Bottom Line LIMOUSIN’S COMMERCIAL CONNECTION
VOLUME 13, ISSUE 3
INSIDE... Bull Buying Guide
Defining a system for bull selection can maximize the potential of your next purchase.
Taking Advantage of New Marketing Trends
Enhanced marketing options and opportunities for Limousin-influenced cattle.
Cost Analysis Of Value-Added Programs
The cost of removing antibiotics, implants and ionophores from your program and the premiums involved.
Efficiency Is The Name Of The Game
A view into the one of the largest Limousin operations, Running Creek Ranch.
Changing Choice-Select Spread Dynamics
Bull Buying Guide
DC State Of Play
by Joe Epperly Director of Commercial Marketing North American Limousin Foundation
Producers could start receiving noticeable price increases for cattle with Choice grading potential.
Legislative updates on EPA issues, USDA and what’s happening at NCBA.
Bottom Line is published four times per year by the North American Limousin Foundation 7383 S. Alton Way, Suite 100 Centennial, Colorado 80112 (303) 220-1693; Fax (303) 220-1884
www.nalf.org Executive Director Mark Anderson, Ext. 120 Dir. of Communications Brooke Bennett, Ext. 117 Dir. of Commercial Marketing Joe Epperly, Ext. 107
r. Mark Wahlberg, a professor at Virginia Tech, once said, “A cheap bull is the most expensive thing on the place.” Dr. Wahlberg had a number of sayings that voiced common-sense cow knowledge, but none that rang more true. Investment in a bull provides a greater impact on the genetic improvement of a herd than most producers realize. A sire has the ability to produce a higher number of offspring in a lifetime than a cow and through his daughters, if kept as replacements, can influence performance for generations. It is important to manage the opportunity associated with buying a new bull by utilizing a planned and prioritized selection process to maximize herd improvement and calf crop profitability. As most bulls are kept for three to five years, the following steps can serve as a guide through the purchasing process:
Set Herd Goals A good breeding program works to advance long and short-term herd goals. The goals must be based upon a valid and honest assessment of the production system, environment and resources, while identifying the potential performance and profitability goals for the herd. The bull you select should have traits of economic relevance to your system and goals. Here are a few questions to consider when formulating your herd goals. Who is your customer and where do you fit in the marketplace? Do you sell your calves at weaning, retain ownership through harvest, or do you sell heifers? This information will determine if you need to focus on heavier weaning weights, maternal traits, or carcass characteristics. It will also help you focus on your customer (i.e. backgrounder, feedlot or packing plant) and fit your program to align with their needs and market demands. Will you be breeding heifers to this bull or retaining females by this bull? Determining the maternal continued on Page 2
To view the current and past issues of Bottom Line, or if you’re not already on the mailing list, visit the North American Limousin Foundation website: North American Limousin Foundation 7383 S. Alton Way, Suite 100 Centennial, CO 80112
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www.nalf.org. WINTER 2012
continued from Front Cover
needs of your herd sets the stage for developing a selection criteria on a number of maternally relevant traits, such as calving-ease, milking ability, age at puberty and longevity. What are your resources and environment? Both feed and labor resources are major factors to consider when making your bull selection. High amounts of available feed translate into a larger frame-sized cowherd. If you don’t have the manpower or resources for calving season, you will need to focus on calving-ease. The environment influences performance along with feed resources and has an effect on the type of bull you need. For example, if you ranch in the mountains of Colorado, structural soundness and PAP scores become a high priority. Evaluate the Cow Herd Identifying traits of economic importance is the key to optimum bull selection. Only by evaluating the herd’s performance can you tailor bull selection to maximize performance making records fundamental. Records of basic performance parameters like conception rate, calving percentage a n d d a t e s , we a n i n g p e rc e n t a g e and weights, etc., are necessar y to determine areas of strengths and weaknesses within the herd. Financial information should also be kept
and consulted when evaluating herd efficiency. A useful value for the decision making process is the current average annual cost per cow for your operation. If revenue and expenses are quantified, the task of determining economic importance of traits becomes easier. Determine Trait Focus Once you have set herd goals and assessed the genetics of your herd, you can determine those traits that are of economic value to your program. Determine what acceptable combination of traits a bull must have to complement the strengths and weaknesses of the cowherd. Concentrate on the factors that have the greatest impact on profitability. Performance is where the greatest degree of income is derived, so traits such as weaning weight, percent calf crop weaned and carcass merit should be included in your criteria dependent upon your herd goals. This should be coupled with convenience traits like calving-ease and birth weight. The old adage still holds true—a dead calf has a very poor growth rate. Expected progeny differences (EPDs) are useful when narrowing down the list of prospective bulls. The majority of seedstock producers provide EPDs, along with individual performance data and ratios. While performance
Cowman’s Formula Here is a simple real-world formula that can be used to calculate how much you can pay for a better bull. Increase in pounds per calf X
(the number of calves sired by him per year)
(the number of years you keep the bull)
(the expected selling price of calves)
Addition dollars you can pay for a better bull
For example, a bull that can add 20 pounds to his calves, sires 20 calves per year for four years, and the calves are sold at $1.25 per pound. 20 x 20 = 400 x 4 = 1600 x $1.25 = $2,000 So that bull is worth $2,000 more than a bull that will not increase your weaning weights. Take this formula and plug in your own numbers to figure out what you can afford to pay. Remember, this formula doesn’t account for improvements in calving-ease, replacement quality, yearling weights, feedlot gain and carcass value.
data and ratios are useful when comparing a bull within the herd, they do not translate across herds or breeds due to differences in environment and management. EPDs take into account both individual performance and performance of relatives to provide a more reliable tool to evaluate across the entire breed. Guides to understanding and using EPDs are available through the North American Limousin Foundation (NALF).
Remember, when selecting for a change in one trait, it has a direct affect on related traits and their a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s . A f i ve p o u n d increase in milk production increases energy requirements by 15 percent, protein required by 21 percent and minerals by as much as 37 percent. Increases in frame size have similar increases in costs. An increase in mature cow size from 1,000 pounds to 1,200 pounds increases
Coleman Limousin Ranch has the bulls and replacement females your program needs. We take pride in raising performancepacked bulls and prolific females. Whether you want Purebred Limousin or Lim-Flex, we can deliver.
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maintenance requirements by 15-20 percent and potential pubertal weight in heifers by 120 pounds. Crossbreeding can also be used as a tool in bull selection. By harnessing the power of hybrid vigor, an operation can reap rewards not only in added pounds of performance, but through the hard to select for reproductive traits. A crossbreeding strategy would need to be employed in an operation to maintain this heterosis through multiple generations. Hybrid bulls could also be an option to add or maintain hybrid vigor in a herd. Set Standards Once selection criteria and tools have been established, benchmarks must be set for traits of economic i m p o r t a n c e . Ev a l u a t i n g b r e e d averages and percentiles will further narrow down the list of possible candidates. Specifications can be set to enhance the performance in a specific trait. Bulls that excel for all traits are near impossible to locate, so designate tolerances or ranges for each trait that fit your criteria. Remember, when selecting for a few traits of greater economic importance you make more genetic progress than if you select for a range that is across the entire spectrum. NALF has a useful tool on its website called the Sire Selector, which allows you to search
for sire prospects based on your own selection criteria and benchmarks. Find the Right Seedstock Source and Do Your Homework A s s a l e s e a s o n c o m e s a ro u n d , producers are bombarded with sale catalogs and ads. There are several different sources that deserve considerationâ€”private treaty sales, production sales and central bull tests. Consider your environment first since the bull will have to perform there, and look at sources that have similar conditions. It is cr ucial to look for a reputable b re e d e r w h o w i l l s t a n d b e h i n d their product. Some breeders offer customer service options such as breeding guarantees, bull retirement programs and marketing assistance. All of these options should be considered when selecting your seedstock source. It may be necessary to look at a number of sources to find the right bull to fit your needs. Contact a breeder for additional assistance in your search. NALF is also available to assist you by connecting you with breeders and upcoming sales in your area. If b u y i n g a v i r g i n b u l l , i t i s important the bull passes a breeding soundness exam (BSE). The examination includes a semen test, scrotal measurement and a physical examination of the reproductive
tract. While this test does not give a complete profile on a bullâ€™s breeding ability since it doesnâ€™t take libido into account, it is a good prediction of fertility. Scrotal circumference should be taken into account if daughters are to be kept as replacements. Research has found a strong genetic correlation between scrotal circumference in bulls and age of puberty in their daughters. Aged bulls should be tested clean of venereal diseases such as trichomoniasis. Once you find a seedstock source, apply your selection criteria to their provided information. Match the bullâ€™s performance data and EPD information to the benchmarks a n d s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a yo u have established. Eliminate those bulls that do not match your criteria. This should be done before attending the sale, and will allow you a more targeted approach on sale day. Evaluate the Finalists and Invest Wisely Since you have already narrowed down your options the bulls that meet your criteria on paper, you need to visually evaluate them for phenotypic traits. Fleshing ability, disposition, muscle and structural soundness should all be taken into consideration visually in respect to the herd goals and selection criteria.
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Any consideration of a bullâ€™s genetic potential is meaningless unless he is structurally sound and physically fit enough to seek out and breed cows. Bad feet, pigeon toes, straight hocks and loose sheaths are examples of common structural problems. Str uctural soundness occurs in varying degrees, so be sure to critically evaluate the prospective bulls from the ground up. Be sure that their feet hit the ground evenly with the rear feet landing in the same spot that the front feet left. As structural soundness is heritable, it should be given extra attention in bulls from which replacements will be kept. Acceptable tolerances in structural soundness should be decided before attending the sale. To achieve maximum productivity and therefore profit, the investment made in sire selection must be matched with the resources available, the production system and the product that is desired in the marketplace. Bull purchases represent as much as half the genetic potential of the herd and have a long lasting effect on herd quality and performance. The value of purchasing the right bull cannot be underestimated. A sound investment pays dividends and will benefit the operation beyond the lifetime of the purchase. BL
Taking Advantage of New Marketing Trends by Mark Anderson Executive Director North American Limousin Foundation
he cattle feeding industr y in the United States continues to evolve and branch out into different programs that are becoming more utilized throughout the business. Cattle feeding continues to be a margin-oriented business with great competition for the nation’s feeder cattle supply. More cattle are going through programs that range from age and source verification and natural programs, to NHTC (NonHormone Treated Cattle). These programs have increased in popularity as both ranchers and feedyards look to achieve premiums on cattle that meet the qualifications specified by these programs. From its fullbloods all the way to Lim-Flex ® cattle, the Limousin breed has the diversity to satisfy the demand for these various marketing opportunities. Higher percentage Limousin cattle work well in programs like Laura’s Lean®,
while the Lim-Flex hybrid fits well for cattle feeders looking to target programs that require the Choice quality grade or higher. The rapid growth over the past five years in natural cattle feeding programs will most likely continue. Packers are jumping on board and offering incentives to procure these cattle, because of the premiums they achieve at the retail case and the increasing consumer demand for the product. Many of you are familiar with the Laura’s Lean brand that targets a lean product for its customer base. There is also increasing demand for a natural product that grades Choice or Prime. Meyers Natural Choice Beef ® has been in the natural business as long as anyone. Tyson Fresh Meats ® has been procuring cattle over the last few years that are being sold as natural products in the retail case, and have also purchased their share of NHTC cattle that qualify for export to Europe. National Pack® also offers a product to its retail customers and supply chain called Naturesource ®, that receives no implants or
antibiotics and is doing well in the retail case. Recently, Five Rivers Cattle Feeding has begun purchasing natural cattle to feed that will most likely be offered at J.B.S. through its retail customers. The Limousin breed has advantages a n d a d d s e x t r a va l u e t o t h e s e programs with their enhanced carcass characteristics in terms of both yield grade and dressing percentage. When crossed with their English-based counterparts, they positively increase average daily gains and feed conversion rates when implants can’t be used. NALF is currently focusing heavily on programs that educate its membership
on the availability and function of these programs so seedstock producers can offer more options to their commercial customers. This should also put more Limousin-influenced cattle into commercial cattle operations throughout the U.S. In addition, many feedyards are finding that Limousin-influenced cattle are grading exceptionally well without the use of implants. Beta-agonists, in combination with aggressive implant programs, are being used more heavily in the industry to combat the high cost of corn in an effort to reduce cost of gains and maximize performance. As
this practice becomes more utilized, it will likely create a demand for a product that differentiates itself in the retail case. As a result, more packers have seen the need to offer a natural product line to their retail customer base. Limousin-influenced feeder cattle can satisfy this product line for both Select and Choice products. For those not familiar with addedvalue programs, the following will describe the basics of these different markets. NALF provides links on its website to Process Verified Programs (PVP) that offer third-party United States Department of Agriculture ( U S D A ) a p p rove d c e r t i f i c a t i o n to farms and ranches that wish to qualify cattle for these programs. Most options producers elect to market their cattle through will require verification through a USDA third-party PVP. This third-party, independent verification process is offered by 25 companies approved to offer independent audits for source, age and other specific programs. Companies such as IMI Global and Tri-Merit are examples of companies listed on the USDAâ€™s website as approved PVP suppliers and both of these companies are also linked on NALFâ€™s website. Age and source cattle command premiums in the feeder cattle trade because of their ability to qualify for export markets such as Japan
(currently requires cattle under 20 months of age), Hong Kong, Mexico and Canada where the age requirement is 30 months or less to qualify for export. Most ranches participating in these programs are certified for Beef Quality Assurance (BQA), and are providing individual I.D. on their calf crop with calving dates from first calf to last calf born. Documentation and good record keeping is the key to qualifying for most PVP programs. A third party audit will need to verify eligibility for cattle to qualify for the export market. Records of vaccinations, worming and if the cattle are implant-free are required in most cases. Many producers have elected to take the extra step of qualifying their cattle for natural programs once they have met age and source requirements with third-party verification. Most of these natural programs simply require cattle have received no antibiotics, ionophores or hormones through implants, injections or feed. If cattle are treated with antibiotics for health reasons, they typically need to be tagged and documented since they will no longer qualify as natural. Most programs also require cattle are fed no animal by-products (meat, bone meal, tallow, blood, etc.). With natural markets expanding b o t h i n t h e U . S . a n d a b ro a d , premiums for fed cattle can range
from $150-200 per head. This premium received for fed cattle is not always a net profit for supplying cattle into these programs. Cattle moving into natural feeding programs have to be the better-end genetically, since 40-60 percent of the premium will be given back in the form of higher feed costs because implants and ionophores canâ€™t be utilized. Feedyards supplying natural cattle quickly learn that feeding the â€œgood onesâ€? in terms of performance, average daily gain, dry matter conversion and superior carcass quality, is essential to capturing and retaining the premium offered for feeding cattle in these programs. Many cattlemen are beginning to provide NHTC cattle into the feeder cattle supply. NHTC cattle are attractive to feedyards, because they can be doctored (antibiotic use is not prohibited on NHTC cattle) and still receive a premium. Ranches and feedlots must be cleared through an initial on-site evaluation by a USDA-approved program with NHTC verification to represent their cattle as NHTC. Cattle must be obtained from and traceable to an approved company that is listed on the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service website. Cattle qualifying as NHTC must have a unique individual identification and cannot be commingled with other cattle. Another attraction to this program for
feedlots is that Rumensin â„˘ can still be used on NHTC cattle which helps feed conversion yet is not allowed in natural feeding programs. For those of you selling Limousin bulls into commercial herds this is a good time to educate yourself and your customers about these programs and help them capitalize on the premiums their feeder cattle have available. Percentage Limousin cattle are working well in natural programs headed for the Choice market, because they increase feed efficiency, improve yield grade and are still able to grade Choice or above without the use of implants. If you have questions about these programs, contact NALF. NALF is launching the LimMark and LimChoice tagging program, which offer flexibility to producers whether cattle are geared for the Select market or Choice programs. Both programs offer a panel tag that designates LimMark or LimChoice with a corresponding E.I.D. button-tag for individual source verification. Once again, the future is bright for Limousin and Lim-Flex cattle going into these programs over the next 10 years. Consumer trends are changing and major industry players are seeing the value of the programs both domestically and abroad. Stay informed about these options and utilize the assistance of the NALF staff as we move forward into the next decade! BL
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Cost Analysis Of Value-Added Programs by Joe Epperly Director of Commercial Marketing North American Limousin Foundation
significant portion of the American public has become increasingly concerned with the technologies used within the cattle industr y. Whether it is through the propaganda of animal rights activists and some doctors, reporting in the media, or the demonization of performance enhancing drugs in sports, a large section of the public believes food that is natural, organic or grass fed is healthier. Even in a recession, many are willing to pay a premium for the perception of increased safety. Don’t get me wrong, the American beef supply is the safest beef supply in the world and our advances in technology have made the industry more safe, efficient and environmentally friendly. This has allowed us to produce at a constant level despite shrinking cowherds. But the fact is that Chipotle, a fast food restaurant that exclusively serves all-
natural products, is the fastest growing restaurant in the country. In the past five years the industry has seen expanded popularity of different programs such as natural, source and age verification and N o n - H o r m o n e Tr e a t e d C a t t l e (NHTC). Humane handling programs like the Global Animal Partnership (GAP) are also gaining prominence in the public eye and have enhanced profitability in the retail sector. This has yielded premiums for cow/calf producers and the feedlot sector to produce cattle that fit these programs. Along with these premiums come added costs, ranging from the extra cost and hassle of paper work, to the decrease in cattle performance. In order to evaluate the costs of these programs, we have to look at the additive values of various production processes used in today’s cattle industry. The most widely utilized program by cow/calf producers is source and age verification for export to countries with a 20 or 30 month maximum age requirements.
Source and age verification requires third party verification and written calving records. The main focuses of the two highest value programs c u r re n t l y a v a i l a b l e , natural and NHTC, are the use of growth promotants, antibiotics and ionophores. The GAP humane handling program is required for Whole Foods Market: Natural and Organic Grocery and carries a large premium with stringent animal welfare requirements that must be third-party verified. Source and age verification is the simplest program and the easiest to implement for the producer. A number of companies, such as IMI Global Inc. and Tri-Merit, are USDA certified as either a Quality System Assessment (QSA) program or a Process Verified Program (PVP) can perform thirdparty verification. This program typically requires a set of forms or a kit that is filled out on a group of
cattle for the program. This is sent to the QSA or PVP along with written calving records that record birth dates on the first calf and last calf born and records to support group count such as pregnancy check, brand inspection or vaccination records. An off-site audit is then conducted by the QSA or PVP over the phone. The cost is typically around $200 to $300 to get a group verified plus the cost of EID tags which is around $2 per head. Premiums for source and age verification are running at $2-$3/cwt. As we look at both natural and NHTC programs, the costs of
7YV\KVMV\Y.LUL[PJ6MMLYPUNZ Spring Creeks Cattle Company is a family-owned operation that began in the 1980s. We focus on breeding sound, practical cattle that have the ability to flesh and be productive in any environment and throughout the beef industry. Our cowherd has been assembled by utilizing proven herd sires and elite AI genetics. When you want practical, no-nonsense genetics, let Spring Creeks power up your program! Visit our website at www.springcreekscattleco.com to see the genetics we have to offer.
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Cost Per Head of Different Technologies and Programs Calves
Growth Promotant Implants
Does not include the cost of third-party verification or EID tags
verification are approximately $7501,000 for the on-site audit plus the cost of tags. Currently, most natural programs donâ€™t require third-party verification. Most packers rely on an affidavit for producers to sign to verify cattle meet their specifications for natural products. A majority of costs behind NHTC and natural cattle is due to the lost performance and feed conversion that typically comes with the use of modern technologies like implants, beta agonists and ionophores. The difference in the two programs is that NHTCs can be fed ionophores and treated with antibiotics. To accurately access the cost of these programs, the added benefit of these technologies must be evaluated for each industry segment. Research
studies have been conducted on these technologies for more than 20 years and the data from the most recent studies was evaluated and combined in order to come up with the economic values. Growth promotant implants are used throughout all segments of the industry with different effects and economic values to the various segments. In calves, there is around a 3 percent advantage in weaning weight over unimplanted calves for about $25 per head difference. Implanted stocker cattle see around a 12 percent higher average daily gain (ADG) for an $18 per head premium. The majority of premiums gained from implants is seen in the feedlot sector due to the higher costs of gains and it is also where most cattle receive
implants. Ninety-seven percent of all cattle entering feedlots over 700 pounds are implanted. Feedlot cattle see around a 14 percent gain in ADG and an 8.5 percent gain in FE for an advantage of $68 per head. In feedlots, beta-agonists are typically used in conjunction with implants at the end of the feeding to maximize ADG, FE, and red meat yield. Betaagonists have a 14 percent ADG and 12 percent FE advantage for $13 per head. Subtherapeutic antibiotics and ionophores are used mostly in the stocker and feedlot sector where their ADG and FE gains have been seen. When subtherapeutic antibiotics are used, stockers see a 6.5 percent advantage in ADG for a $9.5 per head and feedlot cattle see an advantage of 3.5 percent in ADG and 2.5 percent in FE for $5 per head advantage. With ionophores, there is a 7.5 percent ADG effect in stocker cattle for $11 per head advantage and a 3 percent ADG and 3.5 percent FE advantage is seen in feedlot cattle which equals $12 difference. As seen in the table, production lost by each sector is represented in cost per head of giving up each major pharmaceutical technology and the total costs of growth lost for natural and NHTC programs. Natural and NHTC premiums are currently running between $5-15 per cwt. across the board. Most feeder cattle
buyers want load lots and are willing to pay for the better cattle as the feedlot losses from the technologies in ADG and FE can be mitigated by genetics. There is also a demand for natural cattle that have been thirdparty verified as natural and NHTC since this allows any cattle that require therapeutic treatment to still qualify for a premium as NHTC. GAP approval holds additional premiums for producers and feeders alike. A significant amount of paperwork is required for verification of compliance to the humane handling requirements. For one-star GAP approval, all market cattle must be natural and have a body condition s c o re o f m o re t h a n f o u r. T h e minimum weaning age is six months and all bulls must be castrated by this time. Requirements of all facets of the ranch are given fully in depth. A full list of GAP requirements are available at www.globalanimalpartnership.org and a list of certification companies are also provided with IMI Global being the only PVP on the list. As we move toward the future in a narrow profit margin industry, different programs offer an opportunity for enhanced premiums. Management practices are becoming as much a basis for premiums as cattle quality and when combined with genetics can yield significant value for all segments of the industry. BL
Efficiency Is The Name Of The Game by Brooke Bennett Director of Communications North American Limousin Foundation
hat once began as a ranch of 100 registered Simmental cattle has now evolved into a 10,000-acre ranch with 1,250-head herd of registered Limousin that has come to be known as Running Creek Ranch. Established by Joe Freund in 1970, Running Creek Ranch is located southeast of Denver in Elizabeth, and is operated by Joe, his son Joey and family, and Pat and Casey Kelley. Running Creek Ranch also operates a second satellite ranch of 900 head in Kimball, Nebraska. When the ranch was first established i t c o n s i s t e d o f 1 0 0 re g i s t e re d Simmental cattle, but after Joe wintered 200 head Limousin for a neighbor he decided Limousin was the breed for him. So in 1977 Joe sold his Simmental herd and invested in Limousin. Now, over the last several years, Running Creek Ranch has registered more Limousin cattle than any other seedstock producer. “The Limousin were much more efficient than the Simmentals,”
said Joe’s son Joey, as the reason for the breed switch. “It required nearly twice the feed to winter the Simmentals as it did for the Limousin, so efficiency was the deciding factor in our families’ choice to raise Limousin.” If you ever have the opportunity to visit Running Creek Ranch, you will notice the ranch operates in a more old-fashioned manner. Cattle are fed with draft horses, cattle are worked
by horseback and there is not a fourwheeler in sight. “Our reason for using draft horses is it’s more economical and efficient for us,” said Joey. “By using draft horses two guys can feed 18 tons of feed in two hours and there is no concern with getting stuck during the winter months.” Running Creek Ranch has an intensive AI program when it comes to breeding for a spring-calving season. However,
prior to AI-ing, pelvic and uterine measurements are taken on all heifers to check for maturity and calving ability. When selecting sires to use for AI, Running Creek Ranch looks at a set of criteria when looking at traits. “Calving-ease, low birth weight, docility, production efficiency, marbling and cattle that have high growth potential while also being structurally sound are all traits we put an immense amount of focus on when
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breeding,” said Joey. Calving takes place during the spring, with the first-calf heifers starting in March followed by the mature cows in April. After having the unfortunate event of purchasing an outside bull that ended up having Johne’s disease, Running Creek Ranch chooses to run a completely closed herd, and has done so for the past five years. “Once we discovered Johne’s had been introduced into the herd because of us bringing in an outside herd sire, we made the decision to have a closed ranch”, said Joey. Since becoming a closed herd, Running Creek Ranch has reached the status of being a level four Johne’sfree certified herd, which has not only added value to the herd, but it has also earned them much credibility among fellow cattlemen. Annually, Running Creek Ranch markets 250 virgin two-year-old bulls and 300 bred heifers private treaty
with a majority of their cattle being sold into the high country. When it comes marketing their bulls, all have undergone Pulmonary Arterial Pressures (PAP) testing to ensure they can perform at high altitude and semen testing has taken place and all bulls purchased are delivered to the buyer free of charge. “When we market our bulls, all animals have been semen tested and we have a first breeding season guarantee,” said Joey. “We truly value our customers and to ensure they are satisfied we’ll do what’s right in any situation if something doesn’t work out for some reason or another.” Besides having an unconditional first breeding season guarantee, Running Creek Ranch offers their bull buyers an Igenity profile on sire groups, marketing assistance for commercial calf crops and a buy-back calf program for commercial customers.
Each year the ranch generally feeds out 500-1,000 head of cattle on allnatural programs such as source and age verified, Non-Hormone Treated Cattle (NHTC) for Tyson, Laura’s Lean and Meyer Angus. Exhibiting carloads of bulls at the National Western Stock Show (NWSS) in Denver has been a long-running tradition for Running Creek Ranch and this year it will be no different. This year the ranch will be exhibiting two carloads of bulls and will also have teams participating in the draft horse show and pull. The draft horse and pull show at the NWSS is the second largest show of its kind and was reintroduced by Running Creek Ranch in 1980 and each year the ranch brings teams to compete. Joe serves as the horse pull superintendent and the ranch hosts the horse pullers who arrive as weather allows. The pulling horses are weighed at the ranch before they head for the NWSS.
Running Creek Ranch also serves as a retailer for Crystalyx and supplies surrounding ranches with the product. With reproductive performance being key for the ranch, the product helps improve breed back and allows the calves to be weaned sooner. Cows are fed a 20 percent protein block to ensure they receive the proper nutrients during the winter months and bulls are fed a 27 percent all-natural block that provides the vitamins and minerals for optimum growth and scrotal development. If you ever have the opportunity to stop by Running Creek Ranch you will not be disappointed. Not only will you see superior Limousin genetics, get to witness the efficiency of using draft horses for everyday work, but you will get to experience the topnotch hospitality the Freunds and Kelleys provide. BL
IGENITY® is changing the way you see your herd. It gives you the inside information you need to make more confident and informed decisions. From a single DNA sample, it creates a comprehensive profile of key economically important traits; traits like marbling and stayability that can help improve genetic selection and advance breeding programs. Simply put, it’s an easy-to-understand genetic profile that gives you an earlier, more accurate look at your herd’s potential.
Start moving your operation forward at IGENITY.com or call 1-877-IGENITY. ®IGENITY and the IGENITY logo are registered trademarks of Merial. ©2011 Merial Limited, Duluth, GA. All rights reserved. LAGEIG1010 (08/10) BOTTOM LINE
Changing Choice-Select Spread Dynamics CHART 1
by Lance Zimmerman Analyst CattleFax
he weekly USDA Choice-Select price spread has averaged more than $17 per cwt. three times this fallâ€” the widest spread since the summer of 2006 when it averaged $23 per cwt. (Chart 1). For the first time in five years, producers could receive a noticeable price increase for cattle with Choice grading potential. It is worth reviewing the supply and demand factors that have caused the spread to widen and discuss the economic implications it could have on cow-calf producers. On the supply side, fed slaughter has declined seasonally from its typical summer highs in June. Specifically, fed steer and heifer slaughter averaged 562,000 head per week in June and October averaged 510,000 head. The Choice grading percentage also declines seasonally from winter to summer and is currently at the lowest point of the year (Chart 2). In February, nearly 67 percent of cattle graded Choice and 24 percent reached Select.
Those numbers have transitioned to 59 and 31 percent, respectively, this fall. Choice beef transitioned from being 74 percent of the Choice-Select product mix in late winter to 66 percent this fall. The net supply loss from seasonal grade change alone is 35 million pounds less Choice product per week and 33 million pounds of additional Select. The seasonal changes in Choice and Select product supply due to grading and slaughter rate alone create a Choice-Select spread that is generally the narrowest in the late winter months widens through the summer. Middle meat values generate the largest demand effect on the spread. In the fall, the Choice-Select spread moves closely with Choice rib prices, reflecting holiday demand for prime rib (Chart 3). Choice rib value has increased significantly since September and is at its highest level since 2003. Prices for Choice ribs typically peak around Thanksgiving, and decline into the spring as loins gain preference for summer grilling Another demand factor has become noticeable lately. Wal-Mart has included
premium Choice beef in what used to be a mostly Select meat case. With 3,800 retail stores, this represents a major shift from low- to high-quality beef demand. There is a chance the retailer could revert back to more Select product at some point in 2012, but letâ€™s assume the transition to Choice is long-term. Regardless of the additional Choice demand from Wal-Mart, smaller forecasted cattle supplies for 2012 would likely result in declining Choice product next year and a wider than normal
spread. The demand implications of this change could be a game changer for the entire beef industry. The daily Choice-Select spread has reached a daily high of more than $19 per cwt. this fall. Even if the ChoiceSelect spread moves back to $12 on a consistent basis, a feedlot selling on a formula or grid could earn $90 per head more for a Choice carcass than its Selectgrading counterpart. That extra margin creates an incentive to produce Choice cattle that has not
existed in recent years. A wider ChoiceSelect spread in the long run would likely signal all cattle producers to change production and management practices to benefit from the increased spread and more significant premiums for grid-marketed cattle. Fed cattle pricing could fundamentally change between the North and South since the grade in the North tends to produce a higher percentage of Choice grading cattle relative to the South. There is a possibility the price difference between higher and lower quality cattle widens and a two-tier cash market could develop. It could also result in more buyers looking for calves and feeder cattle with documented carcass performanceâ€”or at least the potential to grade Choice
or better. Cow-calf producers who can meet the demand for higher quality cattle should receive a premium for their investment in genetics and management. High-quality genetics generally bring a premium in the marketplace. However, it is reasonable to expect bred females and bulls with proven genetics for marbling to generate additional interest this fall to spring. Auction markets will likely increase incentives to participate in value added programs to ensure producers receive the maximum return for those calves. Also, retained ownership will be more profitable for producers who understand the feedlot and carcass performance of their calves. Management practices that can increase a calf â€™s potential to gradeâ€”such as
backgrounding or creep feedingâ€”could also generate additional sale revenue. It appears that there will be a push for more Choice beef in the coming years. At this point, there are a lot more questions than answers related to this changing demand dynamic and the Choice-Select spread. Anything producers can do to increase the quality grade potential of their cattle through management or genetics will be an added benefit, especially if producers can provide d o c u m e n t a t i o n . Fo r i n s t a n c e , purchasing bulls that are genetically proven to produce Choice grading offspring may cost more but might be well worth it in the end. In the coming year, weigh valueadded management practices against the
potential for additional sales revenue. Renewed market incentives for Choicegrading cattle may create stronger market signals for genetic and management practices that are known to improve quality grade. Cow-calf producers can become a CattleFax member for as little as $200 per year. Members receive daily market updates as well as detailed weekly market analysis and commentary similar to this article. To learn more about membership, visit www.CattleFax.com or call 800/825-7525. CattleFax believes the data/information provided is accurate and complete, but no warranty is made with respect thereto. CattleFax should not be liable for decisions or actions taken by the user based on the data/information. BL
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DC State Of Play by Colin Woodall Vice President of Government Affairs National Cattlemen’s Beef Association
have heard about an old Chinese curse that says “may you live in interesting times.” We are definitely living in interesting times, and it is only going to get more so as the 2012 election season moves in high gear. Much is at stake as the country prepares to elect a President, House and Senate, especially for those of us in the cattle business. Over the years, we have seen more and more government involvement in our business, and most of it has had a detrimental impact. As you watch the political races unfold over the next year, keep these issues in mind as you evaluate candidates and cast your ballot. Any conversation about the impact of Washington on cattle producers has to start with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As producers, we believe in clean air, water and land, not only because it is the basis for our livelihood and productivity, but because it is just the right thing to do. There are no better stewards of our natural resources than cattle producers, but yet we continue to be singled out in EPA rules and regulations.
One of the EPA issues we have been fighting is the regulation of farm dust. EPA calls it coarse particulate matter, but it really is just dust that is kicked up on unpaved roads, through tillage and harvesting operations, or just about any action associated with modern agriculture. EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson claims that regulation of farm dust is just a myth, but the words on paper tell a different story. Through grassroots pressure and help from our friends in Congress, we were successful in getting a commitment from Administrator Jackson to not regulate farm dust for the next five years. However, we must continue the fight to pass legislation that will give us permanent protection from an overzealous EPA, regardless of who is in the White House. The fight to keep big government out of your business continues with the ongoing effort against the proposed GIPSA rule on livestock marketing. This is the rule that would completely change the way we market cattle and could hinder or eliminate many of the alternative marketing arrangements that make the investment in genetics pay off. By allowing the simple term “fairness” to be the basis for a lawsuit under the Packers and Stockyards Act,
for Commercial Producers & Purebred Breeders
we could see a feeding frenzy of trial lawyers wanting to sue just because somebody thought a price their neighbor got paid for cattle was unfair, regardless of the justification. This would basically allow lawyers and the government to set the standard price for cattle. This is truly one of the best examples of government getting in the way of producers by telling them how to market their cattle. Fortunately, again with the help of producer involvement, we were able to convince USDA to break up this rule and postpone action on the issues that would impact cattle marketing. While this is a short-term victory, we are still working on a permanent fix to prevent future government intrusion into the cattle markets. As cattle producers, we don’t get checks from USDA, nor do we want them. As a result, access to new markets is one of the keys to growing our industry. Today, trade is worth about $200 per marketed head. That is money in your pocket. We know we produce superior beef in the United States, and we want to put it on plates around the world. Now, many say that we should just worry about feeding ourselves here at home. While that notion can get people thinking, we shouldn’t forget that it’s more than feeding ourselves, it’s about maximizing the value of the carcass. Why wouldn’t we want to ship tongue to Asian markets where they will pay almost $15 per pound, while our customers here in the U.S. only want to pay $0.10? Congressional passage of the free trade agreements with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama back in October was only the beginning. We now need to focus on gaining more access to Japan where we are only sending beef from cattle 20 months of age or less. Just moving that to 30 months is worth over $1 billion to the U.S. cattle industry. We also need to reopen China where the evergrowing middle class in that country is demanding higher quality proteins. They need to be eating U.S. beef.
It was Ben Franklin who wrote that the only things certain in life were death and taxes. With our government, you get taxed when you die. The death tax is one of the biggest barriers to passing down cattle operations from generation to generation. Even though we were successful in getting a two year fix to the death tax, we only have a year left before the exemption rate goes back to $1 million and all assets over that get taxed at 55%. Today, it doesn’t take an operation of very big size to have over a million dollars in assets. Over the next year we must get a permanent fix to the death tax in order to give cattle families across this country the certainty to plan for the future. This brings us back to what we can expect in 2012. Election years, especially Presidential election years, are notorious for a lot of talk on the issues, but not much action. I expect that to be the same this year, but as you can see, we have a lot of issues that need attention. In addition to the issues above, we also need action on immigration reform, transportation infrastructure investment, the farm bill and many others. In order to make that happen, it is critical that you get involved in the political process and make sure you take the time to contact your Representative and two Senators. Also take the time to meet and listen to the candidates running for office. Let them know that the cattle industry is alive and well, and that we will be holding members of Congress accountable for their actions and votes. The partnership between the North American Limousin Foundation and the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association puts you in a position to stay informed and be involved. Visit our website www.beefusa.org to keep up with the latest on all the issues we are working in Washington, DC. With less than two percent of the U.S. population involved in agriculture, it is important we continue to work together to keep this industry strong. BL
EPDs Ultrasound Performance Data
GV Limousin Spring Sale - Feb. 18, 2012
Semen Tested BVD Tested Customer Service
Selling Fall Yearling & 2-Yr.-Old Bulls Plus a Select Group of Bred Females featured sires... AUTO Dollar General - GV Overtime 433 ROMN Unbelievabull - GV Lodestar 409 ROMN Tuff Enuff - MAGS Ultimate
Limousin Believers... We breed ’em & We feed ’em
“The Brand of Breeder Respect and Commercial Appeal”
Gene and Virginia Raymond • 785/448-3708 • 785/448-8026 cell Arne and Stacy Hanson • 785/448-6142 • 785/448-8027 cell 20217 NW Hwy. 31 • Garnett, Kansas 66032 email@example.com
Will you be attending the 2012 Cattle Industry Annual Convention & Trade Show February 1-4 in Nashville, Tennessee? The North American Limousin Foundation will have a booth, #773, across from the demonstration area. Limousin cattle will be on display from Englewood Farms and Wulf Limousin Farms. Stop by and see us!
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“Quality In Volume”
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DeMar Farms Joe and Margaret Hoot 630 VZCR 4124 â€˘ Canton, Texas 75103 903/829-8082 â€˘ e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Craig Laroue, farm manager: 903/292-9080
Want to advertise in the BREEDER SPOTLIGHT section? Itâ€™s easy! Call Brooke Bennett at (303) 220-1693, ext. 117.
North Central Region Breeders
Hunt Limousin Ranch
Charles & Nancy Hunt Dan, Melinda, Jenna, Adeline & Houston Hunt â€˘ Dave Hunt 10329 Highway 136 â€˘ Oxford, Nebraska 68967 308/473-8521 â€˘ 308/991-3373 (Dan) â€˘ 308/440-5652 (Dave) e-mail: email@example.com â€˘ Web: www.huntlimousin.com Certified Level 4 Johneâ€™s Negative Cow Herd
STRAIGHT LIMOUSIN www.straightlimousin.com
2202 N. 11th St. | Yukon, Oklahoma 73099 Bob Funk, Owner | Jarold Callahan, President 800-664-3977 | 405-350-0044 | www.expressranches.com
Jay & Lori Straight â€˘ Jordan & Jackson 2173 Morgan Ave. â€˘ Logan, Iowa 51546 712-648-2180 â€˘ 712-592-1350 Jay, cell â€˘ 712-592-0188 Jordan, cell
Leonard Wulf & Sons 47694 320th Street Morris, MN 56267 Farm (320) 392-5802 Fax (320) 392-5504 firstname.lastname@example.org www.wulflimousin.com
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Jerry Wulf (320) 491-1390 Cowherd Manager: Eric Zeltwanger (320) 766-0066 Customer Relations: Joel Edge (319) 540-1731 â€˘ Jim Wulf (320) 491-6312 10 mi. south of Morris on Hwy. 59
27195 175th St. â€˘ Leon, Iowa 50144 â€˘ www.linhartlimousin.com Charles Linhart: 641/340-1306 â€˘ David Linhart: 641/446-6906 John Linhart: 515/210-8048
Hiram and Darenda â€˘ 806/375-2346 Bret, Hayley, McKinley & Boone â€˘ 806/375-2345 Box 110, Allison, Texas 79003 e-mail: email@example.com â€˘ www.begertranch.com
LONELY VALLEY LIMOUSIN
Bob Mitchell & Sons 48715 Hilldale Rd., Wauzeka, Wisconsin 53826 www.springcreekscattleco.com Bob, home: 608/875-5049 â€˘ Cell: 608/553-0971 Matt: 608/553-1251 â€˘ Bart: 608/553-8070 â€˘ Scott: 608/553-8069 14
KEETON LIMOUSIN Leonard & Betty Keeton â€˘ Lyle & Shana Keeton 10510 CR 1100 â€˘ Wolfforth, Texas 79382 806/866-9440 â€˘ Leonard & Betty 806/866-9049 â€˘ Lyle & Shana 806/866-9441 â€˘ Fax â€˘ e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.KeetonShowSteers.com
BQA II Certified Herd Certified Brucellosis- and TB-Free
21314 OSR â€˘ MADISONVILLE, TX 77864 JIM, CELL (281) 808-3473 KEVIN, CELL (281) 808-5511 KEVIN COUNSIL, SHOW BARN MGR. WWW.COUNSILFAMILYLIMOUSINS.COM
Chad â€˘ 402/910-5504 | Dean â€˘ 402/649-2615 Mike â€˘ 402/487-2897 or 402/920-0230 82291 560th Avenue â€˘ Creston, NE 68631 www.lonelyvalley.com
SPRING CREEKS CATTLE COMPANY
9700 Slaughterville Rd. â€˘ Lexington, OK 73051 Ranch Office: 405/527-7648 â€˘ e-mail: email@example.com Edna Manning â€˘ 405/306-1316 â€˘ Judy Bugher â€˘ 405/306-1315
OWNERS: JIM & CAROLE COUNSIL
Stan, Mike, Mark, Dean and Chad Settje
Jim, Priscilla & Jared Schott 27601 108th St. â€˘ McLaughlin, SD 57642 605-823-4974 â€˘ firstname.lastname@example.org â€˘ www.schottranch.com
Gene and Virginia Raymond â€˘ 785/448-3708 â€˘ 785/448-8026 cell Arne and Stacy Hanson â€˘ 785/448-6142 â€˘ 785/448-8027 cell 20217 NW Hwy. 31 â€˘ Garnett, Kansas 66032 â€˘ email@example.com
South Central Region Breeders
Lance Hall â€˘ 325/235-4345 office Ken Holloway â€˘ 580/597-2419, night 580/581-7652, day â€˘ 580/597-3006, office Clendon Bailey, Cattle Manager â€˘ 580/597-3325 23998 State Hwy. 5 â€˘ Chattanooga, OK 73528 www.hallchr.com â€˘ e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
DAVIS LIMOUSIN RANCH
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L A W R E N C E
F A M I L Y
Bruce, Paula & Lee Roy Lawrence Jonny, Amber, Tucker & Colt Parkinson P.O. Box 299 â€˘ Anton, Texas 79313 806/997-5381 e-mail: email@example.com Lennis Moonen â€˘ 806/778-3866 www.LawrenceFamilyLimousin.com
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Rancho Espuela www. Cattle Co. Jim & Kelie Dyer â€˘ 432/426-3435 17257 SH 166 â€˘ Fort Davis, Texas 79734 firstname.lastname@example.org
www.bigbendtrailers.com â€œSe Hablo EspaĂąolâ€?
LuckiLimo.com Ves & Marge Garner
VALE, Oregon (541) 473-BEEF e-mail: email@example.com
Larry Smith, owner 347 Davidson Rd. â€˘ West Harrison, Indiana 47060 Evening: 812.637.2303 â€˘ Day: 513.367.0218 â€˘ Mobile: 513.218.2408 Manager, Scott Minges â€˘ Mobile: 513.616.8499 Barn: 812.637.5554 â€˘ firstname.lastname@example.org
Riverdale Ranch Jim Barksdale, owner
Jim Jolley, manager Robbie Jolley, herdsman 3830 Huckleberry Rd. West, Mississippi 39192 Ranch Office: 662/967-2407 Jim, mobile: 601/573-8613 Robbie, mobile: 601/942-3433 e-mail: email@example.com www.riverdaleranchcattle.com
Wies Limousin Ranch Bob & Euvonne Wies | Mike & Heather Henderson, Mgrs. 103 Harris School Road - Wellsville, Missouri 63384 (573)684-2773 | text (573)220-5768 | www.wieslimousin.com
Gary Magness, Owner Southern Division PO Box 190, Platteville, CO 80651 53160 E. 110th Rd., Miami, OK 74354 970/785-6170, office 918/541-5482, George Hubbard www.magnesscattle.com
MILLERBERG LIMOUSIN 491 E 12000 South â€˘ Draper, Utah 84020 Bob Millerberg â€˘ 801/566-4665 Home â€˘ 801/561-9911 Office Jim Millerberg â€˘ 801/301-2953 Mobile
Bob & Gwen Minerich, Owners â€˘ (859) 582-6888, Bob-cell 2003 Barnes Mill Road â€˘ Richmond, KY 40475 Office: (859) 328-7118 â€˘ Fax: (859) 328-7120 Mark Smith, Herd Consultant (515) 965-1458
Clark and Lance Sennett 2518 N. St. Rd. 25 | Waynetown, Indiana 47990 Clark â€˘ 765/234-2621 Lance â€˘ 765/234-8506 | mobile â€˘ 765/366-4894 e-mail â€˘ firstname.lastname@example.org | www.sennettcattleco.com
Western Region Breeders
53717 Gallagher Road â€˘ Charlo, MT 59824 Larry & Anita Coleman â€˘ (406) 644-2300 Trent & Melissa Coleman â€˘ (406) 644-2707 www.colemanlimousinranch.com
KEVIN & JULIE OCHSNER AND FAMILY 30300 WCR 388 â€˘ KERSEY, CO 80644 â€˘ TENDERLEANBEEF@HUGHES.NET H: 970-351-6008 â€˘ M: 970-396-5525 ;GFN=FA=FLDQDG;9L=<.(EAD=KFGJL@=9KLG><=FN=J$;G&
limousin & lim-flex Gordon, Earline & Kassi Schuppe 25653 CR 63, Iliff, CO 80736 970-522-8195 or 970-580-8195 email@example.com
152 Florida Lane | New Florence, PA 15944 John & Kitty Goodish - 724/235-2178 www.tubmillcreekfarms.com
Limousin Services 24018 State Hwy. 5 Chattanooga, OK 73528 580/597-3006 â€˘ Fax: 580/597-6619 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Ken Holloway â€˘ 580/597-2419 mobile: 580/581-7652 Bruce Brooks â€˘ 580/276-5137 mobile: 580/695-2036
Seedstock Consultants Specialized Sales
Brad and Janet Waddle 440 Road 161 â€˘ Pine Bluffs, Wyoming 82082 307/245-3599 Phone/Fax e-mail: email@example.com %LOO 0DU\*DWHVÂ‡*DU\ %UDQGL*DWHV 6WLOOZDWHU5LYHU5GÂ‡$EVDURNHH07Â‡ZZZJDWHVOLPRXVLQFRP Â‡PDU\#JDWHVOLPRXVLQFRPÂ‡JDU\#JDWHVOLPRXVLQFRP
2300 Monument Ave., Richmond, VA 23220 Keith Kissee â€˘ Cell: 817-821-6263 Ph: 804/353-2220 â€˘ Fax: 804/353-2221 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.kkseedstock.com
Eastern Region Breeders
R&R Marketing Company
Mat & Wendy Lewis
30849 Co. Rd. 56 â€˘ Iliff, CO 80736 (970)521-0545 â€˘ Cell: (970)580-8209 â€˘ email@example.com BOTTOM LINE
Jim & Jay Justice and Family 28011 Horseshoe Rd. | Culpeper, VA 22701-8617 Office: 540/423-1200 | firstname.lastname@example.org Jeff Kaufman, Manager, 540/280-5388 WINTER 2012
Randy Ratliff Cell: 615.330.2735 615.255.8982 Fax: 615.255.8992
PO Box 281677 Nashville, TN 37228 Sales@RRMktg.com www.RRMktg.com
ne of the key ingredients for a successful breeding season and vigorous calf crop is a high performing herd bull. Beef producers depend on bulls that can thrive in difficult environments with inherent genetics capable of producing calves with enormous value-added potentialâ€”regardless of end point target. Wulf Limousin Farms combines generations of experience producing registered seedstock that meet the needs of a complex gate-to-plate system. Marketing more than 20,000 fed cattle annually, mostly purchased from our customers, is a constant â€œreport cardâ€? proving the value of genetically predictable Wulf Limousin and LimFlex seedstock. As a Wulf Limousin customer, you can expect high quality bulls, in volume, with pedigrees stacked for performance. In addition, you have access to the entire complement of Wulf Limousin customer service opportunities. If we can be of any assistance in improving the genetics in your herd, please give us a call. Weâ€™d like to build a relationship.
OPPORTUNITY SALE of 2012 24th Annual Production Sale
March 30, 2012
12 Noon ! At the farm ! Morris, MN
SELLING 300 LIMOUSIN AND LIMFLEX BULLS BULL SELECTION INDEX BULL RETIREMENT PROGRAM ! FEEDLOT & CARCASS DATA ! FEEDER CALF PROCUREMENT ! INTEGRATED BRANDED BEEF RELATIONSHIPS ! SOURCE & AGE VERIFICATION PROGRAM ! GENETIC CONSULTATION ! LIMOUSIN & LIMFLEX BULLS ! !
LEONARD WULF & SONS ! 47694 320th Street, Morris, MN 56267 ! Farm (320) 392-5802 ! Fax (320) 392-5504 Jerry Wulf (320) 491-1390 ! Eric (Z) Zeltwanger (320) 766-0066 ! Marketing Consultation: Jim Wulf (320) 491-6312, Joel Edge (319) 540-1731 e-mail: email@example.com ! www.WulfLimousin.com ! 10 mi. south of Morris on Hwy. 59