same time period, the percentage of Texas’ total personal income that came from rural counties slipped from 9.9 percent to 9.5 percent. Per capita personal income6 (dollars)

Personal income (millions of dollars) Area name Texas Texas – Urban counties Texas – Rural counties Percentage of Texas’ total personal income coming from rural counties Rural per capita income as a percentage of Texas’ per capita income

2004

2005

2006

694,925 626,346 68,579

759,622 686,403 73,219

823,159 745,364 77,795

9.9%

9.6%

9.5%

Percent change 2005-20067 2004 8.4% 30,948 8.6% 32,099 6.2% 23,313

2005

2006

33,253 34,502 24,824

35,166 36,460 26,243

75.3%

74.7%

74.6%

Source: http://www.bea.gov/bea/regional/reis/scb.cfm

Unemployment, 2007 According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Texas had a 4.3 percent annual average for unemployment in 2007. For the same time period, rural Texas had a slightly higher unemployment rate of 4.5 percent. Two types of rural counties had the highest unemployment: • Code 4 counties (rural counties with an urban population of 20,000 or more that are adjacent to a metro area) had an annual average unemployment rate of 4.8 percent; and • Code 5 counties (rural counties with an urban population of 20,000 or more that are not adjacent to a metro area) counties had an annual average unemployment rate of 5.5 percent. Unemployment (annual average), by county type, 2007 6.0% 5.5% 5.0% 4.5% 4.0% 3.5% 3.0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Rural-urban continuum

6 7

Per capita personal income was computed using Census Bureau midyear population estimates. Percent change calculated from unrounded data. 11


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Entrepreneurship indicators In 2006, United States non-farm proprietor employment accounted for nearly 19 percent of total nonfarm employment. In the same year, the figure for Texas stood at 20.1 percent.

Non-farm proprietors as a percentage of total non-farm employment 40% 35% 30%

In rural Texas, non-farm proprietor employment accounted for 26.1 percent of total nonfarm employment.

25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

rural-urban continuum

Rural counties with rural-urban continuum codes of 8 and 9 had the highest percentage of non-farm proprietor employment at 36 percent and 34.7 percent, respectively.

Code 8 counties are counties that are completely rural or have less than 2,500 in urban population and are adjacent to a metro area. Code 9 counties are counties that are completely rural or have less than 2,500 in urban population and are not adjacent to a metro area.

Non-farm proprietors income as a percentage of total county personal income, by county type

In 2006, at the national level, nonfarm proprietors’ income accounted for 9 percent of total personal income.

25%

20%

During the same time period, in Texas, non-farm proprietors accounted for 15.2 percent of total personal income. In rural Texas counties, the percentage ranged from 1.7 percent to 26.5 percent.

15%

10%

5%

0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

rural-urban continuum

12


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

Entrepreneurship indicators (continued)

2006 income per non-farm proprietor, by county type

In 2006, the average income per non-farm proprietor in the United States was $29,950. In Texas, the figure stood at $47,214.

$80,000 $70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

rural-urban continuum Income per non-farm proprietor, 2006

Texas

U.S.

9

The average income per non-farm proprietor in Texas counties ranged from just over $5,000 to $112,631. For rural Texas counties, the highest income average was $42,765.

Small businesses power rural Texas The Texas Workforce Commission (TWC) indicates that 70,350 business reporting units were operating in rural Texas in the first quarter of 2006 with an average of 14 workers per unit. The Texas average is 23 workers per unit. According to the information used by the SOCRATES labor market information system at TWC, in the fall of 2004, rural Texas had approximately 23,086 establishments which employed 10 or more employees. More than half of establishments (51 percent) employed between approximately 10 and 19 employees; 31 percent employed between 20 and 49 employees; and nearly 12 percent employed between 50 and 99 employees. The remaining six percent of firms employed 100 or more persons. In 2006, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the average wage per job in rural Texas counties ranged from $19,924 to $60,181.

13


RURAL TEXAS BY THE NUMBERS

STATUS OF RURAL TEXAS, 2008

The rural commute Cars dominate the rural commute. Rural public transportation is nearly nonexistent. According to the 2000 Census, only 2,716 workers in rural Texas reported using any form of public transportation to get to work. Nearly 93 percent of rural Texans (1,133,061 persons 16 and over) drove their car to work. Among those that drove to work, 83 percent (942,400) drove to work alone while roughly 17 percent (190,661) car pooled. More than two percent of rural Texans walked to work, 1.2 percent (14,571) used other means to get to work, and 3.2 percent (38,665) worked at home. These methods of commuting to work compare to statewide results as follows: car alone (84.3 percent), car pool (15.7 percent), public transportation (1.9 percent), walked (1.9 percent), other means (0.9 percent), and worked at home (2.8 percent).8

Percentage of Texans that drove to work, drove alone, or carpooled (2000) 100% 90%

This chart focuses on individuals that drove to work in a car, truck or van. Across the ruralurban continuum, little variation is shown.

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0

1

2

3

4

Drove in car, truck or van

8

5

6

7

Drove alone

8 Carpooled

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2000) 14

9


Credits and acknowledgements Written and researched by staff from the Office of Rural Community Affairs except where noted Researched and written by: Eric Beverly and Kim White with the exception of “Survey on the local perception of housing needs,� which was written by Alexandra Gamble in consultation with Brenda Hull (of the Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs) Maps by: Dave Darnell and Eric Beverly

Layout and design by: Eric Beverly Special thanks to: SOCRATES, Texas Workforce Commission Texas State Data Center and the Office of the State Demographer


1700 N. Congress, Suite 220, Austin, Texas 78701 P.O. Box 12877, Austin, Texas 78711 Phone: 512-936-6701 Toll Free: 800-544-2042 Fax: 512-936-6776 Email: orca@orca.state.tx.us Web: www.orca.state.tx.us

FIELD OFFICES Bedias (Grimes County) 3512 E. Main Street Bedias, Texas 77831 Phone: 936-395-2456 Fax: 936-395-2457

La Grange (Fayette County) 254 North Jefferson Street Room 100 LaGrange, Texas 78945 Phone: 979-968-6764 Fax: 979-968-8714

Rusk (Cherokee County) 165 East Sixth Street. Suite 301 P.O. Box 152 Rusk, Texas 75785 Phone: 903-683-4251 Fax: 903-683-4261

Bishop (Nueces County) 115 South Ash Suite 106B Bishop, Texas 78343 Phone: 361-584-8928 Fax: 361-584-8949

Levelland (Hockley County) 1611 FM 300 Levelland, Texas 79336 Phone: 806-897-1113 Fax: 806-897-1113

Sweetwater (Nolan County) 201 Elm Street Sweetwater, Texas 79556 Phone: 325-236-9672 Fax: 325-236-9722

Kountze (Hardin County) Hardin County Courthouse Annex 440 Monroe (Highway 326) Kountze, Texas 77625 Phone: 512-914-3723 Fax: 409-246-8721

Nacogdoches (Nacogdoches County) 202 East Pilar, Room 303 Nacogdoches, Texas 75961 Phone: 936-560-4188 Fax: 936-560-9182

Vernon (Wilbarger County) Vernon College 4400 College Drive Vernon, Texas 76384 Phone: 940-553-3556 Fax: 940-553-3560

Hard copies of this report are printed on 30% recycled paper.


2008 Status of Rural Texas  

A demographic report on conditions and trends in rural Texas.

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