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Brand Report

V E R S A C E

Fashion Management and Communication: Fashion Marketing and Management; Elizabet Yordanova 1


Contents

1. Summary and Introduction…………………………………………………………page 3 1.1 Brand history and brand inspiration………………………………………………page 3 1.2 The death of Gianni Versace……………………………………………………......page 3 1.3 Timeline of brand’s extensions……………………………………………………..page 4 2. Brand Eqity………………………………………………………………………......page 4 2.1 The logo of Versace……………………………………………………………….....page 4 3. Marketing Mix …………………………………………………………………........page 6 3.1 BCG Matrix………………………………………………………………………....page 6 3.2 Product……………………………………………………………………………...page 7 3.2.1 Collaborations……………………………………………………………......page 10 3.3. Price………………………………………………………………………………..page 11 3.4. Place………………………………………………………………………...……...page 11 3.5. Promotion ………………………………………………………………………....page 11 4. Consumer Segmentation…………………………………………………...…..…....page 13 5. Competitors……………………..…………………………………………………...page 15 6. Micro and Macro-economic factors related with PESTEL analysis…………...........page 16 7. SWOT analysis…………………….………………………………………………....page 16 8. Recommendations….………………………………………………………………..page 17 9. Bibliography and References……………………………………………………….....page 18

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Summary and Introduction “I think it’s the responsibility of a designer to try to break rules and barriers” - Gianni Versace

Going through the report you will find all about the brand as a personality and product. The world famous company has made a huge success with the passing of the years and we are about to explore every segment of its strategies and values.

Everything started when Gianni Versace launched his brand under the name “Gianni Versace Donna” in 1978. He started as a costume designer. The first women collection was exposed in the first Versace boutique in Milan in 1978. Provocative colours and elegant outlooks have been occupying a massive space in people’s wardrobes over the years. The logo of Medusa is a symbol of seduction which offers us the chance to be persuaded by the avant garde clothing pieces. The items have been seen as high quality products that are able to catch everyone’s attention with their distinctive patterns. In 1982, the brand expanded into the accessory, jewellery and home furnishing. In 1986, the Italian President made Versace a “Commandatore” of the Italian Republic. In his Autumn/Winter 1991-92 Atelier Versace woman’s ensemble he launched a powerful image of a “gangsta” woman all dressed in motorcycle jacket, combined with pleated skirt with metallic belts and collars. The new rebel look was seen as an authoritarian and untraditional feminine outfit. On the other hand, the Italian Re-

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naissance was a big inspiration for the Italian designer. “The Italian Renaissance is not only a paradigm for Versace, but also his model for life... Versace aspires to Medici aesthetics and authority; his synthesis is found not only in clothing that has the distinct colours and silhouettes of Renaissance pageantry, but also in his intellectual cultivation of a Neo-Platonism.” – (Martin R., 1997) Futurism, Bauhaus and Dada art characteristics were illustrated in his clothes. Many icons and floral details are inspired from the history of art. “They are in triumphant recreations of Greco-Roman worlds; golden-yellow fantasies that stand out against leopard-skin patterns...” – (Casadio M., 1998) However he had never repeated a style from the past. Gianni Versace was a true explorer and innovator in terms of designing his garments. “Versace’s ideas are more about transforming metropolitan reality into spectacle” - (Casadio M., 1998) He avoided the limits of language and had overcomed the fear of bad taste. His clothing items are viewed as masterpieces. The brand created different lines, such as “Versace Collection”, “Versus Versace”, “Versace Jeans”, “Young Versace” and “Versace home” for luxury home furnishing. The diffusion line Versus is known as Versace’s second line. Gianni gave it as a gift to her sister and it was introduced in 1989. Its main focus is on accessories and fragrances. These extensions are considered marketing strategies created in order

to attract every type of consumer. “Versus was born with an innate creative approach, with a strong focus on innovation, flair and the unconventional. An artistic force that takes present fashion forward, anticipating new trends and embracing challenge” - (Gianni Versace, 1989) Unfortunately, in 1997 the tragedy of the assassination of Gianni Versace marked the start of the new beginning for the brand. The news spread fastly in media, exposing every detail of the designer’s personal life. Film producers have been inspired to tell the mysterious story. “American Crime story - The Assassination of Gianni Versace” is the newest series production related with the crime. The premier was on 17th of February, 2018 in FX in the USA. After this episode, the brand suffered some changes in terms of its government. Versace’s brother, Santo turned into the new CEO of the fashion company and Versace’s sister, Donatella, became the new head of design.


Timeline of Brand’s Extensions

In 1982, the brand expanded into the accessory, jewellery and home furnishing

The first women “Young In 2006-part- In 2008 Au“Versus collection was Versace” was Versace” nership gustaWestland exposed in the was introduced between AW109 Grand first Versace in 1989 as launched Versace and Versace VIP boutique in Mithe second in 1993. Automobili luxury helicoplan in 1978. line of the Lamborgh- ter was probrand. ini S.p.A. duced. creating the car model Lamborghini Murcielago LP640 Versace.

In 2011 Versace concretized a partnership with H&M.

In 2015 Versace and the choreographer Lil Buck created a pair of sneakers in two colours along with a T-shirt.

The gold porcelain of Rosenthal combined with baroque Versace details is the newest collaboration of the two brands in 2018.

Brand Equity

Emblematic

catwalks, golden patterns and Medusa logo ... it’s all about Versace! Luxurious items are taking our breath at every fashion show. From sexy and aggressive details and bright colours to futuristic designs, Versace is one of the most innovative fashion brands in the world of fashion.

through social media, using applications such as Instagram, YouTube, Twitter and Facebook. These provide consistent information about every move of the company. Moving on to the social media consumer’s feedback about the brand, we may observe a graph showing the interactions in Facebook, Twitter and Instagram by their users. The Gianni’s clothes are seen as an aphrodisiac. They are ex- survey was made during London Fashion Week in tremely sexy and provocative. “Of course, Mr.Versace 2017. Versus Versace is occupying the 4th place. has always made his men’s wear message a deeply erotic one...” - (Spindler, 1996). The masculinity of the modern cavalier is a privileged characteristic by the brand. Woman is seen as a patron of beauty who is born to shine and to be desired. Her shape is the main focus in Versace’s dresses. Whether using natural silk or PVC, lace or leather, the clothes fit perfectly on her body. Using the Medusa head logo, Versace is trying to seduce the consumer in order to purchase the item. It will bring him a spontaneous happiness and a desire to explore other products of the company. In that way, a strong relation is being established between the client and the brand. The clients are able to communicate with the brand

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We can conclude that Fashion Shows and social media profiles provide a successful advertisement for the company.


In order to catch even more the attention of the clients and to present the purchased product in the best way possible, the brand has being offering a luxury packaging over the years. The Medusa head is the most noticeable detail on it. As a slow fashion company, Versace´s products are made mainly in Europe (around 88% in Italy, 10% in other European countries and just 2% in Asia). Their exclusive products are produced in reasonable quantities and the price is prestige. They are not part of the mass market, which makes them even more desirable.

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Marketing Mix

The

brand life cycle is proceeding with a prosperitive vision for the next years. According to EBITBA (one indicator of a company’s financial performance) of the luxury brand, Versace is increasing its success with the passing of the years.

Following this explanation, here are some examples of Versace’s products related with the BCG Matrix method: Stars: Dresses of Versace are still the most purchased item of the company. Many icons wear them in red carpets and other special occasions. The most memorable dress was seen on Jennifer Lopez in 2000 at Grammy Awards. She appeared as an authentic star with a flawless see-through green dress. The outlook was excessively commented on social media and it was the most popular search in Google in that moment. “It was an unexpected success “– (Donatella Versace, 2008)

The statistic illustrates the increase of the brand in a period of four years.

The BCG Matrix is ing the market position the brand. Taking into the Versace’s items we

a method of analysof certain products of consideration some of can position them as:

- Stars - brand’s bestsellers - Question Marks - products with high market growth but with low market share; products which are not preferred by the consumer but they are produced in big quantities - Cash Cows - items with low market growth and high market share - Dogs - products which are not part of the consumer´s interest

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The safety-pin dress weared by Elizabeth Hurley in 1994 is also an epic example of the success of Versace’s dresses throughout the history.


Question Marks: Versace’s shoes are less purchased items, comparing with the dresses. The brand has several types and designs for every consumer, who desires to be noticed. However, their profit is not noticeable at all. Cash Cows: The Perfumes of Versace are having an amazing success with their unforgettable smell and packaging design. Dogs: Versace Home is still a progressive line of the luxury brand, but its existence is under shadowed by the rest of the lines, mainly by Versace collection.

Now, it is time to analyse the fashion house as a product, explaining what the brand is offering and why it is distinctive from the others; as a price that may vary according to the purchased item; as a place where you can find the store and finally as a promotion. If the house of Versace was an animal, it may be compared with an authentic panther, in terms of its appearance and behaviour as a brand. A wide range of provocative outlooks and aggressive details transform the brand into a dangerous and untouchable company for their competitors.

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“Gianni created the whole thing. I came later and helped him� - Donatella Versace


Starting from the beginning, we can take a look at the innovations that have occurred after the death of Gianni Versace until now. In 1997, the “Versus” collection designed in collaboration with his sister Donatella, brought to the world magnificent patterns full of mixed colours. We may consider Gianni Versace as one of the bravest and unpredictable designers illustrating animal skins, metals and neon-like colours all over his clothing lines. Every item has been made with extremely attention paid on the quality of the fabric and its cut. The details are distinctive. In October 1997, Donatella Versace launched her first collection since her brother’s death. Versace Autumn/Winter 1998 campaign was quite different from the previous ones, focusing on unconventional women faces and darker colours. “Girls just want to have fun” might be the best sentence to describe some of the clothing pieces of the Spring/Summer 1999 collection. Other conservative suits were exposed in plain colours. The floral details in the dresses brought the brightness to the show. Entering in the 21st century, Spring 2001 Ready to Wear Collection was full of sexual charge exposing leather jackets, chiffon dressed combined with corset-like belts and little black dresses. Brighter colours such as magenta, purple, light blue and yellow were introduced in Spring/Summer 2003 collection. Jumping straight to the Spring 2016 fashion show, we are able to observe the inclusion of animal prints, making the look even more attractive for the consumer. 8


In the following year, geometrical patterns and psychedelic prints were the main bestsellers of the company. 2018 is being the year of the 90’s revival of Versace. A historical moment had occurred when the super model reunion appeared with Donatella on the runway of the Spring Show in Milan Fashion Week. Bringing back Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, Claudia Schiffer, Carla Bruni, and Helena Christensen is considered one of the most commented fashion shows of the latest years.

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Extensions and collaborations As it is mentioned before, the brand has created different lines, which were referred at the beginning of the report. As a world famous brand, Versace is known for its design experimentations in terms of adding controversial colours and patterns. The brand has left its mark in the world of fashion because of its innovation, unique sense of combining materials and perfect quality. More and more companies are interested to make some collaborations with luxury and influential brands like Versace. That is why, in 2006 Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. created the car model Lamborghini Murciélago LP640 VERSACE. This partnership was very successful and only ten units were produced. AgustaWestland AW109 Grand Versace VIP luxury helicopter was created in 2008, in collaboration between the two brands. In 2011, Versace and the fast fashion company H&M created a collection in common, selling Versace clothing items in low prices. In 2015, the choreographer Lil Buck and Versace created two pairs of sneakers in two colours: black and grey along with a t-shirt and a top. The gold porcelain of Rosenthal combined with baroque Versace details is the newest collaboration of the two brands, bringing “Les Trésors de la Mer”, The Medusa logo and the iconic pattern of Versace “Le Vase Baroque”, into tea sets and other types of tableware.

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Price The price range of the items is between £200 and £3500 according to the type of the product. Their prices may be different in other places. “While Versace hasn’t decided yet whether to decrease prices in Asia and raise them in Europe as Chanel plans to do next month, “we are watching our competitors” Chief Executive Officer Gian Giacomo Ferraris said.” – (Roberts A., 2015) The house of Versace is currently valued at $5,8 billion. Place Versace provides an online service, selling clothes on their official website. For those, who want to experience the feeling of buying luxury items in physical stores, Versace has several shops all over the world. As a result, Versace may be described as a loyal company, which is aware of every need of its consumers, providing them the best quality designs.

Promotion One of the main promotion strategies was to advertise clothes through famous and influential people such as singers, actors and models, like Elton John and Madonna. Gianni Versace was focused on treating his models like queens during the catwalks, taking them to the best hotels and parties. He was paying a huge amount of money for their wellness. Super models such as Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, Claudia Schiffer, Carla Bruni, and Helena Christensen are known as the best Versace models in the brand’s history. Consequently, they were brought back to the runway in 2017 at Versace’s Spring 2018 show in Milan Fashion Week wearing glittery gold mind-boggling dresses. This legendary reunion was the most epic fashion moment of the year. It served as a great advert for the brand. Versace’s campaigns cost millions of pounds annually and they are made with the purpose to manipulate and seduce the consumer in order to buy more and more. The latest campaign is based on the revival of the 90s. Our attention is focused on the provocative patterns, which are related to the brand for years. Famous models like Claudia Schiffer, Naomi Campbell, Kaia, Gigi Hadid, Irina Shyk and Gisele Bündchen are posing in clothes from the previous century, which makes the campaign even more interesting. Using the logo of the Medusa head and repeating the brand’s name constantly during the campaign, the company provokes in the consumer the desire to be part of the whole thing, by buying everything that he sees. We can conclude that the AIDA model is applied in every promotion method nowadays. 11


#VersaceTribute is the newest hashtag in the Versace’s insta-

gram account as a tribute to the founder of the brand. The Versace’s Spring/Summer Tribute collection is reproducing clothing pieces, which were the Gianni’s signature items from the past. Blending Barroco style with casual denim from 1991, a pop art dress from the SS’91 collection and Trésor de la Mer print look. The Vogue cover with Gigi Hadid is also recreating a popular Vogue cover from the 1990s

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Consumer segmentation When we purchase an item form Versace, unconsciously, we expect to buy something luxurious and special. In that way, we will fulfil our need of self-accomplishment and personal growth. We become a part of the massive house of Versace, concretizing our sense of belonging. The wide range of the consumers is accomplished because of the brand´s awareness to reach every culture and to establish relations with clients of any age. It has created several campaigns and advertisements throughout the history in order to catch the eye of different people all around the world.

There are cultural differences, which require a deep analysis about their needs and likes. Some clients prefer online shopping, while others desire a physical engagement with the service in the shops. That is why the brand has developed the two options available for every consumer.

If we take into consideration, the preferences of every culture, we can say that in the Middle East, the society needs a feminine aspirational figure to predict the fashion trends. In that certain location, the gold patterns are more appreciated. On the other hand, China spends amounts for almost half of the global luxury market. In contrast, UK is more into practical purchasing. As we can say, every emerging market needs to take into account the consumer behaviour.

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Competitors Many brands have singularities between them and their consumers associate them in terms of price points, product offer and style. Versace has a distinctive personality, but somehow some of its details can be related with brands such as Moschino, Michael Kors, Balmain, Roberto Cavalli and Guess. Moschino is constantly associated with bright colours and Michael Kors is using gold items in all of their collections, exactly like Versace does. Balmain is using baroque print in its dresses and blazers, which are similar to the Versace’s ones. All of these brands are selling luxury items for a prestige price and they are competitors in the world of fashion. Their clientele has been restricted and loyal during the years, maintaining the companies in the first positions of prosperity.

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Micro and macro-economic factor analysis There are some internal and external factors that may affect the development of the company or change its proceeding process. The Board of Directors of Gianni Versace S.p.A. adopted the Ethical code on 25 March 2013. It is a resourse containing rules and principles that must be respected. The official website of the brand contains the purpose of the Code “..ensuring that attention is always focused on compliance with the laws and regulations in the countries in which the Group operates”. According to the brand, it is opperating in a transparent way and all the actions are done according to the law and defending the environment. In terms of politics, Versace is not involving itself with political parties to ensure its authenticity and to expose its own position, avoiding any kind of propaganda. Any type of discrimination of the consumer is forbidden within the brand. Like I have mentioned before, Versace´s products are made mainly in Europe (around 88% in Italy, 10% in other European countries and just 2% in Asia). The child labour is not permitted and it is also decided to not work with suppliers and retailers that employ children. Worker’s health and wellness are one of the concerns of the company. In fact, in 2013 a fire took place in a factory in China and it caused problems for the brand. “Indeed in December 2013, a fire in a subcontractor factory in the town of Prato killed seven Chinese migrant workers, and unions said the health and safety problems that caused the disaster were common in the area – an area where Versace has factories.” Tailored Wages, 2014 If we take into consideration the environmental awareness by Versace, many observation are made for the sustainability score of the brand. Versace is trying to be more eco-friendly in its production processes, according to Greenpeace. The organisation is concerned about the use of toxic chemicals by the brand. Nevertheless, vegan leather was advertised through the collaboration between “Versus” collection and the young singer Zayn Malik. This innovative experimentation won the Ethical Fashion Award in 2017. 16

Did you know that Versace makes up 10-12% of the italian manufacturing economy?

SWOT analysis Now it is time to conclude the report with an overview of the brand’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that may affect the operation of the company. Versace has created a good platform to expose its items and it has gained proven influential customers over the years. It has a great popularity in the world of fashion and overseas, because of its distinctive designs. Well-functioning promotion strategies are leading the brand to the amazing success. Nevertheless, the online service of the brand had received some negative feedback. It is characterized as non-professional and slow. In some cases, the return of purchased items takes months to be concretized. Many clients are unsatisfied with the impolite sellers’ service in the shops. They are criticized for lack of concern. In that way, the threat of losing customers is a serious problem to solve. However, there are many opportunities for the prosperity of the brand and one of them is to respect more the environment and to be more eco-friendly. The use of toxic chemicals should be reduced.


Strengths

Weakness

- Proven influential customers over the years - Popular international brand

- Slow online service and dissatisfied clients - Impolite seller’s service in shop

- Distinctive and unique designs - Successful promotion strategies

Opportunities

Threats

- Be more eco-friendly and extinct the use of toxic chemicals

- Loss of customers because of the impoliteness of sellers

- New designs can be introduced

- Increasing competition can affect the deveoplment of Versace’s business

Recommendations Advertising plus size models can be a successful resolution for the brand. It will increase the range of clients. The other recommendation may be related with the creation of more collaborations with famous brands whether part of the slow or fast fashion. They might share each other strategies, which can be useful. A design made in partnership is always a good way to advertise both brands, creating something new. Finally, like we have mentioned before, Versace needs to be more eco-friendly in terms of production. Every slow fashion company needs to serve as an example for the less prestigious brands. 17


Bibliography Books Martin R., 1997, Fashion Memoir Versace, London, printed in Italy, Thames and Hudson Ltd Casadio M., 1998, Versace, Italy, Thames and Hudson Ltd Others Spindler, New York Times, 2 July 1996 Donatella Versace, Canadian Press, 2008 Andrew Roberts, Business of Fashion, march 24, 2015 Photos https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=the+safety+pin+dress&dcr=0&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj24O_TgPHYAhUGZ1AKHQslBNgQ_AUICigB&biw=1280&bih=588#imgrc=avzepcnpxE64_M: https://www.jamesedition.com/cars/lamborghini/murcielago_lp640_versace/beautiful-one-of-oneversace-edition-of-lamborghini-murcielago-1-10-in-white-20-total-for-sale-1238468 https://www.google.co.uk/search?dcr=0&biw=1164&bih=535&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=SrlkWtPCF5CkwQKNyq3AAQ&q=versace+and+h%26m+collaboration&oq=versace+and+h&gs_l=psy-ab.3.0.0i19k1l5.5744313.5747541.0.5750572.14.13.0.1.1.0.162.1195.6j6.13.0....0...1c.1.64. psy-ab..0.13.1200.0..0j0i67k1j0i30k1j0i13k1j0i13i30k1.127.2iRU53Tx4v4#imgrc=D dyvdXbS42s2EM: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=versus+and+zayn+malik+vegan+leather&rlz=1C1FERN_ enPT625PT627&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwicw5u61_jYAhVEKVAKHaDzB18Q_AUICigB&biw=1280&bih=637#imgrc=BB8zmabF_q1u7M: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=versace+stores+in+the+world&dcr=0&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=54QPgN-m-NXOdM%253A%252CfJ4KrSY0OOFp5M%252C_&usg=__ZYWxNO8K8JIL_DG_ZLY09czjzq8%3D&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwik5cqg5-7YAhUsLsAKHTWjARYQ9QEIZjAK#imgrc=DwBV-bXVxB0qMM: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=versace+campaign&rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjP2pm76__YAhVGPsAKHXZzC_4Q_AUICigB&biw=1280&bih=726#imgrc=pgoRwiLsR7rTnM: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=versace+campaign&rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjP2pm76__YAhVGPsAKHXZzC_4Q_AUICigB&biw=1280&bih=726#imgrc=Qmak9ei3GsMV5M: https://www.google.co.uk/search?rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&biw=1280&bih=642&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=3I9wWq_eIsvQgAbEv6sQ&q=versace+men+campaign&oq=versace+men+campaign&gs_l=psy-ab.3...2297884.2304121.0.2304415.16.15.1.0.0.0.123.944.13j1.14.0....0...1c.1.64. psy-ab..1.8.587...0j0i67k1j0i30k1j0i10i30k1j0i19k1j0i8i30i19k1.0.NL4REjK82tk#imgdii=dIJ-CdpQkFlBgM:&imgrc=q-ai_TDrOZcBZM: https://www.google.co.uk/search?rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&biw=1050&bih=565&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=0iRzWuPyOISRgAaOq5DADw&q=2016+collection+versace&oq=2016+collec18


https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=lil+bucks+and+versace&rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=d9Fq4kdf6fuylM%253A%252Ctmthwd_9gb6I6M%252C_&usg=__kmPLQhfE9fDghEeZw1GfruhIShQ%3D&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwit3tiajZHZAhUDe8AKHapyBCAQ9QEIOjAC#imgrc=d9Fq4kdf6fuylM: https://www.google.co.uk/search?rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=boZ5Wu-QJYaDgAbq2JPACw&q=rosenthal+and+versace&oq=rosenthal+and+versace&gs_l=psyab.3...31653.34094.0.34318.10.10.0.0.0.0.109.767.9j1.10.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..0.3.204...0i7i30k1j0i8i30k1j0i8i7i30k1.0.Py-mlSGnfYw#imgrc=BdKZYZDXGn0XGM: https://www.google.co.uk/search?rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=kYZ5Wvy_M8qtgAbzvaq4DQ&q=+versace+tribute+collection&oq=+versace+tribute+collection&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0i19k 1.42743.47911.0.48155.20.10.0.10.10.0.98.733.10.10.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..0.20.753...0j0i67k1j0i30k1.0._ cq399W4z2A#imgrc=HkGTc9J7KrN0-M: https://www.google.co.uk/search?rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=kYZ5Wvy_M8qtgAbzvaq4DQ&q=+versace+tribute+collection&oq=+versace+tribute+collection&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0i19k 1.42743.47911.0.48155.20.10.0.10.10.0.98.733.10.10.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..0.20.753...0j0i67k1j0i30k1.0._ cq399W4z2A#imgrc=Th3Jok8Gk19a5M: https://www.google.co.uk/search?rlz=1C5CHFA_enGB765GB765&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=kYZ5Wvy_M8qtgAbzvaq4DQ&q=+versace+tribute+collection&oq=+versace+tribute+collection&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0i19k 1.42743.47911.0.48155.20.10.0.10.10.0.98.733.10.10.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..0.20.753...0j0i67k1j0i30k1.0._ cq399W4z2A#imgdii=WPGmf16X2ch40M:&imgrc=0zjAv5djJFihvM: Websites https://www.vogue.com/article/lil-buck-dancing-versace-sneakers https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/news-analysis/versace-sees-significant-growth-2015 http://www.versacehome.it/ethical_code.php?lng=en https://www.socialbakers.com/blog/2662-fashion-week-on-social-media-who-took-the-lead http://news.softpedia.com/news/Versace-Pollutes-the-Environment-and-Endangers-Public-Health-Greenpeace-Says-428465.shtml https://www.livekindly.co/zayn-maliks-vegan-leather-award/ https://www.statista.com/statistics/708216/ebitda-of-italian-fashion-company-gianni-versace/ https://www.vogue.com/fashion-shows/resort-2017/versace https://cleanclothes.org/livingwage/tailoredwages/tailored-wages-position/versace-profile.pdf

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