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[eleni economidou] 2013

Portfolio

[Re_Map]606

Volume 1 M.Arch 5th year


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[Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

[Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

Studio 4.3

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© Eleni Economidou Student no.12100412


MSA MArch 2013 [Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

Studio 4.3 Portfolio

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[Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

Economidou E.

Eleni Economidou _MArch Master of Architecture 2013 Manchester School of Architecture University of Manchester Manchester Metropolitan University Year 5

T: +447598942804 E: economidou.eleni@gmail.com economidou.eleni@stu.mmu.ac.uk

© Eleni Economidou Student no.12100412

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Studio 4.2


[Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

Contents:

MArch Master of Architecture 2013 - 5th year works Vol. 1 - Data Derivé | Fall 2012 | Studio 4.1 Vol. 2 - CCCP | Winter 2012 | Technology B: 16180002(B) Vol. 3 - Creature - Feature | Winter 2012 | Studio 4.2 Vol. 4 - Prototypes and Assemblies | Spring 2013 | Studio 4.3 Vol. 5 - Concrete Testing Journal | Spring 2013 | MMMC | instructors: Nick Dunn, Richard Brook, Vikram Kaushal |

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4.1 Data_ Derive +infrastructure & interstice

Studio 4.2

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[Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

Contents:

MArch Master of Architecture 2013 - 5th year works Data Derivé | Fall 2012 | Studio 4.1 Creature - Feature | Winter 2012 | Studio 4.2 Prototypes and Assemblies | Spring 2013 | Studio 4.3 | instructors: Nick Dunn, Richard Brook, Vikram Kaushal |

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Studio 4.2


[Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

/index >>Preface_ >> Data definition within the Derive_I \Testing methodologies in Manchester \building_typologies \macro_analysis_I \macro_analysis_II \macro_analysis_III \proximity_analysis_I \proximity_analysis_II \local+global_values \property_value+overal \Applying methodologies in Bradford \Global_Local _+_Individual_Value \area_selection \building typologiesI,II \heritage_value_I, II,III \property_value_I,II,III,IV \heritage_value_III \proximity_value_I,II,III,IV,V,VI \values_summary_I values_summary_II >> Infrastructure+Interstice: micro programming_intervention _+_design_II \micro-programme \site_selection \design_concept_i \design_concept_ii \design _process_i \design _process_ii \detail_in design \assembly/manufacturing © Eleni Economidou Student no.12100412

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0.0 preface

>>From micro to macro scale The design process followed in the next pages is based on the concept of data data analysis to inform a brief micro from macro to scale. >> Brief: Combining all issues and conclusions raised from the group data analysis and the critical reading seminars in order to produce a programme for a piece of street furniture. The micro-programme may be hybridised but it must be active in one of its functions. >>From MACRO>MICRO The concept behind the process has to do with the collection of data, their analysis and a conclusion. This methodology was tested in Manchester and then after alterations applied to the city of Bradford. The conclusions driven from the application inform not the brief but also site selection and programme. Studio 4.2

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[Re_Map]606: Post Capitalist Urbanism

>>Aim: By investigating the relationships between programme and user behaviour, the main task is to examine notions of scale, orientation, permutation, and performance with regard to structure, spatial effects and environmental control. © Eleni Economidou Student no.12100412

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1.0

Testing method ologies

in Manchester

>>Investigating the Global, Local and Individual value in the city of Manchester. Task: We initially researched methods of exploring the city using geo-location and developing new topographic maps with the help of mapping and recording. Aim: The property values are constantly changing depending on the developments/ master-plans of each area. In this instance we attempted to analyse the economic, local and global value of a specific area within Manchester City Centre. Studio 4.2

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1.1 building typologies

along the selected path Area selection: Manchester City Centre, Northern Quarter and Ancoats and building typology analysis Piccadilly Area, Northern Quarter and Ancoats: These areas have their own individual characteristics but they have many buildings of mixed usage. Piccadilly area is the most busy of the three. As we progress from Piccadilly towards Ancoats the building typology becomes more industrial. With the introduction of the cotton Mills; this has an impact on the property value. Piccadilly Area: The area is dominated mostly with retail developments, hotels and few residential flats. Northern Quarter: In this area retail development decreases. A lot of listed buildings are introduced. Ancoats: this area has little retail and residential development with derelict industrial constructions, left overs of the post-industrial era. Studio 4.2

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1.2 Macro analysis I >>Open Land analysis

Area usage analysis in terms of open land spaces and their purpose

Empty spaces along path: The study above illustrates all the empty pods along the path we followed. most of these are concentrated near the Bridgewater Canal. These increase towards Ancoats which is the least developed area of the three. Moreover, there are not many green spaces in the area we investigated. Industrial growth: The Urban infrastructure was a key factor in the side of industry in Manchester. In the post Industrial era the areas mostly connected with the industry get cut off from the rest part of the city. In this case, the Ancoats area feels really disconnected from the other areas near City Centre. Studio 4.2

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1.3 Macro analysis II Mixed use -Building usage analysis along the selected path in terms of hotels, retail and residential types..

Building typology and uses along path: The diagram on the right shows all the building typologies along the area we analysed. Most of them are mixed use buildings which has an impact on the property values. Outcome: Most of the area is covered in mixed usage buildings,(rather than a single function) that have retail or other public usage on the ground floor while the rest of the building has private usage such as flats or offices Studio 4.2

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1.4 Macro analysis III Looking at the postindustrial era left overs, be coming really prominent near the area of Ancoats.

Industrial Building typology in Ancoats: The diagram on the right shows all the buildings along the path that have to do with industry. Most of them are derelict buildings leftovers of a once thriving industrial era in Manchester. Outcome: Most of the area is covered in old warehouses or cotton mills. there has been an attempt at regenerating the area; some of them have been reprogrammed to be of residential or office use, but there are still quite deserted neighbourhoods. Studio 4.2

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1.5 Proximity analysis I Looking at the proximity of the local infrastructure and proximity as a value

Proximity of infrastructure: The first diagram summarises proximity as a value in terms of infrastructure (public transport) and a variety of services available to residents of the area. Proximity, therefore, becomes a way to measure commodity and accessibility; both influencing property value. Proximity as a value: The second diagram shows the proximity of various points on the route connecting the local and global services. As we move towards Ancoats these commercial and retail services decrease but industrial and manufacturing services increase due to the cotton mills of the area. Studio 4.2

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1.6 Proximity analysis II Looking at the proximity of the local infrastructure and proximity as a value

Proximity of infrastructure: The first diagram summarises proximity as a value in terms of infrastructure (public transport) and a variety of services available to residents of the area. Proximity, therefore, becomes a way to measure commodity and accessibility; both influencing property value. Proximity as a value: The second diagram shows the proximity of various points on the route connecting the local and global services. As we move towards Ancoats these commercial and retail services decrease but industrial and manufacturing services increase due to the cotton mills of the area. Studio 4.2

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1.7 other global and local values Analysis of the global and local google searches per month and the heritage value along the selected path Global and Local Google searches: The first two diagrams represent the amount of google searches on enterprises along the path. The yellow pie chart represents the maximum of the clicks while black represents the minimum. Most people searched for Britannia Hotel while the least searched for Wheat Sheaf hotel in Ancoats. The searches show a dramatic decrease as we move from City Centre towards Ancoats Heritage as a value: The map on the left shows the mapping of all the listed buildings in the area. The pixelated layer on top, portrays the distribution of listed buildings in the three areas Listed buildings can be a measure of heritage in a particular space. Studio 4.2

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1.8 global and local enter prises Analysis of the global and local google searches per month and the heritage value along the selected path. Global and Local Google searches: Global and Local Google searches: The data collected and mapped shows the quantity and the location of local and global businesses, companies and enterprises. The first graph shows which trade these companies belong to and the relative quantity of each trade.

Local and global companies: The data collected from local and global companies was plotted in a vertical format to spatially plot the quantity of local and global companies in each of the three districts. Studio 4.2

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1.9 Property value + overall

Illustration of the property value and comparison of the perceived values in a 3D bar chart. Property values: The data collected were collected from the Land registry house using the postcode. it represents an approximation of economic value each square on the grid holds based on the price of the buildings in the area. Perceived value: The data was collected from a visual survey in order to assess a map based on the perceived value and plot the info in geo-spatial format. Perceived v Actual Value: The economic climate may have an effect in people’s assessment of property prices. This overestimation may also reflect the ‘unreal’ property values, which are consequential to the unsteady economic climate It would be interesting to contrast this model with other areas and hypothesise what it would convey in healthier economic climate Studio 4.2

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2.0 In search of true value Data definition intro Data definition within the Derivé: Method. Practice. Record. Translate. Configure.

Studio 4.2

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2.1 Applying Method ology Investigating the Global, Local and Individual value in the city of Bradford Overview: In order to map and identify values within the district of Bradford, we started of by selecting a starting path that runs across the Westfield site. Then in order to define the absolute value of a certain area along the allocated path, we collected data for heritage value as in - listed buildings, property value for 2012, macro analysis of the building typologies found in Bradford and people’s perceived value. Outcome and Installation: In order to illustrate the conclusions driven out of this investigation we modelled all the values in order to find the absolute value. As a conclusion we produced a flash program that summarizes all the values. this can prove useful not for stakeholders with an interest in the area of Bradford but also for the communities of Bradford in order to investigate and regenerate the areas with most polarities. Studio 4.2

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2.2 site selection An introduction to the area of Bradford and selection of a specific path on which we based our research

Bradford: Bradford lies at the heart of the city of Bradford, a metropolitan borough of west Yorkshire, in northern England. Bradford has a population of 293,717,making it the fourteenth-most populous settlement in the united kingdom. Bradford forms: part of the west Yorkshire urban area conurbation which in 2001 had a population of 1.5 million and is part of the Leeds - Bradford larger urban zone (LUZ), the third largest in the UK after London and Manchester, with an estimated population in the 2004 urban audit of 2.4 million. Studio 4.2

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2.3 use analysis I Analysis of the networks between different building typologies in the City Centre of Bradford Bradford: It lies at the heart of the city of Bradford, a metropolitan borough of west Yorkshire, in northern England. Bradford has a population of 293,717,making it the fourteenth-most populous settlement in the united kingdom. Bradford forms part of the west Yorkshire urban area conurbation which in 2001 had a population of 1.5 million and is part of the Leeds Bradford larger urban zone (LUZ), It is the third largest in the UK after London and Manchester, with an estimated population in the 2004 urban audit of 2.4 million. Through its successful culturally diverse businesses, the city centre will have a national reputation for providing high quality specialist goods and services. The imaginative re-use of architectural heritage will give the city a character that few others can match. This will boost the centres retail and leisure industries and encourage city centre living. Studio 4.2

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2.4 use analysis II Analysis of the networks between different building typologies in the City Centre of Bradford Thornton Road: This area is industrially based ; evident from the mills and warehouses. The variations of blue illustrate the area’s usage transformations. The south-east part of the area is directly connected with Bradford’s university campus, making the area more interesting. City Centre: The variations of grey, illustrates the mix-use based buildings, especially in the city center. There are almost no residential units within the city center, but there are a lot more in the adjacent area, Little Germany. Little Germany: is an ex-industrial distribution area, which in now days is been transformed to residential units. Abandoned mills are been renovated and are now used as block of flats. Although some industries are still based on the area. Studio 4.2

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3.0 heritage value I Analysis and evaluation of the historic/listed buildings in Bradford in terms of their usage, physical and other conditions.

Studio 4.2

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3.1 heritage value II Analysis and evaluation of the historic/listed buildings in Bradford in terms of their usage, physical and other conditions.

Observations: The above diagram shows the distribution of heritage buildings around 4 Conservation areas: the City Centre, Little Germany, Cathedral Precinct and Goitside. Each grid square is given a score depending on the number of heritage buildings in contains. Highest frequency of heritage is in Little Germany area, though a more pro grammatically diverse area in terms of heritage is the City Centre. Studio 4.2

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3.2 heritage value III Analysis and evaluation of the historic/listed buildings in Bradford in terms of their usage, physical and other conditions. Scaling criteria: The criteria for scaling each heritage building depends upon 4 factors: whether building is Grade I or II; occupancy of the building; condition (measuring the physical damage to the building) and the ownership of the buildings (in some cases it was found that there were more than 1 shareholders). Observations: The city centre conservation area contained highest scaled buildings, as they either in full use, well maintained and made an impact to surroundings socially, economically and culturally. The Little Germany Conservation area had a mix of scores, though a lot of buildings score 5 suggesting no occupancy of such buildings and waiting for potential tenants. Studio 4.2

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4.0 Property value I Analysis and illustration of the public investments and property economic values within the limits of the area in research

Scaling criteria: The criteria for scaling each heritage building depends upon 4 factors: whether building is Grade I or II; occupancy of the building; condition (measuring the physical damage to the building) and the ownership of the buildings (in some cases it was found that there were more than 1 shareholders). Observations: The city centre conservation area contained highest scaled buildings, as they either in full use, well maintained and made an impact to surroundings socially, economically and culturally. The Little Germany Conservation area had a mix of scores, though a lot of buildings score 5 suggesting no occupancy of such buildings and waiting for potential tenants. Studio 4.2

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4.1 Property value II The bar chart illustrates all major development investments happening in Bradford for the years 2005 - 2020. Public Investments bar chart: The chart shows all the public, retail and knowledge related investments in a selected area of Bradford. The area was chosen based on the path the group had as a guideline, which goes through the post industrial and University area of Thornton road through the city centre, the Westfield site and onto Little Germany. The data analysed above is based on Bradford’s City Regeneration Master plan of 2003. Chart description: The chart illustrates in blue bars the total amount of the investment, while grey bars show the estimated number of new work placements that the investment is going to provide. The pie chart works as a complementary of the bar chart illustrating the estimated time of completion of each investment. The investments are annotated on the map using a colour code. Studio 4.2

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4.2 Property value III The land prices grid illustrates an estimation of the economic value in the selected area.

Land prices grid Description: The data analysed above is based on Bradford’s District Land and Property Register of 2012. The data was collected postcodes of the buildings along the selected path. The average was then calculated in order to place a value on each square on the map’s grid. Outcomes: The conclusions that come out of this research are quite significant about each area’s value. The area around the University has a high land value. Values tend to increase as we move towards the city centre, West-gate road and the Westfield site while they tend to decrease at the edges of it at the approach of Little Germany. Studio 4.2

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4.3 Property value IV The chart lays out all the found property values in a geo arrangement using postcodes Chart Description: The data analysed above is based on the values grid. The chart shows all postcodes of the buildings along the selected path. Postcodes are placed following the map - this way the chart informs for all the value changes by topographic area - it is in effect a flat horizontal map of Bradford. Outcomes: The conclusions that come out of the chart inform and complement the value grid. The area around the University that has a high land value is due to the industrial character of the area and the University investment. Values that tend to increase as we move towards the city centre are due to the retail spaces along Westgate road. While they decrease near Little Germany and they are mostly development sites. Studio 4.2

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5.0 Proximity value I Analysis of proximity in terms of services, infrastructure, time and value

Proximity as Value: Finally, we looked at proximity as a component of value. The following diagrams are to analyse the services available around the chosen route, the location of infrastructural nodes and the maximum time needed to get to the above via different means of transportation ( by foot, by car, by bus or cycling). Methodology Description: For each of these components ( services, infrastructure and time) we used the same 1-10 index for every 100m x 100m square of our grid. This helped us come up with an overall average for the three main areas along the chosen route [Thornton Road], [City centre] and [Little Germany] and eventually and overall index of proximity that is comparable to the other analysed components of value. Studio 4.2

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5.1 Proximity value II Analysis of proximity in terms of services

Diagram Description: The diagram demonstrates proximity of various services along the chosen route. As per the drawing we could see a dominant availability of a range of services and building types within [Bradford centre], which slowly decreases towards [Little Germany]. Overview: The area around [Thornton Road] has a rather industrial character. The graph to the left shows an index value varying from 1-10 for each 100mx100m square of the grid evaluating the data gathered Studio 4.2

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5.2 Proximity value III Analysis of proximity in terms of infrastructure

Diagram Description: The diagram looks at the bus stop locations along the chosen path in relation to a 200m radius [ maximum walking distance for pedestrians from adjacent areas]. The bus routes further outline the connections In between districts as well as within the city. The graph to the left shows an index value varying from 1-10 for each 100mx100m square of the grid evaluating the data gathered. Studio 4.2

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5.3 Proximity value IV Analysis of proximity in terms of time

Diagram Description: The final diagram summarizes proximity as a value in terms of infrastructure [public transport] and variety of services available to residents of the area. Proximity therefore, becomes a way to measure commodity and accessibility, which directly influence value of land. The graphs show the relation between proximity and time in terms of maximum time implemented to get to various services for each area. The graph to the left shows an index value varying from 1-10 for each 100mx100m square of the grid evaluating the data gathered. Proximity is viewed as time implicated for travel based on the following average speed: car (25mph), bus (13mph), cycling (9mph) and walking (3.1mph) Studio 4.2

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5.4 Proximity value V Analysis of proximity in terms of value

Diagram Description: The diagram demonstrates the relation of the 3 main components of proximity as value [availability of services, infrastructure and travel time to services] to the main areas observed along the chosen path. This method then allows us to associate an overall combined index. The applied methodology could be used to any location in order to determine the relationship between proximity and value. This method gives possibility for further analysis of the value of land along the chosen path, which combined with further value. Studio 4.2

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6.0 Value summary I Graphic value representation

The above graph shows a graphically the values of each of the areas. The extent of value difference in each area is clear as the graph represents the values in relation to the overall value. Click on the image on the right for the video to load or alternatively visit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=th58v3Zc68g Studio 4.2

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6.0 Value summary II Physical model showing all the values

This physical model comes to sum-up our observations about finding the true value in the three consecutive areas in Bradford, Horton road, City centre and Little Germany. All the four values that previously analysed are sectioned presented in this physical model, and colour coded, so that each of the four different colours to represent one value. The area’s values are measured in scale 1:10 for every different value, with one to be the minimum value, and the ten to be the maximum value. The model’s materiality are colourful transparencies, laser cutter in scale of the values and positioned on wooden base. Studio 4.2

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7.0 Interstice intro Infrastructure + Interstice

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7.1 Site selection

The site allocation for the proposed installation lies on a pedestrian road Well Street, between the East side of the Westfield site where it abuts Little Germany. The selection of the site was based on the polarities the Value research led on to.

In order to select a specific site for the installation the property value chart was broken down into categories. I had a closer look at the value polarities created. One of the most prominent polarities detected is the area/ boundary between the Westfield site and Little Germany. When looking at the infrastructure at a smaller scale, a pedestrian road intersects the area of interest. By taking the pedestrianized road as a starting point, the main idea is to increase current and introduce new flows of movement into little Germany in order to reduce the polarity scale. Studio 4.2

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7.2

DEsign micro program

The proposed programme uses kinetic technology in order to achieve a user interactive architecture. A mega-structure can function like a city while a microstructure is merely the small est particle leading to a complex living/ responsive structure. Mega-structures can integrate most of, if not all, the functions of a city Cedric Price’s Fun Palace, the manifestation of such utopian notions for that time of being, used architecture as a device, a kit of parts. It allowed conditions for work and play, created a new type of infrastructure and it was responsive to people’s needs. It was since then that the notion of interactive architecture started to appear; the architecture that could incorporate all the human senses. Using the same set of rules, I am proposing a micro-structure integrated within the infrastructure of the city which becomes part of a larger scheme by multiplication. The programme of this micro-structure follows a loop with people’s movements as inputs process them and output a certain reaction. Studio 4.2

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7.3 Design concept I

The proposed design sug gests making use of kinetics technology interactive architecture. Kinetics can be applied as spatial optimization multifunction design, contextual adaptability and mobility

Following up with the micro-structure notion the design is built up based on a single component which through the input parameters when multiplied and placed on a mesh will produce a complex geometry like Skylar Tibbits’s biased chains – but in this case the structure will not self-assemble. This component will work using kinetic technology. It will detect motion which, when processed, will distribute light. This will provide safety and attract people’s attention thus increasing the value of the area. Some of the many surface applications of this component can be: pedestrian street canopies, façade designs, shelters,piazza lighting or even cyclists clothing. Solar radiation will be used as the system’s power source. Studio 4.2

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7.4

Design concept II

The second interactive function of this proposal is making use of a mechanism that responds to the usage and the data collected from the movement sensors in order to alter the physical form of the surface through the structure’s mechanism making it a living mesh

The images show how the kinetic mechanism will work. The idea is based on the simple mechanism of a tripod which when fully folded can lay flat while when extended can hold a lot of weight. Studio 4.2

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Click the image on your right in order for the video to start. You can also find it at: https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=zkHg8oXjBt8

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7.5 Design process I

As the design progresses, certain limitations arise, such as the membrane’s component geometries and the way they will be fabricated. With the use of parametric design there has been an attempt to test the geometry of the lighting component.

Geometries and patterns were tested and their role in resolving the components structure, was determined The first thing explored was the possibilities of computational,parametric design. I am relatively new to the field of parametric design through computation, however, I managed to test the honeycomb geometry as a lighting component expressed on a given surface created in Rhino. The result is another 3D mesh that integrates itself on top of the membrane. Studio 4.2

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7.6

Design process II

At this stage, in order for the design to evolve, I experimented with some physical models using a metal mesh

In this part of the design process I have experimented with model making of the living mesh in order to see and define scale, form and material. Studio 4.2

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7.7

Manufacture / assembly

All the components, the moving structure, the sensing and the lighting pattern come together to form a living mesh

This will provide safety and attract people’s attention thus increasing the value of the area. Some of the many surface applications of this component can be: pedestrian street canopies, façade designs, shelters,piazza lighting or even cyclists clothing. Solar radiation will be used as the system’s power source. Studio 4.2

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7.8 Detail

At this stage, in order for the design to evolve, I experimented with some physical models using a metal mesh

This will provide safety and attract people’s attention thus increasing the value of the area. Some of the many surface applications of this component can be: pedestrian street canopies, façade designs, shelters,piazza lighting or even cyclists clothing. Solar radiation will be used as the system’s power source. Studio 4.2

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7.9 Detail

Final on site animation

Click on the image for the video to load or alternatively visit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IpoRXtPBhQ Studio 4.2

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Studio 4.3 Portfolio

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Portfolio 4.1