Pro Arb November 2017

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november 2017






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Would urban trees make an adequate natural defence against vehicle-led terror attacks?


A roundup of industry news

09 30 UNDER 30

This year’s winners



The stands to visit at this year’s event and a preview of the arboriculture panel debate chaired by Jonathan Hazell






Mike Metcalfe, DART International

What we can all do to help avoid bringing pests and diseases into the UK


The role of trees in the regeneration of Thamesmead




Rob McBride takes a look how the Charter of the Forest changed our landscape


The charity tells us about its work improving lives in the African drylands


We need to drive home the importance of street trees, says Jonathan Hazell




elcome to the November issue of Pro Arb. Tom Broad of Peabody made a passing comment recently, as we drove through Thamesmead, about the amber, yellow and red leaves loo in li e firecrac ers as they fell on the cars. I’m sure not every leader I write will be quite as poetic, but I felt he encapsulated the changing seasons nicely. Under Peabody’s management, Thamesmead is starting to make progress that I know the community is happy to see. Find our interview with Tom, and Dr Phil Askew, about the London borough’s 30,000 trees and unique landscape on pages 20-24. I have considered taking to the streets of Norfolk this month to launch my investigatory journalist career and try to reach the bottom of the Koolunga House Tree Murders, but decided that Pro Arb needed me more. Nevertheless, with one tree dead and seven others in distress due to drilling and poisoning under cover of night, the story is worth a read. There’s more on this, and other news, from page 6.

Last month’s Hurricane Maria was a devastating natural disaster that was impossible to ignore. A team of volunteer arborists with DART International have been out to Dominica to help get the rainforest island back on its feet. We spoke to Mike Metcalfe, one of the organisation’s founders, who told us how it started and what its plans are for the future; find the interview on a es n a es , meanwhile, you can find the story of another worthy charity, Tree Aid, which helps people in the African drylands make the most of their treescape. I would like to say thank you to Joe Betts for everything he has done on Pro Arb, and for the help he’s given me as I take over the magazine. Until next month,



How to spot and treat fireblight

KIT 32


The benefits of top-handled chainsaws




What you need to consider when planting an urban tree

HANDSAWS Using and maintaining handsaws


ARB KIT All the latest kit



Hampshire’s Special Branch Tree Services


40 ANCIENT TREE COLUMN The Knightshayes Holly, Devon


ALL ENQUIRIES Tel: 01903 777 570 Eljays44 Ltd 3 Churchill Court, 112 The Street, Rustington, West Sussex BN16 3DA EDITORIAL Features Editor – Ashley Lampard Editorial Assistant – Ellie Foster Production Editor – Charlie Cook Subeditor – Kate Bennett ADVERTISING Business Development Manager – Jamie Wilkinson Deputy Sales Manager – Jessica McCabe Account Manager – Natalie Ross Horticulture Careers – Laura Harris

PRODUCTION Design – Mandy Armstrong Printed by Pensord Press Ltd Published by ©Eljays44 Ltd CIRCULATION Subscription enquiries: Pro Arb is published 12 times per year by Eljays44 Ltd. The 2017 subscription price is £95. Subscription records are maintained at Eljays44 Ltd, 3 Churchill Court, 112 The Street, Rustington, West Sussex BN16 3DA, UK. Articles and information contained in this publication are the copyright of Eljays44 Ltd and may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publishers. The publishers cannot accept responsibility for loss of, or damage to, uncommissioned photographs or manuscripts.

FOLLOW US ONLINE Follow us on Twitter @ProArbmagazine Like us on Facebook Proarbmagazine Connect to our LinkedIn group Pro Arb UK For careers in arboriculture and horticulture go to Every week we send out ‘Pro Arb: The Tuesday Recap’, in which we highlight the most popular news stories from the last week. If you aren’t subscribed to The Tuesday Recap but would like to be, please email Amber Bernabe at If you would like to send us press releases to post online and potentially feature in The Tuesday Recap, please email Ashley Lampard at

MANAGEMENT Managing Director – Jim Wilkinson Editorial Director – Lisa Wilkinson Business Development Manager – Jamie Wilkinson



Nov Leader Contents.indd 3

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Director, PLACE Design + Planning

“The choice of planting in a defensive planter needs some careful consideration” n the ri ht location a defensive line of lanters would be a better solution than the ha ha ard unsi htly concrete bloc s ositioned as an emer ency measure on vulnerable edestrian locations he choice of lantin in a defensive lanter needs some careful consideration, though. Planting a tree, with a high-water demand, without a commitment to aftercare and irri ation is not li ely to succeed as a lon term solution.


Director of landscaping and placemaking, Peabody

“I always start by considering that a tree is better off in the ground than in a planter” rees in lanters have a limited life and may not be a permanent solution. The soil will become old and the tree could also become root bound, with a lot of mana ement re uirements t may seem li e a nice idea, but if you a ly


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horticulture and science to the conce t then it may seem apparent that is it not such a great idea m sure there are alternative solutions always start by considerin that a tree is better off in the round than in a lanter t would be ha ier and more robust, and would reach its full si e and life s an f course, you can do all sorts of thin s with lanters, but it would need a ro er mana ement lan, which is somethin that cannot be shied away from t would also have a si nificant cost associated with it.


Tree planting manager, Gristwood & Toms

“Sturdy trees planted in the ground or in bulky containers can resist considerable impact” There is no reason why trees cannot be incor orated into urban security afety and security is paramount, but no one wants to see bul y concrete and steel barriers dominatin our city landsca es they are a star and u ly reminder of the otential dan ers we face in everyday life reenery would soften the visual appearance while helping to improve the environment by taking pollutants from the air and emittin o y en ehicle led terror attac s have become all too fre uent in uro e s cities and every

security measure should be em loyed to revent the dama e that they can cause but it is also im ortant that consideration should be iven to the a earance of any barriers, and the im act that they have on the day to day lives of inhabitants hey need to under o trials to establish their effectiveness and resistance turdy trees lanted in the round or in bul y containers can resist considerable im act trial them alon side or within a ur ose built bloc ade and they could aid e ciency and would certainly im rove the aesthetic


Director and principal arboricultural consultant, Lockhart Garratt

“Society will benefit from more than just a safer environment in which to live and work” The use of trees in bulk planters as a way to revent terrorist attac s is su erficially of interest. While there will be a number of challenges in maintaining the trees, the otential benefits that could be accrued in urban scenarios should outwei h the costs There are many tree varieties whose size and rowth characteristics would mean that they are very suited to this ty e of lantin environment n many cases, these will offer wonderful colour and visual diversity that is


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ideally suited to the urban landscape. Numerous studies have shown the positive effects of trees on a wide variety of issues, including social, economic, environmental, and physical and mental wellbeing. A constant challenge to those interested in urban forestry to how to bring about improvements to urban green infrastructure. If one way to increase the number of trees in the urban environment is the use of trees in planters to reduce the impact of acts of terrorism, then wider society will benefit from more than just a safer environment in which to live and work.


Sales director, Barcham Trees

“How effective containerised trees would be in deterring terrorism is debatable” The use of trees in containers for defence against terrorism is a novel one, and, to my knowledge, not something that has


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been widely suggested. The use of trees in containers is not easy, though, and they need regular management and maintenance if good tree growth is to be achieved; trees in containers have a limited life span. How effective containerised trees would be in deterring terrorism is debatable; surely it’s far better to plant them in the ground.


Mayor of Florence

“We cannot turn our public squares into places of fear and anxiety, brutalised by barriers and cement blocks” Our answer to hatred and terrorism is in arts and beauty. We cannot let terrorists keep us out of our historic squares, our beautiful and open community spaces. We cannot turn our public squares into places of fear and anxiety, brutalised by barriers and cement blocks. For this reason, together with architect

Stefano Boeri, we launched this open call for beauty. The message that Florence, Capital City of Humanism, is launching to creatives and to cities from all over the world, is not to accept terrorism’s blackmail. We must turn the necessity to protect ourselves from those who threatens us with death, into the opportunity to reinvent new architectures and bring new life to our cities’ open spaces.


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rivate wood and in or estonon-Sea or o has been the target or a series o recent dead poisonings. So ar eight trees have been targeted one ho has died whi e seven trees inc uding beeches horse chestnuts ho m oa s and pop ars have been diagnosed as “distressed”, losing most o their eaves.

n ar nn rai s ord p anted the pip o the first ram e app e tree in Southwe ottinghamshire. n it bore its first ruit and in the teenage son o a oca nurser man too the first gra ts. more than a uarter o a mi ion ram e trees were growing in commercia p antations across ng and and Wa es. oda that first app e tree is on the verge o d ing having been gripped b the incurab e hone ungus in ection. n a bid to pro ong its i e or as ong as possib e ottingham rent niversit has a p an to purchase the propert on which it is p anted. he universit p ans to turn the cottage into postgraduate student accommodation. Shou d the p ans go ahead horticu ture staff and students wou d carr out an initia assessment o the tree and then care u tend to it with the aim o pro onging its i e. ra ts o the origina tree wi a so be p anted into the universit s rac enhurst campus. he universit p ans to open the cottage s garden to the pub ic and a so to ce ebrate the heritage o the ram e app e which is the s most popu ar coo ing app e.


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ach tree bears puncture ho es made using a dri where an unidentified poison is inserted. he drug doesn t ta e effect unti the assai ant has ed the scene eaving po ice ba ed about the motive and about how to combat urther attac s. he bore ho e is aimed at the trun boughs or roots and then covered up. o the trees are protected with the o dest being near ears o d. ue to the protection on the trees the po ice have stated that the attac er cou d ace a fine and is offering a reward to anyone with in ormation that eads to the perpetrator s conviction. eports o ho es being dri ed in trees in or eston appeared nearly a year ago, but the case was c osed due to a ac o evidence or urther ines o in uir . or o o ice stated that the wou d reopen the case i urther ines o in uir were revea ed.


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BRITISH HARDWOOD TREE NURSERY DONATES YOUNG OAKS FOR LINCOLN CATHEDRAL ROOF RESTORATION It takes more than 100 years for an oak tree to grow to the maturity needed to create timber for Lincoln Cathedral roof. A team from the cathedral, sponsored and supported by Nettleham Woodland Trust and British Hardwood Tree Nursery, has started planting in preparation for future restoration. The saplings will be planted at an o cia ceremon when the bare root planting season commences this autumn. The planting celebrates the 800-year

anniversary of the Charter of the Forest and the Battle of Lincoln, which both took place in 1217. Lincoln Cathedral is encouraging people to plant an oak in Ashing Lane Nature Reserve in Dunholme, or at their own locations. Among the plants will be one sapling planted by Nick Hopper, British Hardwood Tree Nursery’s business manager. “It is great to be part of and celebrate such an auspicious event, and this is a superb way to promote tree

planting for this most worthy of purposes – the longevity of the cathedral’s oak heritage,” he said. The cathedral’s roof needs new timbers, which must be stored and dried within the cathedral’s environment for a number of years before they can be used. The oak trees destined for the roof are felled when they reach the right size – 200mm thick and eight-10 metres long. Some of the oldest beams still remaining were already 400 years old when they



Threatened trees in rural Kenilworth have been given permanent protection from unauthorised felling after fears they could be cut down. The 161 trees, which run from Rouncil Farm in Rouncil Lane, had marks painted on them in August. This led farmowner Ray Tebby to put up notices warning residents and walkers that the trees could be felled. Although Warwick District Council claimed this was not the case, an emergency Tree Preservation Order (TPO) was placed on the trees by the council be ore it made a firm decision on protecting them. Anyone wishing to fell or alter the trees must get counci permission first or ace a heav fine and at a planning meeting on Tuesday 10 October, the TPO was made permanent. Warwickshire county councillor Alan Cockburn, who leases the land where the trees are, had objected to a permanent TPO because the trees “were beginning to decline”. But the council thought the benefit o having the trees was too great for them to be felled, and granted the TPO.

The University of Manchester has launched an interactive Tree Trail to encourage people to get outside and discover more about the trees around them. t is encouraging staff students and the local community to get out and enjoy the physical and mental health benefits associated with nature and the outdoors, and learn something new about the trees they may see every day. The new Tree Trail is a project led by the Environmental Sustainability team, which has worked closely with Urban Green and City of Trees to develop three distinct trails that highlight 50 of the 1,500 trees across Oxford Road Campus, North Campus and Whitworth Park. This initiative is part of the University’s campus masterplan, a 10-year project creating world-class facilities for staff students and visitors to en o . The trail has been designed as a webbased app that can be used by anyone with a smartphone or handheld device. Users are also encouraged to take their own tree


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were installed in the 12th century, and new beams are expected to remain for centuries to come.

photos and to comment, and to share these via Instagram. There is a dedicated account (@uomsust) and each tree has its own hashtag to ma e identification easier. The Tree Trail has been developed as part of the University’s Living Campus Plan, which addresses the challenges of a growing urban campus alongside the opportunities a healthy environment provides for people and nature.

Pro Arb | November 2017


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100,000TH TREE PLANTED BY PETERBOROUGH ENVIRONMENT CITY TRUST A Peterborough charity has branched out successfully after planting its 100,000th tree in the city. Peterborough Environment City Trust (PECT) hit the milestone for its Forest for Peterborough project earlier this month and marked it with a ceremony at Central Park, where the landmark tree was planted near to the sunken garden. “We are so grateful for the support of all the volunteers, individuals and organisations who have dedicated time and enthusiasm,” said PECT CEO Carly Leonard. “Together we are working to transform the city’s landscape and forming a vital network of wildlife corridors and green spaces. To plant the 100,000th tree in the city is a truly fantastic achievement, and one we’re incredibly proud to be leading on.” The project began in 2010 with the aim to plant more than 180,000 trees in and around the city by 2030 – one tree for every person living in the city. The deputy mayor of Peterborough, Cllr Chris Ash, helped out with the tree planting. He was joined by, among others, Aabis Zafar of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Peterborough, which has been assisting with the project since 2013.

A devastating report from scientist Eduardo Moralejo estimates that 150,000 Mallorcan almond trees have died from the Xylella fastidiosa bacterium in the past decade alone. His “conservative projection” is that between 800,000 and 950,000 trees are currently infected with the pathogen. Moralejo was a voice in the wilderness with his initial report in 2010, but the threat posed by the disease to Mallorca’s agricultural sector is now common knowledge. In his latest report, Moralejo once again turned the tables on conventional thinking. He claims the disease has been present on the Spanish island for two decades and was not brought over from Italy in 2010, as is often thought. He presented evidence to the Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (IMEDIA) that this strain actually came directly from California. urrent the disease has on been o cia identified in a mond trees o the samp es ta en. ora e o be ieves that at east o trees are in ected which trans ates to more than 1m. Perhaps most alarmingly, he warns that the virus could experience a genetic mutation that enab es it to transmit easi between a mond and o ive vine and fig trees.

FORESTRY AND TIMBER INCLUDED IN GOVERNMENT’S CLEAN GROWTH STRATEGY The inclusion of forestry and timber in the British government’s Clean Growth Strategy could be a game changer for the sector, according to the chief executive of Confor. Stuart Goodall welcomed the document, which links an 11m tree planting target to green, clean growth in rural communities and more UK timber used in construction. The strategic document commits to ‘establish a new network of forests in England including new woodland on farmland, and fund larger-scale woodland and forest creation, in support of our commitment to


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plant 11m trees, and increase the amount of UK timber used in construction’. Stuart welcomed the emphasis on support for large-scale forest and woodland creation – and for more tree planting on farms. anting arge orests with a significant percentage of productive trees can make a difference or the econom and environment he said. “There have been blockages and complexities in the system to approve tree planting, but I welcome the government’s renewed ambition to resolve these challenges. Confor understands from members where

those challenges lie and we will continue to wor with ministers and o cia s to overcome them and deliver new planting.” Stuart said that the greater use of homegrown wood could also help to decarbonise construction, as wood locks up carbon while requiring little energy to produce. “We need to think about planting trees not just to lock up carbon, but also to produce the everyday products that we all need and to create employment. The UK is the second largest net importer of wood in the world, after China.”


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AND THE WINNERS ARE Adam Ryan, 28 Grounds maintenance team leader, Glendale Liverpool Adele Ford, 31 Owner, Adele Ford Garden Design

30 under 30 30 Under 30: The Next Generation, sponsored by Glendale, was initially launched to help young people within the horticulture and landscape sectors gain recognition, celebrate their achievements, and to promote them in a way that would enhance their careers. Lisa Wilkinson Pro Landscaper

Alex Patterson Glendale

This has certainly been the case with the previous winners, who have commented that the accolade has helped them to make more connections and raised their own profi es as we as that o the industry. ALEX PATTERSON, OPERATIONS DIRECTOR AT GLENDALE, SAID: “We are delighted to sponsor Pro Landscaper’s 30 Under 30: The Next Generation in 2017. “We are passionate about this accolade, which aims to highlight the achievements o inspiring oung people in our industry who have demonstrated passion, imagination, innovation and expertise in their chosen fie ds in such a wa that enhances their careers and provides opportunities or advancement.

Many congratulations to the 2017 winners.


30 under 30 winners.indd 9

Alexandra Noble, 28 Garden designer Anca Panait, 28 Landscape architect & freelance designer, AHR Anthony Harper, 28 Contract manager, Glendale Callum Gilfillan, 23 Skilled landscape operative, Landscape Associates Daisy Parsons, 30 Landscape architect, Thomas Hoblyn Garden Design Dominic Knower, 28 Regional community manager, idverde Jacob Botting, 28 Junior foreman, Bespoke Outdoor Spaces Jacob Catling, 28 Director, The Landscaping Consultants Ltd James Craggs, 26 Contracts & project manager, The London Lawn Turf Company Jason de Souza, 26 Project manager, Gardenlink Joanna Hill, 29 Marketing manager, Glendale Joe Clancy, 29 Freelance consultant, Biophilic Projects Kieron Lee, 25 Head gardener, idverde

Laura Owens, 24 Contract manager, Glendale Lilly Gomm, 28 Director, Lilly Gomm Studio / Pitts & Lilly Ltd Lydia Noble, 22 Owner, Noble Stonework Mark Browne, 27 Key account manager, Green-tech Michael Booth, 25 Graduate, Glendale Nawid Obaydi, 24 Business improvement manager, Mitie Landscapes Nicholas Lie, 28 Operations manager, Garden Club London Rhiannon Williams, 24 Design & project manager, Landform Consultants Richard George, 28 Senior supervisor, Kingston Landscape Group Rick Porter, 30 Director, Strata Garden Design & Landscaping Sam Eagling Fernandez, 28 Regional manager, Maydencroft Ltd Sam Hunt, 29 Skilled soft landscaper, Graduate Gardeners Ltd Thomas Campbell, 30 Senior/principal arboricultural officer, London Borough of Hackney Council Tom Bream, 27 Head gardener, Great Martins Estate Valya Kerisheva, 29 Associate, Wilder Associates

Pro Arb | November 2017


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stand 104 & 109


stand 171

FutureScape returns this year with even more special events and seminars, so guests can get the most out of their day and their time out of the office. As the name suggests, the event will focus on the future of the industry, whether it’s arboriculture, grounds maintenance, landscape architecture or interior landscaping. In addition to the seminars and talks, an extensive list of companies will also be exhibiting at the event – here is just a small selection of the wide range of exhibitors to be visited.

stand 155 & 156

stand 83

stand 138

MultiOne With nine different models, 22 configurations and more than 170 different attachments to choose from, MultiOne is one of the leading articulated mini loaders on the market today, designed to suit every kind of task – from farming and landscaping to property maintenance and DIY.

Hillier Trees Hillier Trees is a specialist grower that supplies rootballed and bare root trees year-round. Hillier Trees is committed to providing high quality, professional, British-grown trees that are suitable for landscapes and urbanscapes, supported by excellent customer service. trees

Gristwood and Toms Gristwood and Toms partners with businesses and authorities to provide professional, safe, reliable and cost effective tree contracting and consultancy services. It is an Arb Association Approved Contractor and holds all relevant industry accreditations. www.gristwoodand

stand 62

stand 127

stand 81

Platipus Anchors Since first pioneering the concept of underground tree anchoring in 1983, Platipus has designed, manufactured and supplied systems to secure, stabilise and irrigate trees on both small and large projects around the world.

Haecksler Upson Mowers has been appointed as the exclusive distributor for Haecksler chippers in the UK. Upson has more than 45 years’ experience with machinery and as engineers, and appreciates the build quality of Haecksler machines. www.upsonmowers.

Geosynthetics Geosynthetics Ltd is a successful, dynamic and creative business. Since its creation in 1996, the company has grown into the largest independent geosynthetics supplier in the UK.

COPPARD PLANT HIRE LIMITED Hire | Sales | Parts | Service

Crowborough Godstone Brighton Melksham 01892 662777 01883 743322 01273 596979 01380 828988

Avant Tecno Avant has been in the UK for 20 years, selling loaders to end users including farmers, landscape gardeners, local authorities and private individuals. Avant pioneered the compact machine sector 25 years ago, and has been innovating ever since, offering a wide range of compact loaders and attachments.

Coppard Plant Hire Coppard Plant Hire was established in Sussex in 1972. It is a family owned business that offers plant hire, concrete sales, civil engineering and plant sales. The company has depots in Crowborough, Godstone, Brighton, Wiltshire and Ireland, and is renowned for its great customer service.

stand 68

Horticulture CAREERS King Feeders Kind Feeders UK, based in Cheshire, specialises in the supply of green waste composting machinery, and has wide ranging experience in this area of equipment – with a proven track record of supply to a range of different sectors. www.kingfeeders.

Horticulture Careers Find your perfect horticulture or landscaping career online with the Horticulture Careers job search facility. Employers can advertise vacancies on the website; the sign-up process is simple, quick and cost-effective. www.horticulture


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eturning or its third ear uture rb is set to offer the same degree of insight and forward-thinking leadership as it has in the past. The event will be centred around the future of arboriculture, with lively debates for industry professionals, re evant seminars and supp ier showcases. This one-day event is free to attend and will be taking place on ovember in its usua ocation Sandown ar acecourse in sher Surre . ust a short trip outside o ondon Sandown ar acecourse is in a pictures ue par and setting within the . ar ing is ree so ust o ow the Sandown ar signposts on a approach routes and par in the area off ortsmouth oad. ternative it is a -minute wa rom sher rai station with a ta i ran at the station itse . onathan a e wi be returning or this ear s uture o rboricu ture seminar hosting a pane o industr figures to discuss pressing topics. This year will see the panel discussing pressing topics that cannot have escaped the industr s sights such a re it and street trees. t is worth stopping in at the demo area to see the show s machiner and e uipment supp iers demonstrating their products. urchasing new e uipment can be a cost investment so the supp iers are a wa s happ to chat to the visitors and answer an uestions and it s a wa s worth testing the product. he demo area wi be ne t to the parade ring between stands 8 and 9. or up-to-date show in ormation inc uding the atest e hibitors current seminar programme and oor p an visit our website at


Pro Arb | November 2017

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26/10/2017 09:09

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mike metcalfe,



id-September saw Hurricane Maria sweep through the Caribbean, devastating 90% of Dominica’s rainforest landscape and creating a major humanitarian crisis in Puerto Rico. It is regarded as the worst natural disaster on record in Dominica. Mike Metcalfe speaks to us from the DART (Disaster Arborist Response Team) International base on Bodmin Moor in Cornwall, having just sent out the second team o arborists to ominica and recovered the first team from Gatwick Airport the day before. “The island is dense with forest,” Mike tells us. “It’s not your classic sandy beached island with coconut palms – it’s more like Hawaii, and isn’t wealthy by Caribbean standards.” Mike explains that, what Dominica lacks in traditional Caribbean tourist industry, it was starting to make up for in ecotourism. Hurricane Maria has, however, destroyed a large portion of this ecotourism, with a devastating impact on its hotels, schools, roads and hospitals. In Dominica, DART has been helping with a range of recovery strategies, advising on everything from helping with trees in the botanical gardens, to teaching safe chainsaw hand ing e uipment maintenance first aid and 


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tree clearance skills to local volunteers. Part of the UN and the UK government’s response has been to send out debris clearance kits, and the Dominican overnment provided firefighters or the team to train and equip.


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Building resilience he ne t ma or event happened in the South acific nation of Vanuatu. “It was as far away on the planet as it could be, and it really stretched this little pot of money that we’d managed to get together,” says Mike. “I sent out a team, which operated for a month, opening up schools and getting routes out into remote islands. We had some great feedback from the New Zealand embassy and the local government.” Along the way, the team decided that there was little point in going out to assist with clearing the trees and then leaving the local community to return to their usual practices – it would be better to train them in chainsaw and tree clearing skills. This is the path that DART is currently working towards, helping countries such as the Philippines, which is hit by typhoons around 20 times a year, to build resilience for the future. Sponsors are a big part of this scheme, with companies such as Fletcher Stewart providing DART with materia and financia assistance. In early 2017, Mike led a team to Sierra Leone. “We moved from purely disaster relief to international

the same problems arise in every extreme weather event. every time there is a hurricane, typhoon or earthquake, there are landslips and trees down across roads

In the beginning Mike is one of DART’s four founding trustees, but is the only member who is not an arborist. DART came about when he and another trustee were delivering shelter aid to the Philippines after the country was hit by Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. “We were asked by a local mayor to do some construction work in a school. We had tentage and building materials but couldn’t put it up due to the school grounds being completely full of trees. “Before we could even erect one tent or begin any reconstruction work, we had a lot of tree clearing work to do. Fortunately, one of the members of my team was an arborist, working for Glendale on a utility contract. He told us that if we could procure some chainsaws he could do a quick safe chainsaw handling course and we could start to create space.” Other aid agencies started to gather their own chainsaws and as the began to see un ua ified volunteers attempting to clear the trees, the pair began to realise that there was a real need for professional tree surgeons. Mike’s colleague decided that it would be a good topic to discuss at Arb Talk, receiving immediate feedback from the industry. “A couple of weeks later he knocked on my door,” Mike tells us. “He said that he had seen room for development, as the same problems would arise in every extreme weather event. Every time there is a hurricane, typhoon or earthquake, there are landslips and trees down across roads.” he pair were shoc ed to find that there was not already a charity in place to deal with these problems. They asked big names in disaster relief, such as Oxfam and Save the Children, whether they ever came across situations where they would need arborists – getting a convoy of food up a mountain with trees down across the road, for example. “We asked them what they did in that situation, and they told us that they would get the locals to do it,” Mike explains. “We had seen how that had worked in the past – it could be local villagers with machetes, who could take two days to clear the area.” Instead, Mike suggested that it could be done by a couple of arborists with chainsaws in a lead lorry, and concluded that there was a space for them in the disaster relief sector.


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development, collaborating with another charity. They were working under the sponsorship of a Sierra Leone MP who is very keen to try and regenerate the southern area of the country, which has been devastated by the civil war and then Ebola. They were very keen to regenerate a sustainable forestry industr that has suffered rom i ega ogging. Arboriculture doesn’t come without risks, and since the start, the trustees have recognised that they have a duty of care to their volunteers. “We are taking that industry that’s not without risks here in the UK and transplanting it into a situation where there are potentia additiona ris s i e sa s. ter an extreme weather event there can be a period of civil unrest and looting. We need to make sure that our vo unteers are aware o what the are getting into. The recent deployment to Dominica saw a communit in surviva mode with ow- eve ooting. DART wouldn’t purposely send volunteers into a dangerous situation, but recognises that danger could appear at any time. Volunteers are given pre-dep o ment sa et and securit training which


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Vital volunteers he charit tries to e evate the first aid s i s o their volunteers above the industry norm, with a focus on trauma skills. “It’s probably worth recognising that, in those circumstances ou can sometimes find yourself tripping over medical professionals helping the oca popu ation but that s not a wa s the case Mike says. he eve o first aid ua ifications is a read high with two practicing paramedics to help deliver training as we as e -mi itar combat medics. i e explains that, as the only member of the charity who is not an arborist he finds it ascinating to see the diverse background of the arborist community. “There seems to be something about the arborist community that attracts people from a really diverse bac ground. We ve got some e -mi itar peop e NHS paramedics doing the NHS shift and then doing tree wor during their off shi t. We ve got ormer policemen, engineers, a commercial diver who alternates between that and tree work. We seem to attract the kind of person who recognises that the ve got more to offer than ust their arborist s i s. When recruiting, Mike explains that they take arborist ua ifications at ace va ue and wi provide training around windblown work and aerial rescue. “We’re really more interested in what motivates peop e to oin and what additiona s i s the bring to the organisation he te s us. We will register their interest, so the next time we have pre-dep o ment training a o the peop e who are registered wi be invited. re-dep o ment ta es p ace in ornwa and is universa success u according to Mike. “We see ourselves as a representative for the UK arb industr he sa s. We are aiming to become the UK arborist industry’s own specialist disaster relief organisation. hat certain appears to be how the charity is developing, with Mike receiving a message from Dominica’s Foreign Minister, Francine Baron, two days before our interview, thanking DART. Mike says that the response DART has received has been phenomenal. “We usually put something out on our Facebook page, but we’ve had lots of people asking to get involved and I would ask them to be patient. We re ust huge grate u what our vo unteers are doing out there is ma ing a difference and it cou dn t happen without ever one invo ved.

we seem to attract the kind of person who recognises that they’ve got more to offer than just their arborist skills

follows a programme delivered by agencies such as Save the Children and Red Cross, and adheres to Humanitarian Practice Network guidelines.

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taking action biosecurity:

he Forestry Commission’s online chart that shows the pests and diseases that have arrived in the UK demonstrates a dramatic increase over the past 10 years. In the last few years alone, we have seen ash dieback, oak processionary moth, chestnut blight and outbreaks of Asian long-horned beetle, with emerald ash borer making its way through Europe. Keith Sacre, Barcham Trees sales director and biosecurity expert, explains that for the forestry industry to safeguard its current position, it will need to prevent, control or eradicate outbreak. This is biosecurity – “how best we equip ourselves as an industry”. The action taken depends on the stage that the particular pest or disease is currently at. Take chalara dieback of ash, for example: it is already in the UK, so control and eradication are out of the question. The next stage is figuring out what to do now that it’s here. Emerald ash borer, on the other hand, hasn’t arrived in the UK, so the goal is to prevent or slow down its progress. In the US it has decimated ash populations, with around 40,000 trees succumbing; this shows how vulnerable the UK tree population is to the threats posed by pests and diseases. Personal responsibility Biosecurity is all about managing these diseases. “It all boils down to the individual buyer – the person buying trees in individual situations,” Keith says. “It’s about how rigorous their examination of what they’re buying has been, where it comes from and how clean it is.” The threat of canker stain appears to be making its way up Northern France as climate conditions change, but the biggest form of transmission is humans


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individuals should be checking where their stock has come from, how long it has been in the UK, what precautions have been taken and whether the nursery has a biosecurity policy



carrying spores of the fungal disease from mainland Europe to the UK. Understanding the problem could help to find a solution – for example, how do you manage the tools that are coming in from contractors working on the continent? Keith is quick to defend the work of government agencies. “I personally believe DEFRA is underresourced to deal with the situation, and is doing some remarkable work in terms of border control,” Keith says. “The Forestry Commission is also doing some great work advising people on plant hygiene and contractor and operator hygiene. The local offices do a fine job going out to look at nurseries like ours, inspecting and ensuring that what we are sending out into the environment is clean.” He believes that controlling disease comes down to personal responsibility, saying that individuals should be checking where their stock has come from, how long it has been in the UK, what precautions have been taken and whether the nursery has a biosecurity policy; they should also ask for evidence that the stock has been in place for a growing season and that it has been subjected to a regular pest and disease control program. He lists some of the questions that those importing plants should be asking themselves. “What controls have you got over the quality of stock, or the cleanliness of the stock in the UK? Are you vetting the nursery that you’re buying from? Are you holding it in quarantine? Are you buying plants of UK provenance, with seedling grown and produced in the UK?”. Stringent testing Barcham Trees carries out physiological health tests using chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content,


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testing around 15,000 different leaf samples every year and implementing its own biosecurity policy. Its new stock is put into the nursery in October and March, and won’t be sold until 1 September; ensuring this period of certainty costs the business around £70,000. Biosecurity policies such Barcham Trees’ could become more prevalent in the industry to help avoid the spread of pests and diseases. The Arboriculture Association, which Keith chairs, and the Forestry Commission have put together a comprehensive series of guidelines for Arboriculture Associationapproved contractors; these guidelines will need to be met by contractors to show that they have a policy in place. The Arboriculture Association’s conference in September was also given over to questions surrounding biosecurity.


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Public impact In addition to the arboriculture industry’s impact on biosecurity, there is also the general public’s impact to consider. “There is a disease called Xylella fastidiosa, which is currently prevalent in southern European countries such as Spain and Italy,” says Keith. “It manifests itself on olives, though there are many host plants, such as lavender and rosemary. There is a danger of the public going on holiday to Spain and coming back with a little bag of cuttings or a small plant in the boot of the car.” In terms of what the industry can do, however, Keith continually mentions and refers back to one point: “Personal responsibility – making sure your procurement process takes full account of biosecurity and the need to be vigilant.”

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30,000 trees thamesmead:

in london’s greenest town



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ormerly known for its high-rise blocks of flats and Sixties vision of futuristic architecture, the landscape of Thamesmead is becoming rejuvenated with the help of one of London’s oldest and largest housing associations, Peabody Group. The area boasts more than double the amount of green space per person than the London average, with 350 acres of open space, 30,000 trees and three nature reserves. We speak to Dr Phil Askew, director of landscape and placemaking at Peabody, and Tom Broad, head of environmental services at Gallions Housing Association (part of the Peabody Group), to find out about the recent development and future plans for Thamesmead.

Can you start by telling us a bit about how Peabody has changed Thamesmead since taking control of it in 2014, and what your plans are, going forward? Dr Phil Askew: We started by thinking about the sort of place it might be. It’s large, big enough to fit the entirety of central London into, with 44,000 people – the same population as Winchester. It’s an unusual situation for Peabody, but also a great position, full of opportunities. We are also focusing on uplifting the services that have been provided to the residents here, which is important in terms of satisfaction. We’ve started to look at our tree stock and many other aspects of the landscape, to really understand


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Going forward we need a real plan for delivering a refreshed approach to trees. We’re going to be kicking off some major estate enhancements next spring, with a four-year, £9m state enhancement. We’re greening areas, repaving and resurfacing, while at the same time starting our first phase of major new developments. The history of Thamesmead is very unique: built in the Sixties, it had an incredibly futuristic architectural plan. Do you think that your future plans will be reflective of this? PA: I think that they will, to some extent. Our plans for the next 25 years are to try and complete Thamesmead. The initial plan in the Sixties and Seventies was extensive and makes for quite a good starting point. We’ve got lakes, canals and trees, and a lot of the previous planning was very good. Now there needs to be a significant uplift in terms of maintenance, care and management approach, but we have good bones to work with. We’re certainly not going to be ripping it all up and starting again.

What are your short-term goals? PA: We need to understand what we’ve got. There are approximately 30,000-33,000 trees in Thamesmead. We know a lot about the trees in the public areas, but there are areas of woodlands and peripheral areas that we will need to consider when planning for the future. A lot of the trees were planted in the late Sixties and early Seventies, so you have a tree stock of a certain age; this will bring certain issues with it in terms of tree health, but also in terms of thinking about succession.


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A lot of the trees were planted around the late Sixties and early Seventies by the GLC, so you have a tree stock of a certain age; this will bring certain issues with it in terms of tree health, but also in terms of thinking about succession

what it is and what we’ve got. We are focused on a fixed five-year plan, but also a longer 30-year plan, which will see Thamesmead’s population double, and it will get a new town centre in that time. We are also planning to get the Crossrail open, and the DLR in the north of Thamesmead. Tom Broad: From an operations point of view, we deliver the tree services through correctly employed teams, which have doubled in size since becoming a part of the Peabody Group. We’ve recently recruited a tree surveyor, and as Phil said, we’re very much in a period of thinking, actively getting out and surveying the stock to get an accurate picture of what we have going forward. It’s a big period of change for us.

Similarly, part of the original design was to encourage walking – do you want to do a something similar with the greenspace? PA: Absolutely. We’ve carried out a big exercise to quantify how people move around Thamesmead, and found out something we knew already – people don’t walk very much. Our greenspaces are not well used, so we’re trying to understand how we can get people to use them more effectively. They look great, and people who live here really appreciate them, but they don’t use them very much. That goes to the heart of a lot of our current discussions of the health benefits of greenspace. Thamesmead was built on marshland, and a lot of the original design was built to counteract floods and unstable conditions – is this still a problem, and will trees be forming a part of any flood attenuation plans? PA: We’ve got canals, waterways and lakes that capture almost all the surface water in Thamesmead, which are a legacy from the Sixties and Seventies. It’s effectively a giant system that funnels it out into the Thames. We don’t think that we have a problem with flooding, due to this very interesting and forwardthinking approach. We do have issues with drainage, low lying ground and similar problems, though, due to our position on the marshland. 

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TB: It’s certainly true that in the winter months, the water table in certain areas is very high, so we do get some surface flooding in some areas. PA: Our existing tree stock is made up of poplars, willows, and other species that are quite good in moist ground. There are some Taxodium that have done very well, so clearly as we go forward we need to take this into consideration. Do you find that people are surprised by the amount of greenery in Thamesmead? PA: I ran an open house tour at the Thamesmead festival three or four weeks ago. Around 35 to 40 people turned up, and I took them for a tour of some of the more hidden areas of Thamesmead. I had a couple of comments from people who said that it was like being in the tropics, just becauseof the sheer quantity of greenery. TB: There is a picture that people have of Thamesmead, where they think it’s all tower blocks and concrete – but our green infrastructure and trees are an important part of the landscape. Historically, we also have the tumps around the town, and all the military history, which fits in. How important do you think street trees are to the local community? PA: Very important. We know trees are good for people’s wellbeing, and that London has a problem with the urban heat island effect, where cities will get hotter than the surrounding countryside. Trees can do a lot to help that, but they also help to create an identity. You can use trees to create different shapes and colours. Do you have plans to plant many more trees? PA: We must have a plan for it. If we have a tree stock of 30,000 and they’re all mature, then we need to have a plan going forward. You wouldn’t go and plant another 30,000 trees, but you do have to have a plan for diversification. TB: There’s a balance between looking after our current stock and bringing in new stock. Will the new stock be a diverse range of trees? PA: I think they must be, and I think that’s especially important now. There’s a wide and increasing range of pathogens and bugs coming our way, and having a good diverse array of tree species will help us to manage this.


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What role do trees play in your nature reserves? TB: Tump 53 and tump 39 are both nature reserves, originally constructed by the GLC. We’re working with partners for tump 53 at the moment, which involves education for school children. In the context of London, Thamesmead’s landscape is completely unique. Phil points out that Thamesmead is an area where, over the decades, the community has been given a series of promises that haven’t been delivered on, and Peabody won’t be able to change the borough overnight. Tom, however, has been a resident of the area for many years, and says that the ‘feel’ of the area has changed significantly – calling it ‘The Peabody Effect’.


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There’s a wide and increasing range of pathogens and bugs coming our way, and having a good diverse array of tree species will help us to manage this


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25/10/2017 11:44

pavin a por no lo a hug no p an 18 no w



I would urge you to take some time through the winter months to try and see what can be found in terms of amazing old trees in your locality


ne sentence jumped out at me as I was reading through Richard Morris OBE’s new book: “It is arguable that the Charter of the Forest is more relevant to the mass of the population than the Magna Carta.” Richard Morris makes it clear in The Charter of the Forest 1217 just how key this charter was to the English way of life in the 13th century, and for hundreds of years thereafter. Before the arrival of William the Conqueror in 1066, many ordinary folk, serfs and freemen were able to hunt and gather wood from forests, with no rebuke for doing so. This was to changed enormously after their arrival. The Normans’ forest system was detested and hated. Under this regime, no one had the right to hunt game, cut and take wood or ue or gra e anima s in a o a orest without first obtaining royal permission. The forest court system was introduced outside the normal legal system. As Richard states in the book: “The forest was the stronghold of arbitrary power.” Perambulations were made around the extent of the forest boundaries, with the surveys designed to extract more and more tax from the common people. This hated system continued under the successive reigns of William II, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, Richard I and John. After the death of King John at Newark in 1216, King Henry III took the throne, and, under the guidance of the mediaeval knight William Marshall, put his seal to the Charter o the orest in . his disafforested much o the and that had been taken from the people by the previous kings. What does it mean for us today, in terms of trees? Well, there are still remnants of these Royal Forests, with famous examples including Sherwood Forest (pictured) and the New Forest. If you look hard enough in the treescape, traces may even be discovered. Tree hunting, especially around the boundaries of such forests, should yield hidden gems in the countryside. For example, boundary trees – or marker trees, as many call them – are well known right across the UK. Even a small amount of research in local libraries and county archive can yield discoveries about your local treescape and the vestiges of the Royal Forests. I would urge you to take some time through the winter months to try and see what can be found in terms of amazing old trees in your locality. Three copies of the original 1217 Charter of the Forest survive today, one of which can be seen in Lincoln, alongside its 1215 Magna Carta counterpart. The charter can also be found on the National Archive’s website, along with an English translation.


Rob McBride Nov.indd 25


ABOUT Rob McBride, ‘The Treehunter’, is a campaigner for ancient trees.

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hen I plant trees, I know I will not pick their nuts or sit in their shade,” says Kazengo Bazengbamarich, a 70-year-old forest producer from Burkina Faso. “But I don’t plant them for me – I plant them for my grandchildren”. Kazengo is one of the forest producers Tree Aid works with, and she remembers a time when the forest was lush and dense and her community could gather all that it needed from the edge of the forest. She is a member of a womens’ Village Tree Enterprise (VTE) group that has adopted a grafting technique which helps improve the shea tree stock in their community. This technique was taught to the group by Tree Aid, and speeds up the growing process: a tree that would take 20 years to bear nuts can be ready to harvest after five or six years. Kazengo and her community are optimistic about the future. This year, Tree Aid is marking 30 years of work in the drylands of Africa. It helps the poorest communities to use the trees and forests that are available to them in order to grow their way out of poverty and hunger – and into a brighter future. Based in Bristol, Tree Aid was established in 1987 by a group of foresters who wanted to help stabilise the drylands of Africa through afforestation, in order to create a sustainable future for the people who live there.

Tackling desertification Most of the 325m people who live in Africa’s drylands rely heavily on natural resources for their food and income. After crops and livestock, trees are the most important source of income for rural families in Burkina Faso, and more than 80% of the rural population is reliant on trees for food and medicine. However, deforestation, driven by the need for farmland and firewood, is leading to desertification. This reduces crop yields and soil fertility, leading to poorer harvests, food shortages, lower incomes and loss of jobs. In Burkina Faso it is estimated that desertification is costing the country 9% of its annual national agricultural GDP. To counter deforestation and desertification, Tree Aid’s programme in Burkina Faso focuses on growing and regenerating trees, growing incomes, and influencing the government to give communities


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the formal rights to manage their forests and trees. Research proves that where rural communities control forests they are able to reduce deforestation and manage forests sustainably, while growing their income and supplementing their diet. Tree Aid promotes non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as a business opportunity. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization describes NTFPs as produce of plant or animal origin that is picked or gathered from forests, savannah and agroforestry systems; they include leaves, bark, flowers, fruit, roots, sap, gum and herbs. Either consumed raw or processed, NTFPs constitute essential ingredients of the food, medicinal and cosmetic products that meet people’s everyday needs. They also provide raw materials for large scale industrial processing and are important export commodities, attracting global interest in recent years. Unfortunately, the potential for women like Kazengo to exploit NTFPs is often fraught with barriers, which include lack of rights of access, lack of business skills and initial investment, lack of market access and information, dwindling natural resource base, and the absence of an enabling policy environment. If these essential preconditions are not met, attempts to use forest products sustainably to improve livelihoods have little chance of succeeding. To overcome these barriers and help women like Kazengo take advantage of the opportunities offered by NTFPs, Tree Aid created the VTE programme. This has generated a lot of interest in NTFPs as an economic sector in Burkina Faso, and led to the establishment of the government institution for the advancement of NTFPs, the National Agency for the Promotion of NonTimber Forest Products. This is the first government institution of this type in West Africa. Uniting for change The Yemboama Union is an association uniting a number of VTE groups, formed in 2012 with Tree Aid support. It is based in Fada N’Gourma, Burkina Faso’s largest administrative region, and draws its membership from groups located up to 200km from its office, bringing together more than 1,000 individuals from 39 VTE groups in 20 villages. Yemboama Union is a member-based organisation, with individual members supporting the union in 

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and coordinate production between producer groups to meet these orders. Marketing is a key function of the business, as are assurances of quality, quantity and timely delivery. The business also informs its members about replanting and protecting natural resources, and in some cases gives them financial support to help with such activities. Growing hope Despite some annual fluctuations in the quantities of produce due to less favourable growing seasons, the union has seen a steady increase in volumes and revenues since it was founded in 2012. This has greatly improved the incomes of forest producers like Kazengo. Moreover, VTE producer group members can undertake their NTFP work alongside their normal farming activities. For women like Kazengo, this is a real lifeline. There is a growing market both locally and internationally for the shea butter she produces, which is used extensively in the cosmetics industry and increasingly in the confectionery industry. Kazengo wants her grandchildren to benefit from employment in the shea industry, and is pleased that they are interested in learning and using new technology. Tree Aid is committed to not only growing trees in Africa’s drylands, but also growing incomes and growing hope for a brighter future.

Kazengo wants her grandchildren to benefit from employment in the shea industry, and is pleased that they are interested in learning and using new technology

two ways. Firstly, they pay membership fees, about £1.20 per person per year. Secondly, the union charges a sales levy for products sold through the union. The prices that the union sells products for are substantially higher than producers could gain in local markets, giving members a great incentive to join. For example, the union found a market for 1,500kg of baobab pulp powder. The agreed price was £1.90/kg and the highest price on the local market was £0.57/kg. The union paid the members £1.20/kg and made a profit of about £0.62/kg. Financial resources for the start-up of the Yemboama Union’s VTE producer groups came from either the groups’ savings, small loans or a combination of the two. The loans came from a microfinance institution that partnered with Tree Aid on the programme. VTE producer groups were trained to administer the loan management before accessing loans, and were helped with the loan applications. This start-up capital was invested in basic equipment for harvesting and provides working funds for the purchase of additional raw material, where necessary. The tree planting, natural resource management activities, nursery establishment and management included in the producer groups’ business plans was supported financially by Tree Aid. The producer groups retain their autonomous status and have their own leadership; they are free to choose whether to sell to the Yemboama Union or elsewhere. The union’s main role is to secure large-scale orders


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uch has been written in recent months about certain trees in She e d which has prompted me to consider the uture o the street tree. thin the notion o street trees is a recent one and man o the trees that we now ta e or granted p anted in a i e ihood or an one o a huge number of reasons) will have gone into the ground with ver itt e idea o how societ wou d change during its i etime. ot on that when many street trees were planted there wou d have been no e perience to draw on in terms of managing a massive mature tree in a tight urban environment. he environment into which these trees were p anted wi have changed incrementa but immeasurab in the ears since services and uti ities wi have been insta ed sur ace treatments wi have changed and the demands and pressures upon ever s uare centimetre o urban space wi have outstripped an thing our e ders cou d imagine as houses are bui t or our enormously expanded population. The trees, and those responsible for them, were generally over oo ed or ta en or granted during the decision-ma ing. The professional environment has also changed accountants asset managers insurers and lawyers now appear to have greater in uence over tree matters and those responsible for the management of the trees have been over oo ed or e t behind as the ai ed to grasp the wider picture. n m e perience ew tree o cers had an idea o the u - i e costs associated with a street tree or the liabilities that emerge during a tree’s i etime. ow the emergence o i ree-t pe asset management so tware pac ages is an attempt to redress the ba ance but va uing the benefits o an urban tree with an degree o confidence is an ine act science.


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The trees, and those responsible for them, were generally overlooked or taken for granted during the decision-making


street tree?

So bac to the uestion what uture or the street tree? It seems to me that it turns upon ‘value’. Can an individual tree, area, group or woodland be given a va ue that can be measured in terms that other pro essions wi accept et a one understand What metrics wou d be considered ow wou d va ue be described

pounds sterling? I try to argue that a larger tree provides an exponentially greater value than a smaller tree, but I have few grounds to base that upon and o ten find m comments a ing on deaf ears. n the absence o a universa agreed scheme or va uing a tree it seems that sma trees such as a ong term bedding scheme are acceptab e something that wi be rep aced ever or ears does not seem to roc an boats or even figure on an radar. ut wou d the ba ance between their u - i e costs and benefits be a positive one erhaps the sma tree is simp invisib e so it evades scrutin b the decision-ma ers. Arguments rage over ‘large’ trees: they are given an emotiona va ue b some o the pub ic (who have no other tools to deploy), but they no onger seem to be acceptab e to decisionma ers. erhaps this is because no one can understand their va ue or perhaps it s because an accountant understands a different set o numbers to an arboricu turist. We must do what we can to change these negative attitudes or ris osing the ot. If the primary argument over whether a tree sta s or goes is financia then ever one must first be satisfied that the numbers are right. ore important though wider societ perhaps needs to accept that there is a robust mechanism or putting a financia va ue on the benefits that a massive and mature tree can bring capita ised annua ised or who e i e compared with the iabi ities that are probab recorded as an annua revenue cost against an operating budget. isappointing the evidence base or the benefits provided b arge urban trees is sti wea and this hinders our argument or street tree retention.

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fireblight PESTA& SE DISE

Young, vigorous plants, or those heavily fertilised with nitrogen, are most severely affected


Pro Arb | November 2017

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ireblight is a destructive bacterial disease that affects man tree and shrub species. epending on tree species cu tura practices and spring weather conditions damage can range rom the death o one or more branches to tota tree death. he disease is most severe during warm moist springs and on poor drained sites. oung vigorous p ants or those heavi erti ised with nitrogen are most severe affected.

Symptoms he most characteristic and easi observed s mptoms are wi ting and b ac ening or browning o the b ossoms and eaves on the termina shoots igure . he affected tree parts remain attached to the shoot termina and appear as i the have been scorched b fire. s the in ection progresses the bar b ac ens and can ers deve op on the o der arger branches igure particu ar at the margins o iving and dead tissue. brown


oo e deve ops at the site o these can ers during moist warm weather. he cambia region o in ected branches initia appears water-soa ed and reddish to reddish-brown in co our. Causal agents ireb ight is caused b the bacterium Erwinia amylovora. he organism overwinters in branch can ers at the margins o iving and dead tissue. Wind rain-sp ash and insects are responsib e or the initia transport o the bacteria rom the can ers to open b ossoms the primar in ection site. ossom-visiting insects are primari responsib e or secondar in ections whereb the organism is transported rom in ected to hea th b ossoms. n ection ma a so resu t rom direct inocu ation o termina shoots. cient wounding agents and transport mechanisms or the bacteria inc ude suc ing insects such as ea hoppers and aphids as we as pruning too s

Control ontro o fireb ight is di cu t and re uires a comprehensive program o sanitation cu tura practices and p ant protection products in order to attain satis actor resu ts. ree resistant varieties do e ist. emove in ected branches rom the tree termina in ections are best pruned out when first noticed. a e cuts in the hea th wood we be ow the ast observab e s mptom appro imate - cm and disin ect pruning too s re uent using a coho or a b each so ution. ranch in ections shou d be removed during dr weather in ate summer or in the dormant season. erti isation when necessar shou d be done in ate autumn or ear spring using a ba anced erti iser and app appropriate copper-based products in ate summer and ear autumn.


26/10/2017 08:17

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26/10/2017 08:37


top-handled chainsaws


hen working at an elevated position, whether in a harness, from a platform or when climbing hard-to-reach p aces it s important to be comfortable and safe. With this in mind, the majority of trained arborists will utilise a top-handled chainsaw, as it is engineered to give optimal balance and manoeuvrability while still being light and powerful – giving arborists the e ibi it to wor rom any angle when high up a tree. he primar difference between a top-handled chainsaw and other chainsaws is the position of the handle, which is moved from the rear to the top of the chainsaw, allowing for simple operation


among tree branches. Arborists are often climbing to the highest parts of a tree, so the lightweight design and simple manoeuvrability of top-handled saws allows them to reach di cu t spots and sti wor sa e and e cient . n contrast, traditional rear-handled chainsaws are more suitable for use on the ground. Manufacturers design tophand ed chainsaws specifica with professional arborists, foresters and tree surgeons in mind, and are constantly striving to incorporate innovative technologies and features to keep operation as e cient and simp e as possib e. t s important to remember that fine tuning a chainsaw to meet the need of a job is a straightforward

H5540VZ 40V lithium-ion chainsaw • • • •

55cm double sided blade. 28mm tooth spacing. 40V lithium ion battery. Run time of up to 85 minutes. harge time o appro imate 90 minutes • Weight 4.4kg.


PAUL HICKS, MARKETING AND PRODUCT MANAGER AT STIHL GB, ON WHY EVERY ARBORIST NEEDS A TOP-HANDLED CHAINSAW process when carrying out groundwork, but this becomes increasing di cu t when wor ing at a great height. or e amp e Stih s ightweight and powerful MS 201 T-CM tophand ed chainsaw is fitted with an M-Tronic electronic engine management system, which c ever monitors both e terna and operating conditions, such as temperature, atmospheric pressure and fuel grade, and then intuitively selects the ideal ignition point and correct fuel volume for starting, idling and running, under part or

over the top

full load. Also, a professional anti vibration system virtually eliminates vibrations from the engine block at the handles. That in turn avoids fatigue and contributes to the machine s e ce ent contro . Top-handled chainsaws are designed to be operated by arborists, and for good reason. When working in areas where space is at a premium and a variety of complicated and precise cuts are required in a potential hazardous environment, only a skilled professional utilising the correct equipment will do.

only a skilled professional utilising the correct equipment will do


Husqvarna 562XP/G • Supplied with a 3/8in large bar mount and 18in X-Force guide bar as standard. • 59.8cm³ engine. • Centrifugal air cleaning system. • AutoTune automatically adjusts the engine for optimal operation. • Rapid and smooth acceleration.


MS 462 C-M • 70cm³ cubic capacity • 0 to 100km/h in just 0.3 seconds dea or e ing and pruning in medium-densit and high-density stands itted with - ronic and air fi ter oo - ree ue caps or eas and sa e fi ing conomica engine

Price: £99.99

Price: £870

Price: POA

Pro Arb | November 2017

Kit_Chainsaws.indd 32


26/10/2017 09:13

urban trees laying down roots


hen choosing an urban tree, it is important to first identify the tree’s specific needs. e consideration in any urban tree’s selection process is matching the tree to the size of the site where it will be planted. Consider how big the urban tree will be when fully grown and how this wi affect the surrounding area. It is also crucial to consider an urban tree’s proximity to buildings, driveways, paths, streets, overhead and buried utility lines, and septic systems. Think about the impact that the urban tree’s roots and branches will have, and about any damage they could cause if they

are situated near foundations, asphalt or concrete structures, or drainage structures. The climate in which an urban tree is ocated wi a so affect its ability to thrive, but, equally, urban tree placement and species can affect the c imate contro or a particular area. Deciduous urban trees that are planted along south, east and west perimeters can provide shade during summer, but could obscure sunlight in winter when it is scarce. Planting an urban tree is very simple, but it requires consideration, in order to avoid the common mistake of digging a hole that is too narrow and too deep is avoided. When a hole is

BOUGHTON LOAM LTD Boughton Urban tree soil

• 80:20 mix: Clay (<0.002mm) 4; silt . - . mm ver fine sand . - . mm fine sand . 0.25mm) 20; medium sand (0.250.50mm) 59; coarse sand (0.501.0mm) 12. • Permability (251mm/hr).


Kit_UrbanPlanting.indd 33


too narrow, the roots can’t expand properly to extract the required nourishment or su cient anchor the urban tree; if the hole is too deep, the roots will not have access to the oxygen that aids proper growth. To make planting simple, the hole shouldn’t be any deeper than the soil in which the urban tree was initially grown. Whether planting a balled, container-grown or bare rooted tree, the diameter should be at least three times the diameter of the rootball, the container or the spread of the bare root’s soil. High quality silica sand should be used below the rootball of the tree. Organic material should not be used at this depth, as the soil


ArborSystem Tree Pit Configurator • This free online tool enables you to design a tree pit to your exact requirements. • Wide selection of tree species. range o in rastructure scenarios. • SUDS compatible. • Design a tree pit for optimal tree growth. eceive a u specification and sectiona .

can remain saturated and become anaerobic, poisoning the roots. Urban trees thrive when planted in good quality and well drained loamy soil, struggling in heavy clays and poorly-drained soils. Poor drainage can lead to root rot, when pools of water lie stagnant around roots and cause a lack of oxygen. Boughton’s Urban tree soil is a blend of specially selected silica sand and composted green waste, sourced from accredited suppliers or added organic matter. t offers good drainage and stability, alongside high oxygen and water access for the tree’s root system. The added organic matter provides all the components necessary for a tree to prosper.


The ArborRaft Tree Planting System • Provides a load bearing structure that allows 70t/m² to pass over it. • Prevents soil compaction and damage to the root structure. • Protects the pavement; creates an air gap and a barrier that prevents root growth upwards and protects hard surface from root damage.

Pro Arb | November 2017 33

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This year’s panel, hosted by Jonathan Hazell, will be taking on certain matters that seem to be quite pressing in the industry of late. Questions surrounding the decision of some councils to fell street trees is rife in the public eye, but for the arb industry the necessity is slightly more nuanced. The panel will be covering similar topics with the sub ects how to va ue a tree s benefits pa ing or pub ic trees the emerging understanding of veterans’ and ‘the future of street trees’. The future of arboriculture will be covered in various ways, from how service providers are now structured, to understanding the ang e o uture arborists with sub ects i e apprenticeships and training and certifications. Inevitable challenges in the future will also be covered, looking at biosecurity and the impact of Brexit.

Jonathan Hazell Jonathan Hazell Consulting

Alastair Durkin Tandridge District Council

Stuart Phillips Lantra

Gary Scammel Gristwood and Toms

Craig Ruddick Richmond and Wandsworth Councils


Horticulture CAREERS

FutureArb Panellists.indd 34

26/10/2017 16:05




the cutting edge


andsaws have become an essential too over the ears helping professionals and gardeners alike to tackle the toughest of pruning tasks. A pruning handsaw can easily cut small stems and large branches with a diameter of up to an impressive - in. As with all cutting tools, it’s important to maintain the performance of the cutting edge. Prior to cutting it is recommended that the blade is carefully lubricated with light machine oil, minimising the drag on the pull stroke and reducing the build-up of sap and debris on the blade. If not treated, sap and debris bui d-up over time

can cause snagging of the blade, which can be frustrating and often means the handsaw is tougher to use – especially when dealing with hard-to-reach branches. Almost all pruning handsaws are designed on the pull stroke, meaning that the cutting action takes place when the handle and blade is pulled towards the user. The shape of the teeth and hard chrome plated tips can be sharpened with a specialist fi e however man pro essiona pruning saw supp iers offer spare blades as a replaceable item when the original blade is blunt or damaged. It is always recommended that personal protective c othing particu ar


• • • •

vai ab e in straight and curved blades, and in 250mm, 300mm, mm mm and mm engths. High carbon tool steel blades. Hard chrome plated tips. Secure saw-to-scabbard locking. Rubber grip handle.

g oves are worn at a times when handling a pruning saw. “A Sawpod neoprene pruning saw holder is one way to keep your pruning saw safely stored within its scabbard, either while pruning in the tree or on the ground,” says hristopher. ternative man


saw scabbards can be attached directly to a belt loop or to a tool clip karabiner.” Christopher concludes that arborists should “let the saw do the wor avoid twisting the b ade and simply apply light pressure to the pull stroke.”


Silky Zubat ‘Arborist’ 330

Professional Pruning Saw

esigned specifica or tree surgeons. • 330mm blade with extra-large teeth, 5.5 per 30mm. rovides ast cutting. • Scabbard has three rollers, allowing saw to slide in more smoothly.

• Interchangeable with WOLF-Garten’s unique multi-change range for safe sawing up to 5.5m. • With branch hook and bark scratcher. urved saw b ade enab es effort ess and powerful sawing. ntegrated sa et c ip prevents accidenta release when working in trees.

Price: £28.99-40.99

Price: From £68.74

Price: £39.99


Kit_Handsaws.indd 35

Pro Arb | November 2017 35

26/10/2017 09:14



A roundup of the latest products


CS-2511TES top handle chainsaw (for trained tree surgeon operators only) • • • • • •

Powerful premium grade ECHO 25cc engine 2.3kg dry weight, without guide bar and chain Engine produces 1.10kW Fuel tank capacity 0.19L Oil tank capacity 0.14L Guide bar length 25cm (10in)

Price: £499


The Ronin Power Ascender • • • • •

45m/min ascending speed 181kg lifting capacity 9kg product weight (including battery) 60m/min descending speed 4hr battery charge time

Price: POA



ast cost effective stump remova using an e cavator between uic hitch s stem or rapid fitment or changeover • Adjustable motor to maximise the potentia rom suitab e e cavator • Jas P Wilson supplies grapples, log sp itters harvesting heads and mu chers to fit e cavators eav dut machine

ngine one c inder two-stro e air-coo ed • 1hp in b ades mm • Max. cutting capacity 1.1in (28mm) • Fuel tank capacity 600ml • 6.4 kg dry weight

FAE excavator stump grinder (SCL/EX/VT)

Timberpro Professional Series hedge trimmer

Price: £149.99

Price: POA


Pro Arb | November 2017

Arb Kit Nov.indd 36


26/10/2017 09:08

il So n ts tio en ac ev p Pr om C

ArborRaft System Combines nutrient rich ArborRaft soil with strong geocellular units to create a healthy growing space for trees in areas subject to vehicle and pedestrian traffic. • No requirement for deep tree pits as root growth and development is normally within the upper zone of the tree pit.

• Spreads the load to prevent soil compaction within the tree pit. • Essential oxygen, water and nutrient circulation are improved to create a natural environment.

• Simple installation and raft structure avoids existing services and utilities.

• Protects the tree’s root structure in urban settings.

gtSpecifier Team T: 01423 332 114

• Quick to install.

Call today for a copy of the ArborRaft Brochure

E: W:

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15/02/2017 11:37

unfogable mesh eye protection

caring for the environment 0845 2222 039 Secateurs, hedgeshears and the world’s finest pruning saws in superb, tempered Japanese steel KST 230

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Silky Fox Saws

KST 103


Foxley Estate Office, Mansel Lacy, Hereford HR4 7HQ

Hayauchi 490

Pocketboy 170

Tel: 01981 590224 Fax: 01981 590355

Visit to find your local stockist

26/10/2017 08:57




The Iveco is one of two in the country – it was purpose built with the cherry-picker on it. It goes 12m up and 4m out, so for street trees it’s a lot quicker and safer – a good tool to have. The truck has got secure lock bins for all the gear, and it’s articulated on the back so it tips up. I’ve got it and a Ford Ranger 4x4 on a yearly contract because that truck brand new is about £65,000 – it works out better for me to do it this way. The insurance, tax and MOTs are all covered – I just need to put fuel in it, and there’s no mileage restrictions. It’s a really nice truck to drive, with a spacious cab.

PPE I wear the Husqvarna Technical Extremes – these are the best in the market, the top-end ones. Great for climbing, they’ve got vents in the back for when it gets really hot. I’ve had mine for more than a year and they have just a small tear that can be easily sewn up. Apart from that they’ve lasted really well – they go through a lot on a day-to-day basis. They are comfortable, lightweight and they do the job. My boots are Stein Krieger, which came out brand new only last year – a great boot, particularly for dismantling, because they’re very sturdy and they have a lot of safety features. They’re not that great for pruning because they’re quite big and bulky and wide. The next boots I get will probably be a lighter pair, just to make it easier for pruning and getting around trees.


Pro Arb | November 2017

ToolboxNov.indd 38


26/10/2017 09:38



I have a Husqvarna 346. It’s a small saw that’s perfect for the smaller jobs – it’s very lightweight and it’s got a short bar at only 15in. At 46cc, its pretty low power, but it does the job.

HEDGE CUTTERS We use Echo and find they are really good – they are probably the cheapest on the market, compared to Stihl or Husqvarna. I’ve had the same ones for three years, so they’ve done really well.

I’ve also got the latest Husqvarna T540, which is the top-handled climbing saw. We’ve got up to 95cc and 120cc with a five-foot bar on it, which is really heavy. They actually don’t come out with us that often, because you would only need to use them for large trees, most of which are protected now, –particularly in a National Park authority area. The main dealer I use is a company called SPG in Brockenhurst, in the New Forest.


I use the biggest one on the market right now – it’s a Stihl backpack blower, which is great for clean up because it’s so powerful, especially when you have a lot of sawdust from tree cutting. It just makes your life a little bit easier. It is quite an expensive bit of kit, but highly valuable.

CHIPPER I bought the chipper brand new last year, it’s a TP 175. It’s great that chippers are a lot lighter these days, especially if you have to take it off and manhandle it for tight driveways – you can do it on your own. It’s a six-inch diameter chipper with a diesel engine.


ToolboxNov.indd 39

Pro Arb | November 2017 39

26/10/2017 09:39




Each month we feature an ancient British tree. This month, Aislinn Mottahedin-Fardo from the National Trust introduces us to...

Images © Aislinn Mottahedin-Fardo, assistant ranger for the National Trust at Knightshayes

The Knightshayes Holly, Devon


Set within the grounds of Knightshayes Court at Tiverton in Devon, the Knightshayes Holly (Ilex aquifolium) is an ancient specimen that is estimated to be more than 400 years old. At 12m tall and with a diameter of 230cm, the Knightshayes Holly is a National Champion Tree. Now managed by the National Trust, the parkland of Knightshayes Court is believed to have once been a mediaeval deer park, before becoming a farmstead in 1610. During this time, the Holly was planted as a hedgerow tree for a trackway leading to the original farm. Holly trees within hedgerows were commonly left unpruned, as, according to folklore, they stopped witches from running up and down the hedge. This, along with the old superstition that it is unlucky to fell a holly tree, may account for the Knightshayes Holly having remained, while the hedgerow has long since been removed. Through the years, the Knightshayes Holly has received little in the way o management which has probab contributed to its magnificent si e and form. The National Trust has adopted a policy of minimal intervention, to allow the tree to produce a natural form. By 2007, however, the crown had become sparse as a result of soil compaction from sheep, and browsing by deer. Following the installation of stock fencing in 2009, the ho has begun growing vigorous and produced a u er crown befitting its age and si e. though the ho is a ma e specimen and so does not produce berries it disp a s a subt e but beauti u show o owers. As an ancient specimen, the holly has become an important habitat for a variety of both specialist and generalist wildlife. The foliage displays signs o the ho ea miner h tom a i icis a species that can cause dieback in the crown, but here it is controlled by predation from blue tits and parasitic wasps. he ho ower buds are the ood p ant or the first brood arvae o the ho b ue butter the adu ts o which can be seen itting through the surrounding par and during the summer months. he lichen assemblage is relatively poor due to the previous removal of the surrounding hedgerow, which in turn altered the microclimatic conditions of the holly bark. However, deadwood throughout the tree hosts a variety of saprophytic fungi and invertebrates. The Ancient Tree Forum champions the biological, cultural and heritage value of Britain’s ancient and veteran trees, and provides advice on their value and management at www.ancienttreeforum. ©Ancient Tree Forum Pro Arb | November 2017

Ancient Tree Nov.indd 40


26/10/2017 10:10



bill johnston

business manager for Jensen UK BILL JOHNSTON OF JENSEN UK TALKS TO PRO ARB ABOUT THE COMPANY’S PRODUCTS AND WHAT JENSEN UK CAN OFFER ARBORISTS Can you tell us a little bit about the company? Jensen engineered and manu actured the first woodchipper more than 130 years ago. It has continued with impressive German innovation, ensuring its products remain industry leading, with the widest range of woodchippers available from any manufacturer. Jensen is proud of its engineering history, and excited by the appointment earlier this year of its new sole importer and distributor, T H WHITE Machinery Imports Ltd. Throughout 2017 the dealer network has continued to grow, providing our customers with the excellent level of service that is required in this expanding and dynamic industry.


Meet the Supplier.indd 41

What are the key selling points of your products? Everything about the design of a Jensen chipper has longevity in mind. These machines are engineered and built to last. The unique design of the infeed rollers generates industry leading power and precision, processing awkward timber at speed. The easily accessible blades and centralised greasing points ensure that future maintenance is straightforward. What are your bestselling products? The A540L diesel chipper has been our bestseller for two years. This 8in capacity machine remains a favourite for contractors, with its generous hopper size, robust construction, and the performance expected of a much larger machine. This model is also available with a turntable, or as a PTO powered chipper. The exciting addition of the A530L petrol chipper this year has also generated significant sa es. his lightweight petrol machine is powered by a 35hp Briggs and Stratton engine, engineered for

reliability and ease of use. Weighing in at 700kg, it can be towed without a trailer licence. What kind of after-sales support do you offer? Our UK dealers endeavour to provide a ‘complete package’ for our customers’ needs. Once our customers have received a prompt delivery, they can have the confidence o e ce ent a ter-sa es support. Our experienced dealers can advise with technical support, complete warranty claims or provide spare parts as required. All dealer wor shop staff are u trained with the complete range of Jensen chippers, with an ongoing training programme for all dealers. How do you market the business? The business has grown this year through our nationwide dealer network, using trusted and experienced dealers that provide e ce ent a ter-sa es support and dedicated parts supply. Throughout the year we have attended numerous national and regional shows, such as Confor and the upcoming SALTEX event, giving us

the opportunity to meet new and existing customers and dealers. What are your lead times? We carry the majority of the 6in and 8in capacity machines in stock, allowing for prompt delivery. Where the customer requires a larger machine, up to 16in capacity or a bespoke solution, chippers are typically manufactured and delivered within six to eight weeks. Are you releasing any new products in the coming months? We are looking forward to showing a number of models at the SALTEX event find us on stand . How do you ensure the quality of your products? The industry demands the highest of standards, due to the rigours and challenges that our chippers are presented with. Customers have come to recognise the value of our German engineering. We can not only provide a robust and reliable machine, but ensure that they have the most suitable machine for their working environment.

Pro Arb | November 2017 41

26/10/2017 09:23


For full details on all jobs, please go to

Call 01903 777 580 or email with your vacancy



This role will involve a wide variety of tree work, including ground based chainsaw work, aerial tree surgery, pruning and identifying basic trees and shrubs. The PHC part of the role involves carrying out pest and disease management, fertiliser application and soil treatment works. You must demonstrate sound knowledge of health and safety, have an understanding of plant healthcare services and provide a high level of customer service. You must have minimum CS30, CS31, CS38 and CS39 (or equivalent) and a full driving licence, ideally with C1 plus E. Ideally, you will have NPTC pesticides application tickets PA1 and PA6.

This role involves various tree works for a mixture of domestic and commercial clients, and would suit a groundsman looking to progress to being a climber or second climber. Previous experience in the arboriculture, estate or forestry industry will be required. The company has a variety of equipment, including a recently purchased MEWP, so you will be involved in an interesting and challenging variety of projects. You must have a full UK driving licence and NPTC chainsaw certificates 201 and 202 (previously 30 and 31). Additional certificates are desirable rather than essential.

For more details please go to

For more details please go to



Due to continued expansion Glendale is looking for climbers to work from our depot in Sevenoaks, Kent. You must have CS30, CS31, CS38 and CS39, and a full clean driving licence (B+E desirable). CS40, 41, C1+E, NRSWA, first aid and MEWP qualifications are desirable.

Barkland Trees Specialists is currently seeking climbers and groundsmen to join our team covering all of London and surrounding areas. All applicants must already have NPTC units CS30, 31, 38 and 39, with a minimum of one year’s experience within the industry preferred. Full driving licence preferred but not essential.

For more details please go to

For more details please go to


HORTICRUITMENT Location: Aylesbury

GLENDALE Location: Sevenoaks


IT WORKS 20,000




cvs online to browse cv


OVER emails are sent to candidates monthly


strong candidate APPLICATIONS per job on average

● Weekly jobs mailer ● Feature jobs inside relevant print magazine ● Jobs featured on weekly news and round up emails ● Different solutions to secure quality applicants

official job board:

visit the website at call Laura today on 01903 777580


Jobs.indd 42

Pro Arb | November 2017


26/10/2017 09:11





For your chance to appear in a future edition of the magazine, simply answer the questions below and return them, along with a head and shoulders photo, to: It’s as simple as that!

ashley lampard

Features editor, Pro Arb

What’s your go to reference book? James Murray: The Oxford English Dictionary.

One piece of technology you couldn’t live without? My laptop, for Word’s spellchecking capability.

Favourite species of tree? Weeping willow.

Favourite sandwich filling? Hummus and falafel.

If you had to work in a different industry, what would you be doing? Zoological conservation.

Karaoke song of choice? Doomsday by MF Doom.

Best moment in your career thus far? Speaking to Monty Don’s personal assistant, Charlotte.

Don’t think too deeply, just fire back your answers and look out for yourself in a future issue.

Who would play you in a film of your life? I would like to say Domhnall Gleeson, but a young Rowan Atkinson would be more accurate. Favourite sporting memory? The time I, momentarily, stood up on a surfboard (as it was riding a very small wave).

Thank you in advance for your participation.

Top of your bucket list? Hijacking a truck full of pigs heading for the slaughterhouse and driving off into the sunset.

ed griffiths Head of operations,

©Featureflash Photo Agency /

CGM Group

What’s your go to reference book? Collins British Tree Guide.

Best moment in your career thus far? Completing the CS39 course.

Favourite species of tree? Lime.

One piece of technology you couldn’t live without? A hair dryer.

If you had to work in a different industry, what would you be doing? Working in entertainment.


Little Interview.indd 43

Favourite sandwich filling? hic en and stu ng. Karaoke song of choice? Three Times a Lady by Lionel Richie.

Who would play you in a film of your life? Uncle Buck. Favourite sporting memory? Michael Owen’s goal against Argentina. Top of your bucket list? Meeting Britney Spears.

Pro Arb | November 2017 43

26/10/2017 09:22

Ads_Nov.indd 7

25/10/2017 11:56

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