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Change Up! Intermediate

Editorial Project Development: Sarah Howell Editorial Coordinator: Monica Gardenghi Eli Editorial Dept: Pauline Carr Art Director: Marco Mercatali Eli Design Dept: Sergio Elisei Production Manager: Francesco Capitano Cover Graphic Design: Paola Lorenzetti Teacher’s Book Layout: Antonio Lepore © 2009 ELI S.r.l. P.O. Box 6 62019 Recanati Italy Tel. +39 071 750701 Fax. +39 071 977851 info@elionline.com www.elionline.com The Authors, the Publisher and the editorial team would like to thank Laura Bonci for her contribution to the literature section, The Inward Eye, and Attilio Galimberti for his contribution to the Pre-intermediate Workout section. No unauthorised photocopying All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of ELI. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover than that in which it is published and without a similar condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. All websites referred to in Change Up! are in public domain and whilst every effort has been made to check that the websites were current at the time of going to press ELI disclaims responsibility for their content and/or possible changes. While every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. Printed by Tecnostampa 09.83.130.0 ISBN 9788853604170 (Teacher’s Book)


Teacher’s Book – Contents Change Up! Intermediate Student’s Book – Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 8 Student’s Book and Workbook – Teaching notes SB – Topic A Customs Unit 1 Everyday Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic A Customs Unit 2 Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic A Customs Unit 3 Celebrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic B Values Unit 4 The Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic B Values Unit 5 The Individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic B Values Unit 6 Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic C Social Change Unit 7 Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic C Social Change Unit 8 People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB – Topic C Social Change Unit 9 Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB and WB – Towards Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SB and WB – The Inward Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WB – Writing File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 20 p. 36 p. 54 p. 72 p. 86 p. 102 p. 122 p. 140 p. 158 p. 174 p. 190 p. 213

Pre-intermediate Workout Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 222 Teaching notes – Units 1-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 224 Appendix Workbook – Scripts and Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 278 Icons, links and abbreviations ............................................................................................................................ C 1.01 - S 1.01 C stands for Class CD. S stands for Student’s CD. The number before the full stop indicates either CD1 or CD2. The number after the full stop indicates the track number.

*2

In the Student’s Book, the asterisk beside the number of an activity is a reference to a suggestion or useful piece of information which can be found at the bottom of the page. Invite students to read the note before doing the activity.

©

links to other materials

SB GR WB TB TR BrE AmE

Student’s Book Grammar Reference, at the back of the Student’s Book Workbook Teacher’s Book Teacher’s Resource Folder British English American English


TOPIC A: Customs

Change Up! Intermediate Student’s Book – Contents Unit

Grammar

Vocabulary

Spoken English, Spoken Grammar & Written English

1 Everyday Activities

Present Simple and adverbs of frequency, p. 12

get + adjective, p. 11

syllables and word stress in speech, p.12

The Imperative, p. 16

nouns and adjectives with the same root, p. 14

filling pauses in speech, p. 12

good at + -ing / noun, p. 16 how to + infinitive, p. 16 p. 10

2 Appearance p. 22

3 Celebrations

Present Simple / Present Continuous, p. 24

words connected with ‘clothes’, p. 23

words with ‘silent’ letters in speech, p. 25

adjectives: types and order, p. 25

look + adjective, p. 24

giving brief answers in conversation, p. 25

Modals: obligation and rules - must (and have to ), p. 27 0-type Conditional, p. 28

words in context, p. 27

verbs + infinitive or -ing, p. 35

common phrases with verbs, p. 36

The Future: going to / will / Present Continuous (for predictions, intentions, arrangements), p. 40

words connected with ‘celebrations’, p. 39

linking in speech, p. 40 contractions (noun + is ) in speech, p. 40

p. 34 Towards Certification, pp. 46-47 Self Evaluation, p. 48

4 The Family

multi-part verbs, p. 51

words connected with ‘the family’, p. 55

rhythm in speech, p. 53

Past Simple, p. 55

set formulas in conversation, p. 52

would for past habits, p. 55

note-form in writing, p. 52

TOPIC B: Values

p. 50

5 The Individual

comparative and superlative forms of adjectives, p. 64 linkers, p. 67

strong and weak forms in speech, p. 64 organising meaning in speech, p. 65

p. 62

6 Society p. 74

Modals: permission and ability (could ), p. 76

words connected with ‘telling a story’, p. 75

The Passive: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, the Infinitive, p. 80

multi-part verbs, p. 79

Towards Certification, pp. 86-87 Self Evaluation, p. 88

4

adjectives in context, p. 63

elision in speech, p. 79 question tags and intonation in conversation, p. 79 punctuation in writing, p. 77


Reading

Listening

Communicating

English Around Us

Experience B: Take The Pressure Off! leaflets, pp. 14-15

Experience A: Get The Most Out Of Your Day! monologues, pp. 10-11

writing an email about a typical weekday, p. 13

The Sunday Lunch, pp. 20-21

preparing and presenting a leaflet, p. 17 daily routines: sentence completion, p. 13 asking for information, confirming understanding, pp. 18-19 Experience B: Uniforms: Pros And Cons? school rules and messages on an internet forum, p. 26

Experience A: A Day To Honour The Nation a web page, pp. 34-35

Experience A: The Ever-Changing World of Fashion interviews, pp. 22-23 jobs and uniforms: multiple matching, p. 28 Experience B: Seeing The New Year In radio broadcasts, pp. 38-39 St. Patrick’s Day: sentence completion, p. 36

Experience B: Meet The Victorian Family a school project, p. 54

Experience A: Families Of All Sorts a three-way conversation, p. 50

a guessing game, p. 25

describing: physical appearance, clothes, states and actions, pp. 30-31

activity: completing a questionnaire and carrying out a class survey

planning and writing a pamphlet, p. 37

Say It With A Card!, pp. 44-45

talking about plans and intentions, p. 41

documents: greetings cards, excerpts from articles

persuading, objecting, conceding, pp. 42-43

activity: writing a greetings card

exchanging ideas and making a survey, p. 53

Words! Words! Words!, pp. 60-61

discussing ideas, p. 56

giving an opinion, asking for an opinion, pp. 58-59

a young girl’s lifestyle: multiple choice, p. 65

Improve Your Appearance!, pp. 32-33 documents: a web page

family life today: multiple matching, p. 56

Experience A: Make Your Choice! a documentary, p. 62

activity: writing a menu and talking about ingredients

writing a message on an Internet forum, p. 28

summarising information in note-form, p. 57

Experience B: A ‘Special’ Individual a speech, p. 67

documents: a menu, a recipe, an excerpt from an article

documents: a dictionary entry, information from a website activity: presenting research on a dictionary entry

describing a photo and inventing a story, p. 65

Self-Expression, pp. 72-73

discussing ‘special’ people and organisations, p. 68

documents: diary entries activity: writing a diary entry

writing a paragraph using linkers, p. 69 comparing: two things that are the same / two things that are different, pp. 70-71

Experience A: How It All Began stories, pp. 74-75

Experience B: The Generation Gap a talk show, p. 78

a story-circle game, p. 77

Music to My Ears, pp. 84-85

writing a plan for a story, p. 77

documents: a song, a post on a website

taking a language exam: matching with pictures, p. 77

discussing views, p. 81 activity: making up song lyrics agreeing, disagreeing, admitting someone is right, pp. 82-83

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TOPIC C: Social Change

Change Up! Intermediate Student’s Book – Contents Unit

Grammar

Vocabulary

Spoken English, Spoken Grammar & Written English

7 Roles

Past Simple / Present Perfect, p. 91

words connected with ‘the Internet’, p. 92

contractions in speech, p. 96

Present Perfect with for and since, p. 95

active listening in conversation, p. 96 nouns used as adjectives, p. 96 using symbols with note-form in writing, p. 97

p. 90

8 People

Present Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous and just, already, yet , p. 104

words connected with ‘change’, p. 104

‘false starts’ in speech, p. 105

Past Perfect, p. 108

reference in writing, p. 107

p. 102

9 Migration p. 114

function of the paragraph in writing, p. 109

Modals: giving advice and stressing the right thing to do (should / ought to ), p. 116

present participles and past participles used as adjectives, p. 115

1st-type Conditional, p. 116

words connected with ‘the five senses’, p. 119

rhythm and weak forms in connected speech, p. 120 being vague in speech, p. 120

2nd-type Conditional, p. 119

Towards Certification, pp. 126-127 Self Evaluation, p. 128

The Inward Eye – How literature sees and portrays life William Wordsworth – Daffodils, p. 129 Geoffrey Chaucer – The Wife of Bath, p. 130 Charles Dickens – Miss Havisham, p. 131 Seamus Heaney – Digging, p. 132 James Joyce – Eveline, p. 133 William Shakespeare – Romeo and Juliet, p. 134 Jerome David Salinger – The Catcher in the Rye, p. 135 Walt Whitman – O Captain! My Captain!, p. 136 Daniel Defoe – Robinson Crusoe, p. 137

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liaison in speech, p. 105

an informal email, p. 117


Reading

Listening

Communicating

English Around Us

Experience A: Rising To Fame On The Net an article, p. 90

Experience B: A Million Different People conversations, pp. 94-95

writing a post for a blog, p. 93

Big Brother Is Watching You!, pp. 100-101

planning a presentation using note-form and symbols, p. 97

life experiences: understanding details, p. 93

Experience B: Power And Influence a book review, pp. 106-107

documents: a TV guide, an interview

making a suggestion, accepting a suggestion, refusing a suggestion, pp. 98-99

activity: writing a description of a reality show and an imaginary interview

Experience A: Two Sides To Every Story radio news items, p. 103

writing captions for graphs, p. 105

English Humour??, pp. 112-113

discussing trends in society, p. 105

documents: jokes, a book extract

a famous pop star: understanding likes and dislikes, p. 109

writing a title and topic sentences for a review, p. 109

activity: telling a joke or a funny story

apologising, making excuses, forgiving, pp. 110-111 Experience A: Push And Pull letters to the editor, p. 114

Experience B: Missing You a radio phone-in, p. 118 moving to a new country: understanding main points, p. 117

preparing a presentation on your country, p. 117

A Question of Identity, pp. 124-125

writing a reply to an informal email, p. 117

documents: written comments at an exhibition

discussing ideas, p. 121 activity: writing about your identity asking for an explanation, giving an explanation, expressing understanding, pp. 122-123

Grammar Reference 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Present Simple, p. 138 Adverbs of frequency, p. 138 Present Continuous, p. 139 The Imperative, p. 140 The Future, p. 140 Past Simple, p. 141 Would / used to (past habits), p. 142 Adjectives (types and order), p. 142 Comparative and superlative forms, p. 143 Present Perfect, p. 144 Present Perfect Continuous, p. 146

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Past Perfect, p. 146 Conditional sentences, p. 147 Modals 1, p. 148 Modals 2, p. 150 The Passive, p. 150 Linkers, p. 151 Reported speech, p. 152 Question tags, p. 154 Verbs + infinitive or -ing, p. 154 Multi-part verbs, p. 156

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Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

Components Student’s Material • Student’s Book + Pre-intermediate Workout • Workbook + 2 audio CDs

Teacher’s Material • Teacher’s Book + 2 audio CDs • Teacher’s Resources: Ring binder, Intermediate Photocopiable Material, Introduction to CLIL with sample

projects, audio CD and Test Maker CD Rom

Online Material • www.changeuponline.com with downloadable worksheets, projects, audio material in MP3 format and

Change Up! Magazines

Student’s Book structure Change up! Student’s Book contains 9 units divided into 3 Topics. This is the structure of each Topic: 1 page Topic Contents

3 Units following this structure: 4 pages Experience A Discover Communicate

4 pages Experience B Discover Communicate

2 pages How to… Functions Vocabulary

2 pages English Around Us authentic ‘documents’

At the end of each Topic: 2 pages Towards Certification Focus on… Reading, Use of English, Speaking

1 page Self Evaluation

At the back of the Student’s Book there are: • The Inward Eye literature section • Grammar Reference

Workbook unit structure 1 page Unit Warm up

8

2 pages Revision and consolidation of Experience A

2 pages Revision and consolidation of Experience A

1 page Vocabulary strategy

1 page Towards Certification

Consolidation of How to… section

Focus on… Listening Writing

1 page Check Up


The intermediate-level student

The choice of materials

Being a student of English at intermediate level is not easy! While your students know enough to want to start ‘really’ communicating, they may feel frustrated because their command of the language and their language skills are not quite up to it. Or else, they may be trying hard but feel they are not making any progress. What is needed in order to get beyond this so-called ‘plateau’ is the right amount of guidance together with a new set of challenges.

You will find that the theme of ‘change’ underlies the materials in the nine units, which are grouped thematically into three Topics. This does not mean that abstract concepts are dealt with; on the contrary, materials deal extensively with personal and everyday life. They also deal, however, with broader social and cultural topics and issues of a global nature, topics and issues there is no reason why the English-language classroom should not embrace.

Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE .................................................................................................................................

In this course, guidance comes in the form of: • a suitable proportion of ‘mechanical’ activities, as

one of the tools for ensuring assimilation • the widespread use of helpful ‘boxes’, which

provide students with expressions, vocabulary and ideas to use and fall back on when carrying out communicative activities • scripts of the audio inputs on the page, to be used

as much as and when necessary while being presented with new challenges means: • extensive exposure to new and authentic language • constant and systematic practice in reflecting on

the rules and behaviour of the language • encouragement to achieve independence in

learning, and to develop the desire to extend learning to outside of the classroom.

As much exposure as possible to authentic language in a variety of forms is of the utmost importance in helping your students make progress, therefore authentic and adapted authentic texts and audio material are provided. This ensures that they become accustomed to linguistic variety and a range of ‘voices’, which is not the case when material is written ad hoc by a few. Care has also been taken to put across the differences between spoken and written forms of the language in the belief that students are often confused about this, and lack of awareness can result in poor ‘performance’ on their part. Other materials made available in each unit are dialogues revolving around useful language functions. In addition, through exposure to authentic documents, you can give your students the opportunity to learn about various aspects of life in English-speaking countries.

The topic-based syllabus in Change Up!

The methodological approach (EDC) in Change Up!

There are two reasons why the title of this course is Change Up! One reason is that its goal is to give intermediate-level students the necessary boost to move up a gear or two in their language learning process. The other reason is that the idea of ‘change’, a many-faceted and key concept in our modern world, is at the core of the topic-based syllabus on which the course is based.

The main inputs in Change Up! are dealt with following the methodological approach described below:

The ability to use the systems of the language is vital to effective communication, and is by no means ignored! Change Up! is constructed around a set of parallel syllabuses: a grammar syllabus, a lexical syllabus, a spoken grammar syllabus, amongst others. The starting point, however, is content. It is only meaning that can motivate students to respond to and use the language not just as an artificial exercise for its own sake, but as a way of finding out and doing ‘other things’. In order to ‘really’ communicate, students must obviously want to say or write something and intrinsic motivation can only spring from an interest in what is being communicated.

Phase E: Experience language In this phase you engage your students in experiencing real samples of the language, rather than artificial examples constructed in order to illustrate certain rules or features. These samples, or inputs, represent both the written and the spoken language, they are varied in both type and content and pertain to the unit theme. Accompanying focus activities help you to draw your students’ attention to the input, so that they can relate or react to it, and also provide practice in specific reading and listening skills.

Phase D: Discover language This phase involves focusing students’ attention on those rules, features and forms of behaviour of the language that are particularly well-represented in the input. In this process of discovery, your aim is to

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INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE ................................................................................................................................. Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

promote awareness and assimilation in the following areas: Grammar / Vocabulary / Spoken English / Spoken Grammar / Written English. After they have actively ‘examined’ the language focused on, your students carry out guided activities which reinforce assimilation.

Phase C: Communicate through language In this phase your students take part in a variety of task-based activities involving communication in both the spoken medium and the written medium. These activities cover the skills of writing, as well as oral production and oral interaction, and are based on: Pair Work / Group Work / Presenting / Writing / Listening. As in phase E, your students’ personal experience, opinions and ideas can be an important contribution to classroom learning.

Change Up! Intermediate Student’s Book Unit structure Each unit is made up of four distinct ‘sections’ which are organised as follows:

Experience A • a lead-in to introduce the theme of the input • either a reading or a listening input to experience,

• a simulation in which students are given the

opportunity to use what they have learnt in a spontaneous way

English Around Us • a lead-in as preparation for the theme, as well as

information boxes where relevant • authentic ‘documents’ connected with a specific

aspect of life in English-speaking countries • activities involving students reacting to and

relating to content • a communicate activity involving reproducing

the same or a similar kind of ‘document’, or a related spoken and / or written activity

The sections and activities in Change Up! Intermediate Student’s Book Experience A and Experience B Inputs Each unit presents a reading input illustrating a certain kind of text (for example, leaflets, stories, newspaper articles) and a listening input illustrating various types of situations and contexts in which the spoken language is heard (for example, a conversation, a radio broadcast, a talk show).

• discover activities

You will find information on the inputs in the teaching notes for each unit in the Teacher’s Book regarding:

• communicate activities

• types of texts and audio material

together with focus activities

• source, background and context

Experience B • a lead-in to introduce the theme of the input

• types of accents that will be heard in the audio

inputs

• either a reading or a listening input to experience,

together with focus activities • discover activities • communicate activities

In each unit there is one reading input and one listening input.

With regards to the description of accents, you will find that the terms ‘neutral’ English accent and ‘neutral’ American accent have been used amongst others. This has been done with a view to simplifying matters. If you want to know more about English accents and accents in general, you could read the information on the following web page www.linguistlist.org/ask-ling/accent.html

How to… • dialogues for coverage of important and useful

functions in the spoken language • focus activities on the dialogues • identification of typical constructions for

expressing the functions focused on • activities to promote understanding and

assimilation

10

A word about the listening inputs: it is common for students to have good reading skills, but to have difficulty when it comes to listening. Often, they have trouble correlating written and spoken forms, for example because of the spelling vs pronunciation issue in the English language. They may understand a written sample of the language perfectly well, but understand little of the same sample when they only listen to it. Constant practice and exposure, however,


can improve matters significantly. In order to facilitate learning, the scripts of the audio inputs have been transcribed in the Student’s Book. It is up to you, the teacher, to decide how to adapt use of the scripts to the level of your class and to the degree to which your students are used to listening to ‘natural’ English. You will find detailed ideas on how to deal with each listening input in the teaching notes for each unit.

clear and thorough review of each grammar topic is provided by the Grammar Reference section (Student’s Book pp. 138-158). This can be used for refreshing memory, filling in gaps in knowledge and getting an overall view of a particular topic. References to the relevant parts of the Grammar Reference are made throughout the Student’s Book.

Discover Vocabulary (e.g. Student’s Book lead-in (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 1, p. 10) The lead-in serves to introduce the theme of the input and start up the process of relating to and reacting to the content. Students are ‘asked’ questions and you will find ideas in the teaching notes on how to exploit them.

focus activities (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 1, pp. 10-11, activities 1-4) These activities have two aims: • to continue the process of relating to and reacting

to content • to practise specific reading and writing skills which

will be described, together with suitable classroom procedures, in the teaching notes.

Discover Grammar (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 1, p. 12) This course includes all those grammar topics that are generally covered at intermediate level. Your students may be familiar with part of the ground covered, in which case they will be both encountering new grammar topics and revising topics, although from the different angle described in the following paragraph. An inductive approach to learning is used for the assimilation of rules. This approach is the opposite of the more traditional deductive approach, which involves first learning the rules and then applying them. Students, in other words, are helped to formulate rules through the observation of examples taken from the inputs. This is done mainly with the use of Deductions boxes which contain a series of steps that guide students through this process of reasoning and meaningful assimilation. Reaching understanding about the rules of the language is followed by traditional-type exercises which serve to reinforce learning. Notice that the word Deductions has been used in the Student’s Book in order to associate the process of induction in the students’ minds with the idea of a detective using clues to find things out and reach conclusions. The dictionary definition of ‘deduce’, in fact, is “to reach an answer or decision by thinking carefully about the known facts” (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). In addition to the work on grammar in the units, a

Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE .................................................................................................................................

Unit 1, p. 11) Building up vocabulary is especially important for your intermediate-level students as a means of making a breakthrough in linguistic competence. There are several ways in which expansion of vocabulary can take place. The mere exposure to inputs rich in lexis is an excellent way of expanding passive knowledge of vocabulary (as well as of reinforcing active knowledge). Ways, used in this course, of systematically increasing active knowledge of lexical items include focusing on: words and phrases organised in lexical sets (e.g. words and phrases connected with ‘celebrations’ Unit 3, p. 39), common collocations in specific constructions (e.g. get + adjectives - angry / tired etc. Unit 1, p. 11), grammatical ‘behaviour’ (e.g. nouns functioning as adjectives Unit 7, p. 96). Realising the importance of context for understanding the full meaning of words and expressions is another significant step forward your students will take. As with grammar topics, an initial phase of discovery is followed by traditional-type exercises to reinforce learning. In addition, there are two valuable study skills connected with assimilating lexis it is worth helping your students develop. One is the use of suitable techniques for recording new vocabulary. Tips on how to record vocabulary are given to students throughout the Student’s Book and there is a special section in the Workbook on this important study skill (How to learn useful vocabulary). The other regards the use of monolingual dictionaries. The English Around Us section in Unit 4 (pp. 60-61) is entirely dedicated to this study skill. You will find more details on both study skills in the teaching notes.

Discover Spoken English (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 1, p. 12) It is assumed that students at this level are already familiar with the individual ‘sounds’, or phonemes, of the English language. You will, nevertheless, find a list of phonetic symbols in Appendix 2 to which you can refer students whenever suitable or necessary. The Discover Spoken English activities deal, instead, with fundamental but often overlooked features of the spoken language such as ‘weak forms’ and ‘linking’. Awareness of these features on the part

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INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE ................................................................................................................................. Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

of students is vital in promoting understanding of natural speech. You will certainly find that as your students become increasingly familiar with these characteristics of the spoken language, their general listening skills will improve considerably. A certain degree of assimilation of some of these features can also be a useful way of making their pronunciation more comprehensible and natural-sounding. There are detailed notes about each feature in the teaching notes, together with an indication as to which are useful for active as well as passive knowledge.

Discover Spoken Grammar (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 1, p. 12) The aim of this set of activities is to focus on extremely common grammatical features which are found exclusively in speech. Some awareness of the grammar which is peculiar to the spoken language, a topic which is rarely covered in course books, will help your students get to know about the way native speakers really speak in authentic situations. Students are not expected to assimilate these features at this level, however, gradually increasing exposure to natural speech as the course progresses will increase their confidence in dealing with the ‘real’ spoken language. You will find information about each feature in the teaching notes.

Discover Written English (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 4, p. 52) Students at intermediate level are often not familiar with the differences that exist between spoken and written forms in English. This can lead to an inappropriate use of the language, such as that of including contracted forms in a formal text. The Discover Written English activities help you focus your students’ attention on the conventions and norms which exist in English with regard to writing. Activities range from understanding how to use punctuation to building up awareness of the function of the paragraph and of the ways texts are planned and structured. In this way the basis is laid for the development of the essential micro-skills needed in order to write a text successfully. Attention is also paid to particular forms which are typical of the written language, for example note-form. For classes with students who already have good writing skills, the Workbook includes a section which examines a range of text types in depth (Writing File, pp. 75-91).

types of Communicate activities. These involve writing and listening, as well as speaking. If the experience and discover phases have been carried out effectively, you will find that this is the phase (phase C) in which your students will be making steps forward in their ability to communicate successfully. The teaching notes provide suggestions on classroom management for the various types of activities.

Communicate Pair Work (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 1, p. 13) In this type of activity, students work in pairs in order to carry out simple, guided tasks which involve a fairly controlled use of language linked to the contents of the inputs. Activities involve oral interaction based on the exchange of opinions and information (opinion- and information-gap tasks), as well as role-playing and doing games and quizzes together. Useful Expressions boxes and Suggestions boxes provide language prompts and ideas for those students who might have difficulty in expressing themselves or thinking of things to say. Your role during this type of activity is that of providing clear instructions, of ensuring adequate preparation for the task, of providing assistance, of monitoring your students’ performances, and of providing final feedback, when relevant. It is important to make your students feel they are free to interact spontaneously, since learning also takes place through a process of trial and error.

Communicate Group Work (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 2, p. 29) These activities take your students a step further with respect to Pair Work. They are slightly more complex and less guided, in that they are mostly organised in steps which involve carrying out tasks in groups using a variety of language skills. These tasks relate to the contents of the inputs and involve reading texts, writing notes and lists, discussing opinions, collaborative decision-making and brainstorming. Sometimes students are required to come up with an ‘end-product’, such as a story or the results of a survey. Useful Expressions boxes help students to use appropriate language when expressing themselves. Your role during this type of activity is that of providing clear instructions, of ensuring adequate preparation for the task, of providing assistance, of monitoring your students’ performances, and of providing final feedback, when relevant. It is important to make your students feel they are free to interact spontaneously, since learning also takes place through a process of trial and error.

Communicate Activities After having related to content (phase E) and focused on language (phase D), your students go on to put what they have learnt into practice in the various

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Communicate Presenting (e.g. Student’s Book Unit 1, p. 17) Every so often, your students are given the


opportunity for basic practice in the skill of presenting, the kind of oral production skill which is usually used when speaking to an audience. In Communicate Presenting activities, students plan and give simple presentations in order to illustrate a ‘document’ they have drawn up together, or in order to present ideas on topics related to the unit theme. In Unit 4 (English Around Us, p. 61), they also listen to a spoken model of the presentation they are required to prepare and give.

positions within the units, draw your students’ attention to techniques for making their learning process more efficient, thus encouraging them to become responsible and autonomous learners. Also notice the suggestions and useful pieces of information for carrying out specific activities that can be found at the bottom of some pages (as in Unit 5, p. 64). The notes are marked with an asterisk (as are the activities they refer to) and should be read before the activity is carried out.

Communicate Writing (e.g. Student’s Book

How to...

Unit 1, p. 13 and Unit 5, p. 69) Here students work individually on improving their ability to produce well-planned and well-written texts. Good writing skills are probably the most difficult to acquire and require willingness, on the part of students, to be attentive and methodical when they work. It is important for you to make your students aware of the fact that accuracy plays an important role in writing, and that the habit of checking what they have written is vital if a communicatively effective piece of writing is to be produced.

In this section, your students start with work on a scripted conversation which serves to present language for expressing functions that are common in everyday situations. An opening comment contextualises the functions which will be focused on, while a humorous cartoon illustrates the amusing aspects of the situation in which the conversations are set.

All the writing tasks students are asked to carry out are either contextualised or involve an element of interaction. Students begin by practising writing very simple texts (a leaflet, a pamphlet, a post on the Internet) restricted to very specific situations and language. They go on to build up micro-skills, such as the ability to write correct sentences, to write a paragraph correctly (based on the understanding of the function of the paragraph), to structure a text correctly (based on the knowledge of how texts should be structured), to plan efficiently. Finally, after having learnt about the conventions involved, they practise writing an informal email.

Communicate Listening (Student’s Book Unit 1, p. 13) In this type of activity, students are the ‘receivers’ rather than the ‘senders’ in the communicative interaction. The focus is on developing a range of skills that are necessary in order to become competent listeners, through the completion of tasks based on a variety of question-types, such as ‘filling in blanks’ and different types of ‘matching’. In contrast with the focus activities for the listening inputs, students do not have the scripts on the page, and therefore have to concentrate entirely on listening for a purpose in order to complete the required task. Communicate Listening activities are often linked to another, following Communicate activity.

Learning Tips (Student’s Book Unit 5, p. 64) The various Learning Tips, placed in strategic

Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE .................................................................................................................................

A focus activity is followed by activities aiming at identifying and assimilating the target features in the conversations. In addition, Useful Vocabulary boxes are provided for students to ‘dip into’ when they do the assimilation activities. Exposure to thematically categorised vocabulary in this way also helps your students expand their command of the lexical system. The section always finishes with an activity in which students take part in a simulation set within a situation parallel to the one presented in the conversation. In this way students can spontaneously act out what they would say in circumstances that would require expressing the functions focused on. It is important to remember that the purpose and aim of the How to... section is not that of memorising the conversations, but that of assimilating the language needed to express the functions focused on, and of practising using it spontaneously.

English Around Us This section gives your students the opportunity to expand direct contact with the real language, through exposure to authentic material related to the way of life, habits and attitudes of people who live in English-speaking countries. Activities mostly involve students reacting to and relating to the ‘documents’ and you should think of it as a moment in which students ‘relax’ and just concentrate on responding to content. A final Communicate task usually involves reproducing one of the types of ‘documents’ looked at in some form or another, or a related spoken and /or written activity.

Towards Certification The aim of this section is to foster familiarity with the

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INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE ................................................................................................................................. Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

format of the Cambridge ESOL First Certificate in English exam (FCE). Three of the five areas tested in the exam (Reading - Use of English - Speaking) are covered, while a parallel section in the Workbook deals with the remaining two areas (Writing - Listening). Together they give the students a useful idea of what to expect if they decide to take this exam at a later date. All the exercises provided have been modelled on FCE format questions but are obviously geared for students at intermediate level, since the FCE is an upper-intermediate level examination. The Change Up! Upper-Intermediate Workbook, in fact, includes a full-length FCE sample test.

Self Evaluation This section appears at the end of each Topic. Unlike Check Up in the Workbook and the end of Unit Tests in the Teacher’s Resource Folder, which provide you with tools for evaluating to what extent the language and skills focused on have been assimilated, this section is intended to be a means of encouraging students themselves to reflect on their progress. In fact, they are invited to look back at the three units they have just covered and make autonomous judgements on what they have learnt about, on what they have learnt to do, and to identify areas in which they are weak and they need to especially concentrate on. It is up to you to decide how to exploit this section in a way that is suitable for your classes. On one end of the scale, it can be given to conscientious students as a kind of homework to do very privately. On the other end, it can be set as a kind of test in a situation in which you are in control.

Grammar Reference The Grammar Reference at the end of the Student’s Book (pp. 138-158) deals with all the grammar topics introduced in the units from a deductive point of view, and can be considered a kind of ‘anchor’ which will be extremely useful for your students. Amongst other things, it contains thorough explanations of rules, tables illustrating forms (e.g. the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives), tables comparing different forms (e.g. the Present Simple and the Present Continuous), lists (e.g. of multi-part verbs), as well as extra Learning Tips. It can be used in a variety of ways, ranging from systematic use in the classroom every time a new grammar topic in the units has been worked on, to self-study in order to expand and consolidate knowledge of the grammatical system.

The Inward Eye This section has three main aims: • to help students understand that literature is

very close to real life

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• to broaden students’ knowledge of language

with structures and words which are different from those that are common in ‘everyday’ language • to generally stimulate an interest in literature

A short introduction to each topic can be used as a brief lead-in to the topic itself, while some biographical notes about the author provide background information and contextualisation of the text. As reading literature may be a new activity for your students, in the Workbook you can find exercises and tasks to guide them in a preliminary, overall stage of comprehension and analysis. Once the text has been read and analysed, a few lines of commentary sum up its central idea and tone and lead students on to the reading comprehension tasks in the activity It’s your turn now! (questions 1 and 2). Analysis of the text can also form the basis of a writing activity, either as is proposed in the Student’s Book (It’s your turn now! question 3) or as is proposed in the Workbook.

Change Up! Intermediate Workbook The Workbook gives students an opportunity to consolidate what they have learnt in the Student’s Book and to practise using the language they have been exposed to. It is made up of nine eight-page units, which correspond to the nine units of the Student’s Book, and is organised as follows:

Experience A and Experience B These pages contain exercises which serve to revise and recycle grammar topics and vocabulary. The first two pages of every Workbook unit focus on Experience A and the second two pages on Experience B of the corresponding Student’s Book unit. Students will find a Vocabulary section, a Grammar and Use section and a Reading and Grammar section. Work on the Experience that contains the reading input in the Student’s Book unit also includes a Listening section.

How to... This page systematically deals with strategies for recording vocabulary. In this way students get into the habit of using this study skill with a view to efficiently assimilating lexis, and in order to have a system for recalling useful lexis they have come across. As well as this, the functional language introduced in the How to… section of the corresponding Student’s Book unit is consolidated.


Check Up

The Inward Eye

The Check Up page is made up of two sections. Firstly, it contains tasks that help students learn to check for errors and identify types of errors in a text. To do this a correction key is provided. In this way students discover what kind of errors they commonly make and learn to look out for them when they check any written work they have done. Each Check Up page also provides a Learning Tip to aid students in this process. The exercises in the second section give students a chance to verify what they have learnt in the corresponding Student’s Book unit and to consolidate what they have learnt in preceding Student’s Book units.

This section relates to the Inward Eye literature section in the Student’s Book. It provides simple exercises and tasks to guide students in a preliminary, overall comprehension and analysis of the literary texts presented in the Student’s Book.

Towards Certification The Towards Certification page aims at developing writing skills as well as providing practice in listening. Students are given a gradual introduction to microskills for writing and various features, such as linking and paragraphing, are looked at. In the listening section, the use of exercise-types similar to those used in the upper-intermediate level Cambridge ESOL First Certificate in English exam (FCE) allows students to become familiar with FCE format. Notice that the actual types of texts students are expected to be able to write in the FCE exam are dealt with in the Writing File section in the Workbook (see below). If used in conjunction with the parallel Towards Certification section in the Student’s Book, it is possible for students to get a useful idea of what to expect, should they decide to take this exam at a later date.

Warm Up The last page of every Workbook unit contains activities that prepare students for the following Student’s Book unit. These serve to activate the vocabulary they already know pertinent to some of the themes dealt with in the Student’s Book unit they are about to start working on in class. This is also a way to boost their confidence, as when they start the new unit in the Student’s Book, they will realise they have some prior knowledge of the language they are being exposed to. The Workbook also contains the following two special sections.

Writing File This section introduces students to a variety of common text types, such as emails, stories, reviews. Students learn about the typical layout, structure and language used for each type of text, and the contexts in which they are usually written. The Writing File can be used as a reference before engaging in a writing activity, or else the exercises can be done in class, should there be a need to work on how to write a specific kind of text.

Change Up! Intermediate Teacher’s Book

Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE .................................................................................................................................

The main characteristic of the Teacher’s Book is that of being ‘teacher-friendly’! You will find the following features: • detailed unit per unit teaching notes for easy

classroom management containing a description of the aim of each activity and ideas on how to carry it out • a summary of the language items and skills focused

on, as well as an illustration of the unit themes, on the opening page of the teaching notes for each unit • information on the sources and types of inputs • easy navigation, because notes on each section

start on a new page • full, easy-to-see answers, including models for

open-ended questions where suitable • scripts which do not appear in the Student’s Book

positioned with the notes on the relevant activity • help boxes with ideas on how to use materials and

carry out activities with weaker classes • extension boxes with ideas on how to extend

activities in various ways with students who are particularly motivated or linguistically more competent • info boxes with useful information and tips on points

of language and methodology, as well as background information on the contents of the inputs • challenging words boxes which help you to get

the meaning of particular words that may be unknown to your students across to them

Change Up! Intermediate Teacher’s Resource Folder In your Teacher’s Resource Folder, you will find the useful material listed and described below. You can also use your folder to update course material and keep any relevant material you have prepared or collected yourself.

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INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE ................................................................................................................................. Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

Testing and Assessment Material • a full range of photocopiable material including an

Intermediate Diagnostic Test and Unit Tests • audio CDs with material for the listening sections

of the tests • Test Maker CD Rom with all the tests in

customisable format

Extra Photocopiable Material Factsheets A and B The Factsheets provide additional material for each unit, connected with the unit themes. In general, the aim of Factsheet A is to provide ‘facts and figures’, while Factsheet B contains material for intensive or extensive reading which is more conceptually and / or linguistically challenging, and possibly deals with controversial issues which could lead to discussion and exchange of opinions. All the Factsheets provide an incorporated activity. You will find detailed notes on the content of each Factsheet and suggestions on how to exploit them in the Teacher’s Resource Folder.

Project Worksheet You can use this type of worksheet to set up communicative task-based projects on a topic linked to the unit theme. A combination of work in the classroom and work at home with feedback in class is usually appropriate, also depending on whether suitable equipment and support exists on the school premises (for example dictionaries / computers / internet link). Ideas will be given on how to set up each project in the Teacher’s Resource Folder.

Activity Worksheet This set of extra material for each unit provides students with an opportunity to ‘take a break from hard work’ and try their hand at doing games, puzzles, and take part in other amusing activities. These Activity Worksheets are more suitable for classroom use. You will find suggestions for use, as well as answers to puzzles and quizzes etc., in the Teacher’s Resource Folder.

Introduction to CLIL The Introduction to CLIL booklet in the Teacher’s Resource Folder contains: • A Warm Up to CLIL for teachers • Sample projects containing teaching notes,

photocopiable student material and answer keys for the following subjects: Science, Physics, Geography, Art, Economics Extra introduction to CLIL is on the Change Up! website.

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Change Up! Pre-intermediate Workout Change Up! Pre-intermediate Workout is aimed at students who have not reached B1 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages yet, and need quick but thorough language revision before starting Change Up! Intermediate. Its main features are flexibility and modularity. Teachers can choose to use the various sections of each unit in the Workout for whole class revision and consolidation before starting the intermediate-level course, or with individual students or groups of students.

Change Up! website: www.changeuponline.com The Change Up! website has been created with both the teacher and the student in mind. The main function of the teacher area is to provide you with constantly updated, flexible and customised material, which is of such importance when using a modern language course. On the site, you will find a variety of materials to support your teaching with Change Up! including: • for the Pre-intermediate Workout: MP3 audio files

with extra listening activities and 15 single unit Exit Tests • for the Introduction to CLIL section: Audio

Material in MP3 format, full colour downloadable student material and a special area for teachers to share their own CLIL materials and experiences (Teacher’s Exchange) Your students will find the following, amongst other things, in the area specially dedicated to them: • audio material from the Student’s Book in MP3

format • constantly updated downloadable student material

in full colour. In addition to this, the Change Up! Magazines, which are published twice a year, can be downloaded from the site.


The Common European Framework (CEF) The Common European Framework, developed by the Council of Europe, was published in 1996 and updated in 2001. It establishes a uniform framework of reference for ‘measuring’ language proficiency in any European language at various stages in the language learning process. The so-called ‘descriptors’, which specify the various competences corresponding to each stage, are grouped into three levels (A, B and C), each of which is further subdivided into two (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2) as follows: A Basic User A1 Breakthrough A2 Waystage

Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE .................................................................................................................................

B Independent User B1 Threshold B2 Vantage C Proficient User C1 Effective Operational Proficiency C2 Mastery The table of levels and descriptors below is taken from the following source, which you can refer to if you want more detailed information about the Common European Framework. http://www.coe.int/T/DG4/Linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf Table 1 – Common Reference Levels: global scale

C2

Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. Can express him / herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations.

C1

Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him / herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.

B2

Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his / her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.

B1

Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.

A2

Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his / her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.

A1

Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him / herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he / she lives, people he / she knows and things he / she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.

Proficient User

Independent User

Basic User

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INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE ................................................................................................................................. Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

How the CEF corresponds to Change Up! In tune with the aims of the CEF, Change Up! focuses on communication, on developing the ‘ability to do things’ in the language as well as ‘knowledge about’ the language. The two levels of Change Up! (Intermediate and Upper Intermediate) cover levels B1 to B2 of the CEF. In addition, Change Up! Pre-intermediate Workout is aimed at students who have not reached B1 level of the CEF yet, and need quick but thorough language revision for level A2. There is, however, some degree of overlapping of levels, in order to avoid abrupt changeovers from one text book to another. Notice, also, that levels can be further refined, as you can see in the table below. A2.2

B1.1

B1.2

B2.1

B2.2

Pre-intermediate Workout Intermediate Upper Intermediate

External Certifications University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations The Cambridge ESOL examinations are designed to assess the ability of native speakers of languages other than English to communicate effectively in the English language. They span five levels and cover all four language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). As you can see in the table below, the examinations are also linked to the levels of the Common European Framework, the First Certificate in English (FCE) corresponding to CEF Level B2. One of the underlying objectives of Change Up! is to familiarise students with FCE requirements and format. CEF Level B2 is the final target level of the course, which students reach when they have completed Change Up! Upper-Intermediate. CEF C2

C1

B2

B1 A2

Cambridge ESOL Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) CPE is Cambridge ESOL’s most advanced exam. It is aimed at people who use English for professional or study purposes and can use the language at a similar level to that of a native speaker. Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) CAE is an exam for advanced users of English. This exam is aimed at people who can use written and spoken English for most professional and social purposes. It is widely recognised for work or study purposes. First Certificate in English (FCE) FCE is an exam for people who can use everyday written and spoken English at an upper-intermediate level. It is an ideal exam for people who want to use English for work or study purposes. Preliminary English Test (PET) PET is an exam for people who can use everyday written and spoken English at an intermediate level. Key English Test (KET) KET is an exam which recognises the ability to deal with everyday written and spoken English at a basic level.

FCE Content: An Overview Paper / Timing

Parts

Format

Test focus

Paper 1 READING (text types: articles, reports, fiction, advertisements, correspondence, messages, informational material)

Part 1

a text followed by 4-option multiple-choice questions: 8 questions

detail, opinion, gist, attitude, tone, purpose, main idea, meaning from context, text organisation features

Part 2

a text from which sentences have been removed and placed in a jumbled order after the text: 7 questions

text structure, cohesion, coherence

Part 3

a text or several short texts preceded by multiple-matching questions: 15 questions

specific information, detail, opinion, attitude

1 hour

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Paper / Timing

Parts

Format

Test focus

Paper 2 WRITING

Part 1

a compulsory task with input material: 120-150 words

writing a letter or email

Part 2

one situationally based task from a choice of five questions (including a question on prescribed reading texts with two options): 120-180 words

writing an article, an essay, a letter, a report, a review, a story

Part 1

a modified cloze test containing 12 gaps and followed by 4-option multiple-choice items: 12 questions

lexical / lexico-grammatical features of the language

Part 2

a modified open cloze test containing 12 gaps: 12 questions

grammatical / lexico-grammatical features of the language

Part 3

a text containing 10 gaps - each gap corresponds to a word - the stems of the missing words are given beside the text and must be changed to form the missing word: 10 questions

word formation. lexical / lexico-grammatical

Part 4

lead-in sentences and a gapped second sentence to be completed in two to five words, one of which is a given ‘key word’: 8 questions

key word transformations. lexical and grammatical

Paper 4 LISTENING (text types: range of spoken material, including news programmes, speeches, stories and anecdotes and public announcements)

Part 1

a series of short unrelated extracts from monologues or exchanges between interacting speakers. There is one multiple-choice question per extract, each with three options: 8 questions

general gist, detail, function, purpose, attitude, opinion, relationship, topic, place, situation, genre, agreement etc:

Part 2

a monologue or text involving interacting speakers, with a sentence completion task: 10 questions

detail, specific information, stated opinion

Part 3

five short related monologues, with multiple-matching questions requiring the selection of the correct option from a list of six: 5 questions

general gist, detail, function, purpose, attitude, opinion, relationship, topic, place, situation, genre, agreement etc.

approximately 40 minutes

Part 4

a monologue or text involving interacting speakers, with multiple-choice questions, each with three options: 7 questions

opinion, attitude, gist, main idea, specific information

Paper 5 SPEAKING

Part 1

a conversation between the interlocutor and each candidate – spoken questions

general interactional and social language

Part 2

an individual ‘long turn’ for each candidate, with a brief response from the second candidate – in turn, candidates are given a pair of photographs to talk about

organising a larger unit of discourse: comparing, describing, expressing opinions

Part 3

a decision-making task – a two-way conversation between candidates with spoken instructions, and visual and written stimuli

sustaining an interaction: exchanging ideas, expressing and justifying opinions, agreeing and/or disagreeing, suggesting, speculating, evaluating, reaching a decision through negotiation, etc.

Part 4

a discussion on topics related to the collaborative task (Part 3) – spoken questions

expressing and justifying opinions, agreeing and/or disagreeing

1 hour 20 minutes Paper 3 USE OF ENGLISH 45 minutes

14 minutes

Introduction to Change Up! Intermediate

INTRODUCTION TO CHANGE UP! INTERMEDIATE .................................................................................................................................

If you want further information about the Cambridge ESOL examinations, you can visit the following website: http://www.cambridgeesol.org/index.html

Trinity College Examinations The Trinity Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) are available at 12 progressive grades, or levels, divided into four stages: Initial (Grades 1–3) - Elementary (Grades 4–6) - Intermediate (Grades 7–9) Advanced (Grades 10–12). The GESE focus on the skills of speaking and listening and are one-to-one oral assessments with a Trinity examiner. The 12 grades are linked to the Common European Framework as follows: A1 – Grades 1 and 2, A2 – Grades 3 and 4, B1 – Grades 5 and 6, B2 – Grades 7, 8 and 9, C1 – Grades 10 and 11, C2 – Grade 12. Numerous types of activities in Change Up! provide suitable practice for the oral interaction and listening skills needed for GESE, in particular, Communicate Pair Work, Communicate Listening, Discover Spoken English, Discover Spoken Grammar. If you want further information about the Trinity Graded Examinations in Spoken English, you can visit the following website: http://www.trinitycollege.co.uk

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Topic A Customs – Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Content

Skills

Themes: young people and their daily routines (Experience A) different kinds of hobbies and leisure activities (Experience B)

Reading: reading for gist (Experience B, pp. 14-15, focus activity (Experience B, pp. 14-15, focus activity 2) + specific information

Aspect of ‘change’ focused on: changes that can be made at a personal level to cope with a stressful daily routine and to use leisure time to the best advantage

Listening: listening for purpose (Experience A, p. 10, focus activity 1) + gist (Experience A, p. 11, focus activity 3) listening for specific information – sentence completion (Communicate Listening, p. 13)

Language Grammar: Present Simple (habitual actions) and adverbs of frequency, p. 12 The Imperative, p.16 Vocabulary: get + adjective, p. 11 nouns and adjectives with the same root, p. 14 good at + -ing / noun - how to + infinitive, p. 16

Speaking: comparing ideas (Communicate Pair Work, p. 15) presenting the content of a leaflet (Communicate Presenting, p. 17) Writing: writing an email (Communicate Writing, p. 13) writing an advert (Communicate Presenting, p. 17)

Spoken English: syllables and word stress, p. 12 Spoken Grammar: pause fillers, p. 12 Functions: asking for information confirming understanding (pp. 18-19)

Links to other materials © SB Grammar Reference: Present Simple and adverbs of frequency p. 138, The Imperative, p. 140 © WB Getting to know your Workbook p. 3 © WB Unit 1 pp. 4-10 © TR Unit 1 Factsheet A © TR Unit 1 Factsheet B © TR Unit 1 Project Worksheet © TR Unit 1 Activity Worksheet © TR Unit 1 Test 1 English in Use, Test 2 Skills (Reading, Writing, Listening, Spoken English © TB p. 35

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Spoken Grammar), Test 3 Skills (Spoken Interaction) Test 4 Skills (Spoken Production)


TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Experience A: Get the Most Out Of Your Day! pp. 10-13 input

Do you have difficulty getting up in the morning?

This is the listening input for Unit 1. In this first unit of the course, students are ‘eased into’ the experience of listening to spoken English with a ‘listen and read’ approach. In other words, the focus activities involve listening to the audio while reading the script at the same time. Note that this is normally the final phase in listening practice, used to promote the establishing of correspondences between the spoken and written forms of words and phrases. As a general rule, remember that it is not necessary for students to understand everything in the input. It is more important for them to concentrate on carrying out the tasks and practising the micro skills required of them in the focus activities. In other words, it is essential to have a clear purpose when carrying out a listening activity. There are two other reasons why students are not expected to understand all of the input at this stage. One is that some of the language features will be focused on in detail in the Discover activities. The other is that the listening inputs also perform the important function of providing ‘the ear’ with regular hearing (as opposed to listening) practice which, in itself, can lead to dramatic improvement in the ability to understand speech. Of course, if your students are already particularly accustomed to listening to natural spoken English, you can adopt an approach which relies less on the support of the script, for example by turning the ‘listen and read’ activities into ‘just listen’ activities. type of audio material: monologues in which four young people talk about their strategies for getting up in the morning (activity 1), and a further four monologues in which four other students talk about their strategies for dealing with a stressful day (activity 3) source: the input is are based on facts, ideas and opinions associated with self-help literature accents: Brian has an Australian accent – Jane has a Scottish accent – Darren has a ‘neutral’ English accent – Sue has a ‘neutral’ English accent (activity 1) Sharon has an educated south-east English accent – Megan has a ‘neutral’ US accent – Josh has a ‘neutral’ US accent – Oliver has a ‘neutral’ English accent (activity 3)

• This could be done as a brief whole-class activity,

lead-in p. 10 Suggestions for exploiting the lead-in questions:

When the alarm clock goes off, do you groan and put your head under the covers or do you get out of bed immediately? • This question is better discussed in pairs, as a

continuation of the survey, so that students can compare their experiences of getting up in the morning and decide whether they are ‘early birds’ (wake up easily in the morning) or ‘night owls’ (more active at night and sleepy in the morning).

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

like a survey, and you could write the results on the board.

focus activities pp. 10-11 1 Students approach this listening input by first reading the script and matching the strategies four students use for getting up in the morning with the purpose of each strategy. This is in preparation for a ‘listen and read’ phase in which students check their answers. Ask students to look at the example, Brian’s strategy, and see how it is connected to purpose C (deep breath … stretching exercises relates to helps my circulation and releases any tension). They need to find similar kinds of connections in order to match the other strategies and purposes. C 1.01 Play the audio once and ask students to check their answers by reading the script as they listen. Then play it again so that students can concentrate on each complete monologue now that they have established the answers. It is not necessary to look at language in depth here, since this will be done in the Discover activities. 2 In preparation for the input in activity 3, students are asked to relate to the theme of dealing with a stressful day by thinking about what strategies they themselves adopt. This activity can be done individually, with students comparing their answers with a partner; alternatively you could ask students to put up their hands as you call out each strategy in order to discover which one is the most popular. 3 In this activity, students are asked to listen to and read four more monologues, and to pick out which strategy each student uses from those listed in activity 2. They are asked to understand the gist of what is being said. Do not explain the expressions with get + adjective, as these will be focused on subsequently in Discover Vocabulary.

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

C 1.02 Play the audio once and allow students to read and listen, then give them a few minutes to match the strategies. Check answers, then play the audio again so students can just concentrate on listening to what each student is saying. This second listening can be done with or without reading the script. 4 Students answer questions on the scripts and look in more detail at the strategies used by the students (question 1). Questions 2 and 3, instead, are personal questions which could be discussed in pairs. If you think it is suitable, you could approach this activity as a pure listening activity by asking your students to cover up the script and playing the audio of both inputs again as they answer question 1. Students could then compare their answers in pairs and discuss questions 2 and 3 before you check answers with the class. 1 1C–2D–3A–4B 3 1B–2G–3D–4C 4 1a) Brian and Oliver – 1b) Megan – 1c) Darren and Sharon – 1d) Josh

Help 1 Pre-teach the following word, i.e. explain it before looking at the lead-in questions: to groan (to make a long low sound that shows you are in pain or unhappy).

Help 2 Revise the difference in meaning between wake up and get up. Write wake up on the board and underneath that write get up to convey the idea that you wake up before you get up. Ask students: At what time do you wake up? Then: At what time do you get up?

Extension Ask students to establish what kind of strategies Jane (thinking positive) and Sue (being practical) use for getting up (activity 1).

Discover Grammar p. 11 These activities focus on expressions with get + adjective (where get means become, as indicated in the note at the bottom of p. 11 in the Student’s Book (notice the other examples of use of notes in this unit, on p. 16 and p. 19). This is a very common structure, especially in spoken English, and it is therefore important for students to recognise it and to learn to use it themselves. For activity 5, ask students to read the script in activity 3 again, find any expressions with get + adjective and underline them. After this, they reinforce assimilation of the structure and expand the range of expressions they

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know by completing sentences with other suitable adjectives to combine with get (activity 6). Stronger students can do this activity individually, while weaker students could do it in pairs. 5 Sharon get stressed – Megan get (so) irritated – Josh getting enthusiastic – Oliver get fit 6 1 bored – 2 excited – 3 hungry – 4 mad – 5 depressed – 6 cold

Help Make sure your students do not confuse the structure get + adjective in activity 3 with the three examples of get in the script in activity 1: get up – get used to – get (out of).

Extension Write these book titles on the board and ask students to decide what kind of books they are (see genre in bold) and what the titles mean. How to Get Rich by Felix Dennis – self-help Do Polar Bears Get Lonely? (New Scientist) – scientific The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Food You Were Designed to Eat by Loren Cordain – food and drink When Sophie Gets Angry-Really, Really Angry by Molly Garrett Bang – children's books Get Lost!: The Cool Guide to Amsterdam by Joe Pauker and Lisa Kristensen – travel guide

Communicate Pair Work p. 12 Students practise using the structure get + adjective in relation to their own daily routines. Put students into pairs and ask them to decide which of them will be Student A and which Student B. Ask them to read the instructions for Student A or B as appropriate, and to take a few minutes to think of their three situations. It is better if they do not write anything down, since there is very little to be remembered in this activity and, as a general rule, it is important that students do not read things out when they do interactive oral activities. Tell students they can use the language in the Useful Expressions box if they find it of use for what they want to say. Then ask them to tell each other about their experiences. While students carry out the task, go round and help them with vocabulary they might need in order to express what they want to say. Make a note of common errors, which you can illustrate on the board at the end of the activity.

Discover Spoken English p. 12 You will find that this section in Units 1 and 2 deals with features of the spoken language at word level, while in Units 3-9 it covers features at the level of connected speech. One of the first simple and useful


things your students can learn about is word stress. In all English words with more that one syllable, one particular syllable is emphasised more than the others. A stressed syllable has increased volume, longer duration, a clearer articulation, as well as a change in pitch (usually high to low). This is something you, the teacher, can look out for, but students will not be asked to focus on these detailed characteristics, as it would involve an overly ‘technical’ approach. Besides, these features tend to appear naturally when a particular syllable in a word is stressed. It is, however, extremely useful for your students to record and study not only the spelling and meaning of a new word they encounter, as well as the sounds it is made up of, but also its word stress. Mistakes, for example, are typically made with the following words: secretary – management – photograph – photographer - photographic. (vowel in stressed syllable in bold) In activity 8, students work individually and decide how many syllables there are in the words listed. If students are having great difficulty, you can check answers to this activity immediately. However, it is probably more useful to first do activity 9, where students listen to the words being pronounced. C 1.03 In activity 9, students listen to the words they looked at in activity 8 and decide which syllable is stressed in each one. If you have not already looked at the answers to activity 8, they can check their answers here. Also give them a chance to repeat the words with correct pronunciation, either in pairs or as a class activity with a few volunteers. 8 1: 2 syllables – 2: 2 syllables – 3: 3 syllables – 4: 3 syllables – 5: 4 syllables – 6: 4 syllables 9 1 alarm – 2 tension – 3 releases – 4 positive – 5 circulation – 6 exercises

Extension Ask students to think of some common two-syllable words which are both nouns and verbs but change word class depending on word stress. Some examples are (nouns with stress on the first syllable, verbs with stress on the second syllable): contract - export – import – increase – object – permit.

Info 1 If you want to find out more about syllables, you could have a look at this web page: http://english.glendale.cc.ca.us/syllables.html

Info 2 There are no simple, reliable rules with regard to word stress. In nouns and adjectives of two syllables, the tendency is for word stress to be on the first syllable (e.g. China, clever), but in verbs of two syllables it tends to be on the second (e.g. begin). Some words adopted into English from the French language have kept the stress on the last syllable (e.g. routine, connoisseur), while the tendency for words ending in -ic, -sion, -tion, is for word stress to be on the last syllable but one (e.g. geographic, conclusion, presentation).

Info 3 Secondary stress also exists, however it will not be focused on. The symbols for primary and secondary stress in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) are /'/ and /Æ/ respectively, as in the following example: /'pÅz.´.ÆtIv/ (positive) (example taken from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 2005) If you would like further information on the IPA, you can visit the following site: /www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Discover Spoken Grammar p. 12 Remember that the objective of the activities in this section is simply to foster awareness of some extremely common aspects of the grammar that is characteristic of speech, so as to facilitate understanding of natural spoken English. It would probably be unnatural, on the other hand, to expect students to produce these features in their own speech in a non-spontaneous way. Your students are given a very easy task as regards spoken grammar in this first unit. The activity focuses on a feature called ‘pause fillers’, which are sounds the speaker uses to fill gaps in the flow of conversation while thinking of what to say. Ask your students to read the instructions to activity 10 carefully, and then identify the ‘pause fillers’ in the script in activity 3 on page 11. There is one for each of speakers 1-4. After this, as a way of reinforcing understanding of the function of ‘pause fillers’, ask your students to think of any equivalent feature in their own language. In order to provide even further reinforcement, you could play the whole of track C 1.02 again, or ask students to listen to it themselves at home on their Student’s Audio CD (track S 1.02 )

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

10 Sharon: On the days I don’t do this …um… I almost always forget one or two things… Megan: I always try to find the time to stop and look at the beauty of something …uh… a tree, a flower, the sky … Josh: If …er… you’re positive, you attract positive people. Oliver: I don’t always have time to prepare good meals …er… but there are two or three people in my family who cook…

Discover Grammar p. 12 The aim of these activities is to review the use of the Present Simple for describing habitual actions, in conjunction with the use of adverbs of frequency. In activity 11, students examine some extracts from the inputs in activities 1 and 3 on pages 10-11 in order to formulate correct rules in the Deductions box. In activity 12, they apply these rules by putting the jumbled up words in the sentences into the correct order. Notice that one of the jumbled up words begins with a capital letter and is therefore the first word in the sentence (including the word I). If your students are not used to ‘working out’ rules for themselves, in this first unit you can either go through the example deduction (a) with them first, or ask them to do activity 11 in pairs, or do activity 11 as a whole class activity, so that they can get used to the approach. Generally speaking, however, it is more useful for students to do Discover Grammar activities individually. Students are asked to cross out the incorrect options in the Deductions box so that they will then have a legible version of the rules they have worked out through induction when they use their books for revision. Reading the Deductions again, at a later date, is a means for students of recalling the process they went through in coming to their conclusions on the grammar topic in question, and therefore of promoting genuine assimilation. Remember that you can use the appropriate sections of the Grammar Reference (which are indicated in the Student’s Book) in order to have an overall view of any of the grammar topics covered.

Help Look at the adverbs in the box with your students before doing activity 11 to make sure they are familiar with them. They are presented in order, from always to never.

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11 Deductions: correct options: a All b a habitual action c how frequently d before e verb

12 1 Y1 The alarm clock always rings at 7.00. 2 I’m usually happy when I wake up. 3 I seldom have a big breakfast. 4 I hardly ever go to school by bus. 5 That’s because the bus is sometimes late. 6 On Sundays I can often sleep all morning. / I can often sleep all morning on Sundays.

Communicate Listening p. 13 This is the activity in each unit in which students develop and practise their listening skills. The format of the activities is often modelled on the Cambridge ESOL FCE format for Paper 4 (there are further details on the FCE examination in the Introduction, see pp. 18-19), however the questions and the language of the listening passages are obviously geared for a lower level of linguistic competence. It is useful to get students accustomed to carrying out the activities with only two listenings, the first for finding answers and the second for checking answers, as this is the procedure in Cambridge ESOL language examinations. This means that it is of vital importance for students to get into the habit of reading instructions carefully and of concentrating solely on completing the task, without being distracted by parts of the passage that are not relevant. There is always time, later, to look at the listening passage in more detail. In this unit, students listen to an interviewer asking a young person about his daily routine. They are required to do a simple task, which involves picking out specific information and writing it in the blanks in the text in their books. No interpretation of information is required. Suggestions for procedure are: • Give your students ample time to carefully read the instructions and then carefully read the text with the blanks and try to work out what kind of information is missing. • C 1.26 Allow your students two listenings, the first to decide on answers and the second to check answers. Remind them to concentrate on the information that is necessary for the task and not get distracted with other information in the audio.


13 Mick wakes up at six o’clock. From 7.00 to 8.00 he usually tries to finish off any homework he has or studies a bit. At 8.00 he gets the bus to school / leaves for school . The journey from his home to school takes about an hour . School is from nine to four . If he has no homework, at about seven in the evening he goes out with friends but he usually goes to bed at ten pm during the week. (the underlined parts of the script indicate where relevant information is to be found)

Help For weaker classes, you could allow three listenings, to get them accustomed to listening without the script. In the first listening they should just listen to get a general understanding of the dialogue, in the second they should decide what to put in the blanks, and in the third they can check their answers. In addition, during the second listening you can pause the CD to allow them more time to write their answers. Indications as to where to pause are given in the script.

C 1.26 Script (the Interviewer has a slight northern English accent – Mick has a ‘neutral’ English accent) Interviewer Tell me about your typical day. Mick Well, I always get up early, unfortunately. My dog wakes me up at about six in the morning and I take him for a long walk. There’s no traffic and it gives me time to think about the day ahead. Interviewer Then do you go back to bed? Mick No, of course not. Interviewer But what time do you leave for school? Mick Oh, at eight. Interviewer Well, what do you do for two hours, apart from taking your dog for a walk? Mick You see, in the morning I usually have more energy, so from seven to eight I try to finish off any homework I have to do or study a bit. [PAUSE] Interviewer Then it’s off to school. Mick That’s right. I get the bus at eight o’clock. My home is quite far and it takes about an hour to get there. [PAUSE] Interviewer An hour! You’re probably exhausted by that time. Mick No, I’m used to it. I don’t even think about it. Interviewer At what time do you finish school? Mick School is from nine to four with a lunch break at one. [PAUSE] Interviewer Then you have to take the long trip back home. Mick That’s right. I get home at about five pm and have my dinner at six. When I haven’t got any homework, I go out with friends at around seven. Nothing special, but I’m normally in bed by ten pm on a weekday. Interviewer Well that’s quite a busy life you have. Mick Yeah, talking about it like this makes me realise you’re right!

Extension 1 Make copies of the script for your students. When the task has been completed and answers have been checked, play the audio again as they read the script. In this way they will have a better understanding of any answers they got wrong, as well as getting practice in making associations between the spoken and written forms of words and expressions.

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Extension 2 Activity 13 is a good opportunity to revise ways of saying the time of day in English, for example: o’clock with ‘whole’ numbers, e.g. 6 / six o’clock – six thirty / six thirtyfive (only with multiples of five) - half past or a quarter / twenty / thirty-seven minutes to or past (use the word minutes if there is not a multiple of five) - six / six thirty / six twenty-seven (in letters) - 16:00 / 16:20 / 16:27 (in figures) – six am / 6.30 pm – with the expressions in the morning / in the afternoon / at night – 18:00 (the 24-hour clock, pronounced eighteen hundred hours – not used in colloquial English but, for example, in official timetables).

Communicate Writing p. 13 In the Communicate Writing section of the first three units, your students will be asked to write very simple texts, of the kind they are probably already used to writing, and using language and models from the relevant Experience. Starting from Unit 4, however, they will gradually build up awareness of the conventions connected with writing texts in English, as well as those micro skills which will make them capable of writing correct and appropriate texts in the English language. In this unit (activity 14) students use the grammar and vocabulary they looked at in Experience A in order to write an informal email where they describe their typical weekday. As models, they can use the sentences in activity 12, the completed text in activity 13 and the example of email format in this activity. One of the micro-skills which you can start developing in your students immediately, is the habit

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................................. of leaving and taking time to revise and check what they have written carefully before considering the writing task completed. 14 Model answer:

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Hi! This is my typical weekday. I always wake up at 7.00 and I usually have breakfast at 7.15. I have to leave my house at 7.30 and walk to the bus stop, which takes about five minutes. Then I get the bus to school at 7.40 and the journey takes about 20 minutes. School is from 8.10 to 13.30. If I have no homework I go out with friends at about 4 pm, then I have my dinner at 8 pm. I normally go to bed at about 10 pm on a weekday. Bye for now [name]

Communicate Pair Work p. 13 This is a role-playing activity. Put students in pairs and ask them to choose one of the young people they listened to in activity 3 speaking about their strategies for dealing with a stressful day. Make sure each student in the pairs chooses a different person. Then ask them to read the script corresponding to the person they have chosen and prepare for possible questions they will be asked, as well as think of questions they can ask their partner. Students can prepare mentally, or make notes, but they must not read out when they interact orally. Remember that this is the phase in which students practise communicating spontaneously, therefore do monitor them but do not correct them continuously or make them feel they are being observed closely. While students carry out the task, go round and help them with vocabulary they might need in order to express what they want to say and make a note of common errors, which you can illustrate on the board at the end of the activity.

Extension When students have finished the role-play, discuss what the pictures in the cartoon strip on p. 13 depict with the whole class. Compare the different strategies, and decide which of the two characters individual students are similar to and which strategies students consider useful. Homework Š WB Unit 1 pp. 4-5

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

input This is the reading input for Unit 1. As with the listening inputs, in their first approach students should concentrate on carrying out the tasks indicated in the focus activities, because the inputs will be looked at more closely in the Discover activities. Through carrying out the focus activity tasks, students will also build up a series of reading skills which will gradually increase their ability to read longer and / or more difficult texts with greater ease. type of text: leaflets advertising leisure activities source: adverts on the Internet (adapted)

Singer Wanted) - apply now while there are still places free (text D – Hilary Close Film School) (4) work very hard (question) – Practice will be at least twice a week and it will be intense. / a killer work ethic (text A – Lead Singer Wanted) (5) financial incentives (question) – the first month’s membership is completely free of charge (text B – Join Our Squash Club) – the first ten successful entrants will be given a 10% discount (text D – Hilary Close Film School) (6) entirely on the Internet (question) – online computer courses / personal online tutor (text C – Computer Buff)

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Experience B: Take The Pressure Off! pp. 14-17

lead-in p. 14 Suggestions for exploiting the lead-in questions: After a busy day how do you like to relax and spend your free time? Do you like to do something energetic or something relaxing?

2 1 squash – 2 singing in a band – 3 singing in a band / film making – 4 singing in a band – 5 squash / film making – 6 doing a computer course

• Ask students to answer the questions in pairs. • After students have answered the questions in pairs,

pairs report back to the class to see how many students have spoken about the same activities.

focus activities p. 14 Before doing the focus activities, make sure all students know the word leisure (free time) in case it is a new word for some of them. 1 Students are required to read for gist (in other words the general meaning of the text) in order to decide which of the four activities advertised is most suitable for them. Tell students to read fairly rapidly, without worrying about unfamiliar words, in order to just get a general idea of the content. When they have finished, you can briefly ask a few students what activity they have chosen. 2 Here students are asked to read for specific information. This does not involve understanding everything, but rather scanning the texts for the equivalent of key words in the questions as indicated below. The texts should be read fairly rapidly until those parts which contain the answers are identified, after which these parts must be read carefully to discover if the required information is there, in order to extract it. (1) beginners (question) – starter course (text B – Join Our Squash Club) (2) age restriction (question) – in his 20s (text A – Lead Singer Wanted) (3) be selected (question) – a new lead singer (i.e. one person), applicants (text A – Lead

Info The word buff is used to refer to a person who knows a lot about and is very interested in a particular subject, as in a computer buff, an opera buff, a film buff.

Discover Vocabulary p. 14 In these Discover activities, students are introduced to the idea that items of vocabulary often belong to a ‘family’ having the same root. In activity 3, they look at seven adjectives and nouns used in the leaflets and decide to which of these two word classes each word belongs. The words are in bold in the texts, so that students can easily find them and use the context to help them come to their decisions. In activity 4, they put the words they have looked at in activity 3 into the correct place in the table, and then go on to complete the table with the missing adjectives and nouns, so as to have a complete classification of corresponding nouns and adjectives. 3 1 adjective – 2 adjective – 3 noun – 4 noun – 5 noun – 6 adjective – 7 adjective 4 ambition / ambitious - confidence / confident – energy / energetic – patience / patient – professionalism / professional - creativity / creative – motivation / motivated

Extension 1 Ask students if they can think of any other noun / adjective pairs, for example: anger / angry – depth / deep – freedom / free – music / musical – silence / silent – space / spacious

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................................. Extension 2 Discuss the meaning of word class with students and give them examples. (see Info)

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Info Word classes are categories which words belong to on the basis of their grammatical function within sentences. The main word classes are often listed as follows: noun: e.g. mother, bus, Mick adjective: e.g. small, happy, intelligent verb: e.g. be, drive, think adverb: e.g. happily, frequently, there determiner: e.g. the, my, some pronoun: e.g. he, anyone, which preposition: e.g. in, of, with conjunction: e.g. and, because, but Nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs, sometimes called content words, belong to ‘open systems’ where words are being added all the time. Determiners, pronouns, prepositions and conjunctions; sometimes called function words, belong to ‘closed systems’ to which items are not usually added.

Communicate Pair Work p. 15 In this activity students are given the opportunity to talk in pairs about their views on what qualities are necessary, or not necessary, to get the most out of the four different hobbies mentioned. On this page, students also have an example of all three types of ‘boxes’ that they will encounter in the Experiences (apart from the Deductions box, which is only found in Discover Grammar activities) These are the Useful Expressions box, which provides them with a variety of structures to use while they are interacting, the Suggestions box which provides ideas for what to talk about in case they cannot think of things to say, and the Learning Tips box which suggests techniques students can use to make their learning process more efficient. As this is the first unit, it would be a good idea to point out the function of these boxes to your students and go through them together. Suggested answers: painting: creativity / imagination / sensitivity doing puzzles: patience / creativity / determination / precision swimming: energy / determination / motivation drama: confidence / imagination / ambition

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Info If you think your students often get these two words confused, point out that sensitive means ‘easily influenced’, or ‘understanding of other people’s feelings and needs’ and sensible means ‘reasonable and practical’.

Discover Grammar p. 16 The aim of these Discover activities is to review the rules for the formation of the imperative. In activity 6, students first distinguish between affirmative and negative imperative forms by writing do or do not next to each of the extracts from the leaflets on pp. 14-15. In other words, they decide which of these suggestions are inviting people to do something and which are inviting people not to do something. Then, in activity 7, they insert the correct form of an appropriate verb in the blank spaces in eight advertising slogans. Notice that it is pointed out to students, in the note at the bottom of the page, that the imperative form is a typical structure in advertisements and slogans. 6 1 do not – 2 do – 3 do not – 4 do – 5 do – 6 do not 7 1 say – 2 do – 3 put – 4 go – 5 be – 6 don’t leave – 7 fly – 8 don’t get

Extension 1 Ask students to find other examples of verbs in the imperative in the leaflets on pp. 14-15. text B: come and join our friendly squash club text C: Sign up for one of our online computer courses text D: be creative and make a film / apply now

Extension 2 See if students recognise any of the slogans in activity 7 and can identify the relevant company (see Info). Then ask them if they can think of any other current or well-known slogans from advertising campaigns, even if they do not include the imperative form. For example, Apple Macintosh: Think different – Burger King: Have it your way – McDonald’s: I’m lovin’ it – Vodafone: Life is Now – Nokia: Connecting people.

Info The slogans in activity 7 were used by: 1 Interflora – 2 Nike – 3 Esso campaign in 1964 – 4 campaign to promote eggs, no specific company – 5 CNN – 6 American Express – 7 United Airlines – 8 ELI


TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................................. The focus in these activities is on the three constructions used to refer to ability in the leaflets on pp. 14-15: good at + -ing form of the verb, good at + noun and how to + bare infinitive. First students identify and underline these constructions in the extracts (activity 8). With a stronger class, you can ask students to tell you what elements the constructions are made up of, while with a weaker class, you can point this out by writing the constructions up on the board and circling the -ing form, noun, and bare infinitive. Students then fill in the blanks in the sentences (activity 9) with the appropriate construction. Tell students to work individually and focus particularly on the words which follow the blanks in order to decide which construction to use in each case. Weaker classes could do this activity in pairs. Students then practise using the three constructions in a less controlled setting (activity 10). In other word they are asked to write simple statements about things they do themselves. This activity is best done individually. You can go round the class, helping students with any vocabulary they may need. 8 1 good at interacting – 2 good at sports – 3 how to use 9 1 good at – 2 good at – 3 good at / how to – 4 how to / good at

Communicate Presenting p. 17 Now that students have looked at leisure activities and discussed them in detail, they work together in groups to produce advertisements similar to the ones in the leaflets on pp. 14-15, which will then be presented to the class by a spokesperson for each group. This is a chance for students to think positively about themselves and their abilities. 11 Divide students into groups of four to six and ask each group to discuss their common interests and abilities and decide on a leisure activity they can do together. The statements each student wrote in activity 10 should help them do this. 12 Now ask students to write an advertisement for their leisure activity similar to the ones in the leaflet, following the guidelines in their books. If any of the students are good at artwork, they could also draw a picture to illustrate the advertisement. Make sure that there is one student in each group who will be the ‘scribe’ and write up the final version. 13 Ask students to nominate a spokesperson for each group who will present the group’s

advertisement to the rest of the class. This will involve explaining what the leaflet says and not just reading it out (see Help 2 for weaker classes). There are expressions in the Useful Expressions box to help them do this. Once all the spokespeople have given their presentations, you can ask the whole class to discuss which leisure activity is the most interesting. 12 Model answer - activity: swimming: Join us at the Swimming Club! Do you want to get fit and meet friends at the same time? Come and join us at our friendly swimming club at the Notting Hill Leisure Centre. Not very good at swimming? Don’t worry, we welcome all levels and have beginner courses too, and our instructors are the best! Come and see us at our club night every Tuesday evening where you can meet other members of the club. Why not have a go? If you are still in doubt, the first month’s membership is completely free of charge. 13 Model answer based on answer for activity 12: Our leaflet advertises the Swimming Club at the Notting Hill Leisure Centre. It is a good way to get fit and meet friends at the same time. Even if you are not very good at swimming, the club welcomes all levels and has beginner courses too, and the instructors are very good. To do this leisure activity you need to become a member, but the first month’s membership is completely free, so it doesn’t cost anything to have a go. The club night is every Tuesday evening, when it is possible to meet other members. Our slogan is: Be in the swim of things! (see Extension)

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Discover Vocabulary p. 16

Help 1 Before students work in their groups, write some broad categories for abilities on the board and brainstorm ideas. These categories could be, for example, creative skills, numerical skills, practical skills, social skills. Then ask students to suggest ideas for interests as well, as they may have interests which are different from those already looked at.

Help 2 With a weaker class, students could just read out the advertisement they have prepared.

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Help 3 If you think students will have trouble transforming their advertisement (which addresses the reader directly and uses the imperative form) into a presentation (where the third person and impersonal forms are used) give the spokesperson time to practise the presentation in his / her group. Also point out the impersonal ‘you’ form (which refers to people in general) which is used in the leaflets and can be used in the presentation, too.

Extension You could ask students to think of a slogan for their advertisement. This will be a reinforcement of the imperative form, and is generally the kind of activity students particularly enjoy. The expression be in the swim of things is an idiom which means ‘be involved in or participate in events or happenings’.

Extension 1 After having looked at the Did you know? fact and before students do the quiz, you could have a follow-up discussion with the class. Ask students if they take catnaps, or if anyone in their family does, as well as other questions, such as how many hours they sleep at night, whether they dream and remember their dreams, at what time they go to bed, what their sleep patterns are etc.

Extension 2 When students have finished doing the quiz, ask them to look at the cartoon at the bottom of the page and see if they understand the humour. The two sentences create a paradox, as the patient is suffering from insomnia but the doctor uses the expression do not lose any sleep over it (which means ‘don’t worry about it’). The patient’s problem, however, is precisely that she has problems sleeping!

Communicate Pair Work p. 17 Having dealt with the theme of getting up in the morning at the beginning of Experience A, students now deal with the theme of sleep and dreams, the last phase of the daily cycle, at the end of Experience B. In activity 14, students are asked to do a quiz in pairs based on interesting and intriguing facts which should provoke a great deal of discussion. Before beginning the activity, direct students’ attention to the Did you know? fact at the top of the page. Teach the meaning of catnap (a short sleep, especially during the day), and ask students if they had been aware of this fact. You can look at the Challenging Words with students either after or before they do the quiz, depending on whether you think it is useful for them to try to understand the meaning of these words from the context, or whether you think the words would be too great an obstacle to general understanding. 14 1 35 years – 2 10 hours / 65 / 6 hours – 3 19 days – 4 3 hours / 10 hours – 5 7 dreams – 6 2,100 days – 7 90% - 8 3 / 4

Help Give your students some tips for doing the quiz, e.g. putting the most obvious answers first and trying to work out answers they do not know by reasoning about them.

Extension 3 Since all the answers to the quiz are in numerical form, this activity could be an opportunity to revise numbers, including how to express percentages and how to read out numbers with thousands, of which there are examples in the quiz.

Challenging Words question 3 hallucinations = the experience of seeing or hearing something that is not really there paranoia = a state in which people believe that other people do not like them and want to harm them impaired vision = eyesight which is weakened or less effective memory loss = the state of having less memory than before question 4 primates = animals belonging to the same group as humans, which includes monkeys chimps = informal version of chimpanzees – chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys and baboons are all species of monkeys

Info You may find some interesting information about sleep, based on the findings of The National Sleep Research Project in Australia, on the following web page: http://www.abc.net.au/science/sleep/facts.htm Homework © WB Unit 1 pp. 6-7

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

this a real information-gap task, make sure student A does not look at students B’s information and vice versa. Tell them to use their own names, as this helps to give the impression that they are carrying out a ‘real’ conversation. If the class is weak, students can, individually, write their questions out and practise them before carrying out the simulation. Strong students can improvise completely without any preparation of any kind. Whichever way you decide to set up this activity, it is very important to make sure that students do not read anything out, so tell them to put down their pens and pencils and turn over any notes they might have made. Remember that the aim of this section is that of assimilating the language needed to express the functions focused on, and of practising using it spontaneously. The first model simulation in the answers below is based on the conversation in activity 1. Of course, it is not necessary for students to follow the conversation so closely and use the same expressions; it is more important for them to communicate spontaneously.

Begin by thinking about the functions focused on in this unit (asking for information and confirming understanding). Elicit any language students might already know which is suitable for expressing these functions before reading the comment in the box. Then ask them to tell you in what kind of situations people ask for information and whether they have ever had to ask for information in English. You can write some of their examples on the board. Now ask students to look at the cartoon and give a preliminary interpretation. In this way they will be making predictions about the conversation they are about to read. Now proceed with the activities as follows: Ask students to carefully read, first the instructions, and then Vikram’s questions and the receptionist’s answers. Students then match the questions to the answers before listening to the conversation. In this unit, in fact, students read the conversation and do an activity on it before listening to it, in order to give them a more guided first approach to this kind of activity. In subsequent units students will usually be asked to listen to the conversation and carry out a task before reading the script. 2 C 1.05 Students listen to and read the script of the conversation to check their answers. Students could now re-interpret the cartoon in the light of what they now know about the situation and the conversation. 3 + 4 This is where students concentrate on identifying the language used in the conversation for the functions focused on. Make sure your students understand that they are supposed to underline and circle expressions in the script, and not in the Functions box. 5 The aim of this activity is to help students assimilate the language focused on. Students, in their pairs, first think of three pieces of information they might want to find out about each of the following: a film, Canada, a rock concert. They then decide what questions they could ask in order to obtain that information. They can both refer to the Functions box and ‘dip into’ the Useful Vocabulary box for help in carrying out the task. Your role is to monitor and make sure pairs are using expressions correctly. 6 Students read the instructions carefully and decide who is going to be A and who is going to be B in this information-gap activity. To make 1

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

How to ask for information pp. 18-19

5 – 3 – 6 – 2 – 4 (order of the questions – also see 3 + 4 below) 3 + 4 Underlined expressions are for asking for information, boxed expressions are for confirming understanding. Vikram (1) Could you give me some information about your keep-fit classes? Receptionist Well, we offer classes for different levels. The groups are quite small. Vikram (5) Why are the classes small? Receptionist So that the trainer can follow the progress of all of the students. Vikram (3) Oh, I see. Do you have any personal trainers? Receptionist Yes, but that costs a little more. Vikram Oh ... OK. Well I think I’ll start with the group. Receptionist No problem. Vikram (6) How many times a week is the course? Receptionist Twice a week, on Monday and 1

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

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5

Friday. But you can come and work out any time you want. Vikram I get the picture . 2 How much do the lessons cost? Receptionist 320 dollars for a ten-week course, but this includes extras. Vikram (4) What extras? Receptionist You have free access to the swimming pool and a free keepfit handbook to use at home. Vikram Well, thanks very much for the information. I'll be in touch. Suggested questions: - a film: Can / Could you tell me what kind of film it is? Can / Could you give some information about the plot? Who’s starring in the film? Who’s the director? Where’s the film set? How many famous actors /actresses are there in the film? How long does the film last? Why do you think this film is a box office success? - Canada: Can / Could you tell me what the best time of year to go to Canada is? Can / Could you tell me if I need a visa to go to Canada? Can / Could you give me some information about accommodation in Canada? / tourist attractions in Canada? How much does it cost to travel to Canada? What historical monuments can I go to see in Canada? What’s the scenery like in Canada? Which is the best way to travel round Canada? - a rock concert: Can / Could you tell me the date of X’s next concert? Can / Could you give me some information about X’s next European tour? Where’s the next venue that X will be playing? How can we get tickets for X’s next concert? What’s the best way to get tickets for the concert? How much do the tickets cost? Who’s the drummer / guitarist / keyboard player? Which of the musicians is the best?

6

Model simulations: A Could you give me some information about your courses on Raja Yoga and meditation techniques? B Well, we offer courses for all levels. The groups are quite small. A Why are the groups small? B So that the instructor can follow the progress of all of the students. A Oh, I see. How many times a week is the course? B Once a week. A I get the picture. How much do the lessons cost? B 125 pounds for a three-month course, payment in advance. We have a Yoga instructor with 20 years of experience. A Well, thanks very much for the information. I'll be in touch. B Can you tell me about learning to dance? A You can learn Latin American, Modern Dance or Classical Dance with qualified instructors. B What levels? A There are courses from beginner to advanced. B How many times a week are the courses? A Twice a week, on Monday and Friday. B I get the picture. How much do the lessons cost? A 200 dollars for 10 weeks. B That’s very clear. Thanks very much.

Extension After completing the task in activity 5, students could ask each other the questions they have thought of and give impromptu answers, as well as practise using expressions for confirming understanding. Homework © WB Unit 1 p. 8


TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

The theme of the English Around Us section in this unit is the Sunday lunch, menus and eating habits. Students take a look at a typical Sunday lunch menu from a British restaurant, a recipe for Yorkshire Pudding, and an extract from an article on popular food in Britain.

lead-in p. 20

Help Explain the difference between beat and stir to your students: the difference is in the speed at which the action is carried out (generally beat is a faster action) and the instrument used (beat - a whisk or a fork is used to beat and introduce air into the mixture; stir - a spoon or more solid tool is used to move the mixture around).

Suggestions for exploiting the lead-in questions: Is there a particular day when you eat a special kind of meal? Do you look forward to eating this food? • First draw students’ attention to the information

box about Sunday lunch in Britain, and ask them if this is different from what happens in their country. Then encourage a whole-class discussion of the questions, perhaps focusing on any of the differences students have come up with. Ask them if there are any particular festivals or holidays when they have special meals. 1 In this activity students look at a typical Sunday lunch menu and are asked to decide which dishes they think are typically British, and which are more ‘international’. This can be done in pairs, and then ideas can be pooled with the whole class. You can also ask students to identify which countries the ‘international’ dishes come from (see Info). 2 Students are now asked to put the different kinds of food into five categories. This activity can be done individually or in pairs. 3 In this activity students look in detail at the recipe for Yorkshire Pudding, which features on the menu they looked at on p. 20. The recipe is set out in a typical fashion, with the list of ingredients, followed by the instructions for making the dish. The photograph shows Yorkshire Pudding which, in this case, has been cooked in a small round individual portion, together with other vegetables on a plate. First ask students to look at the information at the top of page 21. You can then ask students if there is an equivalent type of food in their country (examples could be rice or pasta). Then ask students to read the recipe and find the verbs that correspond to the pictures. Ask them what form the verbs are in, and having done the work in activities 6 and 7 p. 16, they should be able to recognise that they are in the imperative (the usual form for instructions). Other imperatives in the recipe are: put – wait – take…out – cook.

1 Typically British dishes: Starters Homemade Tomato Soup Prawn cocktail Main Course Roast beef with onion gravy Yorkshire pudding Leg of lamb with mint sauce Green beans / steamed carrots / minted peas (choice of vegetables also typical) Desserts Old English apple pie Zesty lemon meringue Rhubarb crumble with custard

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

English Around Us pp. 20-21

‘International’ dishes: Starters Chicken liver pâté with freshly baked garlic bread Slices of melon with Parma ham Main Course Seafood paella Ravioli with sun-dried tomatoes and mozzarella Broccoli with sesame seeds Desserts Crème caramel 2 Meat: chicken liver – ham – beef – lamb Fish: prawn – seafood Vegetables: tomato – garlic – onion – green beans – carrots – peas – broccoli Fruit: melon – apple – lemon – rhubarb Herbs and spices: sesame seeds – mint 3 1 preheat – 2 pour – 3 beat – 4 stir – 5 sift

Communicate Pair Work p. 21 4 Your students work individually in this activity. Ask them to think of a meal they often have with their family and write a menu for it. They can follow the model on p. 20. The discussion that was held in the lead-in could help them with ideas. They are also asked to decide if any of the dishes I their menu are ‘traditional’ (i.e. typical

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TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................................. dishes from their country) or ‘international’ (i.e. from other countries). 5 Now students work in pairs and look at each other’s menus. Ask them to choose one item on each of the menus, and discuss what they think the ingredients are. Go round and help with vocabulary students might not know.

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Info 1 You may need to explain what some of the dishes are if students are not familiar with them: prawn cocktail = cooked prawns that are served cold with a sauce made with mayonnaise pâté = a soft food made from meat, fish or vegetables that you spread on bread (in this case made from chicken liver and typical of France) Parma ham = aged, dry-cured, spiced Italian ham yorkshire pudding: see page 21 of the Student’s Book paella = a Spanish dish made from rice cooked with vegetables, chicken, shellfish etc. ravioli = a type of pasta made in small squares with meat, cheese or vegetable inside, typical of Italy mozzarella = a semi-soft Italian cheese broccoli = a plant of the cabbage family , it is not a traditional British vegetable sesame seeds = seeds rich in oil used in various parts of the world and in a variety of ways in both sweet and savoury food pie = meat, vegetable or fruit cooked inside a case of pastry or below a layer of it meringue = a sweet food made from a mixture of sugar and egg whites rhubarb = a plant with long red or pink stems that people cook and eat as fruit crumble = a sweet food made from pieces of fruit covered with a mixture of flour, butter and sugar and baked in an oven crème caramel = a rich custard dessert with a layer of soft caramel on top which probably originated in the south of France but spread to many parts of the world

Info 2 Oven temperature in the recipe in activity 3 is given using the Fahrenheit scale (abbreviation: F). Also notice the symbol for degree(s): °. 450° F is equivalent to 230° Centigrade.

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Info 3 You can find a lot more information about typical British food at the following UK Junior School website: www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk (type British Traditional Foods in the search box, then click on the link Traditional British Food)

Homework © WB Unit 1 p. 9 Check Up – p. 10 Towards Certification – p. 11 Warm Up for Unit 2


TOPIC A CUSTOMS – UNIT 1 EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................

Unit 1 Test 4 Skills Spoken Production As well as testing your students’ spoken interactive abilities in a structured exchange (see Teacher’s Resources Folder – Photocopiable Material p. 14), you may also wish to use the following ideas to evaluate their progress in spoken production, through a “long-turn” activity where they can speak about some of the themes that have been dealt with in the unit.

Write the first question or prompt on the board. Select a student to speak about the subject for a minute. Then select another student to speak about the same subject, and continue until about 25% of the class has spoken. Do the same with the other three questions. Students should not be given time to prepare their talk. 1 In which kinds of situations do you get bored, and in which do you get stressed? 2 Talk about what you do when you get up in the morning. 3 Talk about a hobby that you have or would like to take up. 4 Talk about what you do on a typical Sunday.

Teaching notes SB - Unit 1 Everyday Activities

Procedure

Marking A mark out of ten is given for this part of the Unit Test. Use the grid on p. 9 of the Teacher’s Resource Folder Photocopiable Material when evaluating your students’ performance.

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CU_TB_Inter  

The Authors, the Publisher and the editorial team would like to thank Laura Bonci for her contribution to the literature section, The Inward...

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