n these verses, EMI has found much of the inspiration for our mission.
We believe the God who created the world has established His plan and revealed His heart to reach all the nations of the earth, enabling us to be His hands and feet to serve those bound by poverty in many dimensions – physical, emotional, social, and spiritual.
The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners,… to comfort all who mourn, and provide for those who grieve... They will rebuild the ancient ruins and restore the places long devastated; they will renew the ruined cities that have been devastated for generations.
Isaiah 61:1-4 (excerpts, NIV) Is not this the kind of fasting I have chosen: to loose the chains of injustice and untie the cords of the yoke, to set the oppressed free and break every yoke? Is it not to share your food with the hungry and to provide the poor wanderer with shelter…? If you do away with the yoke of oppression, …and if you spend yourselves in behalf of the hungry and satisfy the needs of the oppressed, then your light will rise in the darkness, and your night will become like the noonday. The LORD will guide you always; he will satisfy your needs in a sunscorched land and will strengthen your frame. You will be like a well-watered garden, like a spring whose waters never fail. Your people will rebuild the ancient ruins and will raise up the age-old foundations; you will be called Repairer of Broken Walls, Restorer of Streets with Dwellings.
Isaiah 58:6-12 (excerpts, NIV)
Table of Contents Project Trip
Trip Overview - 20 Top Ten List - 21 Technical Design - 22-29 Devotionals - 30
Reverse Culture Shock - 31 Staying Involved - 32-33 Thank You - 33
Blood type: ___________________________
My allergies: ___________________________
Safety and Security - 12-13 Culture Shock -14 Cultural Preparation - 15 Values - 16-17 Religion - 18-19
In Country Host: ________________________ Phone: ________________________________ Embassy Ph: ___________________________ Other Ph: ______________________________ Name: ________________________________ Emergency Contact: _____________________ Phone: ________________________________
My medications, conditions & treatments:
Spiritual Preparation - 5 Support Raising - 6 Finaces and Accountability of EMI - 7 Pre-trip Checklist - 8 Packing Tips - 9 General Packing List - 10-11
Leader in-country Ph : _____________________
Medical - let your project leader know the following
Introduction - 1 EMIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Vision and Mission - 2 History - 2 The Ministry of EMI - 3 Doctrine - 4
Emergency Contact Card - keep on your person
Project leader: __________________________ USA Phone: _____________________________ EMI Offices:
- United States: (+1) 719 - 633 - 2078 - Canada: (+1) 403 - 202 - 3642 - India: email@example.com - Uganda: firstname.lastname@example.org - United Kingdom: (+44) 01865 - 236350
Travel Agent: __________________________ Airline: ________________________________ If you are delayed in transit, contact the airline for the next available flight to your destination. Also contact EMI and your project leader in-country as soon as you are able. If no one answers, leave a message containing: your name, your project, destination, flight information, and arrival time.
radling a baby boy, a Sierra Leonean woman entered the orphanage gates and walked toward the caretaker; the EMI team stopped their work and intently observed. The child was rescued from the beach where he was left by his parents to die at high tide because he had scabies. Without hesitation the caretakers began to tend to the boil on his head and the infection on his ear. A rush of compassion filled the EMI team as the feeling of helplessness fought against their desire to serve.
How could a group of design professionals assist a hurting child in such a desperate situation? As the ministry leader explained to the EMI team that the orphanage was already beyond capacity, the team discovered their purpose. Out of their emotional distress they found a new passion and resolve in their call to design an expansion for additional children at the orphanage. This is an example of why EMI exists, and it is our privilege to welcome you to the family. Thank you for following God’s leading to join EMI on what will be an inspirational experience for your team, the ministry you will serve, and the hearts you will touch.
This trip guide will help you prepare for the trip emotionally, spiritually, and culturally. Come ready to minister with boldness and humility through many forms of service. Who knows, God may very well have been preparing you for such a time as this. Welcome to ministry with EMI.
“Everything looks different now. I feel differently about everything. Words cannot express what I saw, what God showed me, and how important it was.” - a volunteer’s first EMI experience
EMI’s Vision and Mission
EMI’s vision is to design a world of hope for the physically and spiritually poor.
MI’s mission is to mobilize design professionals to minister to the less fortunate in developing nations. We proclaim the Gospel of Jesus as we enable others to change their world by designing development projects sponsored by those who serve the poorest of the world’s poor. Our commitment is to enrich the lives of those who give and those who receive.
“Where there is no vision, the people perish.” Proverbs 29:18 a (KJV)
n the spring of 1981, on the island of Saipan, the Lord inspired the vision of EMI. The island had been hit by a typhoon and people were trying to rebuild their lives. While serving on a short-term ministry trip, one of the volunteers found that his skills and abilities as a structural engineer were greatly needed. From this experience a mission was established by God to involve design professionals in ministry to the unreached and the impoverished. From this vision, EMI was founded in May of 1982 and has been serving ministries ever since.
EMI provides an avenue for design professionals to discover, beyond their borders, places where they can apply their skills in ways that serve the needs of people living in the Majority World*. While experiencing the often hard realities of life in the Majority World, design professionals have the opportunity to fellowship with national believers and develop friendships that lead to the sharing of their own faith.
The Ministry of EMI
he three-fold ministry of EMI is to serve the poor, client ministries, and volunteers. This works itself out in our entire organization and every program we undertake. Project trips are the primary way EMI carries out its purpose and ministry. By applying your design skills to serve the Majority World, EMI project trips provide you with a meaningful and challenging technical experience. Through adapting your skill set to the dynamics of this new setting, the EMI team can effectively meet the design needs of the client ministry and accomplish one of EMI’s primary roles in the Body of Christ. Along with the significant technical component of the trip, there will be plenty of time to build relationships with other people. Try to meet and get to know at least one team member, one client ministry worker, and one national. By doing this, you are carrying out the three-fold ministry of EMI. God has purposely brought your team, the client ministry, and the location together at this specific time. In addition to your technical work, look for relational opportunities to be used by God to serve and to minister. *Majority World: a term that refers to regions where most of the world lives, namely Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Western: a term used to describe the modern culture of western Europe and North America. Note: This term was coined by church leaders at the 2004 Lausanne Committee for World Evangelism to replace the potentially offensive terms, “third-world” and “developing world”. By 2000, more than two-thirds of the Christian church lived outside of western Europe and North America.
e affirm the Lausanne Covenant established at the International Congress on World Evangelization, Lausanne, Switzerland, July 1974. The following statement of faith is intended as a brief summary of what the Lausanne Covenant affirms more completely and expresses statements of faith historically held by EMI. EMI believes: 1. the Bible to be the inspired and only authoritative Word of God. 2. that there is one God, eternally existent in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 3. in the deity of our Lord Jesus Christ, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious and atoning death through His shed blood. We believe in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, and in His imminent and personal return in power and glory.
4. the Holy Spirit is a gift from God as promised by the Lord Jesus Christ to those who believe. The Holy Spirit brings about the conviction of sin and the new birth, bears witness of our adoption, and is the power behind Christian growth and ministry. 5. that all people are lost and guilty of sin. Jesus Christ is the only mediator between God and people. Salvation is brought about, not by works, but by faith in the work of Jesus Christ on the cross as a sacrifice for the sins of the world. 6. in the resurrection of everyone, both the saved and the lost; the saved unto the resurrection of life; and the lost unto the resurrection of damnation. 7. the Church is at the very center of God’s cosmic purpose and represents the Body of Christ on earth.
“And if you give even a cup of cold water to one of the least of my followers, you will surely be rewarded.” - Matthew 10:42 (NLT)
s you prepare to serve the poor in the name of Christ across the nations, you will begin to notice the many sacrifices you are asked to make and the hardships you will potentially endure in order to participate in this mission. There is never a perfect time to leave behind your family, work responsibilities, church commitments, and personal comforts for two weeks in order to travel across the world to a strange land and serve the poor.
with others so they can be praying too, and make sure you have a team of people who are committed to praying for you before, during, and after your trip. Many people have also found it valuable to bring a journal to write down any concerns, prayer requests, unique experiences, lessons learned, and answers to prayer. This will also help equip you to share some of your experiences with your supporters and prayer team after you return.
As the time draws nearer, you are likely to realize just how inconvenient the timing of your trip actually is. In addition to the pressures of leaving your ordinary commitments, you may also experience the spiritual warfare of discouragement, distractions, and doubt that seem to make this a particularly bad time to go.
The Gospel requires us all to embrace a new “normal.” The “normal” of the Christian life across the world can be of hardship, uncertainty, risks, and persecution. Jesus called his disciples with no material guarantees, no physical benefits, and a call to leave family and possessions. They changed the world by their obedience, and still most of them died as martyrs. The sacrifice is real, make no mistake. But Jesus promises that the reward for such service starts now and far outweighs the sacrifice.
You are in a very real battle against a very real enemy who wants to destroy your commitment to this mission trip, but you can take very intentional steps to become equipped to overcome these obstacles in the face of difficulties. In addition to packing your bags, it is also essential that you prepare your heart. Prayer and time in God’s Word are foundational to preparing spiritually for your trip. We encourage you to spend time reading and meditating on the Scriptures daily in the weeks leading up to your trip, and to remain constant in prayer. Share your needs
“I tell you the truth, no one who has left home or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or fields for me and the gospel will fail to receive a hundred times as much in this present age... with persecutions, and in the age to come, eternal life.” Mark 10:29-30 (excerpts, NIV)
The greatest rewards you will ever experience come with the greatest sacrifices you make for the sake of His Kingdom. Volunteering on an EMI trip is rarely convenient or comfortable, but over and over our volunteers testify that their lives have been forever changed for the best.
f you choose to raise support, it can be one of the greatest privileges of your service to missions. It brings you to a realization of your dependence on the greater Body of Christ: how you are a single member who needs the whole Body, working in unity, to send you into the mission field. It gives other members of the Body the opportunity to share in the blessings of reaching the world in ways that they otherwise could not. At EMI, our staff, interns, and volunteers raise funds to serve the poorest of the poor. As you commit to serve with EMI on this project, we don’t ask that you do it alone. We encourage you to raise up a team of people that will not only support you financially, but will invest in prayer also. Even if you choose to personally finance your trip, please consider sending out a prayer letter.
EMI will provide you resources through your project leader to assist you in the process. There are a few actions you should take that are essential for successful support raising: • Pray • Determine who you should contact. This may include family, friends, church family, coworkers, and neighbors. Don’t limit yourself. You will be surprised who God uses to provide for your needs. • Contact your local church to find out the process for them to support you and follow their procedures. • Send out a letter (it is recommended that you send a hard copy). You can find an example on the volunteer resources page online. • Contact and follow up with those who verbally commit if you haven’t received funds. • Consider organizing special fund raising events such as a dinner in your home or at your church.
Support raising and volunteer resources are available at emiworld.org, click volunteer
Finances and Accountability of EMI
MI donates technical design services to ministries by mobilizing design professionals. Without charging client ministries, how does EMI survive financially? By the Body of Christ sharing together the financial burden of providing designs to those in need:
• The ministry being served provides the design team with meals, accommodation and transportation while in-country.
EMI is accountable to a Board of Trustees and is audited annually. EMI is a member of the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA), a voluntary member organization that maintains standards of accountability for ministries that convey God-honoring, ethical financial practices. Annual financial reports are available on our website at emiworld.org.
• More than 4,000 donors partner with EMI staff, interns, and volunteers each year to fund their work with EMI. • EMI is further funded through project sponsorships, EMI’s annual Golf Marathon, and more than 400 design professionals who partner with EMI through the Association of Christian Design Professionals (ACDP). The volunteer’s cost to participate in a design project is a combination of four general expense categories: • International travel • EMI trip fee • ACDP partnership • Miscellaneous in-country expenses. For more details about your specific project cost, contact your project leader.
n addition to preparing for the trip spiritually, please remember the following administrative items:
• Check with your project leader about your project’s in-country visa requirements.
• If you don’t have a passport already, apply for one immediately. Check with your project leader to see how and if you need to expedite your application.
• Check with your local health department or travel health nurse for immunization requirements and health tips for the country you will be visiting.
• Return your EMI commitment forms to your project leader: signed travel agreement, personal contact information form, and volunteer credit card form.
• Make a high-quality color scan of your passport and visa and e-mail them to your project leader and yourself so you can access a digital copy if needed. • Give your airline frequent flyer numbers to your project leader. If you aren’t a member of a frequent flyer program, consider applying; you might accrue several thousand miles on your journey! On your day of travel, be sure to present your number at the airline check-in desk. • Fill out the Emergency Contact Card in this packet and carry it with you on your trip. Your project leader can provide you with the project information.
You can find vaccine information through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at cdc.gov
1. Pack light: Travel in the Majority World is very stressful with a lot of luggage. You should try to be as flexible and mobile as possible since you may often be carrying your bags and equipment to many places. The list on the following pages should be honed down to the things you know you’ll need. You can also cut down on bulk and weight by using travel-sized toiletries. Find out from your trip leader if laundry services are available or bring some detergent and plan to do some laundry by hand.
2. Dress modestly: In much of the Majority
World, men and women cover much more of their skin and don’t wear form fitting clothing. Although clothing like shorts are listed in our packing list, in many countries men don’t wear shorts and women wear only skirts. Please verify with your project leader the dress codes of the country you are visiting.
4. Bring as little of value as possible: We
would encourage you not to bring expensive or cherished items you will regret losing. Items of value should always be carried on and kept close, including laptops, which are often needed for the trip. The items in checked baggage could more easily be damaged, lost, or stolen - use wisdom in choosing what you bring
5. Pack wisely: Make sure that shampoo bottles
aren’t going to open on your clothes by storing them in separate compartments and/or in Ziploc bags. Consider packing gifts for the ministry, which will leave room for souvenirs on the journey home.
3. Carry on all your essential items: Luggage
might be delayed or may not even arrive in country during a stay. Don’t let a lost bag prevent you from doing what you came to do. Be sure to pack a change of clothes and all your essential design equipment in your carry-on bag.
Check TSA regulations for the most up-to-date travel regulations at tsa.gov
General Packing List
or all of these items, check with your project leader for specifics about your trip. This list is meant to be generic and some of these items may not be needed. Keep in mind the climate you will be traveling to and the type of work you will be doing. You may need to bring additional items for the team or ministry. Text in white are items we suggest packing in your carry on Text in black are items we suggest packing in your checked baggage
To Keep on Person
1 complete change of clothes sandals / flip-flops lightweight shoes tie & dress shoes (for church)* 2 pairs of lightweight dress / casual pants shorts (below the knee)* 2 lightweight collared dress / casual shirts 2 tee-shirts 4 pairs of socks 4 pairs of underwear hat / bandana light jacket rain gear bathing suit*
unobtrusive security/travel wallet valid passport and visa plane tickets 2 photocopies of passport and visa 2 passport sized photos a copy of your travel medical insurance card the enclosed contact information card, completed cash *
daypack large backpack or duffel bag Ziploc bags (to keep sensitive/liquid items in)
Sleeping backpacking towel earplugs bed sheets * small sleeping bag * *verify with project leader **available at emiworld.org
items for contacts lenses & glasses (if applicable) feminine hygiene products (if applicable) toothbrush and small toothpaste deodorant small shampoo / conditioner (avoid floral or fruit scents which attract bugs) soap travel packet of toilet paper travel packet of tissues comb / brush shaving kit nail clippers small sunscreen small packet laundry detergent
this trip guide design guide for your discipline** calculator laptop computer w/ charging cable & design programs* voltage converter and plug adapter* USB drive notebook / clipboard trace paper / loose paper / grid paper drafting tape scales / ruler / triangles / etc. pens / pencils / markers / erasers / etc. other design references small tape measure (metric/English) compass*
small Bible journal camera w/ download & charging cables extra batteries sunglasses watch / battery clock flashlight snacks reading material photos of family (to show locals) water bottle pocket tool / knife (not in carry-on!) simple gifts for kids other items to donate to the ministry*
any personal medication needed ibuprofen tablets aspirin tablets malaria medicine* insect repellent anti-acid tablets anti-itch cream small hand sanitizer wet-wipe packets
(notify project leader)
We do NOT recommend anti-diarrhea medicine. If the problem is caused by bacterial infection, taking this medicine can be very dangerous.
Note: Check with your local health department for suggestions pertaining to immunizations and the protection of your health in the country you will be visiting. Out of respect for the ministries we are serving, we ask that you do not smoke or consume alcoholic beverages during this trip.
Safety and Security
MI brings the hope of Christ to some of the poorest people in our world. Poverty by its very nature creates conditions of instability unlike anything we witness in the Western world. As our brothers and sisters in Christ, your well-being is deeply important to us. Through the simple act of hosting an EMI team, the ministries we serve insulate us from many dangers. Although EMI makes every effort to shield its interns, volunteers, and staff from imminent danger, unpredictable and volatile situations may arise. These guidelines are intended to help minimize your risk and prepare you for those events that we hope never occur.
In a new environment…
ASK questions, WATCH your surroundings, and THINK ahead: • What emergencies are possible? • How will you respond? • Identify areas of safety & useful resources.
Be aware of your surroundings
Look up and down the street, keep an eye on your teammates, and look beyond your group. Slightly open your vehicle’s windows so you can hear what’s going on outside. If you pay attention to how the nationals are responding, you can pick up on clues that might indicate danger.
Avoid crowds and demonstrations
Be especially careful in markets and stay close to our team and ministry hosts.
Avoid drawing attention to yourself
Tourists are targets, so try to blend in by looking confident and dressing modestly according to the locally accepted dress code. Other tips: • Be aware of the volume of the nationals’ conversation and follow in suit. • Limit luggage, personal articles, & spending money • Take cheap cameras - consider leaving your most expensive camera at home
Don’t flash your wealth
Often in the Majority World, human life is considered much less valuable. If you are mugged, do not risk your life for the sake of money or possessions. Better yet, avoid getting robbed altogether by taking the following precautions: • Keep cash in several places on your body: money belts, socks, or undergarments. Consider carrying a fake wallet with a few dollars, expired credit cards, and a photo of your family. • Have a small amount of cash readily available for small purchases without exposing larger bills. • Don’t speak of cash in the presence of nonmembers of your team (drivers included)
Personal Travel Documentation
Always keep the enclosed Emergency Contact Card on your person along with your passport and visa. Once you are settled in a locale, carrying a photocopy may suffice and reduce risk of loss or theft. You should also have access to the digital copy of your passport you emailed to yourself (see Pretrip Checklist).
The Buddy System
Travel in pairs, not alone, and avoid traveling after dark. Always discuss with your project leader where you are going, who’s going with you, when you expect to return, and what to do if you aren’t back by that time.
Be careful when taking photographs
Don’t take pictures around airports, military personnel or installations. Also, some indigenous people do not like to have their photo taken - ask your project leader or the individual when in doubt.
“I am sending you out like sheep among wolves. Therefore be as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves.” – Jesus (from Matthew 10:16 NIV)
ou arrive at the airport and as soon as you step off the plane you are engulfed in a crowd of children begging for money, men trying to carry your bags, and drivers offering you a ride to your destination. The street is full of people and the air is thick with smog. As you emerge from the arrivals area, the ministry contact person points toward the taxi, which appears to be full already, but must somehow ﬁt everyone on your team and their luggage. If you thought it was hot and humid before you got in the taxi, now you are introduced to a new level of hot. People are sweating, children are crying, the driver is honking, swerving past crater-sized potholes, and careening through traffic lights which seem to have a purely decorative purpose. It feels like the car is surely going to run over someone, and you are just praying that by the grace of God you make it to the project site alive. Though you initially felt excited to come on this trip, now you feel nervous and out of control. How will you ever survive this adventure?
This is your first taste of culture shock.
For most of us, home feels comfortable because we feel like we fit in – we know what we’re doing and what is expected of us. When we enter new cultures we find that the game has changed, and usually, no one has bothered to hand us the new rule book. Suddenly, simple tasks are difficult and stressful. It takes more energy just to get through the day. This emotional and physical stress which comes from entering a new environment is called “culture shock.” Culture shock hits people in different ways and at different times, but there are several common symptoms. Denial tops the list. Unless we are warned about what to expect, we are tempted to explain away our culture shock saying, “I’m just tired,” or “people here just do things the wrong way.” Recognizing that all transitions are stressful and that culture shock is normal and temporary can help us greatly toward successful adjustment. Other indicators to look for include an upset stomach or headache, or changes in eating or sleeping. Emotional symptoms may include irritability, social withdrawal, or depression. In whichever way we experience culture shock, the key is to remember that it is normal and temporary. Over time, we will learn to play by the new set of rules.
he vision of EMI is cross-cultural, and with this vision comes both blessings and challenges. In order to successfully serve the ministries we visit, we need to be intentional about trying to understand and appreciate methods and world-views that are different from our own. As we do this, our own culture shock decreases, our effectiveness as designers increases, and relationships deepen with those we serve. Here are some tips on overcoming culture shock and learning to operate in another culture: 1. Begin each day by committing it to God. Ask him to guide and protect you, and to give you wisdom. 2. Try to get sufficient rest, nutrition and exercise. You learn & work better when youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re healthy. 3. Ask lots of questions. Your project leader and the local people can teach you a great deal. 4. Maintain a sense of humor. Learn to laugh at yourself (but not at others). 5. Resist the urge to complain. Instead, look for things for which you can be thankful. 6. Look for ways to interact with the local culture. Fight the urge to withdraw. 7. Journal. Record interesting, exciting, scary and frustrating experiences. 8. Distinguish between observation and interpretation. What do you see? What does it mean?
ultural values we hold often do not match the values of the cultures we enter. Comparing some of the values of two different culture types can help us understand, adjust and interact more effectively in the places we visit and at home.
Schedule = Reality Time is a valuable commodity that should not be wasted (like water in the desert). Schedules have priority over interruptions. Punctuality is important.
Western World Cultures
Direct and clear verbal or written communication is most polite. It is rude to say “yes” when the request is not possible. Negatives should be immediate and verbal so as not to waste another’s time. “Yes” means “yes” and “no” means “no.”
People should be treated equally regardless of age, status, and gender. Status symbols are avoided or down-played. Powerful people try to appear “down to earth” and like everyone else. Organizational structures are reverse-hierarchical (upside-down pyramid).
Majority World Cultures Moment = Reality Time is endless in supply (like water around a fish in the ocean). Relationships have priority. Schedules can always be changed.
Indirect, read-between-the-lines communication is most polite. It is rude to say “no” even if the request is impossible. Negatives should be couched in positive terms, body language, or silence. “Yes” may mean “yes,” “no,” “maybe,” or “I’m listening,” depending on context.
People should be treated according to age, status, and gender. Status symbols are important and obvious. Powerful people try to act in a way appropriate to their status, caring for subordinates like a parent for a child. Organizational structures are hierarchical (pyramid).
Adapted from an article by Sheri Skinner (Urban Ethnographic Associates, 2001).
ne of the greatest influences on society and culture is religion. Though in much of the Western world spirituality is seen as a private matter, people in developing countries often derive much of their identity from their religious community. For this reason, it is important to educate yourself before your trip regarding the dominant religion of the region. Keep in mind that even if a nation is predominantly Christian, their expression of Christianity may be very different from that with which you are familiar.
Islam holds to a belief in one God, a hierarchy of angels, and many prophets, the last and greatest of whom was Mohammed. Islam’s holy book, the Qur’an, teaches that there will be a day of judgment during which each person’s deeds will be weighed. Those whose good deeds outweigh the bad will go to Paradise and the rest will be condemned to Hell. Good deeds include a confession of faith, ritual prayers practiced five times daily, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca.
Hinduism is a diverse collection of beliefs, characterized by a caste system, polytheism, and belief in reincarnation. Prominent themes in Hinduism include dharma (ethics/duties), samsara (the continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), karma (actions and consequences), moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various yogas (disciplines).
According to Buddhist teaching, liberation from the cycle of suffering and death is called Nirvana. This is achieved by understanding the Four Noble Truths: 1. Life consists of suffering. 2. Everything is impermanent and ever-changing. We suffer because we desire those things that are impermanent. 3. The way to liberate oneself from suffering is by eliminating all desire. We must stop craving that which is impermanent. 4. Desire can be eliminated through wisdom, ethical conduct, and mental discipline.
Animism, sometimes known as “folk religion”, is often mixed with other religions to create a syncretistic belief system. Animists seek to appease, communicate with, and manipulate spiritual forces through rituals, superstition, and magic. Animists may believe in one supreme God, but they look to intermediate ancestors, spirits, and other gods for daily matters of life and well-being.
map adapted from Wikipedia
Be ready to lay down your expectations.
here is no such thing as a typical EMI trip; each one is unique. However, if we try to minimize the variables (which we as design professionals enjoy doing) there is a common format that the EMI trips takeâ&#x20AC;Ś
The EMI experience is a mixture of using our design skills to help the poor and experiencing God through various ministry activities, group devotionals, and interactions with fellow team members. Most of the team members will meet for the first time in an airport en route to the destination. During the opening gathering, team members will get to know each other and share how God came into their lives and brought them to EMI. On EMI trips, we have daily devotional discussions to remind us of our purpose for being on the trip. You may be expected to lead a devotional while on the trip.
The time spent in-country is critical to understanding the vision of the ministry and to collect all of the site information. Many times the team is unable go back and get pieces of information that were left behind, so volunteers must carefully document the site and gather all of the program information from the host ministry. With the use of laptop computers, quite a bit of work can be accomplished while on site. The team meets with the ministry many times during the trip to make sure the design is going in the proper direction. The goal is to complete as much work as possible while in-country (since it can become challenging for you if you bring too much work home). Near the end of the trip, the final schematic design is presented to the ministry and any guests that they choose to invite.
The Closing Time takes place at the end of the trip and often is a relational high point for the team. This is a time when the team members share what God has done in their lives during the trip and it also is a time to debrief and think about returning home. After the team members depart and return to their daily lives, they may need to continue working on their portions of the report and drawings until the package is complete. EMI will then send copies of the final report to the volunteers and ministry along with a project trip certificate which we hope you will display in your office or home to remind yourself of what God accomplished through the team on the trip.
Top Ten List - Ways to Have an Exceptional EMI Trip 1. Cultivate an attitude of humility and service. St. Francis of Assisi was reported to have said, “Preach the Gospel at all times, and when necessary, use words.” Few things communicate love better than performing even menial tasks with a cheerful attitude.
7. Encourage your team members. In a completely foreign environment, every bit of encouragement goes a long way. Get to know and understand each of them and their walks with God. Remember that project leaders also come under stress, so pray for and encourage them often as well.
2. Spend personal time in the Word. The trip will be extremely busy, but mission trips are great opportunities to hear from God in new and powerful ways. Group devotions and church services aren’t enough; be sure to reserve some time for your own personal communion with God.
8. Try it! You might like it. Sharing meals together is a common way to strengthen relationship. Don’t let a fear of germs keep you from appreciating our host’s local foods.
3. Be flexible. Because the Majority World is very much event- and relationship-oriented, we need to be careful to avoid binding ourselves to rigid schedules. As engineers and architects assembled to perform a specific task, this can be difficult. We need to understand, however, that God’s purposes may be bigger than the project and we shouldn’t ignore prime opportunities to share His love. 4. Be a listener. The book of James tells us to be quick to listen and slow to speak. Remember that our hosts have been immersed in their culture far longer than we have, so we should avoid pointing out ways we think they should do things differently.
9. Spread the word at home. The mission trip experience doesn’t have to end with you. Gently share with your friends, family, and church in a way that encourages them to want to know more or even go themselves. Remember that not everyone is called to missions, so avoid lecturing. 10. Remember your design commitment. Our final product, the design plans and report, is our ultimate demonstration of love to our hosts. Be sure to complete your portion of the design in a timely manner.
5. Avoid getting romantically involved with someone. This can not only distract you from your work and your integration with the team, but it could also damage our fragile witness in a world where progressive dating customs are quite foreign. 6. Learn some of the local language. Learn a little and use it a lot. It’s not hard and it’s a beautiful way to show we care about our hosts and their culture.
Technical Design Overview
esign in the Majority World can be radically different than we are used to. Basic design principles still apply, but design may differ from Western expectations. Development can be viewed like a ladder; If North America and Europe are on rung 9 or 10, for example, then most countries where EMI serves would probably be on rung 2 or 3. Our goal is not to design a facility to the 10th rung, but maybe the 3rd or 4th. Why? Because local contractors, who are not familiar with Western design standards, will think we over-designed it and do their own thing, or the facility will likely fall into disrepair because of a lack of appropriate replacement materials and equipment. So, instead, we try to introduce a few small changes to improve the safety and quality of life of the client ministry, while maintaining the long-term perspective that development needs to be gradual, not immediate.
It is important for all disciplines to design according to locally available materials and equipment. If it has to be imported, it will be 1) expensive, 2) difficult to find repair parts, and 3) difficult to find someone to maintain it. We also want to design according to the local construction practices. During the trip, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll visit construction sites to see local construction methods. Investing some time in researching the history and conditions surrounding the locality where you will be working may yield great insight as we strive to prepare a truly appropriate design. The following pages provide an overview of each of the technical design disciplines normally included on an EMI trip, but remember, the less complex the design is the better: easier to design, easier to build, easier to maintain.
Liability to EMI and our volunteers is greatly minimized because contractors are typically the ones providing quality assurances and are more liable than any designer. Also where there are professional registration requirements, the ministries we serve must take our designs to a local architect or engineer who then takes responsibility for the design.
or surveying on EMI projects, it helps to think in terms of preparing a map of the project site, versus a full-scale topographic survey. When preparing for the trip, see if there is any satellite imagery that covers your site. Also, find out what units should be used. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s much harder to convert an English drawing to metric than it is to survey in metric from the beginning. When selecting equipment to bring, realize typical equipment insurance does not cover survey equipment damaged in other countries. The use of a simple hand level, a compass, and tape can yield practical results. Permanent boundary stones, monuments, or reference points may not exist, so we must rely on the ministry to provide the location of the boundary, whether through a formal deed, a drawing, or just a verbal explanation (EMI does not get involved in conflict resolution or property rights). Base elevations may be taken from a GPS reading or simply assumed. Master planning is the foundation of most EMI projects. To meet this need, it is important to capture the features of a larger site in this general order: 1. the property line and shape of the site (this can be done quickly using a handheld GPS, and if done in a relatively short time, the results can be reasonably accurate);
2. existing structures; 3. topography of the most likely area for the firstphase of construction; 4. significant features like roads, water features, large trees, and tree lines; 5. topography and details of the rest of the site. Remember that this trip may be our only opportunity to collect information about the site, so we need to capture as much as we can in the time we have available. It is more important to capture the entire site in less detail than exact detail of only a small portion. Time should be reserved every evening to plot the dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s data collection in preparation of the final map. A photo or video survey can really come in handy after the trip, too. Consider also performing a minimal survey on any adjacent property the ministry intends to acquire in the future.
Architecture and Master Planning
hen it comes to architecture and master planning, the basic principles of good design apply no matter where you are. However, it is important to be aware that there are some differences in approach to developing world design that may be unlike those you are familiar with in the West. EMI’s clients are ministries that serve the poor and often have minimal funding. Although buildings are necessary, any savings on building construction or site work can be used for ministry activities. Construction funds may be raised from a church body, local community, from abroad, or any combination of those sources, but the cost of construction needs to be justified locally. Most of us would like to see a ‘beautiful’ development which glorifies God. However, the cost and timing of expenses must balance the pressures of a ministry serving the poor. Understanding some common priorities that guide those we serve allows us to more effectively meet their needs and match their values in design.
The first priority is to design spaces that absolutely meet the needs of the ministry while maintaining sensitivity to cultural issues we are made aware of during the trip. The Majority World standard for comfort and livability in a space is very different from a Western one. Spatial standards for both master planning and architectural design (such as road widths, amount of parking, room sizes, etc.) tend to be quite a bit smaller than we are used to. Other cultural factors (such as the desire to keep men’s and women’s living quarters separate) can predominate over the quality, efficiency, or effectiveness of a space. The second priority is a site plan or building design that performs well functionally, conforms to life safety requirements (if applicable), and is cost efficient in square footage and proposed use of materials. Utilizing locally available building materials and local construction methods are the best means of cost control. The third priority is aesthetics. Most clients will be especially sensitive to ‘extra costs’ associated with aesthetics. Aesthetically pleasing buildings are possible; however, the design palette may be very limited. Simple things such as building placement, orientation, forms and massing, natural and artificial lighting, window and door placement, color and texture, earth forms, landscaping, and decorative material can be used creatively to bring about an aesthetically pleasing design that is still cost effective.
he local construction practices and available materials will drive your structural design, so observe as much as you can from buildings currently under construction. While bamboo, mud, and straw materials may be more common in rural areas, most buildings in the Majority World are typically constructed with either confined masonry (concrete block or brick walls “confined” by pouring castin-place reinforced concrete columns and beams around them) or infill masonry (a reinforced concrete frame later “filled in” with concrete block or brick). Both types consist of masonry or brick walls with reinforced concrete columns poured on a regular grid. Since most finished buildings are parged or covered with stucco, a confined masonry building can look the same from the outside as a frame with infill, so it is important to observe buildings currently under construction to identify the local practice. Perhaps the greatest impact structural designers can have on the project is to work with the architects to develop building plans that: • are simple and regular in shape • have repeating structural elements • minimize or eliminate: reentrant corners, irregularly-shaped lateral bracing systems, and soft stories on multi-story buildings
These aspects alone can significantly improve building performance and overall safety in a lateral (wind storm or earthquake) event. As we prepare the structural design, it is important to be flexible and open-minded. The more we adapt to local practice, the more our designs will actually be followed during construction. While our paramount concern is safety, we must recognize that in many places, designing and detailing structures according to Western codes will likely cause the drawings to be dismissed as over-designed, and they will not be followed. Instead, it is key to discuss codes and requirements with local officials during the trip and then design to a level that is appropriate for both the construction practices and the local loading conditions (whether seismic, wind, or lots of kids jumping up and down on the roof). This may entail encouraging the ministry to agree to a slightly higher level of structural design. You can also help by identifying one or two practical ways to improve structural construction over common practices. For example, teaching the ministry how to ‘rod’ concrete down to fully fill a rebar cage may be much more useful than giving them a full set of framing plans.
n the Majority World, the end user usually takes a more active role in obtaining water than his or her counterpart in a Western country. This is true whether living in a city, an institution, or a remote village. Because electricity is not always available 24/7, water supply can also be sporadic. Limited public funds and/or corruption in the government can result in an undersized municipal water supply. Overloaded water plants and lagging operation and maintenance efforts often result in inadequate treatment. Water lines and storage are usually sized for domestic and institutional use and may not include enough capacity for emergency fire flows. Because of the inherent limits in water supply, populations in the Majority World are practiced in conservation and use significantly less water for domestic use than Western countries. A typical municipal water user expects that water is available daily, but not necessarily constantly. There can be occasional interruptions in supply lasting several days. Thus each home sets up their water storage so that when water is available, enough can be saved to use at least until the next day.
If there is enough pressure, a pre-fabricated tank may be installed on the roof to collect water. In low-pressure situations, a cistern may be installed to collect water at ground level and then a privately owned pump may be used to lift the water to a rooftop tank. Most EMI clients are institutional users (orphanages, schools, and ministry centers) who cannot usually expect to reliably receive all their needed water from municipal systems. Whether in urban or rural areas, most of our clients develop their own water source to supplement any government supply source. Integrating more than one type of water source into the design is often necessary. Drinking-quality water is not usually expected at every tap, but only at key locations such as the kitchen. Thus small pre-manufactured water treatment systems are often installed at those points. If a client is fortunate enough to have a high quality borewell, treatment may not be required. EMI can really help institutional clients by designing looped distribution systems with strategically placed valves and phased centralized storage to reduce their construction and maintenance costs. Remote villages without electricity may use springs, ponds, or large open hand-dug wells as a water source. Installing borewells with hand pumps to eliminate ground surface contamination and reduce the potential for disease can be a big improvement for a village. Reducing walking distances to water sources can save hours of labor each day.
person from a Western country has preconceived ideas about how human waste is disposed. From the bathroom facilities to the treatment and removal of wastewater, the client will also have many underlying assumptions. Because it is often taboo to discuss the subject, it is important to observe what is being done within the culture. Toilets and bathing areas may not be the same from one country to the next or from one class of society to another. Within each project, there may often be a need for different levels of facilities. For example, a client may want Western-style bathrooms for VIPs and visiting mission teams; automatic-flushing squatty potties and showers for mid-level leaders; pour-flush squatty potties and a tap to fill a bucket for bathing in hospital nurse quarters; and pit latrines and an outside hand washing area for schoolchildren and transient populations. Practice varies widely and it is important to meet the need accurately within the culture. Some cultures, which are becoming accustomed to the use of toilets, may not be ready to house the bathroom within the building; facilities may need to be outside and separated from the living space. Water demand will vary depending upon the types of facilities used. Wastewater treatment and disposal will usually have to occur on-site. One can observe that nonengineered systems in the Majority World usually
include some type of septic tank for treatment. Whether or not it is advisable, effluent is typically disposed in many different fashions: overland, through the leaking sides of an unsealed septic tank, or through a separate seepage pit. Wash-water (graywater) lines are often plumbed separately from the blackwater lines and allowed to runoff as overland drainage. Wastewater disposal is usually low on our clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s budget priority list, so our main concerns are to design passive systems with low maintenance requirements and to help our clients protect public health and their environment. Aesthetics and convenience may be considered, but only while minimizing expenses. EMI typically recommends seepage pits or drainfields to improve the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wastewater disposal methods. If the need arises and a client has the capacity to maintain a system that promotes water conservation, EMI may occasionally recommend a technology such as graywater re-use and irrigation. Otherwise, graywater may be routed into a soakpit or through the septic system.
lectrical designers can usually do some preparatory research before embarking on an EMI trip. Samples of previous EMI electrical designs for that area can be requested from your trip leader. Ask about meeting with a national EE to obtain information like local codes, tariff structure, and an example of an electrical drawing. Try to use their symbols and panel schedules in your design since a national electrician will be more likely to follow a drawing they are familiar with. Depending on the availability, dependability, and cost of municipal power, (which can usually be researched more thoroughly while in-country) you may need to design an alternative power generation source (solar, hydro, wind or generator). The ministry may also specifically request an alternative energy source. Research the renewable resources for the area as well as the relative cost of each system (keep in mind operating costs). A few resources to bring would be a multimeter (if possible with min, max, and avg. recording capabilities) and an amp-clamp, calipers to measure the diameter of a wire, a multi-purpose tool (Leatherman), and a metric conductor ampacity chart.
EMI often serves ministries with existing facilities. Thoroughly document the existing electrical system with photos, sketches and nameplate information. Establish good rapport with the local electrician and have him show you around. Look for common problems like load balancing, improper grounding, undersized wire, and poor connections in the panel. Be careful not to insult the electrician when making suggestions for improvement. Evaluate some of the power usage habits of the ministry or the nationals and, if appropriate, convey to the trip leader some practical energy conservation habits the ministry could implement. The first step in design will be to create a one-line diagram of the facilities showing breaker sizes, wire sizes and estimated loads for each major sub-panel or area. If no facilities exist, the one-line diagram will be developed with the design. A load study needs to be created for existing and future loads based on the site master plan. Estimate a usage factor for each of the loads and include it in the load study; account for particular load requirements such as special lights, motors or other electrical equipment. Developing the load study early on in the design gives a good indication of the magnitude of the electrical load needed for the facility and thus the feasible power generation options. Consider energy conservation strategies to incorporate into the design.
n most of the Majority World, construction is done quite a bit differently than in the Western world. It is helpful to begin to understand those differences in order to design appropriately. The main differences involve equipment and labor. In the Majority World, specialized equipment is expensive and often in need of repair, so most of the work is done by hand or with simple tools like machetes, shovels, and wheel barrows. Most of the site and footing excavation, concrete mixing and placing, and even lifting of trusses into place will be done by a large labor crew. Therefore, because labor is so cheap (in many places $2/day or less) and materials are relatively expensive, the design should try to use fewer materials, even if it means increasing labor. Most common construction will be reinforced concrete with brick or block walls. Sometimes the walls are built first and used as formwork for the columns, also known as confined masonry. More often, the concrete frame is built first and the walls are simply infill. The concrete is usually mixed on site by hand and placed by hand with little or no consolidation. Roof trusses are typically made of wood, though steel is sometimes used. Most contractors will continue to build in the same manner or style that they have for decades. It is important to use those methods as much as possible, and only when necessary to design something different.
n EMI trips, we have daily devotional discussions to remind us of our purpose for being on the trip. You may be expected to lead a devotional while on the trip. The following are some passages that particularly relate to common experiences and challenges on missions trips. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Psalm 139 Philippians 2:5-11 1 Corinthians 9:19-23 1 Corinthians 12:12-31 Jonah 1-4 John 13:1-17 Matthew 10:26-33 Psalm 10 1 Corinthians 3:5-11 Mark 12:41-44 Luke 10:38-42 Psalm 73 Acts 8:26-40 Psalm 103
“You Have Searched Me” “Imitating Christ’s Humility” “A Slave to All” “One Body, Many Parts” “Jonah Flees from the Lord” “Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet” “Do Not Be Afraid” “Why Do You Hide?” “Divisions in the Church” “The Widow’s Offering” “Mary and Martha” “God is My Portion Forever” “Philip and the Ethiopian” “Praise the Lord”
(adapted from Vacations with a Purpose by Chris Eaton & Kim Hurst)
During your daily quiet times, you may want to reflect on the following questions: • What has God been teaching you on this trip? • Why did God bring you here? • How will you respond?
eturning home is often the most difficult part of an EMI trip experience. The transition into our home culture is expected to be easy, but sometimes the greatest challenges come during this time. Consider the following tips for re-entry and questions for reflection to help you readjust to life back home. Tips for Re-entry 1. Don’t expect too much from other people. 2. Share briefly. 3. Be careful about value judgments. 4. Do not be critical of others’ spirituality. 5. Be prepared for nostalgia. 6. Don’t let a little depression take you by surprise. 7. Be cautious about negative reporting. 8. Try to stay in touch with one or two individuals you met on your trip. 9. Contact your prayer partners and financial supporters. 10. Develop some realistic, practical applications for yourself.
Questions for Reflection 1. What did you see? 2. What did you learn? 3. How did you feel? 4. How will you respond? *The debriefing and reentry materials on this page were reprinted with permission from Vacations with a Purpose: A Handbook for Your Short-Term Missions Experience by Chris Eaton and Kim Hurst (St. Petersburg: Bridge Builders, Inc., 2003).
Reverse Culture Shock
hank you so much for volunteering on this EMI project trip! As an experienced volunteer, we consider you a partner of EMI – an Association of Christian Design Professionals (ACDP). You now understand the full impact that an EMI team can have. We ask that you stay connected to the Body of Christ by completing your project work, by continuing your financial support of this ministry as an ACDP partner, by spreading the word about EMI through your local church, and by helping identify project sponsors to underwrite the cost of EMI serving ministries in the Majority World.
Your Project Work
To capture all that God has for us, we must complete the course set before us. The project trip is just the beginning. You will soon return home and begin to catch up with the routine you left behind. Then the real work starts: a late night, extra hours at work, whatever it takes to finish your portion of your EMI project. Six months is the typical time frame required to publish an EMI project report; your project leader will provide you with tasks and a schedule for the completion of the project. Our commitment to complete the work is a reflection of the valuable relationships built during the trip.
Through the months to come, we want to encourage, inform, and keep you connected to what God is doing around the world through volunteers like you. As an ACDP partner, you will receive a monthly newsletter with articles on unique project work from around the world. The newsletter also keeps you connected to those in the Body of Christ that desire to use their skills to make a difference. Please use the newsletter to share EMI with other design professionals. Because you participated with us on a project trip, you are considered an ACDP partner for one year. After one year from the date of your trip, you will receive a renewal notice. Without ongoing ACDP partners, who support us financially, the work of EMI would not be possible. Would you stand with us in this way?
Spreading The Word
The services you have provided during this trip are needed by other ministries. Help us to make contact with them through your local church. Please contact your local church pastor, or missions pastor, and tell them about EMI. Most local churches in the Western world support overseas ministries or missionaries. You can have them visit our website, emiworld.org, and click on the “Client Assistance” button. There they will find information about how to apply for our services. Help them get connected. Also, please share about EMI with design professionals you work with or who attend your church.
Project Sponsors Every year, EMI initiates approximately 60 new projects. The average value of services donated by EMI teams is $80,000 per project. However, it costs the EMI general fund $8,000 to mobilize these services. As a result, for every dollar allocated to fund projects ($8,000) EMI produces over ten dollars of valued design work in the field ($80,000). This is not only an efficient return
on investment, but also changes the lives of our clients. While EMI’s cost per project is low, we still need help in covering this cost. We are looking for sponsors who will help underwrite the cost of EMI projects. Consider sharing this need with your network of supporters, the firm you are with, or the church you attend. Additional information is available at emiworld.org under Donate, Sponsor a Project. Thank you for considering this need.
here is no way to quantify the sacrifices you have made to contribute to the EMI team, to serve the ministry, to impact the poor, and to advance God’s kingdom. EMI cannot reimburse you for the time away from your family, the finances you’ve spent, or the vacation time you’ve had to use, but we want you to know that we truly appreciate everything you have done. Thank you. Your volunteerism is important to EMI and we believe your sacrifice will have eternal value. I believe that because of your obedience & service He is going to richly bless you and establish the work of your hands (Psalm 90:17).
Because of Him,
CEO, Engineering Ministries International
eMi World Zones E
MI has identified ten world zones to help us strategize when serving clients around the world. In each of these zones, we look at different criteria. Listed below are three such criteria: Human Development Index (HDI), Percent Evangelical, and Population.
Zone Sub- Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa South Asia Pacific & Southeast Asia East Asia Russia & Central Asia Europe Central America & Caribbean South America North America
HDI Percent Ev Population 0.476 20.39% 138,879,496 0.678 1.4% 581,997,424 0.603 1.61% 1,550,982,000 0.801 5.48% 757,534,303 0.777 5.91% 1,349,836,000 0.781 1.1% 265,269,140 0.922 2.77% 538,214,889 0.789 11.29% 187,436,000 0.803 12.11% 377,961,424 0.952 30.36% 337,205,995
These numbers are based on an anylasis from 2008.
EMI Offices The numbers below are listed for dialing from an outside country. First, you must dial to get out of your location country, which varies country to country.
If dialing from inside the country, follow all the dialing conventions of that country and drop the country code (the number in parenthesis followed by a â&#x20AC;&#x153;+â&#x20AC;?).
Sending offices: eMi USA
130 East Kiowa, Suite 200 Colorado Springs, CO 80903 United States of America emiworld.org ph: (+1) 719.633.2078 fax: (+1) 719.633.2970 email@example.com
Field offices: eMi2 South Asia
Basement, A-329 Shivalik New Delhi 110 017 India emi2.org firstname.lastname@example.org
Suite 201 625-14th Street NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 2A1 Canada emicanada.org ph: (+1) 403.202.3642 fax: (+1) 403.202.3636 email@example.com
eMi East Africa PO Box 3251 Kampala, Uganda emiea.org firstname.lastname@example.org
6A Chapel Way Oxford OX2 9LS United Kingdom emiuk.org ph: (+44) 01865.236350 email@example.com
roject trips are times of intense experiences. However, after returning to what is familiar, it is easy to forget those experiences, people, and the tripâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s overall impact. Please take the time and use this postcard to write to yourself about your experiences during the trip and give it to your project leader to mail to you after the trip.
eople are often delighted when you take the time to learn their native language. It communicates love. To keep from being overwhelmed, try to learn a few commonly-used phrases, and then use them a lot! Here are some examples you might want to learn: Hello, my name is... __________________________ What is your name? __________________________? Please __________________________ Thank you __________________________ Good morning __________________________ Good afternoon __________________________ Good evening __________________________ God bless you! __________________________! Praise God! __________________________! Yes __________________________ No __________________________ Very good __________________________ OK __________________________ I don’t know __________________________ Forgive me __________________________ Where is the toilet? __________________________? Where is the...? __________________________? How much is this? __________________________? When speaking English to people who have limited English ability, keep in mind these tips: • Speak slowly and clearly (speaking louder doesn’t help). • Use common words. • Use different ways to phrase things to ensure you communicate accurately. • Speak in short half-sentences when using an interpreter.
Conversion Factors Distance
Inches to Centimeters Centimeters to Inches Feet to Meters Meters to Feet Miles to Kilometers Kilometers to Miles
2.540 0.394 0.305 3.281 1.609 0.621
26,000 24,000 22,000 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0
Feet2 to Meters2 Meters2 to Feet2 Feet2 to Acres Acres to Feet2 Acres to Hectares Hectares to Acres Volume US Gallons to Liters Liters to US Gallons Weight Pounds to Kilograms Kilograms to Pounds
0.093 10.764 2.296 e -5 43,560 0.405 2.471 multiply by 3.785 0.264 multiply by
50 45 40 35 30 25 20
N/mm2 to psi psi to kPa Kg/cm2 to psi KN/m2 to psf
Farenheit to Celsius Celsius to Farenheit
80 70 60
first - 32, then * .555 first * 1.8, then + 32
145.041 6.895 14.220 20.892
- 15 - 20 - 25 - 30
40 30 20 10 0 - 10 - 20