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A n n u a l Ac t i v i t y R e p o r t 2 012 Expedient Editors

Production Proofreader

Collaboration

Photograph Courtesy

Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin – IB/UFRJ Adriana Galindo Dalto – IB/UFRJ Helena Passeri Lavrado – IB/UFRJ Editora Cubo Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin – IB/UFRJ Adriana Galindo Dalto – IB/UFRJ Eduardo de Almeida Xavier – IB/UFRJ Daniela Rezende Peçanha Fernandes – IB/UFRJ Rafael Bendayan de Moura – UFPE Tais Maria de Souza Campos – IB/UFRJ Adriana Galindo Dalto (Blackgrounds: Presentation, Introduction, thematic Area 2, Thematic Area 3, Facts and Figures) Andre Monnerat Lanna (Backgrounds: Publications, Emails) Jaqueline Brummelhaus (Backgrounds: Science Highlights, Education and Outreach Activities) Luiz Fernando Würdig Roesch (Backgrounds; Summary, Thematic Area 4) Roberta da Cruz Piuco (Background: cover) Fernanda Caminha Leal Valls (Backgrounds: Expedient, Thematic Area 1)

The editors express their gratitude to the INCT-APA colleagues that contribute to this edition. This document was prepared as an account of work done by INCT-APA users and staff. Whilst the document is believed to contain correct information, neither INCT-APA nor any of its employees make any warranty, expresses, implies or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed within. As well, the use of this material does not infringe any privately owned copyrights. Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia Antártico de Pesquisas Ambientais (INCT-APA) INCT-APA Headquarters

Telephone/ Fax E-mail Home Page

Instituto de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS) Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373 - Sala A1-94 - Bloco A Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária - CEP: 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil +55 21 2562-6322 / +55 21 2562-6302 yocie@biologia.ufrj.br/ inctapa@gmail.com www.biologia.ufrj.br/inct-antartico

Management Committee General Coordinator Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin – IB/UFRJ Vice-coordinator Rosalinda Carmela Montone – IO/USP Education and Outreach Activities – Team Leader Déia Maria Ferreira – IB/UFRJ

Thematic Area 1 (Antarctic Atmosphere) Neusa Maria Paes Leme – INPE (Team Leader) Emília Corrêa – Mackenzie/INPE (Vice-team Leader)

International Scientific Assessor Eduardo Resende Secchi – FURG

Thematic Area 2 (Antarctic Terrestrial Environment) Antonio Batista Pereira – UNIPAMPA (Team Leader) Maria Virgínia Petry – UNISINOS (Vice-team Leader)

Project Manager Assessor Adriana Galindo Dalto – IB/UFRJ

Thematic Area 3 (Antarctic Marine Environment) Helena Passeri Lavrado – IB/UFRJ (Team Leader) Edson Rodrigues – UNITAU (Vice-team Leader)

Executive Office Carla Maria da Silva Balthar – IB/UFRJ

Thematic Area 4 (Environmental Management) Cristina Engel de Alvarez – UFES (Team Leader) Alexandre de Avila Leripio – UNIVALI (Vice-team Leader)

Finance Technical Support Maria Helena Amaral da Silva – IBCCF/UFRJ Marta de Oliveira Farias – IBCCF/UFRJ

Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia Antártico de Pesquisas Ambientais (INCT-APA) Instituto de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS) Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373 - Sala A1-94 • Bloco A Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária - CEP: 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro- RJ, Brazil +55 21 2562-6322 / +55 21 2562-6302 yocie@biologia.ufrj.br/ inctapa@gmail.com www.biologia.ufrj.br/inct-antartico

Production


National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research


Cataloguing Card I59a Annual Activity Report 2012 / Annual Activity Report of National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research / Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia Antártico de Pesquisas Ambientais (INCT-APA). – 2012. – São Carlos: Editora Cubo, 2013. 197 p. ISSN 2177-918X 1. Environmental research. 2. Antarctica. I. Title. CDD 363.7


SUMMARY 4 Presentation 10 Introduction 14 Science Highlights 182 Education and Outreach Activities 186 Facts and Figures 188 Publications 192 E-mails


PRESENTATION National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic Environmental Research Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia – Antártico de Pesquisas Ambientais (INCT-APA) The importance of Antarctic Research Antarctica is the most preserved region of the planet and one of the most vulnerable to global environmental changes. Alterations in the Antarctic environment, natural or caused by human activities, have the potential to provoke biological,

• •

environmental and socio-economic impacts, which can affect the terrestrial system as a whole. For this reason, the scientific research in Polar Regions is of great environmental and economic importance, since it contributes to the comprehension of climatic and environmental changes observed in these regions, offering support to policy makers. The protection of the Antarctic environment is one of highest priorities of all the nations that operate on the continent. For this reason the region should continue to be the most preserved of the planet, harmonizing the presence of man and the attendance of mankind’s needs related to the mitigation of environmental impact of an ecosystem which is highly fragile. In 1991, the concerns over the consequences of human activity in the Antarctic environment became a reality through the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991). This protocol established directives and procedures, which should be adopted in the undertaking of activities in Antarctica. The monitoring of the environmental impact of Brazilian activities in Antarctica is a commitment assumed by the Brazilian Government through the ratification of the Madrid Protocol (1994). The position of Brazil as consultative member of the Antarctica Treaty demands an active scientific role at the Brazilian Antarctic Program, which is undertaken by means of: • Consolidation of Brazilian research groups in Antarctic science; • The undertaking of Applied and Basic research on Antarctica for understanding the structure and the function of Antarctic ecosystems. Hence, this knowledge

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• •

contributes to management and preservation of this ecosystem; Formation of human resources for higher education and for scientific and technological development; Incentive for an interdisciplinary approach to scientific questions involving Antarctic systems, at the most diverse levels; Generation of knowledge through Antarctic ecosystems and transfer of this knowledge to Society; Consolidate the results obtained by the INCT-APA scientific research and, communicate it to policy makers to contribute to define policies guided towards conservation and management of Antarctic region.

Some of the Benefits to Society: • Improvement of the climate analysis and forecasts for the whole Brazilian Territory (improvement of the national climatic models and the weather forecasting system); • Application of knowledge of physical processes in the upper atmosphere and in the ionosphere, interactions with solar radiation (prevention of telecommunication incidents); • Investigation concerning radiation variations as a result of global atmosphere changes and their impacts (monitoring of the ozone layer, UV-B radiation, consequences to human population, e.g. cancer and glaucoma); • The development of investigative studies concerning the possible impacts of global changes in Antarctica (global warming, natural disasters, ice-melt, and preventative and corrective initiatives of impacts of these kinds of occurrences); • Production of knowledge and critical mass to support decisions and policy recommendations concerning biological diversity (sustainable use of live resources); • Integration of geophysical, geological and biological investigations related to the Austral Ocean (support for


interdisciplinary research and full knowledge of the Antarctic region); • Implementation of a social programme for educational and outreach activities (creation of public awareness on Antarctic Research and the importance of this continent for the planet).

What is the INCT – Antarctic Environmental Research? The National Institute of Science and Technology - Antarctic Environmental Research (abbreviated as INCT in Brazilian Portuguese used in this document as INCT-APA hitherto) was created by the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Ministério de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação -MCTI) in search of excellence in scientific activities at an international level in strategic areas defined by the Action Plan 2007-2010 of the Science Programme, Technology and Innovation for Antarctica, by means of programmes and instruments made operational by CNPq and by FAPERJ (Research support Foundations at different levels). The referred initiative has the view to implement a

network of atmospheric, terrestrial and marine monitoring in the Antarctic region.

Who are we? INCT-APA consists of more than 70 researchers who, in an integrated manner, evaluate the local and global environmental impacts in the atmospheric, terrestrial and marine areas of Maritime Antarctica systems and, in addition, are involved in the related educational and scientific outreach of their activities. The research developed by INCT-APA will contribute to influence initiatives concerning biological diversity and environmental protection of Antarctica, principally in the scope of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, and the Ministry of the Environment. Furthermore, it assists in educational processes with the purpose of divulging Antarctic research to the public in general. See more at: http://www.biologia.ufrj.br/inct-antartico/ Contact: inctapa@gmail.com | yocie@biologia.ufrj.br

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Mission To valorise the region of Antarctica as an opportunity for development of transdisciplinary scientific investigations, promoting environmental management and conservation of Antarctic region.

INCT- Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT- Antártico de Pesquisas Ambientais) INCT-APA is based at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ), under the coordination of Professor Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin, Botany Department – Institute of Biology/

Aims • To develop scientific investigations and long-time survey in marine, terrestrial and atmospheric environments in the Antarctic region; • To structure and operate a local environmental management system in King George Island and adjacent areas; and • To promote education and outreach activities for diffusion of the Brazilian Antarctic research.

UFRJ). The research team consists of approximately 200 people, amongst them PhD researchers, technical assistants, undergraduate and graduate students, belonging to 21 universities and other research institutes from eight Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

INCT-APA MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE GENERAL COORDINATION Prof. Yocie Y Y Yoneshigue Valentin (IB/UFRJ) V General Coordenator of INCT T – APA P

Prof. Rosalinda Carmela Montone (IO/USP) Vice-coordenator of INCT – APA

THEMATIC AREA TEAM LEADERS Dr. Neusa Paes Leme (INPE) Thematic Area 1 - Team Leader

Prof. Helena Passeri Lavrado (IB/UFRJ) Thematic Area 3 - Team Leader

Prof. Antonio Batista Pereira (UNIPAMPA) Thematic Area 2 - Team Leader

Prof. Cristina Engel de Alvarez (UFES) Thematic Area 4 - Team Leader

ASSESSORS Prof. Dr. Eduardo Resende Secchi International Relations for Antarctic Research

Prof. Déia Maria Ferreira (IB/UFRJ) Outreach and Education

Dr. Adriana Galindo Dalto (IB/UFRJ) Project Manager

THEMATIC AREA 1

THEMATIC AREA 2

THEMATIC AREA 3

THEMATIC AREA 4

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

LNCC

LNCC

LNCC FURG LNCC

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Thematic Research Areas The Research of INCT-APA is organized into four thematic areas described below: Adriana G. Dalto

Adriana G. Dalto

Thematic Area 1

Thematic Area 2

Antarctic Atmosphere and Environmental Impacts in South America Operated through the knowledge and monitoring of Antarctic atmosphere and its environmental impacts on South America

Impact of Global Changes on the Antarctic Terrestrial Environment Operated through the study and monitoring of the impact of global, natural and anthropogenic origins in the Antarctic terrestrial environment.

Objectives of the Area:

Objectives of the Area: 1. To monitor and evaluate: • The regions of movement of Antarctic Cold Fronts as far as South America, especially Brazil; • The greenhouse effect perceived in Antarctica; • The chemical changes of the atmosphere and their influence on the climate, involving: the interaction

1. To investigate the effect of glacier retraction and its implications on biogeochemical cycles; 2. To measure the alterations in vegetation cover and in diversity of plant communities; 3. To evaluate the fluctuation and distribution of bird populations; 4. To identify the presence of exotic species and define possible endemic species.

Sun - Earth, the temperature of the mesosphere and the hole in the ozone layer; 2. To offer supporting information to numerical models of climate and weather forecasting. Andre M. Lanna

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Andre M. Lanna

Margéli Pereira de Albuquerque


Adriana G. Dalto

Andre M. Lanna

Thematic Area 3

Thematic Area 4

Impact of Human Activities on the Antarctic Marine Environment Operate in the study and monitoring of the impact of global, natural and anthropogenic origins in the Antarctic marine environment.

Objectives of the Area: 1. To study the marine ecosystem processes, and their effects of natural and anthropogenic impacts on the environment, using long time series surveys; 2.Subsidizing the processes and environmental management tools, such as the Management Plan of Admiralty Bay; 3.Identify the presence of exotic marine species and define possible endemic species.

Andre M. Lanna

Adriana Dalto

Environmental Management Acts in the development of measures with the purpose of optimizing the functioning of buildings of the Brazilian Antarctic Station and its shelters.

Objectives of the area: 1. To evaluate and monitor the impact of the presence of research buildings and their shelters on the landscape of the Antarctic region; 2. To study the use of technologies and structures that can minimize the impact caused by human presence in the Antarctic region, as well as optimize the conditions of comfort and security for the users.

Andre M. Lanna

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INTRODUCTION INCT-APA Five Years Review Dra. Yocie Yoneshigue-Valentin (IB/UFRJ) – General Coordinator of the National Institute of Science and Technology - Antarctic Environmental Research, INCT-APA yocie@biologia.ufrj.br; yocievalentin@gmail.com

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Since its foundation in 2009, the National Institute

associated with meteorological processes. With this same

for Science and Technology – Antarctic Environmental

study context in mind, research is underway concerning

Research, has contributed to state of the art Brazilian

the characterization of the ionized layer of the atmosphere

Antarctic research through the development of long term

in the region of the Magnetic Anomaly located over the

studies related to the Antarctic biocomplexity. The research

South/Southeast of Brazil

is focused on increasing the knowledge of the processes

Studies of the ozone layer show a decline over the South

involved in the atmospheric, terrestrial and marine systems,

Pole and the occurrence of extreme meteorological events

and its relations with climate change and the presence

in South America. Since 1990, researchers from INCT-APA,

of human beings on this continent. The research studies

carry out studies on a continuous basis on the ozone layer

developed by INCT-APA attest to the essential role that

in the Antarctica region and its effects on South America.

Antarctica has in the planet’s thermal equilibrium, especially

The measurements of concentration of this ozone layer have

in South America, whose climate is especially controlled

demonstrated a great annual variability over the region

by air masses originating from the frozen continent. The

of the Keller Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica),

climatological records maintained by Brazil regarding

which varies between 70% and 55% in relation to the

Admiralty Bay (over 26 years: 1986 to 2012) is one of

normal concentration measured in 1980, when it was first

the oldest and most complete in the region of Maritime

observed that this layer was getting smaller over the South

Antarctica. These records show a large climatological

Pole. One of the consequences has been an increase of UV

variability for this region, indicating that the tendencies can

radiation. This increase of radiation has been confirmed

vary according to the period under study.

by extreme meteorological occurrences over Antarctica

These research studies have assisted with the improvement

and over South America, including the South of Brazil,

in the forecasts of climatic conditions throughout Brazil,

where in 2010 it was possible to observe a 25% reduction

with improvement in the national meteorological models

in the concentration of ozone. This region is subject to

and forecasts. It is well known that the energy, which comes

ozone reduction in the months of October and November,

from the Sun, is not constant and can cause climate variation

which can be called secondary effects of the Antarctic ozone

on earth, to global meteorology, and to the environment. The

hole. The monitoring of the ozone layer has also shown

research studies developed by INCT-APA have shown that

that its reduction causes alteration in the stratospheric

solar radiation can alter the physical-chemical properties

temperature, apart from affecting the chemical formation

of the atmosphere and can influence the prevailing wind

of some greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and surface ozone.

system and the quantity of UV radiation which reaches

These gases form a line right up to the state of Rio Grande

the surface of the earth, as well the cloud cover and

do Sul (Brazil’s most Southern state), excessively increasing

rainfall. Amongst these studies are those concerning the

the incidence of UV-B radiation and contributing to the

characteristics of the effects of the Sun-Earth Relationships

increase in the number of cases of glaucoma, skin cancer and

in the high atmosphere of the Antarctica region and over

a deterioration of the DNA in this region of the country, as

South America, which are indicating their link with the

well as damage to the chlorophyll molecules in plants with

other atmospheric layers by presenting strong effects

repercussion on agriculture.

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Recently advances were implemented in the remote

are not found in organisms that live in other regions of the

monitoring of the Mesosphere, such as the installation

planet. In this way, the advance of this line of research can

of meteor radar in the Brazilian Antarctic Station in

generate knowledge of quality excellence and proportion

2010, to observe the winds in the atmospheric region at

important discovery for Brazil. In this respect, the research

a height of approximately 80 to 100km, enabling a better

studies developed up to the present by NEVA indicate an

characterization of the gravity waves observed at that site.

important potential bioinsecticide and antitumoural from

Apart from the latter, the data from this radar is generating

extracts from Chlorophyta Prasiola crispa, a macroalgae that

pioneer studies concerning the winds and the dynamics

exists in the Antarctic Peninsula, but which also occurs in

of the large scale waves (Atmospheric Tidal Waves and

other continents. As far as our knowledge goes, there are

Planetary Waves) over the region of King George Island

no studies concerning the potential biotechnological and

and surrounding areas.

pharmaceutical applications of the isolated compounds of

The monitoring work on the Antarctic continent demands technological development, in the light of

Antarctic organisms, which place Brazil in the forefront of research in this area.

the rigorous local conditions and difficulties of human

In relation to seabirds, the researchers of INCT-APA

accessibility. In this respect, INCT-APA has been active

have been obtaining important advances for Brazilian

in the development of autonomous systems of aerosol

research. Amongst these, we can point out the monitoring

collection. These systems, designed for the severe Antarctic

of migratory routes of Antarctic bird fauna, especially

conditions, are not conventionally found in the market and

long distance migratory seabirds such as the case of the

represent an advance in the question of remote monitoring.

giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) in relation to the

In relation to the studies of the terrestrial communities,

Influenza virus. This study is of outmost importance for

the research studies developed by INCT-APA permit the

the knowledge and detection of the presence of the virus

establishment of a set of data records representing more

in this species and in more resident species, as is the case

than 25 years of investigation and accompaniment of

of several species of Antarctic penguins, enabling at the

Antarctic vegetation. The latter allowed the formation of

same time information of the spreading of this virus and

a team of researchers specialized in the study of Antarctic

possible risks of contamination of other marine birds in

plants, enabling the creation of a Research Group at CNPq

Antarctica or outside it. Parallel to this study, the researchers

(National Research Council), Nucleus for Antarctica

of INCT-APA carry out the recording of Antarctic birds

Vegetation Studies (Núcleo de Estudos da Vegetação

along the Brazilian coast during their non-reproductive

da Antártica –NEVA, acronym). This group has been

period by means of monitoring the birds using aluminium

developing pioneer research of excellent quality, which

identification rings and geolocators. The latter enables the

has permitted important advances in the knowledge of

development of knowledge of the distribution of Antarctic

communities of Antarctic terrestrial vegetation. In 2009, this

birds, along the duration of the reproductive period, and

same group published an article called, “Protective effects

demarcation of their migratory routes. These researchers

of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet

have recovered ringed birds in Antarctica and in all the

radiation in several biological models”, whereby the

other continents, since they have been found to reach distant

biotechnological potential Antarctic of plants was shown.

countries such as China and India. The Skuas and Common

Ever since, this research group established a research nucleus

Terns are also capable of migrating from Antarctica as far

dedicated to the research of potential biotechnological and

as the Arctic Circle.

pharmaceutical application of plants and fungi of Antarctica.

In the marine environment, the advances in research

The organisms that live in the Antarctic environment

of INCT-APA are related especially to the development of

develop unique mechanisms of adaptation to the extreme

knowledge of marine organisms in polar environments,

climatic conditions, producing special metabolites which

the functioning of the food chain in these environments

Introduction |

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and in the identification of environmental biomarkers that

biocomplexity and changes resulting from natural processes

directly assist in the monitoring and in the preservation of

or anthropic ones in the region.

the Antarctic environment. The use of isotopic reasons to

One of the advances contributed by INCT-APA research

study the functioning of the Antarctic marine food chain

is in relation to the bioremediation of soils. In the past

can lead to interesting results which could be compared

there was no knowledge or sufficient technology to permit

with food chains in subtropical and tropical environments.

immediate intervention at the time of accidents of soil

Above all, these studies serve to offer explanation

contamination by diesel oil. In the last few years, several

concerning the different biological communities that make

successful techniques of bioremediation have emerged.

up the different levels of this food chain and identify the

These techniques are based on the ability of micro-organisms

possible consequences of the effects of human presence in

using oil as a source of carbon and energy, transforming

these environments at each level of this chain. As for the

complex and toxic substances into CO2 and water, in the

study of biomarkers, the establishment of a basic line of

presence of nutrients of satisfactory concentration. This

biomarkers of fish and Antarctic invertebrates, as well as the

line of research has been developed by INCT-APA, and

identification of biomarkers for signalling of the presence

the advances brought to Brazilian research are related to

of diesel oil and sewage have increased the possibility of

the enhancement of bioremediation techniques which can

environmental monitoring of Admiralty Bay and ratify the

be used in soil contaminated by diesel oil at Antarctica

commitment of environmental protection assumed by the

Research Stations. These studies have the purpose of

Brazilian government in the Treaty of Antarctica. In addition

reducing the concentration of hydrocarbons originating

to the latter, studies of organic markers of contamination by

from diesel oil, but above all to establish a technology which

sewage are included. For these studies the main contribution

can available for application in Antarctica, immediately after

of INCT-APA was the publication of pioneer data regarding

an accident, thus avoiding the spreading of contamination.

the analysis of the temporal series of these organic markers

In the area of technology, the researchers developed

in Antarctic regions, especially, in Admiralty Bay.

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activities related mainly to the improvement of techniques

The studies related to biodiversity also have indicated

of utilization and strategic consumption of fresh water,

important advances for Brazilian research. The identification

treatment of residual waters, studies related to material

of several species of benthonic marine invertebrates

resistant to corrosion, use of energy from renewable

associated to sediment (consolidated and non-consolidated)

sources (Aeolic and Photovoltaic) with cogeneration and

and associated to Antarctic macroalgae, has enabled not

adoption of smart grid and studies of internal air quality.

only the increase of the number of recorded organisms

The knowledge generated by this line of research focussed

in Admiralty Bay, but also the increase in the possibility

on the elaboration of an Environmental Management

of identifying new species, those belonging to the faunal

System for the Brazilian Antarctica Research Station (SGA/

communities, especially the phylum Nematoda. A census

EACF) contributed to the advance of the state of the art

published in 2011 by INCT-APA researchers and by the

in the area of environmental management by developing

Poles recorded approximately 1.300 species in Admiralty

and validating a methodology for the implementation of

Bay, corresponding to 20% of the presently described

Environmental Management Systems in differentiated

benthonic species in Antarctica. These identifications are

organizations. From this beginning it was possible to

also proportioning knowledge of the benthic community

identify and propose a model of System/Programme

structures of different class sizes (environment, macro

of Environmental Management applicable to Antarctic

and megafauna) in an area under the influence of natural

Stations, however, whose methodology can be replicated in

anthropic impacts. The results obtained up to the present

any organization or Brazilian initiative which presents an

time indicate that the long temporal series maintained by

impact on the environment with associated occupational

Brazil can supply information to evaluate the Antarctic

risks. One of the main objectives of the activity of the

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Brazilian Antarctica Research Station has been achieved,

(PROANTAR) regarding past and present conditions in the

as a result of the development of management tools

Antarctic continent, preserving the initiatives undertaken

for improvement of environmental performance of the

through this programme. The data accumulated in this

Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (EACF).

database include studies of processes and models used

Although in the last few years INCT-APA has aggregated

for Antarctica.

and developed several knowledge levels concerning the

Antarctica is one of the most preserved continents of

Antarctic region, on 25 February 2012 a tragic accident

the planet, protected by the Treaty of Antarctica, which

occurred, provoked by a fire, which destroyed the

reserves the area South of parallel 60ยบS for peaceful and free

Brazilian Antarctic Research Station (Comandante Ferraz).

scientific research purposes in international cooperation,

Although we were considerably shaken, the researchers did

apart from prohibiting military activities in the region,

not lose their motivation towards their research work, and

nuclear explosions and radioactive waste deposits. Brazil

their efforts were directed to the research studies, which

is a member of the Treaty since 1975 and, since 1983 has

did not require field work in Antarctica. An example of

become a Consultative Party to the Antarctica Treaty. In

this, being the activities related to the development of the

this way, the research developed in Antarctica will always

INCT-APA Database. Since 2012, the database has been

be on an international scale, and the advances obtained by

developed through the integration of INCT-APA with

each member country directly reflect on the state of the art

the researchers of the National Laboratory of Scientific

of the research undertaken in Antarctica. Thus, the research

Computing (Brazilian acronym: LNCC), which belongs

activities are advances for Antarctica research studies as

to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation.

much on a national level as well as on an international level.

The INCT-APA database has the objective of being a

The international interest on the role of Antarctica in global

fundamental tool to unite and strengthen the whole

changes has acquired great relevance in the last few years,

set of data generated by the INCT, apart from being an

and the impact of human activities on the Antarctica has

important testimony of the Brazilian Antarctic Programme

become a reason of great concern.

Introduction |

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THEMATIC AREA 1

ANTARCTIC ATMOSPHERE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN SOUTH AMERICA

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Codato, G., Soares, J., Oliveira, A.P., Targino, A.C.L., Ruman, C. J. Observational Campaigns of the Project “Study of Turbulence In Antarctica”

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Wolfram, E., Salvador, J., Orte, F., D’Elia, R., Quel, E., Casiccia, C., Zamorano, F., Leme, N.P. Systematic Ozone and Solar Uv Measurements In the Observatorio Atmosférico De La Patagonia Austral, Argentina

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Casiccia C., Leme, N.P., Zamorano, F. Total Ozone Observations at Punta Arenas, Chile (53.2ºS;70.9ºW)

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Evangelista, H., Sodré, E.D., Mourão e Lima, A. C. Preliminary Investigation on the Atmospheric Dispersion of Pollutants Due To Ferraz Fire

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Bageston, J.V., Batista, P.P., Gobbi, D., Takahashi, H., Paes-Leme, N.M., Wrasse, C.M. Airglow and its Importance on Monitoring the Upper Atmosphere: Observations at Commandant Ferraz Antarctic Station

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Team Leader

Dr. Neusa Maria Paes Leme – CRN/INPE Vice-Team Leader

Dr. Emília Correia – INPE/CRAAM

Introduction The monitoring of the Antarctic atmosphere and ocean and their influence on South America is being built on a solid basis as continuous studies have been undertaken by Brazilian researchers in the Antarctic region for decades. The intention is to carry on with such studies, which require long-term series, for a better understanding of global changes, and to use the data in numerical models of climate and weather forecasting to enable more trustworthy forecasts. Such projects, since they have not been considered as monitoring activities, throughout the decades, had always been threatened with discontinuity. More than two decades of continuous studies on the ozone layer hole and on the influence of Antarctic cold fronts in our climate, besides other highly relevant studies, must, therefore, have their continuity guaranteed. It is essential that these activities are associated to a long term monitoring program. Antarctica plays an essential role in the thermal equilibrium of the planet. In relation to South America this factor is especially relevant. The climate of the Southern hemisphere is essentially controlled by air masses originated from the frozen continent. It is well known that the energy which comes from the Sun is not constant and can cause variation on the earth’s climate, on global meteorology, and on the environment. Recent studies have shown that solar radiation can alter the physical-chemical properties of the atmosphere and can influence the wind regime and the amount of UV radiation which reaches the earth surface, as well as the cloud coverage and precipitation. The understanding of the interaction between the chemistry of the atmosphere and climate change is a new and instigating research area. The connection between atmosphere and solar radiation, especially UV, which triggers the chemical reactions and these, in their turn,

depend on the temperature, atmospheric circulation and climate, are now being studied in an integrated and systematic manner. New questions are arising as result of the observed changes in the atmospheric temperature profile, especially with the increase in the troposphere (near surface, as a result of the green house gases) and the decrease in the lower stratosphere (between 15 and 20 Km, because of the destruction of the ozone hole) and on the mesosphere (between 90 and 100 Km, cause attributed to the increase of green house gases). The main questions are: What are the chemical changes which are occurring in the different layers of the atmosphere with increase of UV radiation and changes in temperature? What are the consequences for the dynamic, circulation and equilibrium between the atmospheric layers? Observationally quantifying the interaction between the surface and the atmosphere is one of the most challenging tasks ever. It evolves estimating the exchange of energy, mass and momentum, simultaneously, at different places, facing heterogeneities inherent to the surface of the Earth at different meteorological scales. Among all ecosystems the one represented by Antarctica is the most challenging yet, given the extreme prevailing weather conditions during most of the time. These difficulties worsen in the case of Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz because it is located on the shoreline region of the King George Island that is characterized by highly complex topography. Besides, temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation changes which occur continuously over the land. The main goal of the ETA (“Estudo da Turbulência na Antártica”- “Antarctica Turbulence Study”) project is to estimate the energy fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the surface at the Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz using slow and fast response sensors.

Science Highlights - Thematic Area 1 |

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Objectives Monitor and Evaluate: Changes in chemistry and atmospheric dynamics and its influence on climate, involving: the interaction between Sun – Earth, the temperature in the mesosphere, planetary waves, the Hole in the Ozone, trace gas associated with the chemistry of the ozone layer, greenhouse effect emissions, greenhouse gases caused by human activity in the area of Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz and the impacts of UV radiation in the ecosystem.

Activities Developed

2012). The variability observed in the ozone layer and in the ground intensity of the UV-A and UV-B radiation, in the last few years, was accompanied by changes in the ionized layer of our atmosphere, the ionosphere. A detailed study of ionosphere behavior has been done in the Brazilian Antarctic Station in the last decade. The long term ionosphere behavior shows clearly that it is controlled by solar radiation, presenting a slow variation in close association with the intensity of the solar radiation associated with the decreasing activity of the 23rd solar cycle and the increasing of the 24th (Correia, 2011; Correia et al.,

The activities of Module 1 are divided into five themes:

2011, 2013a, b). Furthermore, during the local wintertime

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to March in the Northern Hemisphere), the ionosphere

Sun-Earth Relationship Dynamics of Upper Atmosphere (Mesosphere) Climatology of Ozone and UV Radiation Meteorology Greenhouse gases and aerosols One of the most important properties of the atmosphere

is its ability to withstand wave motion. Gravity waves are well known to play an important role in the atmosphere, e.g. its influence on the thermal state and the atmospheric circulation. The observations of gravity waves have been conducted on a large scale in regions of low and mid latitudes. However, at high latitudes, such as in Antarctica, these observations are sparse and little is known of the characteristics of these waves. Studies are being conducted on them at Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station (62°S, 58°W), through campaigns with observations of airglow imagers at different latitudes (Bageston et  al., 2009). The study of planetary waves and gravity waves allow us to identify and better understand the dynamics of the neutral upper atmosphere (mesosphere) and its interaction with the other layers of the atmosphere. Search for gravity wave

16

atmosphere (Bageston et al., 2011 a, b, c) and (Fritts et al.,

(April to October in the Southern Hemisphere and October behavior was strongly affected by meteorological processes from below in all years. The dynamic processes of the lowerlaying atmospheric levels are associated with the generation of waves, particularly the gravity waves (period of minutes/ hours) and planetary waves (period of days), among others. This study showed that during the wintertime the planetary waves can strongly affect the lower ionosphere (Correia, 2011; Correia et al., 2011, 2013b), evidencing the coupling between the different atmospheric layers. In addition to the effect of the planetary waves in the lower ionosphere, these studies also suggested an interannual variation, which also has been observed in physical atmospheric parameters, and it is attributed to the interaction between the atmospheric waves and winds, as well as to the inter-hemispheric coupling (Correia et al., 2013b). Measurements of ozone concentration obtained by Brazilian researchers since 1990 to date have shown a large annual variability over the region Keller Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica), ranging from 70% in 2006

sources at different atmospheric layers and the connection

to 55% in 2010 compared to the normal concentration,

between the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere

before 1980, when it was observed for the first time that

are currently the subject of great interest in the Antarctica

this layer was decreasing over the South Pole. Recovery

atmospheric community (Bageston et al., 2013).

time also changed the layer still showing reductions in

The observation of this dynamic from Antarctica

December, which due to high temperatures the atmosphere

to Ecuador will help to identify the various transport

already presents a scenario of normalizing the destruction.

processes and dynamic connections and how this affects the

The ozone hole occurs only in very cold atmosphere

| Annual Activity Report 2012


(characteristic of the South Pole) and every year when

two standard deviations of the daily climatological mean

summer arrives in Antarctica the hole recovers in December,

(Wolfran et al., 2012).

but not at the same level as in 1980, which is the benchmark for what we consider normal. One consequence of this decreased concentration of

Episodes of very low surface Ozone in the South Shetland Islands (63ºS, 58ºW) and their stratospheric polar origin (Setzer & Kichhoff, 2012) were also observed.

ozone layer is increased UV radiation. This increase in

The Antarctic Ozone Hole is a cyclical phenomenon

radiation is confirmed by extreme events over Antarctica

which occurs over the Antarctic region from August

and South America, including southern Brazil where in

to December each year. The polar vortex turns it into a

2010 it was possible to observe a 25% reduction in the

restricted characteristic dynamics for this region. However,

concentration of ozone. The southern region of Brazil

when the polar vortex begins to weaken in September,

is subject to reductions of ozone during the months of

air masses with low ozone concentration can escape and

October and November, which may be called side effects

reach regions of lower latitudes. The INCT-APA studies

of the Antarctic ozone hole. This shows that there is still a

the influence of the Antarctic Ozone Hole over South

large amount of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) in the Antarctic

America, including the South of Brazil. To verify the events

atmosphere, and its annual variability is a consequence

of influence, data of ozone total column was used from

of temperature in the stratosphere (the region between

the Brewer Spectrophotometer installed at the Southern

15-50 km altitudes) in the Antarctic winter. The monitoring

Regional Center of National Institute for Space Research –

of the ozone layer has also shown that the decrease of the

CRS/INPE located in the campus of the Federal University

same causes change in temperature of the stratosphere

of Santa Maria – UFSM, in Santa Maria, South of Brazil. To

and affects the chemical makeup of some greenhouse

confirm the origin of the air mass with lower ozone content,

gases such as CO2 and ozone surface forming a line to Rio

potential vorticity maps were analyzed using GrADS (Grid

Grande do Sul excessively increasing the incidence of UV-B

Analysis and Display System) generated with the NCEP

radiation and contributes to the increased number of cases

data reprocessed, and backward trajectories of air masses,

of glaucoma, skin cancer and deterioration of the DNA in

using the HYSPLIT model of NOAA (Pinheiro et al., 2010;

this region of the country as well as damage to chlorophyll

Peres et al., 2011).

molecules of algae and plants. In large urban areas the

The average area covered by the Antarctic ozone hole this

increase of the UV radiation changes the atmospheric

year was the second smallest in the last 20 years, according

photochemical potentiates the effect of pollutant gases at

to data from NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric

ground level.

Administration (NOAA) satellites. Scientists attribute the

An extremely persistent ozone hole overpass was

change to warmer temperatures in the Antarctic lower

observed from ground-based instruments at Rio Gallegos,

stratosphere. The ozone hole reached its maximum size

Argentina, in November 2009. This was the first time

Sept. 22, covering 21.2 million square kilometers, or the area

that an extreme event of this duration was observed from

of the United States, Canada and Mexico combined. The

the ground at a subpolar station with a lidar instrument.

average size of the 2012 ozone hole was 17.9 million square

Record-low ozone (O3) column densities (with a minimum

kilometers. The Sept. 6, 2000 ozone hole was the largest on

of 212 DU) persisted over three weeks at the Rıo Gallegos

record at 29.9 million square kilometers (http://www.nasa.

NDACC station in November 2009. The statistical analysis

gov/topics/earth/features/ozone-hole-2012.html ).

of 30 years of satellite data from the Multi Sensor Reanalysis

The Antarctic Ozone Hole (AOH) in 2012 had a moderate

(MSR) database for Rıo Gallegos revealed that such a

activity, beginning to be noticeable after the second half of

long-lasting, low-ozone episode is a rare occurrence. This

August. On September 22 the AOH reached its maximum

statistical analysis reveals that 3% of events only correspond

size of around 22 million km2, from the late 80s has remained

to 4 or more consecutive days with total ozone column below

at a maximum dimension ~20 million km2. The minimum

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column ozone measured in this season was on October 1st

Over the past 65 years, average annual temperatures

and was 124 DU (Dobson Units), minimum value of this

of the air in Admiralty Bay show an average warming of

order not seen since the 80s, with the exception of 2002.

+0.23 ° C. However, one must consider that this region’s

The activity of the Antarctic ozone hole continued until the first week of November, which marked the beginning of this seasonal phenomenon. In Punta Arenas city, 4000 km away from south pole and 1250 km from King George Island, which is influenced by the AOA, in 2012 there were relatively few ozone depletion events. The minimum measured in Punta Arenas was 269 DU on November 23, measured with spectrophotometer #180 at the University of Magallanes, this event occurs during the passage of air

climatological measurement was standardized only in the last 30 years and the data from this period does not indicate a warming climate. Over the past 14 years, average annual temperatures recorded in air EACF showed a downward trend (≈ - 0.6 ° C / decade). According to the researcher team weather observations, the winters of 2007 and 2009 were very severe, freezing the two lakes that feed EACF and the extent of ice covering Admiralty Bay peaked with frozen sea to the vicinity of the Polish Station, near the entrance to the Bay. January and February 2010 were the coldest summers in

masses, poor in ozone (stratosphere), in the process of

EACF recorded in the 37 years (mean air temperature +1.0 °

extinction of AOH. (Casiccia, 2013)

C in January and +0.2 ° C in February (Justino et al., 2010).

References Bageston, J.V.; Batista, P.P.; Wrasse, C.M.; Gobbi, D. & Hibbins, R. (2013) Searching for Small-Scale Gravity Wave Sources near the Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Geophysical Research (Under Revision). Bageston, J.V.; Wrasse, C.M. ; Hibbins, R.E.; Batista, P.P.; Gobbi, D.; Takahassi, H.; Andrioli, V.F.; Fechine, J. & Denardini, C.M. (2011a) Case study of a mesospheric wall event over Ferraz station, Antarctica (62ºS). Annales Geophysicae (Berlin), v. 29, p. 209-219. Bageston, J.V.; Wrasse, C.M.; Batista, P.P.; Hibbins, R.E.; Fritts, D.C.; Gobbi, D. & Andrioli, V.F. (2011c) Observation of a mesospheric front in a thermal-doppler duct over King George Island, Antarctica. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online), v. 11, p. 12137-12147. Bageston, J.V.; Wrasse, C.M.; Batista, P.P.; Hibbins, R.E.; Fritts, D.C.; Gobbi, D. & Andrioli, V.F. (2011b) Observation of a mesospheric front in a dual duct over King George Island, Antarctica. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion (Online), v. 11, p. 16185-16206. Casiccia, C. www.ozono.umag.cl , 2013 Correia, E. (2011) Study of Antarctic-South America connectivity from ionospheric radio soundings. Oecologia Australis, v. 15, p. 10-17. Correia, E.; Kaufmann, P.; Raulin, J.P.; Bertoni, F.C. & Gavilán, H.R. (2011) Analysis of daytime ionosphere behavior between 2004 and 2008 in Antarctica. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, v. 73, p. 2272-2278. Correia, E.; Paz, A.J. & Gende M.A. (2013a) Characterization of GPS-TEC in Antarctica from 2004 to 2011. Annals of Geophysics, v. 56(2), p. R0217. Correia, E.; Raulin, J.P.; Kaufmann, P.; Bertoni, F.C. & Quevedo, M.T. (2013b). Inter-hemispheric analysis of daytime low ionosphere behavior from 2007 to 2011. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, v. 92, p. 51-58. Fritts, D.C.; Janches, D.; Iimura, H.; Hocking, W.K.; Bageston, J.V. & Leme, N. M. P. (2012) Drake Antarctic Agile Meteor Radar first results: Configuration and comparison of mean and tidal wind and gravity wave momentum flux measurements with Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 117, p. D02105.

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| Annual Activity Report 2012


Justino, F.; Setzer, A.; Bracegirdle, T.J.; Mendes, D.; Grimm, A.; Dechiche, G.; Schaefer, C.E.G.R. (2010) Harmonic analysis of climatological temperature over Antarctica: present day and greenhouse warming perspectives. International Journal of Climatology. Paes-Leme, N.M.; Pinheiro, D.K.; Silva, F.R.; Alvalá, P.C. (2012) Brazil Report, WMO Bolletin, http://www.wmo.int Peres, L.V.; Kall, E.; Crespo, N.M.; Fontinele, J.L.; Anabor, V.; Pinheiro, D.K.; Schuch N.J. & Paes-Leme, N.M. (2011) Caracterização sinótica do evento de efeito secundário do Buraco de Ozônio Antártico sobre o sul do Brasil do dia 14/10/2008. Ciência e Natura, v. Esp, p. 323-326. Pinheiro, D.K.; Leme, N.P.; Peres, L.V. & Kall, E. (2010) Influence of the Antarctic ozone hole over the south of Brazil in 2008 and 2009. Annual Report - National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research, v. 1, p. 33-37. Setzer, A. & Kirchoff, V.W.H.J. Episodes of very low surface Ozone in the South Shetland Islands (63ºS, 58ºW) and their stratospheric polar origin. Pesquisa Antartica Brasileira, v. 5, p. 1-10, 2012. Wolfram, E.A.; Salvador, J.; Orte, F.; D’Elia, R.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kuttippurath, J.; Pazmiño, A.; Goutail, F.; Casiccia, C.; Zamorano, F.; Paes-Leme, N. & Quel, E. J. (2012) The unusual persistence of an ozone hole over a southern mid-latitude station during the Antarctic spring 2009: a multi-instrument study. Annales Geophysicae, 30, 1435–1449.

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1 OBSERVATIONAL CAMPAIGNS OF THE PROJECT “STUDY OF TURBULENCE IN ANTARCTICA” Georgia Codato1,*, Jacyra Soares1, Amauri Pereira de Oliveira1, Admir Créso de Lima Targino2, Caio Jorge Ruman1 Grupo de Micrometeorologia, Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, USP, Rua do Matão, 1226, CEP 05508-090, SP, Brazil 2 Engenharia Ambiental, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, CEP 80230-901, Londrina, PR, Brazil

1

*e-mail: gecodato@usp.br

Abstract: The main objective of ETA (“Estudo da Turbulência na Antártica”- “Study of Turbulence in Antarctica”) project is to investigate the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface through the observational determination of the main components of the surface energy balance in the region of the Antarctic Brazilian Station “Comandante Ferraz”, in King George Island (62005’S, 058023’W). For this purpose, a tower was instrumented in order to measure conventional parameters (air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity) with low and high frequency sampling using slow and fast response sensors, radiation sensors (pyranometer, pyrgeometer and net-radiometer), soil temperature sensor, soil heat flux sensor and precipitation sensor. The observational campaigns will generate a set of unpublished data of long time duration. Here the first and second observational campaigns are described together with the data acquisition and transmission systems. Keywords: Turbulent Flux, ETA Project, Data Acquisition System, Data Transmission System.

Introduction The main objective of the ETA project is the direct observational determination of the components of the radiation balance and of the turbulent vertical fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat and momentum in the Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz (EACF), on King George Island (62o05’S, 058o23’W). For this purpose the South Tower of the EACF will be used, instrumented with sensors of fast and slow response. The fast response sensors (sonic anemometer and CO2/H2O analyzer) will provide measurements of fluctuations of wind velocity components, air temperature, CO2 and humidity, with a sampling frequency between 1 and 30 Hz. The slow response sensors will allow the estimation of the average behavior of the main physical variables such as wind, air temperature, air humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, short and long wave radiations, soil temperature and soil heat flux. The knowledge of the radiation balance components (Soares et  al., 2004, 2012; Oliveira  et  al., 2006;

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| Annual Activity Report 2012

Codato et al., 2008) and the turbulent exchanges on different surfaces and interfaces are important - in addition to climate change research - for both diagnostic and prognostic applied to numerical weather prediction, environmental monitoring activities using operational dispersion models oceanic and atmospheric pollutants, oceanographic studies (Ribeiro et al., 2011; Skielka et al., 2011), studies of biogeochemical cycles, etc. The data obtained during the experiments will have several immediate applications: calculation of the radiation balance, calculation of energy balance, estimation of transfer coefficients of heat and humidity, estimation of the wind shear stress on the region, determination of the temporal evolution of dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the planetary boundary layer and validation and calibration of parameterizations used in numerical atmospheric models.


Materials and Methods

and relative humidity at three levels of height, sensors of

There were 2 observational campaigns of the ETA project.

precipitation, soil heat and temperature of the soil and two

First observational campaign

sensors).

The 1 st campaign was held during the 3 rd phase of Operation XXIX Antarctic (OPERANTAR XXIX) between February, 13 and March, 11 of 2011 and its mail goal was identifying the best location for installing the management system of the observation data and sensors (pyranometer, pyrgeometer, net radiometer and barometric pressure). Details of the instruments are in Table 1 and Figure 1. The data was collected using a sampling rate of 0.05 Hz and was transmitted to USP, as described in Figure 2.

Second observational campaign

video cameras to monitor the operating conditions of the The equipment was connected to a datalogger model CR5000.

Results The anemometers and sensors of air temperature and relative humidity were installed at different heights (Table 1). Instantaneous observations indicated a difference of about 1° C between the air temperature sensors installed in the lowest and highest height level, indicating an important temperature vertical gradient.

The 2 observational campaign was undertaken during the 3rd phase of OPERANTAR XXX in 2012, between February 6 and 27. The main objectives were the maintenance of the sensors and equipment installed in the 1st campaign and installation of new sensors (wind sensors, air temperature

The collected data was automatically sent, every hour,

nd

to USP server (Figure 2). A set of FORTRAN routines to read, interpret and automatically make graphs of the observed data, has also been developed. Moreover, the site developed to store the data gathered in EACF was

a

b

Figure 1. South Tower with the sensors (a) photography and (b) schematic drawing.

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Table 1. Equipment installed during the ETA observational campaigns. Camp.

Sensor

Model

Height (m)

Variable

st

1

Pyranometer

CPM11

1,85

Incident solar radiation

1

st

Pyrgeometer

CGR3

1,85

Incident longwave radiation

1

Net-radiometer

CNR4

3,40

Incident and outgoing solar radiation, incident and outgoing longwave radiation

1st

Barometric pressure sensor

CS106

1,50

Atmospheric pressure

1st

Radiometer ventilation system

CFV3

-

Ventilation and heating of the radiometers

1st

Voltage regulators

-

-

Supplying voltage of 12 V

1st

Datalogger

CR5000

-

Data acquisition system

1st

Modem

MD485

-

Data transmission

1st

Laptop

D531

-

Remote access to datalogger

2nd

Thermistor and capacitive transducer

CS215

1.85, 6.45, 10.16

Air temperature Air relative humidity

2nd

Anemometer (wind direction and velocity)

05103

2.25, 5.31, 10.56

Wind velocity Wind direction

2nd

Pluviometer

385

0.5

Precipitation

2nd

Thermistor

107

-0.05

Soil temperature

2nd

Soil flux

HFP01

-0.05

Soil heat flux

2nd

Webcam

-

-

-

2nd

Laptop

XS1473

-

-

2nd

Conversion module (Campbell)

LCC4

-

st

c a

d

b

Figure 2. Data acquisition and data transmission systems. (a) South Tower, (b) datalogger CR5000 installed in the South Tower, (c) “Modulo Meteoro� where the laptop receives information from the data acquisition system and (d) data reception on IAG/USP server.

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| Annual Activity Report 2012


automatically updated every hour and all the observed data is available to the scientific community at the request (http://www.iag.usp.br/meteo/labmicro/Data/Graficos/ ETA/data.html).

Discussion and Conclusion All equipment installed during the first observational campaign of the ETA project (February 2011) were found in excellent condition in the second campaign. This fact ensures the exceptional quality of the continuous oneyear data of average values of 5-minutes of the radiation balance components. The main objectives of the second observation campaign of the ETA project were achieved with the installation of the three anemometers, three air temperature and humidity sensors, rain gauge, soil temperature sensors and soil heat flux. The image capture system was also successfully installed, generating images of the South Tower and of the EACF with hourly frequency.

The next important step - after the reestablishment of energy and after the maintenance or replacement of damaged equipment - is the installation of turbulence sensors (three axis sonic anemometer and gas analyzer) in order to measure the fluctuations of the wind components, air temperature and air density vapor with a sampling frequency between 1 and 30 Hz.

Acknowledgments This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Codato, G.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Escobedo, J.F.; Gomes, E.N. & Pai, A.D. (2008): Global and diffuse solar irradiances in urban and rural areas in southeast Brazil. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 93:57-73. Oliveira, A.P., Soares, J., Boznar, M.Z., Mlakar, P. & Escobedo, J.F. (2006). An application of neural network technique to correct the dome temperature effects on pyrgeometer measurements. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 23:80-89. Ribeiro, F.N.D., Soares, J. & Oliveira, A.P. (2011). A coupled numerical model to investigate the air-sea interaction at the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio, Brazil. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 11(6):551-572. Skielka, U.T., Soares, J., Oliveira, A.P. & Servain, J. (2011). Diagnostic of the diurnal cycle of turbulence of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean upper boundary layer. Natural Science, 03:444-455. Soares, J., Oliveira, A.P., Boznar, M.Z., Mlakar, P., Escobedo, J.F. & Machado, A.J., (2004). Modeling hourly diffuse solar radiation in the city of São Paulo using neural network technique. Applied Energy, 79:201-214. Soares J., Oliveira A.P., Codato G. and Escobedo J.F., (2012). Local and Regional Features of Surface Radiation Fluxes Over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Near Sao Pedro and Sao Paulo Archipelago: Evidence of Small Scale Upwelling. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 11(4):541-548.

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2 SYSTEMATIC OZONE AND SOLAR UV MEASUREMENTS IN THE OBSERVATORIO ATMOSFÉRICO DE LA PATAGONIA AUSTRAL, ARGENTINA Elian Wolfram1, Jacobo Salvador1, Facundo Orte1, Raul D’Elia1, Eduardo.Quel1, Claudio Casiccia2, Felix Zamorano2, Neusa Paes Leme3 1

Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones, CEILAP-UNIDEF (MINDEF-CONICET), UMI-IFAECI-CNRS-3351, Villa Martelli, Argentina 2 Universidad de Magallanes - UMAG, Punta Arenas, Chile 3 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE, Natal, Brazil *e-mail: ewolfram@gmail.com

Abstract: The depletion of the polar ozone layer is one of the strongest anthropogenic signals in the Earth system. Subpolar regions in the southern part of South America are affected by this phenomenon, covered sometimes by air masses with less ozone than normal with the corresponding UV enhancements at ground surface. Motivated by these atmospheric events, Argentina and Chile with the financial support of JICA has joined scientific efforts to develop UVO3 Patagonia project. The Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral is located in South Patagonia (51º 55’S, 69º 14’W), in the subpolar region and it is a convenient monitoring site of the atmosphere in the Southern Hemisphere. In this experimental site a differential absorption lidar instrument for the measurement of ozone vertical distribution is operative. The altitude range of the ozone measurement is 14-45 km, which provides the opportunity to monitor the turbulences due to the passage of stratospheric polar air over Río Gallegos. Systematic stratospheric ozone profile measurement has been carried on in this experimental site since 2005. We identified three major perturbations of the ozone hole over the stratospheric ozone profile in Río Gallegos. Approach of polar vortex during late winter, overpass of ozone hole in middle spring and dilution process during late spring change the shape and content of stratospheric ozone profile and as a consequence the solar UV. Solar surface irradiance and total ozone content were measured with a Brewer spectraphotometer and moderate narrow band radiometer GUV-541 deployed in the Río Gallegos experimental site. Keywords: Lidar, Ozone, UV Radiation, Polar Vortex

Introduction Nowadays we have strong evidence that human activities linked to industrialized processes have perturbed the natural balance of atmosphere composition (WMO, 2011). This fact has produced global scale issues like ozone depletion around the globe. The stronger manifestation of this phenomenon is the Antarctic ozone depletion today well known as ozone hole (Farman et al., 1985). Subpolar regions such as Patagonia in Argentina and Chile, in the southern part of South America are affected by this phenomenon covered sometimes by air masses with less ozone than normal with the corresponding UV enhancements at ground surface.

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| Annual Activity Report 2012

During the past twenty years, this phenomenon has varied in size and with respect to the minimum total ozone value within the Polar Regions. Dynamical processes into the stratosphere cause changes in the size and shape of the polar vortex, which elongates together with the ozone hole that is contained within the vortex. The daily movement of the vortex combined with this particular shape induces overpasses of the ozone hole over the continental part of South America. In these situations cities with a large number of inhabitants like Río Gallegos (51º 55’S, 69º 14’W) are under the influence of the ozone hole or near its border,


causing an increase of solar UV radiation at these places (Pazmiño et al., 2005; Wolfram et al., 2009). Motivated by these atmospheric events, Argentine, Chilean Japanese and French researchers cooperated to conduct atmospheric studies using remote sensing instrument. These instruments were installed in the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia (Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, OAPA). In this work, we made a brief introduction to the measurement techniques of ozone and UV radiation held in this remote sensing site, and present, as an example, the same typical measurement.

Materials and Methods Site description The Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia, (Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, OAPA), is part of Lidar Division of CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET). Río Gallegos city is located in South Patagonia (51º 55’S, 69º 14’W). Since June 2005, a shelter with several lidar instruments developed in collaboration with the French Aeronomy Service (CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was deployed in this Patagonian city, 2600 km distant from Buenos Aires. During 2005 and 2007, with the financial support of JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency), was held the SOLAR campaign (www.division-lidar.com.ar) (Wolfram, et al., 2006). The principal objective of this campaign was to study the ozone layer when the polar vortex crosses over the continental part of Argentina, in South America. After the SOLAR campaign, different projects were developed with financial support of JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) in partnership with

The OAPA has currently a different instrument dedicated to the observation of gases (O3 and NO2) and particles (i.e. aerosols) in the atmosphere, such as solar radiation (UV and visible). Several kinds of techniques are used to monitor ozone, like differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for determination of stratospheric ozone profiles and different radiometers, as SAOZ and Brewer for total ozone column measurements. In this paper we only focused in DIAL ozone products and solar UV index measured with GUV radiometer.

DIAL Instrument Description The DIAL technique is a well-established technique for the ozone profile measurement, as is demonstrated by the large number of publications about the subject. The DIAL technique uses XeCl excimer laser emission at 308 nm for absorbed wavelength and the 355 nm third harmonic radiation of Nd-YAG laser for the reference wavelength. Both laser pulses are sequentially sending to the atmosphere. Six channels are used for the signal receival, four of them for the detection of elastically backscattered signal of the emitted wavelengths (high energy mode for the higher altitude ranges, attenuated energy for the lower ranges) and two corresponding to the first Stokes nitrogen Raman of the emitted wavelengths. The optical receiving system consists of four parabolic telescopes (f/2) 50 cm diameter. Four quartz optical fibers are placed at the focal points of the telescopes and come together vertically to form the entrance slit of the spectrometer. These transmit the backscatter radiation from the atmosphere to an optical analyzer device, which includes optics for image formation, a chopper to prevent the saturation of the photomultipliers and a spectrometer designed to separate/split the different wavelengths to be

researchers from Chile, France and Japan. The main

detected. A fundamental part of the spectrometer is a Jobin

objectives of these projects are focused in the observation

Yvon holographic grating with 3600 lines per millimeter

of atmospheric parameter with lidar remote sensing

characterized by 40% efficiency in the 150-450 nm spectral

techniques, especially the measurement of stratospheric

range. It separates 5 wavelengths, 4 of which are used

ozone profiles using differential absorption lidar technique.

for obtaining ozone profiles and the combination of the

Río Gallegos is located in the surf zone of polar vortex,

fifth wavelength (347 nm) with one of the previous ones

making it a very interesting place to observe the evolution

(332 nm) for obtaining profiles of water vapor in the

and perturbation that the ozone hole produces on the

troposphere. A full description of this DIAL system can be

stratospheric ozone profile.

found in Wolfram et al. (2008).

Science Highlights - Thematic Area 1 |

25


GUV radiometer The multi-channel moderate-bandwidth GUV-541 have proven to be an acceptable solution for monitoring solar UV irradiance, a mix of UV spectroradiometer of very expensive and high maintenance, and broadband radiometers that provide only partial information because they cannot distinguish between changes in UV radiation caused by alterations in cloud cover and variations caused by changes in ozone amount. GUV filter radiometers, designed and manufactured by Biospherical Instruments Inc. The instruments provide measurements in five approximately 10 nm wide UV bands centered at 305, 313, 320, 340, and 380 nm. The synergy of UV irradiance measured with this instrument and radiative transfer model permits obtaining UV related products, like UV index or erythemal irradiance, and cloud optical depth, amongst others. In this work we present UV index measurement derived from GUV radiometer.

Results The ozone observation with lidar in OAPA is conducted within two different measurements protocols: an intensive period between August and November each year, (late

winter - spring time in the Southern Hemisphere), and routine measurement period for the rest of the year. During intensive measurement period which is coincident with the ozone hole development, the stratospheric ozone layer is monitored on average for 4 hours each time a clear night is available. Total ozone column in RĂ­o Gallegos follows a seasonal variation over the year with minimum values around autumn (March-April) and maximum values during spring (September-October). Over this annual variability total ozone column presents big day to day variation. These rapid changes are caused by the approximation and overpass at RĂ­o Gallegos of polar air masses of air isolated from the middle latitude air by polar vortex. The fluctuations on the total ozone column are clearly appreciated in Figure 1, where total ozone column measured by OMI/AURA instrument (blue line) are plotted from 2005 to 2009. The white line is the climatologic monthly mean ozone column using multi sensor reanalysis (MSR) total ozone column from 1987- 2008 time period. Stratospheric ozone profiles are measured with a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). This instrument belongs to NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). Since 2005 this instrument has been

Figure 1. Time evolution of total ozone column over OAPA measured with OMI/NASA instrument (Blue Line). White line is the climatologic monthly mean ozone column using multisensor reanalysis (MSR) total ozone column from 1987- 2008 time period. Gray shadow area corresponds to +/- 1 standard deviation.

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monitoring ozone profiles in the stratosphere. Extreme ozone

These events produce strong impact in the solar UV

depletion has been measured as consequence of ozone hole

radiation that reach ground surface (UVI). UVI is measured

passing over. Also, vortex dilution processes were measured

with different radiometers and Brewer spectra photometer

in late spring-early summer. The 2009 spring was a very special moment, because the polar vortex overpassed several times during October, and it was stagnant over continent in November, producing strong perturbation of the ozone profile as a consequence of the ozone hole located over Southern Patagonia. Figure 2 shows the DIAL ozone profile measured for mid November. The strong reduction over 20 km is clearly appreciated in comparison

(SN 124) of INPE. Particularly on November 15 the UV index reach values as high as 13 despite the cloud cover present in RĂ­o Gallegos for this day. It produces an extreme solar sunbathing.

Discussion and Conclusion The OAPA is an atmospheric laboratory that performs several kinds of atmospheric measurements in RĂ­o Gallegos, Southern Patagonia. Since June 2005 stratospheric ozone

with the climatological profile of Fortuin & Kelder (Fortuin

profiles and solar UV radiation have been measured among

& Kelder, 1998) for this month and this latitude.

other atmospheric parameters. In this paper we reported

Figure 2. DIAL ozone profile on November 14, 2009. Blue line is the ozone number density (cm-3) (left panel, blue line) and ozone volume mixing ratio (ppmv) (right panel, red circles). For comparison of vertical ozone profile shape change, November climatologic Fortuin & Kelder ozone profile is included (black line).

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27


Figure 3. Time evolution of UV Index in Río Gallegos on November 15, 2009. The measurements were obtained with a GUV 541 and they are plotted in blue line. November monthly mean of UVI is shown in white line and the shadow grey area corresponds to +/- 1SD. Modeled UVI for Nov. 15 is shown in dotted black line.

one example of differential absorption lidar measurement of

Patagonia Project; the CNRS, (Centre National de la

stratosphere ozone number density in the 15 - 45 km range

Recherche Scientifique) for their collaboration in facilitating

for a situation of ozone anomaly. Ozone hole overpass and vortex dilution are identified as examples of reduction and change in stratospheric ozone profiles. Also an extreme solar sunbathing which occurred in November 2009 is

This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-

reported. We identified three major perturbations of the

APA) that receives scientific and financial support from

ozone hole over the stratospheric ozone profile in Río

the National Council for Research and Development

Gallegos: 1) approach of polar vortex during late winter, 2)

(CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5 ) , the IPY Project

overpass of ozone hole in mid spring and 3) dilution process during late spring that changes of the shape and content of stratospheric ozone profile and by consequences of the solar UV radiation that reaches the surface.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) for the financial support of UVO3

28

the shelter and part of the electronic instruments of DIAL.

| Annual Activity Report 2012

ATMANTAR ( CNPq process: n° 52.0182/2006-5 ) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008) The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).


References Farman, J.C.; Gardiner, B.G. & Shanklin, J.D. (1985) Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOX/NOx interaction. Nature, 315: 207-210. Fortuin, J.P.F. & Kelder, H. (1998). An ozone climatology base on ozonesonde and satellite measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(31): 709-734. Pazmiño, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Ginzburg, M.; Bekki, S.; Hauchecorne, A.; Piacentini, R. & Quel E. (2005). Impact of Antartic polar vortex occurrences on total ozone and UVB radiation at southern Argentinean and Antarctic stations during 1997-2003 period” Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D03103): 1-13. Wolfram E.; Salvador, J.; Pallotta, J.; D’Elia, R.; Otero, L.; Godin-Beeckmann, S.; Nakane, H. & Quel, E. (2006). Solar Campaign: First Results Of Ozone Profile Measurements At Rio Gallegos, Argentina, Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference Editors Chikao Nagasawa, Nobuo Sugimoto, Part II 365-368. Wolfram E. A.; Salvador, J.; D’Elia, R.; Casiccia, C.; Paes-Leme, N.; Pazmiño, A.; Porteneuve, J.; Godin-Beekman, S.; Nakane, H. & Quel, E. J. (2008). New differential absorption lidar for stratospheric ozone monitoring in Patagonia, South Argentina, Journal of Optics, 10(10): 14-21. Wolfram, E.; Salvador, J.; D’Elia, R. & Quel, E. (2009). UV ground based measurements in Río Gallegos, Argentina. Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation (IRS), p.1100351-354. World Meteorological Organization – WMO (2011). Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report No. 52, 516 pp., Geneva, Switzerland.

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3 TOTAL OZONE OBSERVATIONS AT PUNTA ARENAS, CHILE (53.2ºS;70.9ºW) Claudio Casiccia S.1,*, Neusa Paes Leme2, Félix Zamorano1 1 Laboratorio de Ciencias Atmosféricas, Universidad de Magallanes, Casilla 113-D, Punta Arenas, Chile Laboratório de Variáveis Ambientais Tropicais , Centro Regional do Nordeste do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Rua Carlos Serrano, 2073, Natal, Brazil

2

*e-mail: claudio.casiccia@umag.cl

Abstract: During the recent decades there has been an increasing concern related to the ozone layer and to solar ultraviolet radiation UV-B (280-320 nm), reaching the surface of the earth. The Antarctic Ozone Hole is a phenomenon of strong ozone depletion in the Antarctic stratosphere; this is a consequence of heterogeneous chemical reactions and dynamic processes which enhance ozone losses by reactions with chlorine. Punta Arenas (53.2ºS,70.9ºW) is the southernmost city in Chile with a population of approximately 120.000. Due to its location, well within the area affected by the Antarctic Ozone Hole, systematics observations of ozone and UV-B with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been made in order to study the Antarctic Ozone Hole conditions. To analyze the behavior of the stratospheric ozone layer over Magallanes the reference AVE-CLI-TOMS minus twice the standard deviation of the reference mean (TOMS: 1978-1987, mean monthly – 2SD) was used. The number of days per year shows an interesting cycle of 8 to 10 years, but monthly variations did not show a significant decrease, especially during September-October period. Keywords: Antarctic Ozone Hole, Ultraviolet Radiation, Brewer Spectrophotometer

Introduction Antarctic stratospheric ozone loss has been regularly measured since the mid 1970s. During the spring time this dramatic reduction in the Antarctic stratosphere has been named the Antarctic Ozone Hole (AOH) (Chubachi, 1984; Farman et al., 1985). The AOH has grown in intensity (minimum average measurements) and in the amount of area covered (WMO, 2003). Record ozone hole sizes close to 29 and 28 million km2 were observed, the size during 2011 was almost 24 million km2. In terms of the intensity of the AOH, considering the minimum measured at the Antarctic region in September- December period, it has been maintained under 100 DU values (http://toms.gsfc. nasa.gov, visited: Dec. 2012). This pronounced seasonal ozone loss results from heterogeneous chemical reactions (Solomon & Garcia, 1986) and dynamical processes (Prather et al., 1990), which enhance ozone loss by reactions with chlorine and bromine (WMO, 2003). Due to the dynamic conditions of the behavior of the Antarctic polar vortex, the AOH is not restricted to the

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Antarctic region. It also periodically affects lower latitudes during each spring. (Casiccia et al., 2003, 2008). Regions near the South Pole, such as Chilean and Argentina Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island are locations that are affected by the Antarctic Ozone Hole phenomenon (e.g. Pazmiño et al., 2005; Casiccia et al., 2003, 2008; Cede et al., 2002). In order to study the influence of the AOH over the South Cone of America the Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences of the University of Magallanes has installed a spectrophotometer Brewer to measure the total ozone column over Punta Arenas. Here we present the total ozone column measurements and a detailed analysis during the 2010-2011 period.

Materials and Methods Station Punta Arenas is the southernmost city in Chile with a population of approximately 110,000. Due to its location, well within the area affected by the Antarctic Ozone Hole


Instrumentation

Total column ozone and UV-B radiation were measured with an automated Brewer spectrophotometer. In order to determine column ozone and SO2 the Brewer utilizes 5 wavelengths with a resolution of 0.6 nm centered on 306.3, 310.0, 313.4, 316.7 and 319.9 nm. The instrument includes automatic wavelength calibration using an internal mercury discharge lamp, as well as a relative spectral intensity source from a quartz-halogen lamp.

Results In Figure 2, the dotted line shows the time series of the daily total ozone values for Punta Arenas obtained from the Brewer spectrophotometers from 1992 to 2009. The black solid line represents the running averages (n = 30) for the same period. The horizontal black line shows the threshold of the Antarctic Ozone Hole [Total Ozone = 220(DU)] for reference. The natural variation of column ozone for this latitude is observable, with minima in winter and maxima in spring. A simple linear fit from the daily ozone shows a slight increase from 1992 (red line). Figure 3 shows monthly mean Brewer spectrophotometer measurements compared with the reference values (TOMS data 1978-1987), plus and minus one standard deviation is indicated with the hatched areas for each year 2008 to 2011. The vertical error bars in the Fig. 3 show the standard deviation of each month. Every year the mean monthly measurements during spring and summer are lower than reference values and the standard deviations are larger RA

288

RA

3

El Calafate RA

RA

3

40

Rio Gallegos

Discussion

Recent reports of the behavior of the ozone layer at high and middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere showing signs of recovery , but due to the large variability year-year is necessary to look for at least a decade of continuous increases, in order to affirm a global recovery to pre-80 values. Analysis of low ozone events can be an indicator of the recovery of the ozone layer. Figure 5 shows the number of events of low ozone in Punta Arenas. The criteria for defining an event of low ozone is that the ozone column (daily average) must be lower than the reference Table 1. Brewer instruments at Punta Arenas

RA

40

during the months of September, October and November, due to the perturbations generated by the Antarctic Ozone Hole. Here we see clearly that the recent measurements (2011) are below the average of the September–December period, demonstrating the marked activity of the Antarctic Ozone Hole during that period over Punta Arenas. In Figure 4 the behavior of the ozone column during two years in Punta Arenas is shown. Each point represents the mean for each day of the total ozone column obtained from the Brewer spectrophotometer in Punta Arenas in 2010 and 2011, the 220 DU line is shown for reference to the AOH condition. Conventionally, it is considered that there is an ozone hole when the ozone abundance is ≤ 220 Dobson units (DU) in a specific geographic place. The vertical hatched area indicates the high activity period of the AOH over Punta Arenas (and Magallanes region) from late August until end of November, and occasionally some activity of the AOH is observed over the south cone during December. For reference, hatched area in this figure show the mean values and their respective deviations of a non-AOH period (1978-1987).

Brewer – Punta Arenas

RA

3

National Institute for Space Research (INPE-Brazil)

1992-2000

Brewer MKIII 180

University of Magallanes

2002 – Jun. 2006

Brewer MKIV 124

National Institute for Space Research (INPE-Brazil)

Aug. 2007Nov. 2007

Brewer MKIII 180

University of Magallanes

Nov. 2007-today

3

Lishuaia

Figure 1. Punta Arenas, Chile (53.2°S, 70.9°W).

RA

3

Period of observations

Brewer MKIV 068 RA

Punta Arenas Rio Grande Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Institution

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31


Figure 2. Total Ozone time series for Punta Arenas measured by Brewer instrument 1992-2011. Each dot represents the daily values, and the dark line represents a running average (n=30).

Figure 3. Ozone monthly averages and standard deviations for 2008-2011 period. The hatched area represents the reference average plus and minus the standard deviations.

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a

b

Figure 4. Total Ozone observed at Punta Arenas measured by Brewer instrument during 2010 and 2011. The hatched area represents the AVE-CLIM-TOMS reference average plus and minus one standard deviation.

Figure 5. Number of days under the climatological average minus two standard deviations.

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AVE-CLI-TOMS minus twice the standard deviation of the mean (mean monthly – 2SD, Casiccia et al., 2008). The number of days per year is shown in Figure 4 (a) and (b) are the number of days per month. The period 1994-1999 was the period when a significant number of low ozone days were observed each year. Between 2001 and 2003 there were fewer significant days with low ozone events, it could show a possible recuperation of the ozone over the latitude of Punta Arenas. However, during 2004 the number of days began to increase again. After 2008 the number of events of ozone depletion declines gradually but in 2011 increases again. From this data we can make the following question: has the recovery of the ozone layer in the middle southern latitudes been interrupted? The answer to this question will have to wait for some years until much more data is collected.

ozone data measurements during the last 2 years, a significant number of days that were under the climatological average were detected. The data shows that it is still premature to discuss a recovery of the ozone layer in these latitudes.

Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the Project: PRF2-04MF-11-12 Research and Postgraduate Direction of the University of Magallanes. This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5 ) , the IPY Project ATMANTAR (CNPq process: n° 52.0182/2006-5 ) and Carlos Chagas Research

Conclusion

Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ

A temporal series of total ozone column observations

n° E-16/170.023/2008) The authors also acknowledge the

(1992-2011) was obtained. The data indicates that South Cone

support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology

of the South American region is regularly under the influence

and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-

of the Antarctic Ozone Hole during springtime. From Brewer

Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Casiccia, C.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H & Torres, A C. (2003). Simultaneous measurements of ozone and ultraviolet radiation: spring 2000, Punta Arenas, Chile. Atmospheric Environment, 37(3):383-389. Casiccia, C.; Zamorano, F. & Hernández, A. (2008). Erythemal irradiance at the Magellan’s region and Antarctic Ozone Hole 1999-2005. Atmosfera, 21(1): 1-11. Cede, A.; Luccini, E.; Nuñez, L.; Piacentini, R. & Blumthaler, M. (2002). Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(D13): 4165. Chubachi, S. (1984). Preliminary result of ozone observations at Syowa Station from February 1982 to January 1983. Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research Japan, Special, 34:13-19. Farman, J.C.; Gardiner, B.G. & Shanklin, J.D. (1985). Large Losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature, 315(6016): 207-210. Pazmiño, A.F.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Ginzburg, M.; Bekki, S.; Hauchecorne, A.; Piacentini, R.D.; & Quel, E.J. (2005). Impact of Antarctic polar vortex occurrences on total ozone and UVB radiation at southern Argentinean and Antarctic stations during 1997-2003 period. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D03103). Prather, M.; Garcia, M.M.; Louzo, R. & Rinal, D. (1990). Global Impact of the Antarctic Ozone Hole? Dynamical Dilution with a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95:3449-3471. Solomon, S. & Garcia R. (1986). On the depletion of Antarctic ozone. Nature, 321:755-758. World Meteorological Organization – WMO (2003). Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2002. Report No. 47.

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4 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS DUE TO FERRAZ FIRE Heitor Evangelista*, Eduardo Delfino Sodré & Alexandre Castagna Mourão e Lima Laboratório de Radioecologia e Mudanças Globais, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Pav. Haroldo L. Cunha/Subsolo, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. *e-mail: evangelista.uerj@gmail.com

Abstract: Here we present a summary of the atmospheric modeled data for gas and total particulate matter dispersion and deposition due to the fire at Ferraz Station on February 25th, 2012. The main purpose is to permit a preliminary diagnosis of the main areas potentially impacted in Admiralty Bay and vicinities for purposes of future decision-making and scientific planning. In this way enable an investigation of the area that came under the impact of the fire emissions and better detail the levels of contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the local environment. This present version of the model takes into account the meteorological data acquired at the time of the fire, as well as observational records and the geomorphology. The great uncertainty assigned to the model refers to the emissions factor due to the high complexity of materials present in Ferraz Station and a subjective estimate of the temperature of the materials ignited during the fire. Thus, the basic function of the model is to describe the spatial behavior of the plume of pollutants and not necessarily the absolute values of the deposition fluxes. Keywords: Atmospheric Dispersion, Fire at Comandante Ferraz, Atmospheric Impact

Introduction Although the summer climatic regime at King George

carbon derived from the paintwork, several types of plastics,

Island is predominantly warm and wet with average air

metal shelters, electronic, electric and wood materials were

temperature reaching near 0 C and frequent rainfall, the

released to the local atmosphere. In order to investigate the

indoor ambience of the scientific stations in Antarctica is

geographical amplitude of the impact caused by the smoke

typically dry due to the use of heating systems. In addition,

plume of particulate matter and gases from the fire at Ferraz

scientific stations also support laboratory work and the use of

Station, we have modeled the atmospheric dispersion for the

large quantities of combustible and inflammable insulation

short scale of Admiralty Bay, and for the regional scale of

materials. This makes scientific stations very vulnerable to

the Shetland Islands. This would allow future investigation

outbreaks of fire, even in the summer season. The fire at

on environmental changes and bioaccumulation along the

the Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Base occurred

pathways of the plume dispersion and deposition. This

on February 25 , 2012, and destroyed approximately 70%

would also help with defining non-impacted sites to be used

of the research station. The fire broke out in the machine

as background levels and the future impacts associated with

room housing the power generators. Basically, all the central

resuspension processes as a result of snow drifts and melting.

o

th

core of the base, where the installations were concentrated (with the exception of the atmospheric and chemistry

Materials and Methods

laboratories built apart of the complex), were lost. Therefore,

For the purpose of modeling the atmospheric dispersion

it is estimated that a large quantity of VOCs and aerosols

and deposition, we have used the following set of data: (1)

containing chemical ingredients, heavy metals and black

meteorological data from Ferraz Station corresponding to the

Science Highlights - Thematic Area 1 |

35


date of the fire; (2) the local high resolved geomorphological

An estimate of the plume of smoke height produced by

database (that constrains the pollutant plume development);

the fire at Ferraz Station was based on eye witness reports,

(3) reports on the fire event (photographs of the fire and

having as reference the altitude of “Morro da Cruz” elevation

burning process, estimates of total material released). Two

that is ~250 m. Thus, the height of the plume of smoke was

models were employed in this study: (1) the AERMOD,

estimate at 450 m.

from the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)/USA

Modeling the local dispersion

and modified by the Lakes Environmental Software, version 6.7.1. It is an improved Gaussian model that incorporates details of the morphology; (2) The HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model, available by NOAA/NASA, which is a complete system for computing simple air parcel trajectories to complex dispersion and deposition simulations. The recently released version used has upgrades that include improved advection algorithms and updated stability and dispersion equations. Both model’s default configuration assumes a 3-dimensional particle distribution (horizontal and vertical).

Meteorological and geomophological database Taking into account the atmospheric conditions at Ferraz on February 25 th, we observed that between 0:00hrs and 12:00hrs (GMT), surface winds were in the interval 0.6-6.4 m/s. By the second half of the day, they became stronger reaching 9.6 m/s coming predominantly from the SWW and WNW sectors of Admiralty Bay. Different stability classes in the atmosphere can occur based on how large or small the air temperature difference is between the air parcel and the surrounding environment. For dispersion modeling purposes, the stability class is classified into six categories (from A to F) based on the following parameters: wind intensity, daily solar radiation and cloudiness. These stability classes are referred to as Pasquill-Gifford-Turner stability classes.

36

For the local dispersion of pollutants we have used the AERMOD Gaussian plume model. The model was firstly developed by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of USA) and then modified by Lakes Environmental Software Company, commercially released as version 6.7.1 (Vidal, 2008). This version allows the use of geomorphologic database to calculate the atmospheric concentrations and deposition on surfaces. The model assumes that during a steady state condition, horizontally and vertically, the concentrations of contaminants follow a Gaussian distribution, whereby the length of the smoke plume is determined by the scattering coefficients which are based on the Pasquil stability classes. The transport of pollutants in the atmosphere is intrinsically related to the dynamics of the winds either by advection or turbulent diffusion. Briefly, advection is the horizontal movement of a portion of air which carries the pollutants, whereas the turbulent diffusion spreads pollutants within a three-dimensional manner. The Gaussian plume is a result of the analytical integration of the transport equation, when one adopts some simplifying assumptions such as homogeneous and stationary turbulence, flow steady emission, constant wind direction and where chemical species are stable. It is also considered that there are no losses of the particulates due to physical mechanisms, chemical reactions or biological activity. In the model the smoke source is located at 62.085oS and 058.403oW at 15 m. The local topography was inserted

Modeling pollutant plume dispersion

in the model in the form of coordinates “xyz” referenced

For the case of the Ferraz fire we modeled the atmospheric

in “Geodetic Datum WGS 84.” The AERMOD simulates

concentration and deposition of total particulate matter and

the smoke plume depending on the characteristics of the

SO2. As for the choice of timescale, we opted for integration

land according to a weighted sum of two limit states: the

in 24 hours, which is the average concentration of the

plume horizontally collides with the ground and the plume

investigating period. We chose to use the mode “terrain

follows the shape of the terrain. Figure 1 depicts the basic

height” where algorithms are applied to consider the

concept used in the model and the equation represents the

topography of the region.

total concentration in this approach.

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Figure 1. (Upper part) Components of pollutant concentrations along the pathway of the smoke plume. The term on the left is the total concentration; the first contribution of the right side corresponds to the horizontal plume that shocks with the ground, while during the second term the contribution of the plume accompanies the ground. The variable Zp corresponds to the height from the ground and Zr corresponds to the height from the origin of the coordinate system. The variable f is the mass of pollutant that will follow the first limit state while the complement (1-f) corresponds to the fraction that will deviate vertically from the obstacle. (Bottom part) simplified illustration of AERMOD parameterizations.

In addition to the Admiralty Bay plume dynamics, we

dispersion equations. Hysplit computes the advection of a

have detailed the atmospheric concentrations over the Keller

single pollutant particle, or simply its trajectory. The model’s

Peninsula, since it is a site of great local ice free environment

default configuration assumes a 3-dimensional particle

where the terrestrial biota and birds are under long-term

distribution (horizontal and vertical). In the present case,

monitoring. Therefore, in the AERMOD model we have used a uniform Cartesian grid with a total dimension of ~24,000 m x 20,000 m in the case of Admiralty Bay, defining 441 squared pollutant ending points. For Keller Peninsula we have applied a grid of ~3,486 m x 2,263 m with 441 ending points of 113 m x 174 m.

the model assumes that the station had approx. 2,600 m² and 70% was burned down (1,820 m²). We also considered a mean aerosol size of 2.5 micron with density 2.25 g/cc (graphite) and sphericity of 1 (spherical). Model was forced by GDAS meteorological data and run for 24 hours with 24 hours of continuous emission.

Modeling the regional dispersion Within the regional context which encloses the South

Discussion

Shetland Islands and surrounding oceans, we have used the

Observations and data presented here point to a direct

HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated

impact of the pollutant plume produced by Ferraz fire.

Trajectory)/NOAA model that is a complete system

The event took place during a meteorological condition

for computing simple air parcel trajectories to complex

characterized predominantly by a neutral (D) class

dispersion and deposition simulations. Recent upgrades

atmospheric stability, according to Pasquill-Giffort-Turner

of the model include enhancements provided by a number

classification. The East side of Keller Peninsula, where the

of different contributors. Some of the new features include

Brazilian station was built, seems to be more affected by the

improved advection algorithms, updated stability and

plume dispersion than the West side (Figure 2).

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Figure 2. (Upper part) wind rose during the day of Ferraz fire/ (bottom) Fire and smoke rise from Ferraz station (Handout photo released by the Chilean Navy).

Local dispersion of pollutants

Peninsula, mainly the Martel Inlet and Stenhouse and

Considering the uncertainties of the total quantity of

Ulman Peninsula. A second component of the impact was

emissions released to the atmosphere during the Ferraz

also observed in the Southwest sector towards Ezcurra

fire (as well as its variability along the event), the practical

Inlet, reaching the glacier Warszawa as well as the Southeast

handling of the model outputs should be observed with

Sector reaching the dome of glacier Krakow, Figure 3 (left).

caution. We consider that it is safer for users to base

AERMOD result for atmospheric deposition depicts a strong

their work on the definition of areas impacted by the

impact at Martel inlet, Figure 3(right). This is probably the

plumes pointed out by the model than the atmospheric

most impacted site at Admiralty Bay from before the fire.

concentrations and deposition flux estimated here. In the

Martel inlet is a place where all logistics of PROANTAR take

model we assumed an emission rate in the order of 10 g/m s,

place and several activities are potentially able to impact that

resulting in 65,520 kg/h. By running the model for a time

site such as the transport of large quantities of oil, release of

base of 24 hours, we found approximately 1,573 tons of

biological and chemical residues of Ferraz, etc.

2

38

particulate matter emitted. Contour lines of atmospheric

For Keller Peninsula, the most preserved sector from

concentration obtained for Ferraz fire indicated that the

the fire emissions was the NW - N sector (Figure 4). This

area of greatest influence of fire by-products (gases and

occurred as a result of the geomorphology of the peninsula.

particulate matter) emitted, was the East Sector of Keller

The model evidenced that the plume migration was

| Annual Activity Report 2012


Figure 3. (Left) Smoke dispersion at Admiralty Bay during the day of Ferraz fire (Scenario calculated for gases - SO2 as reference). (Right) Deposition pattern for particulate matter at Admiralty Bay due to Ferraz fire.

constrained by the topographic lines between ~50 - 100 m,

larger local terrestrial biodiversity were relatively more

so that the sites of higher elevation near the fire point were

preserved from the fire byproducts via direct atmospheric

probably less affected. An opposite situation was observed

dispersion due to the weather characteristics prevailing

for the glaciers in the East side of Martel Inlet due to the

during the fire event. Nevertheless, considering the

rise of the plume during its displacement.

complexity of the dispersion and deposition in the polar

Regional dispersion of pollutants The Hysplit model showed that Ferraz plume travelled through King George Island reaching the Drake Channel, but transporting very low concentrations even considering the total particulate matter. The high winds at the tip of

environment where resuspension and snow drifts are parameters to be considered (Leal et al., 2008), the fjord structure of Admiralty Bay that induces changes in wind direction constantly inside and the uncertainties in the rate of particulate matter emissions along the fire event, it is clear that a deeper analysis should be conducted in order

the Antarctic Peninsula and the absence of obstacles were

to reach a more precise conclusion on the magnitude of the

responsible for a rapid dispersion in the NE-E direction of

atmospheric impact.

King George Island, Figure 5.

Conclusion A comparison between the scenarios of dispersion and deposition of Ferraz fire by-products and the areas of greatest terrestrial biodiversity at Admiralty Bay (located in the South Sector) indicates that they do not fully overlay. The Southern side of the Admiralty Bay has been recognized as an Important Bird Area (IBA), since it supports breeding colonies of several seabirds, including penguins, petrels, Snowy Sheathbills, Kelp Gulls, Antarctic Terns and skuas. Our preliminary evaluation indicates that the regions of

Acknowledgements This work is product of INCT-Criosfera and integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n째 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n째 E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and InterMinistry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

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Figure 4. (Left) Smoke dispersion at Peninsula Keller during the day of Ferraz fire (Scenario calculated for gases - SO2 as reference). (Right) Deposition pattern for particulate matter due to Ferraz fire at Keller Peninsula.

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Figure 5. Plume dispersion at Shetland Islands for from February 25th to February 26th. (EACF : “Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz”).

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References Leal, M.A.; Joppert, M.; Licínio, M.V.; Evangelista, H.; Maldonado, J.; Dalia, K.C.; Lima, C.; Barros, C.V.; Corrêa, S.M.; Medeiros, G.; Cunha, K.D. (2008). Atmospheric Impacts due to Anthropogenic Activities in Remote Areas: The Case Study of Admiralty Bay/ King George Island/Antarctic Peninsula. Water, Air and Sea Pollution. 188: 67-80. Vidal, C.M.C. (2008). Descrição da Metodologia do Cálculo da Dispersão de Plumas Aplicada a um Complexo industrial Dissertação de Mestrado- Instituto de Química – UERJ.

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5 AIRGLOW AND ITS IMPORTANCE ON MONITORING THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE: OBSERVATIONS AT COMMANDANT FERRAZ ANTARCTIC STATION José Valentin Bageston1, Paulo Prado Batista2, Delano Gobbi2, Hisao Takahashi2, Neusa Maria Paes-Leme2 & Cristiano Max Wrasse2 1 Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Guarapuava-PR Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos-SP, Rua Presidente Zacarias de Góes, 875, CEP 85015-430, Guarapuava, PR, Brazil

2

*e-mail: bageston@gmail.com

Abstract: The present paper presents and discusses the airglow phenomena and its importance on research activities related to the thermal structure and to the wave dynamics of the upper atmosphere at altitudes greater than 80 km. We will focus on the basic definitions, instrumentation and examples of airglow data. First an introduction will be presented, followed by the Airglow and Aurora definitions. Also, we will present the instrumentation used to observe airglow emissions at the Brazilian Antarctic Station Commandant Ferraz (EACF) and atmospheric parameters/phenomena such as temperature and gravity waves. By using these observations we are able to study and understand the thermal structure and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. In the section of results we will present a time series of temperature and an example of wave event observed above Ferraz station, in order to illustrate the applicability of Airglow observations. In the discussion and conclusion session we emphasize the importance of maintain the upper atmosphere monitoring and other atmospheric observations at the Brazilian Antarctic Station. Keywords: Airglow and Aurora, Mesosphere and Thermosphere, Temperature, Gravity Waves.

Introduction The Airglow group (LUME) of the Aeronomy Division

United Station of America. This new instrument is capable

(DAE) of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

of several measurements, including the meteor flux in the

uses optical equipment in order to study atmospheric

upper atmosphere and mesospheric winds (Fritts et  al.,

phenomena related the physical and chemical processes

2012). The operation of the meteor radar simultaneously

that occur in the middle and high atmosphere (region

with optical observations of the atmosphere will allow a

above 80km). The LUME group has been operated

better understanding of the wave’s phenomena in the middle

optical equipments systematically at the Commandant

atmosphere and its connections with lower atmosphere,

Ferraz Antarctic Station (EACF) since 2002. Based in the

such as meteorological phenomenon and planetary waves.

evolution of the instrumentation used to monitor the upper

Gravity wave studies in Antarctica through the monitoring

atmosphere in the last decade, significant improvements

of airglow emissions have emerged in the last decade

have occurred in atmospheric research. In this sense, we

(Espy et al., 2004; Nielsen et al., 2006, 2009; Bageston et al.,

should point out the installation of a latest generation

2009, 2011a, b). Investigation of gravity wave sources, as

Meteoric Radar at the Brazilian Antarctic Station in 2010

observed in the mesosphere with airglow imager, over the

as a consequence of an international collaboration with the

King George Island and also above the Antarctica Peninsula

Project “Southern Andes-ANtarctic GRavity wave InitiAtive”,

is a current subject of study. In this type of study, winds

sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) of the

and temperature data are used in combination with the

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observed gravity wave parameters through airglow imagers

• Source: http://www.atoptics.co.uk/highsky/airglow2.

and reanalysis data. Furthermore, images taken from

htm.

meteorological satellites are used to correlate the origin

Initially, the Airglow emissions were confused with the

of mesospheric waves to the meteorological phenomenon

Aurora’s lights (spectrum shown in Figure 2) because some

in troposphere. In the present article we will provide the

spectral lines (atomic oxygen) observed in the Auroras are

basic definitions of the airglow and aurora phenomena.

the same as those of Airglow. On the other hand, Auroras

Also, it will be showed two important instruments (airglow

also show lines of molecular nitrogen (N2 e N2+).

cameras) used in the monitoring of the mesospheric

• Source: http://www.atoptics.co.uk/highsky/auror3.htm.

temperature and in the observation of gravity wave above the

Auroras occur in Polar Regions during the night and

Commandant Ferraz Station. Some examples of observed

now is known that they have a very distinct origin of the

data will be shown in the result section.

Airglow emissions. The physical process of Aurora’s origin is related to the excitation of atoms and molecules in the

Materials and Methods

upper atmosphere from direct interaction with energetic

The Phenomena of Airglow and Aurora

Wind. When these solar particles reach the top of the

Airglow is an optical phenomenon of the high atmosphere which occurs both during the day and at night. These emissions of this tenuous light in the atmosphere originate

particles (protons and electrons) originated from the Solar atmosphere near the Earth’s poles, guided by the magnetic field lines, the interaction between these energetic particles and atmospheric constituents (N2, N2+ and O) generates

directly or indirectly from solar radiation. The solar

the Aurora phenomenon. Differently from the Aurora

radiation leads atoms and molecules to excited states that

emissions, the Airglow is not caused by the collision of

when decay to their fundamental states of energy release

energetic particles with the atmospheric components, but

the excess energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

has its origin associated to the solar radiation as already

These airglow radiations are very thin lined emissions, which

mentioned. The Airglow is characterized by occurring

are very difficult to observe during the day because of the

around the whole terrestrial globe, not restricting to specific

solar light contamination. However, during moonless nights

regions of the planet, as is the case of the Auroras. One

these atmospheric radiations can be observed by equipments

should observe that at high latitudes the Airglow emissions

especially developed for this purpose. The airglow emissions

are strongly contaminated by the Aurora lights.

occur in lines and bands spectrum and can be observed only

• The Airglow emissions as a tracer of the atmosphere

through very sensitive optical equipment (CCD cameras)

The emissions of Airglow have been used to monitor the

which makes use of interference filters that select specific

atmosphere remotely. The main applications are related to

lines or band emissions. The Sunlight spectrum and some

the mesospheric temperature, wind and the dynamics of the

Airglow emissions are shown in Figure 1, where discrete

Mesosphere/Thermosphere (Taylor et al., 1995; Smith et al.,

spectral lines and continuum spectrum bands are identified.

2003; Medeiros et  al., 2007; Bageston  et  al., 2007, 2009;

Figure 1. Sunlight and Airglow spectrum – The green line of oxygen is the strongest line of the Airglow and occurs mainly at heights between 90 and 100km, while the red line is a bit weaker and originates at altitudes higher than 200km. Sodium (Na), Hydroxyl radicals (OH), and oxygen molecules (O2) complete the Airglow spectrum.

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Figure 2. Aurora spectrum and continuous Sunlight - In the upper part are shown the main spectral lines associated to Nitrogen (N2 and N2+) and in the middle are presented to Oxygen lines. In the bottom part is the continuous Sunlight spectrum. In the bottom part is shown the continuous Sunlight spectrum. The Aurora emissions occur mainly at the Thermosphere.

Paulino et al., 2011; Amorim et al., 2011). The phenomenon

2011, however in 2012 it was not possible to operate it

of ionospheric bubbles (Equatorial plasma bubbles), which

due to the fact that EACF was temporarily deactivated in

occurs in the Equatorial atmosphere and at low altitudes is

that year because of the fire accident that occurred on 25

of extreme interest as much from the point of view of basic

February 2012. It is important pointed out that temperature

science, as from the practical point of view, that is, regarding

measurements at the high atmosphere become relevant in

telecommunications and global positioning systems, such

the present days because of the global changes claimed by

as GPS, since such phenomenon can significantly affect

several researches. The usage of airglow as a means of observing atmospheric waves has shown itself to be very important way to study and understand the dynamics of the high atmosphere and its correlation with the lower atmosphere and other upper phenomena (such as the plasma bubbles). These waves are mechanical oscillations in the atmospheric medium, with typical periodicity from approximately 5 minutes to hours and with a horizontal scale of tens and hundreds of kilometres. The optical instrument used to detect these waves from the ground is called “all-sky airglow imager”, which is composed by an optical system with a lens called “fisheye” with a field of view of about 180° (all-sky view), Airglow filters and a high sensitivity CCD sensor are important parts of an all-sky airglow imager. Observations of mesospheric gravity waves at EACF were undertaken for the first time in 2007 during a campaign of observations which occurred between March and October of that year (Bageston et al., 2009). Figure 4 shows the all-sky imager used at EACF to observe gravity waves. On the left panel it is shown the imager system together with the observation

radio signals (Paulino et al., 2011 and references therein). The observations of airglow at EACF initiated in 2002 with the installation of a Photometer to observe the emission of the band of hydroxyl, OH (6-2), and from these observations obtain the absolute intensity of this emission and its rotational temperature, which represents the temperature of the atmosphere between approximately 85 and 90km. Later, in 2005, a CCD camera replaced the Photometer and since then the mesospheric temperature has been observed. All the airglow observations in Ferraz station occurred between March and September, since in summer it is impossible to observe airglow at high latitudes because of the sunlight contamination in the airglow spectrum. Photos of the camera used for the establishment of the temperature (and intensity of the airglow emission), together with a diagram of the system is presented in Figure  3 (A). An example of the image spectrum of OH (6-2), obtained from this camera, is shown in Figure 3 (B). The equipment shown in Figure 3 (A) operated at EACF from 2004 to

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b a

c

Figure 3. Spectrometer imager of atmospheric airglow (A) and the standard image (B) obtained by this system. The optical diagram of the imaging spectrometer system is shown in (C). From this type of airglow measurement it is possible to infer the temperature at around 87 km height.

dome and a forced air ventilation system installed to avoid condensation in the interior of the dome. On the right panel it can be seen the CCD camera in details, that is, the body of the camera and the telecentric system. The filter placed in this camera was designed to observe the near infrared airglow emission (NIR OH).

Results From the standard images like the one showed in Figure 3 (B) it is possible to infer the temperature of the higher mesosphere (close to 90km). Each airglow image is taken at a temporal interval of approximately 1 minute in order to obtain one temperature value associated to each image. At the peak of the Antarctic winter (July-August) at EACF it is possible to obtain temperature time series with length of about 14 hours. An example of a nocturnal temporal series of temperature as obtained by the camera seen in Figure 3 is shown in Figure 5, together with data from an atmospheric model (MSIS). It is possible identify in this data a good consistency between the observed temperature and the data taken from the MSIS model, indicating that for this specific night the model was coherent with the observations. The use of the higher mesosphere temperature data together with wave observations at EACF have been undertaken recently

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(Bageston et  al., 2011a). However, it also planned to use these temperature data in the future to carry out climatology studies of Mesospheric temperatures over EACF. In 2010 an airglow imager system was re-installed at EACF with the purpose of observing mesospheric gravity waves in a systematic way at that location. This system operated at EACF till 2012, which is an identical system to the one installed in 2007 (Figure 4), except for the CCD camera which was substituted due to technical issues. The small scale gravity waves (small horizontal wavelengths, λh ~ 20-50 km) detected by airglow imagers are commonly generated in the lower atmosphere by meteorological phenomena, such as cold fronts, jet stream and cyclones, or by the combination of effects of winds and the local orography (Fritts & Alexander, 2003). Observations by means of airglow technique usually allow obtaining the horizontal wave parameters, i.e, the horizontal wavelength and phase speed, and its periodicity. Apart these parameters, also it is possible the identification of the waves propagation direction through cross-spectrum analysis. All these wave characteristics are useful as input parameters in the ray tracing modelling, which is a powerful tool used to investigate the wave sources at altitudes below or above the airglow layer where the waves are identified. Figure 6 shows


Figure 4. Airglow system for the observation of mesospheric gravity waves. In the photo on the left the camera is the exact position for observations. On the right the camera is lowered from the dome and more details of the system can be seen.

Figure 5. Example of a nocturnal temperature series (solid dark and red lines) obtained on August 05 2005, compared to the MSISE-90 atmospheric model (dashed line).

an example of atmospheric gravity wave observed in 2011 above King George Island (at Ferraz station). The bright crests identified in the images represent the maximums in the airglow intensity. The airglow intensity is modulated (showing light and dark regions) due to the passage of gravity wave. In these images the stars and the Milky Way

are not visible due to the usage of the temporal difference images (TD image) technique, making evident the waves in the images. Other examples of mesospheric waves observed at Ferraz station are described in previous studies (Bageston et al., 2009, 2011a, b). In this later study it was demonstrated,

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through experimental evidence, equivalent importance of the wind and temperature in the configuration of the necessary and adequate conditions for the propagation and maintenance of mesospheric fronts in the upper atmosphere.

Discussion and Conclusion We should emphasize that apart of the optical instruments operated at EACF, used to observe the mesosphere, a meteor radar was installed in 2010 with the aim of observe the horizontal winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (~80-100 km high). Beside the winds obtained by the meteor radar, this instrument has several other capabilities, such as the count of the number of meteors per hour/day, allowing studies of their variability and probable origin. This instrument also permits studies of the momentum flux variability due to gravity waves activity in the mesosphere and also is able to obtain the average daily temperatures in the meteoric region. Thus, the simultaneous operation of the meteor radar with the airglow cameras will allow the development of pioneer studies in the region of the Antarctic Peninsula. The optical observations of airglow at different sites (for example: EACF, Rothera and Tierra Del Fuego) can permit a better understanding of the dynamics of gravity waves, including its generation and propagation, in the region of the Antarctic Peninsula in the South of South America. Regarding to the continuity of the observations and monitoring of the upper atmosphere at EACF, the installation

of alternative energy sources are awaited (wind and solar) in the summer of 2013-14, or even energy generated by the provisional base installed at the beginning of 2013 enabling the continuity of research studies in next year. Furthermore, advances in collaborative relationship with other research groups that have worked at EACF is hoped for the next years, such as the groups of Meteorology, Ionosphere and ozone, apart from maintaining and expanding the existing international colaborations. The continuity of the atmospheric research activities in the Brazilian Antarctic Station, including meteorological observations, the monitoring of the ultraviolent radiation and ozone layer, besides the monitoring of the upper atmosphere is essential in order for Brazil to maintain an active role in the atmospheric research scenario in Antarctica.

Acknowledgments This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCTAPA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n째 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n째 E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and InterMinistry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

Figure 6. An example of a mesospheric gravity wave identified through the airglow emission in the near-infrared band of the hydroxyl (OH NIR). This wave event was observed on the night of 22 to 23 August 2011. The arrows drawn on the images indicate the wave propagation direction.

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References Amorim, D.C.M.; Pimenta, A.A.; Bittencourt, J. A. & Fagundes P. R. (2011). Long-term study of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using O I 630 nm all-sky imaging and ionosonde over Brazilian low latitudes. Geophysical Research Letters, 116(s/n): A06312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010JA016090 Bageston, J. V.; Gobbi, D.; Takahashi, H. & Wrasse, C. M. (2007). Development of Airglow OH Temperature Imager for Mesopheric Study. Brazilian Journal of Geophysics, 25(2): 27-34. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbg/v25s2/ a04v25s2.pdf. Bageston, J. V.; Wrasse, C. M.; Gobbi, D. Tahakashi, H. & Souza, P. B. (2009). Observation of Mesospheric Gravity Waves at Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz (62°S), Antarctica. Annales Geophysicae, 27(s/n): 2593-2598. http://dx.doi. org/10.5194/angeo-27-2593-2009 Bageston, J. V.; Wrasse, C. M., Hibbins; R. E, Batista; P. P., Gobbi, D.; Takahashi, H.; Fritts, D. C.; Andrioli, V. F.; Fechine, J. & Denardini, C. M. (2011a). Case Study of a Mesospheric Wall Event over Ferraz Station, Antarctica (62°S). Annales Geophysicae, 29(s/n): 209-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-29-209-2011 Bageston, J. V.; Wrasse, C. M.; Batista, P. P.; Hibbins R. E.; , Fritts, D. C.; Gobbi, D. & Andrioli, V. F. (2011b). Observation of a mesospheric front in a thermal-doppler duct over King George Island, Antarctica. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(s/n): 12137–12147. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-12137-2011 Espy, P., Jones, G., Swenson, G., Tang, J. & Taylor, M. J (2004). Seasonal variations of gravity wave momentum flux in the Antarctic mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 109(s/n): 1–9. http://dx.doi. org/10.1029/2003JD004446 Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Iimura, H.; Hocking, W. K.; Bageston, J. V.; Leme, N. M. P. (2012). Drake Antarctic Agile Meteor Radar first results: Configuration and comparison of mean and tidal wind and gravity wave momentum flux measurements with Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(s/n): D02105. http://dx.doi. org/10.1029/2011JD016651 Fritts, D.C. & Alexander, M.J. (2003). Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 41(s/n): 1--46. Medeiros, A.F.; Takahashi, H.; Buriti, R.A.; Fechine, J.; Wrasse, C. M. & Gobbi D. (2007). MLT gravity wave climatology in the South America equatorial region observed by airglow imager. Annales Geophysicae, 25(s/n): 399-406. http://dx.doi. org/10.5194/angeo-25-399-2007 Nielsen, K.; Taylor, M.J.; Stockwell, R.G. & Jarvis, M.J. (2006). An unusual mesospheric bore event observed at high latitudes over Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(L07803): 1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025649 Nielsen, K.; Taylor, M.; Hibbins, R. & Jarvis, M. (2009). Climatology of short-period mesospheric gravity waves over Halley, Antarctica (76°S, 27°W). Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71(s/n): 991-1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. jastp.2009.04.005 Paulino, I.; Medeiros, A.F.; Buriti, R.A.; Takahashi, H.; Sobral, J.H.A & Gobbi, D. (2011). Plasma bubble zonal drift characteristics observed by airglow images over Brazilian tropical region. Brazilian Journal of Geophysics, 29(2): 239-246. http://dx.doi. org/10.1590/S0102-261X2011000200003 Smith, S.M.; Taylor, M.J.; Swenson, G.R.; She, C.; Hocking, W.; Baumgardner, J. & Mendillo, M.A. (2003). Multidiagnostic investigation of the mesospheric bore phenomenon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(s/n): 13-20. Taylor, M.J.; Turnbull, D.N. & Lowe, R.P. (1995). Spectrometric and imaging measurements of a spectacular gravity wave event observed during the ALOHA-93 campaign. Geophysical Research Letters, 20 (s/n): 2849-2852.

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THEMATIC AREA 2

GLOBAL CHANGES ON TERRESTRIAL ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENT

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Pereira, A.B., Putzke, J., Victoria, F.C., Pereira, C.K., D’Oliveira, C.B., Shünemann, A.L. Plant Communities From Stinker Point, Elephant Island, Antarctica

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Lorensi, G.H., Oliveira, R.S., Stürmer, G.D., Posser, T., Franco, J.L., Teixeira, V.L., Pereira, A.B., Dal Belo, C.A. Neurotoxic Effect Induced By Prasiola crispa Antarctic-Algae Methanolic Extract In Cockroaches

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Stefenon, V.M., Medina, R.G., Barcellos, S., Rodrigues, C.R., Minozzo, M.M., Victoria, F.C., Albuquerque, M. P., Pereira, A.B. Gametophyte Length Variation Among Antarctic Populations of Polytrichum juniperinum hedw. (polytrichaceae)

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Rodrigues, N.R., Nunes, M.E.M., Zemolin, A.P., Paula, M. T., Pereira, A.B., Franco, J.L., Posser, T. Dechampsia antarctica Crude Extract Protects Against Hg(II) Induced Toxicity In Drosophila melanogaster

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Zemolin, A.P.P., Nunes, M.E.M., Rodrigues, N.R., Dal Belo, C. A., Pereira, A.B., Posser, T., Franco, J.L. Toxicity of Prasiola crispa Extract Fractions In the Adult Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster: An Update

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Pereira, T.P., Barboza, A.D., Suleiman, A.K.A., Pereira, A.B., Roesch, L.F.W. Pyrosequencing Reveals Shared Bacterial Taxa Across Continents

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Valls, F.C.L., Krüger, L., Petry, M.V. Finding Krill: Foraging Effort of Pygoscelis antarcticus on Elephant Island

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Basler, A.B., Müller, E.S., Petry, M.V. Morphometry of Specimens of Cape Petrel (Daption capense) (Linnaeus, 1758) on Elefant Island, Antarctica

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Brummelhaus, J., Valiati, V.H., Petry, M.V. Biparental Care of Chinstrap Penguin: Molecular Sexing and Life History In the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

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Seibert, S., Petry, M.V. Your Neighbor is an Enemy: the Relation Between Consumption Frequency and the Distance from Food Source

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Mendonça, M. C., Queiroz, G.C., Abrantes, E.A., Dalto, A.G., Valentin, Y.Y. Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) Associated to Terrestrial Green Algae from Ice-Free Areas in Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands Islands, Antarctica)

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Team Leader

Dr. Antônio Batista Pereira – UNIPAMPA Vice-Team Leader

Dr. Maria Virgínia Petry – UNISINOS

Introduction The theme “Global Change Impact on the Antarctic Environment,” which investigates the impact of global change on terrestrial biologic communities, develops a set of thaw research areas of Antarctica, to obtain data which can help to explain the effects of environmental change on plants and birds populations. There is a further objective to try and to understand the dynamics and environmental relations of populations and their relationships. The biologic communities from Antarctic ice-free areas are an excellent opportunity to study the effects of global changes, since the biota of these areas is composed of large populations and biodiversity has little expertise; associated with the fact that organisms live under strong abiotic stress proportioned by the extreme and sensitive environmental conditions. Therefore their maintenance requires temperatures around 0° C. In that small climatic changes can be felt by people and are easily assessed since the anthropogenic impact is practically nonexistent. The research of the plant communities in Antarctic icefree areas aims to describe, map and monitor the evolution of plant populations that grow in these areas, trying to understand their relationship with the microbial community and its contribution to gas emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Research on the evolution of populations and communities of plants began in 1993 with the study of mosses and lichens and flowering plant populations from Stinker Point, Elephant Island, through plant and lichen communities mapping using phytossociological method,

The plant communities and geo-environments were mapped in the field using an Astech Promark II® DGPS, obtaining a submetric precision after post-processing with the Astech Solutions® software. This data was overlayered and adjusted on a high resolution IKONOS satellite image. The study of the soil microbial community was made using pyrosequencing. To solve taxonomic problems, genetic studies of populations of mosses, mainly family Polytrichaceae species that occur in Antarctica and South America are being performed. To measure the stress to which plants growing in antarctic ice-free are subjected stimulates the production of secondary metabolites different from other regions of the planet. Based on this fact the extract toxicity of plants growing in the Antarctic environmental conditions, such as the neurotoxic effect induced by Prasiola crispa alga in methanolic extract in cockroaches and the Deschampsia antarctica crude extract protects against HG (II) induced toxicity in Drosophilam melanogaster. The most important factors driving the Antarctic seabird populations currently are the global changes. Understand the global changes impact on seabirds implies in access to many levels of responses. There is an inextricable relationship between the demographic dynamics that most researchers evaluate at colonies and the behaviors and movements that the individual birds undertake as a consequence of the conditions they experience over open sea waters. The effects of climate, the relation between climate and sea-ice dynamics that is responsible for shifts in the food web balance; the bottom-up cascades that will

then by comparing the results with those obtained in the

affect individual behavior that consequently will be felt by

austral summer 2011/2012. This is an unpublished research

demographic parameters such as survival, breeding success

because it is the first that has taken in Antarctica that

and recruitment rates declines.

evaluates the growth and evolution of communities of plants and lichens in a period of twenty-one years.

As a response to the latter, many species are suffering decline in West Antarctica, and the paper “Population

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fluctuation of Pygoscelis papua and Pygoscelis antarcticus, Elephant Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica” is a good example. The two penguin populations showed consistent decreases over the last 40 years at one ice-free area on Elephant Island, possibly as a response to climate and food availability shifts. In addition, the predator and prey relationships can vary in space and time. Thus, the description and monitoring of the species are important for understanding population fluctuations. As an example of that, the manuscript “Your neighbor is an enemy: the relation between consumption frequency and the distance from food source”, which evaluates the diet of brown skua related to the proximity of the colonies of other species. The dependency ratio of brown skua for resources of colonies of penguins is a characteristic of the species and is used to describe the ecology of the species.

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In an effort to map the potential ocean zones which penguins are using, the paper “Finding krill: foraging effort of Pygoscelis antarcticus on Elephant Island” evaluates habitat use measures and the main sea conditions used by birds. Such findings can help to understand how penguin populations are threatened by disruption of food webs as the sea ice concentrations are reducing around the Antarctic Peninsula. Understand the population response to global changes also includes knowledge about understanding the processes at morphological, physiological and molecular levels. The first attempts to achieve such goal resulted in the two papers entitled “Biparental care of chinstrap penguin: molecular sexing and life story in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica” and “Morphometry of individuals of Daption capense on Elephant Island”.


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1 PLANT COMMUNITIES FROM STINKER POINT, ELEPHANT ISLAND, ANTARCTICA Antonio Batista Pereira1, Jair Putzke2, Filipe de Carvalho Victoria1, Clarissa Kappel Pereira1, Cristiane Barbosa D’Oliveira1 & Adriano Luis Shünemann1 1 Universidade Federal do Pampa – UNIPAMPA. Av. Antonio Trilha, 1847, São Gabriel, RS, CEP 97300-000, Brazil Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul – UNISC. Av. Independência, 2293, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, CEP 96815-900, Brazil

2

*e-mail: anbatistape@gmail.com

Abstract: This paper presents theresults of plant community studies in ice-free areas from Stinker Point, Elephant Island, Antarctica, carried out in the austral summer 2011/2012. The principalaim being to map and describe plant communities of the studied areas. The plant communities have been classified and described based primarily on the physiognomy and phytosociology, which was carried out using the quadrate method. GPS L1-L2 was used for georeferencing the plant communities identified. With the data obtained it was possible to identify and describe six plant communities: 1. Fruticose lichens and moss cushion communities; 2. Moss-turf communities (two-sociation: Chorisodontium-Sanionia sociation and Poltrychaceae-Sanionia sociation); 3. Mosscarpet communities; 4. Crustose lichens communities; 5. Phanerogamic Antarctic tundra communities, (with twos asociations: Colobanthus-mosses association and Mosses-Deschampsia association) and 6. Fellfield communities. Furthermore, we present a map with the exact location of the communities described. Keywords: Description, Mapping, Vegetation, Elephant Island, Antarctica

Introdution Elephant Island is located 61o 07’ S and 55o 03’ W, it has 37 Km in the E-W direction and 16 Km in the N-S direction. The central area is totally ice-covered. The ice-free areas are coastal, but the access is difficult because there are steep cliffs and the wind and waves are often very strong. Stinker Point is the largest coastal ice-free area and is the richest in flora and floristic diversity of this island. This area is limited to the northwest near the beach by the Sultan Glacier and to the south by the Endurance Glacier the distance between the two glaciers is 4,500 m, and from the beach to glacier is 800 m in a straight line (Pereira & Putzke 1994). The main objective of this work is mapping and describing the plant communities from ice-free areas of the Stinker Point, Elephant Island, Antarctica.

Materials and Methods The description and classification of the plant communities was based on Pereira et al. (2011), Pereira & Putzke (1994), Lewis-Smith & Gimngham (1976) and Redon (1985). The

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identification of bryophytes was done based on Putzke & Pereira (2001) and Ochyra (1998) and the lichens on Øvstedal & Lewis-Smith (2001) and Redon (1985). The plant communities and geoenvironments were mapped in the field using an Astech Promark II® DGPS, obtaining a submetric precision after post-processing with the Astech Solutions® software. This data was overlaid and adjusted on a high resolution IKONOS satellite image, acquired in the summer of 2008. The characterization of plant communities followed the nomenclature adopted by Victoria et al. (2006). All communities and environments were digitally photographed constituting a rich record of images.

Results Based on the vegetal cover of the dominant species, it was possible to identify six plant communities and four associations in Stinker Point ice-free areas ecosystem. The plant communities were named based in the most


representative plants groups occurring in each vegetation fragment. With the data obtained it was possible to identify six plant communities: 1. Fruticose lichens and moss cushion communities; 2. Moss-turf communities (two-sociation: Chorisodontium-Sanionia sociation and Poltrychaceae-Sanionia sociation); 3. Moss-carpet communities; 4. Crustose lichens communities; 5. Phanerogamic Antarctic tundra communities, (with

Discussion and Conclusion The Fruticose lichenes and moss cushion communities occupies in the North face of Stinker plateau. The substrate are basically rock blocks with rare occurrence of soil among them but still without vegetation. This is the only lichen community where Usnea aurantiaco-atra (Jacq.) Bory is the dominant population and the principal area where this

twos asociations: Colobanthus-mosses association

specie occur. In the areastudied there is a plant community

and Mosses-Deschampsia association) and 6. Fellfield

with the largest population of Usnea spp verified at the

communities (Figure 1).

location studies.

Figure 1. Spatial distribution of plant communities in Stinker Point, Elephant Island, Antarctica.

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Moss-turf communities in Stinker Point is one of the most important, occupying great areas mostly near petrel colonies. With the data obtained can be divided into two associations based on species composition and kind of substrate in which it develops: 1.Chorisodontium-Sanionia sociation where there is no real soil growing directly on rock fragments. Its floristic composition is basically by the large leaved moss Chorisodontium aciplhyllum (Hook. F et Wils.) Broth., with rare occurrence of Sanionia uncinataand muscicolous fruticose lichens, specially Sphaerophorus globosus, Cornicularia aculeata (Schreb.) Ach. and Usnea antarctica Du Rietz. There are also some crustose muscicolous lichens like Psoroma hypnorum (Vahl) Gray and Ochrolechia frigid (Sw.) Lynge. It occupies the greatest areas at the first plateau running from Great Beach northwards were a great population of giant petrel is nesting and it was noted that a lot of nests are old and abandoned. This sociation tends to turn larger since the moss C. aciplhyllum is considered partially ornithocoprophilous and already appears in the second plateau were the Giant petrels are beginning to occupy as a new reproduction area. It was observed that the petrel built its nest beside high rock blocks to protect the nest from the strong winds. The nest is built with small rock fragments and as the climate contribute to rock destruction over the years the nesting points become flat and are then abandoned by the petrel. Poltrychastrum-Sanionia sociation occur where there is the guano influence there is occurrence of Polytrichastrum alpinum (Hedw.) G.L.Smith, and in areas without bird colonies it was found Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. This sociation is located in well drained areas frequently in slow elevations of the terrain. In rare cases it occurs also in places near drainage lines, but is rapidly substituted by Warnsdorfia spp. The moss-carpet communities in Stinker Point occur mostly in the first plateau near the beach in the elevations in front of the Great Beach and Naufragous Beach. These areas present stable substrata and represent the oldest plant communities in the region. In some places small areas already turned to fruticose muscicolous lichens, Spaerophorus globosus, Usnea antarctica and Cornicularia aculeate being frequent. The floristic composition in these areasis basically of Sanionia uncinata in the drier places Brachythecium austrosalebrosum (Müll. Hal.) Kindb.

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and Warnsdorfia sarmentosa (Wahlenb.) Hedenäsin the wettest. Some small tufts of Bryum spp. (specially Bryum argenteum Hedw.), Hennediella heimii (Hedw.) R. H. Zander. and Syntrichia spp. (S. filaris and S. saxicola) are found intermixed. Crustose lichens communities ies was formed by three associations: 1. Ornitocoprophilous:this association occurs around bird coloniesand the most representative species were Xanthoria elegans (Link.) Th. Fr., Acarospora macrocyclos Vain., Haematomma erythroma (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Rizoplaca spp. and Buellia spp. 2. Ornitocoprophobous: the representative species were Placopsis contortuplicata Lamb, Lecidea spp. and Rizocarpoum geograficum (L.) DC. 3. Halophilous: this association occurs in the intertidal zone and also includes places washed by waves. It is composed by species of the genera Verrucaria and Caloplaca. Phanerogamic antarctic tundra communities in the Antarctica this communities is represented by Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae). Based on floristic composition and dominance of vegetation cover of these two species, in Stinker Point this communities can be grouped on these two association: 1 Deschampsia mosses association is sometimes exclusively formed by the grass and in other limited by carpets of Sanionia uncinata, since it grows in drier places. The occurrence of cushions of Syntrichia filaris and S. saxicola and sometimes of Hennediella heimii among the grass patches is very frequent. In some places the grass is dead, especially in areas were now banks are formed and along the Skua Lake. 2 Colobanthus mosses association on this area forms up to 20 cm cushion like groups which can be coalescent but with limits still clear by the occurrence of Bryum agenteum, Syntrichia filaris or Hennediella heimii line remains in the connection points. Sometimes Brachythecium austrosalebrosum is found associated. C. quitensis is found in the lower altitudes, along all the Great Beach, being the largest group found in the southernmost part, at the East side of the penguin way (running to the Muralha plateau). The Antarctic Fellfield communities is mainly characterized by occupied areas with large blocks of rocks that are was had annually by melt water or recent ice-free areas, where the plant population sare very sparse. In Stinker Point this sub-formation occupies a big area being part of them at disposal only in the last 20 years after glacier retreat


and an other where there are plenty of great blocks of rock that are annually was had by the melt water, and sites with soil that is very rare. In places with recent ice-melt it is possible to find small and isolated populations of pioneer species as for example of Heinnediella heimii (Hedw.) Zang is one of the most abundant species in this habitat and usually with sporophyte. This situation justifies its great occurrence and high possibility of dispersion.The moss grows like small cushions which coalesces and can be colonized by ring fungi. Sometimes large patches up to 20 cm can be found and larger areas can be occupied if the area is visited by birds, like some places used for bathing and feathering. This sociation can be associated sometimes to other species, being common the Phohlia nutans, Bryum argenteum and Brachythecium austrosalebrosum, and sometimes to small

patches of Sanionia uncinata. Pholia nutans is very common, occupying the crevices and small soil deposits between rock openings, forming straight colonies.

Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Brazilian Antarctic Program through the CNPq (process no. 574018/2008-5), and Carlos Chagas Foundation for Support of Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, Portuguese acronym) process n° E-16/170.023/2008, the Ministry of Environment  – (MMA, Portuguese acronym), Ministry of Science and Technology  – (MCT. Portuguese acronym) and the Secretaria of the Interministerial Commission for Resources of the Sea (SECIRM, Portuguese acronym).

References Lewis-Smith, R.I. & Gimingham, C.H. (1976). Classification of cryptogamic communities in the maritime Antarctic.British Antarctic Survey Bulletin, 33-34: 89-122. Ochyra, R. (1998). The moss flora of King George Island Antarctica. Polish Academy of Sciences. Cracow. 278 p. Øvstedal, D.O. & Lewis-Smith, R.I. (2001). Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia – A guide to their identification and ecology.Studies in Polar Research.Cambridge University Press.411 p. Pereira, A.B. & Putzke, J. (1994). Floristic composition of Stinker Point, Elephant Island, Antarctica. Korean Journal of Polar Research, 5(2): 37-47. Putzke, J. & Pereira, A.B. (2001). The Antarctic Mosses – With Special Reference to the South Shetland Island. Canoas – RS. Edit. da ULBRA. 196p. Putzke, J.; Pereira, A.B.; Francelino, M.R.; Stefenon, V.M.; Schünemann, A.L. & Roesch, L.F.W. (2011). Plant Communities fromice-free areas of Demay Point, King George Island, Antarctica. Annual Actyvity Report 2010. INCT-APA/ CNPq. 58-62. Redon, J. (1985). Liquens Antarticos. Publicação do Instituto Antártico Chileno (INACH), Santiago de Chile. 123 pp. 91 fig. Victoria, F.C.; Albuquerque, M.P. De & Pereira, A.B. (2006). Lichen-Moss associations in plant communities of the Southwest Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica, Neotropical Biology and Coservation. 1(2): 84-89.

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2 NEUROTOXIC EFFECT INDUCED BY Prasiola crispa ANTARCTIC-ALGAE METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN COCKROACHES Graziela Holkem Lorensi1, Raquel Soares Oliveira1, Graziele Daiane Stürmer1, Thais Posser1, Jeferson Luis Franco1, Valéria Laneuville Teixeira2, Antonio Batista Pereira1, Cháriston André Dal Belo1,* Centro Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Pampa – Unipampa, Campus São Gabriel, Av. Antônio Trilha, 1847, CEP 97300-000, São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 2 Centro de Estudos Gerais, Universidade Federal Fluminense – UFF, Rua Outeiro São João Batista, CEP 24.210-130 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1

*e-mail: charistonbelo@unipampa.edu.br

Abstract: In this work we have demonstrated the direct neurotoxic effect of Prasiola crispa methanolic extract at cockroach neuromuscular junctions. At in vivo cockroach neuromuscular preparations the extract induced a progressive and irreversible neuromuscular blockade, which was preceded by an increase in the muscular tonus with the appearance of spontaneous twitches. The previous application of chloral hydrate, a n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker, increased the time to blockade of the muscle twitches by 50%, whereas it extinguished both the previous increase of tonus and the appearance of spontaneous twitches, before the onset of neuromuscular blockade. Together, these results suggest that P. crispa extract induced an insecticide activity by acting mainly at insect neuromuscular junctions. Therefore, the NMDA receptors must be the target of this pharmacological interaction. A further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation will increase the knowledge about the cellular and molecular aspects of P. crispa insecticide effect. Keywords: Prasiola crispa, Antarctic Algae, Aeurotoxic Effect, Cockroaches, Neuromuscular Junctions

Introduction From the biological point of view, the co-evolution between plants and insects are recognized (Ryan & Byrne, 1988) and may explain the selection of a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites used as defense (i.e. one or a few plant chemicals antagonistic to insects) (Bown et al., 2006). Nowadays, there is a major motivation to promote research on botanical insecticides with the low environmental cost and minimal ecological impact, and a demand for healthier products. Cockroaches are primitive pest insects, and most of their functional systems are fairly unspecialized. The cockroach nervous system can be used not only to understand the physiological aspects between insect and natural compounds, but also as an important model of biomedical research (Stankiewicz et al., 2012).

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The thalloid green alga Prasiola crispa is abundant on the upper shores of Antarctica, often near to and on penguin benches. In this habitat, the alga is exposed to a number of stressful conditions, which may give rise to the development of multiple survival strategies, including the production of different secondary metabolites (Harwood & Gushina, 2009; Pereira et al., 2009). The studies targeting P. crispa biological activity are scarce, and indeed, our group was the pioneer in investigating the inherent insecticide activity of this alga (Posser et al., 2010). Despite the wealth of literature on the ecological and pesticidal effects, few studies of plant extracts have considered their mechanism of action. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, the present study is likely to be the first on investigating the cellular aspects involved in the


action insecticide actions of Antarctic algae in cockroaches. The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism involved in the insecticide effect of Prasiola crispa methanolic extract, especially those related to the cellular interactions at insect neuromuscular junctions.

Materials and Methods Animals Cockroaches (Leurolestes circunvagans) were reared with water and food ad libitum, at controlled temperature (22-25ºC).

Reagents All chemicals and reagents used were of the highest purity and were obtained from Sigma, Aldrich, Merck or BioRad.

Plant material Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing (1843) was collected in the ice-free areas near Arctowski Polish Base Region, Admiralty Bay, King George Island (61º 50’ - 62º 15’ S and 57º 30’ - 59º 00’ W), Antarctica. The Prasiola crispa methanolic extract (PCME) was produced as described elsewhere (Posser et al., 2010). The extracts where dissolved in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) previously to animal administration.

In vivo Cockroach Metathoracic Coxal-Adductor Nerve-Muscle Preparation We used the in vivo cockroach metathoracic coxal-adductor nerve-muscle preparation as biological assay (Full & Stokes, 2008). The animals were previously anesthetized by chilling (-5ºC), and fixed ventral side up in Perspex plate recovered with Styrofoam by means of entomologic needles. Isometric recordings were made using a computer-based software model AQDAD (AVS Instruments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) with a 1g force transducer model AECAD (AVS Instruments). Supramaximal electrical stimuli (5 ms, 0.5 Hz) was delivered at nerve 5 by insertion of a bipolar Ag/AgCl electrode, coupled to a stimulator (AVS Instruments), during 120 min. Drugs (40 µL) were injected with a Hamilton syringe at the third abdominal segment.

Statistical analysis The results were presented as mean ± S.E. The ANOVA/MANOVA, was used for significance (p < 0.05). The non-parametric Student “t” test was used as a post hoc.

Results The administration of DMSO alone did not interfere with the muscle strength (n = 6) during 120 min recordings. The injection of PCME (100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/g of animal weight) induced a dose and time-dependent neuromuscular blockade in 120 min recordings. When the minimum dose of 100 µg/g was assayed there was 80 ± 5% blockage of twitches in 120  min recordings (n  =  6, p  <  0.05). The injection of (800  µg/g) PCME induced 100% blockade of twitch tension in 10min (n = 6, p < 0.05). In all doses tested, before the onset of extract neurotoxic effect, there was a previous increase of muscular tonus followed by a blockade of the twitches. The appearance of spontaneous post-twitches, during the first 30min recordings was also noticed. The addition of Chloral hydrate (40 µg/g), a n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, 15 min previously to PCME (400 µg/g), increased the time required to 50% blockade of the twitches (from 70 ± 2 min to 110 ± 3 min, n = 5, p ≤ 0.05). In this protocol, there was also an inhibition of the tonus increasing effect.

Discussion In this work we have dealt with the cellular aspects of the insecticide activity induced by Prasiola crispa methanolic extract. In this respect, we have confirmed this latter effect and, in addition, we observed a direct interaction of the algae biocompounds at the cockroach neuromuscular junctions. A number of plants have been ascribed as natural insecticides and their active constituents isolated and characterized (Pavela, 2005). Such plants, synthesize several chemical constituents which act by inhibiting insect growth, feeding and by altering other important physiological parameters (Viegas Junior, 2003). In cockroaches, the neuromuscular transmission releases glutamate as chemical neurotransmitter to promote the muscle twitches by activation of the insect n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (Peoples & Weight, 1998). According to our results, PCME induced a progressive inhibitory effect of insect muscle twitch tension that resulted in an irreversible paralysis of neuromuscular activity. Neurotoxic insecticides act in different manners in the insect nervous system. Natural and synthetic piretroids for example, act by causing a persistent activation of muscle sodium channels, inducing an irreversible and lethal depolarizing effect

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(Soderlund, 2012). Others, like insect venoms, prefer the central nervous system as target, inducing a decrease in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine to cause lethargy and motion weakness (Weisel-Eichler et al., 1999). In the case of PCME, it seems that the algae biocompounds are activating the NMDA receptors at the insect end plate. The first clue for this theory comes from the observation that chloral hydrate, an NMDA blocker, is able to reduce the potency of the neuromuscular blockade induced by the algae extract. Therefore, having followed this treatment, no increase in muscular tonus was seen, indicating that NMDA receptors were not activated. In addition, the

spontaneous twitches were extinguished after chloral hydrate, which demonstrates that the depolarizing action of PCME is caused possibly by the activation of NMDA receptors. The results are of notorious importance because it reinforces the potential biotechnological application of Prasiola crispa. To note, NMDA-receptor subunits are particularly involved in several CNS pathologies including acute and chronic pain, stroke, head trauma, drug-induced dyskinesias, and dementia in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease (Dingledine et al., 1999). The evidence that P. crispa possess secondary metabolites that interact with NMDA receptors not only demonstrates the cockroach

a

c

b

d

Figure 1. Effect of Prasiola crispa methanolic extract (PCME) on the in vivo cockroach metathoracic coxal-adductor nerve-muscle preparation. Panel A, shows the graph of the effect of different concentrations of P. crispa extract on 120 min muscle twitch tension recordings. Panel B shows the increase of muscular tonus and the followed appearance of spontaneous twitches. In C, the graphical expression of the time required to 50% blockade of twitches before and after chloral hydrate (40 µg/µl). In Panel D, complete inhibition of neuromuscular twitches by PCME (40 µg/g) after 5 min recordings. *significance at p ≤ 0.05; • increase of muscular tonus;  spontaneous twitches;  complete neuromuscular blockade.

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neuromuscular models as suitable for investigating the mechanism of insecticide interactions, as well as, showed its yield potential for the development of NMDA-receptorselective therapeutic agents.

Conclusion

Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Brazilian Antarctic Program through National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, (CNPq, Portuguese acronym) process no. 574018/2008-5, Carlos Chagas Foundation for Support of Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro, (FAPERJ, Portuguese

Prasiola crispa methanolic extract induces neuromuscular

acronym) process no. E-26/170.023/2008, and the Ministry

blockade in Leurolestes circunvagans. The latter effect is

of Science and Technology – (MCT, Portuguese acronym),

probably evoked by activation of insect NMDA receptors at

Ministry of Environment – (MMA, Portuguese acronym)

the motor end plate. The results also confirm the presence of

and the Interministerial Commission for Resources of the

potent insecticide chemical constituents in Prasiola crispa

Sea (CIRM, Portuguese acronym through the Brazilian

extract as future candidates for the development of NMDA-

National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic

receptor-selective therapeutic agents.

Environmental Research (INCT-APA, Portuguese acronym).

References Bown, A.W.; MacGregor, K.E. & Shelp, B.J. (2006). Gamma-minobutyrate: defense against invertebrate pest? Trends in Plant Science, 11(9): 424-27. Dingledine, R.; Borges, K.; Bowie, D. & Traynelis, S.F. (1999). The glutamate receptor ion channels. Pharmacological Reviews, 51(1): 7-61. Full, R. & Stokes, D.A. (1998). Energy absorption during running by leg muscles in a cockroach. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 201(7): 997-1012. Harwood, J.L. & Gushina, I.A. (2009). The versatility of algae and their lipid metabolism. Biochimie, 91: 679-84. Pavela, R. (2005). Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Fitoterapia, 76:691-96. Peoples, R.W. & Weight, F.F. (1998). Inhibition of excitatory amino acid-activated currents by trichloroethanol and trifluoroethanol in mouse hippocampal neurones. The Britsh Journal of Pharmacology, 124:1159–64. Pereira, B.K.; Rosa, R.M.; da Silva, J.; Guecheva, T.N.; Oliveira, I.M.; Ianistcki, M.; Benvegnu, V.C.; Furtado, G.V.; Ferraz, A.; Richter, M.F.; Schroder, N.; Pereira, A.B. & Henriques, J.A. (2009). Protective effects of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet radiation in several biological models. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 96(2):117-29. Posser, T.; Pereira, B.K.; Zemolin, A.P.P.; Dal Belo, C.A.; Pereira, A.B. & Franco, J.L. (2010). Insecticidal effects of Antactic algae Prasiola crispa extract in the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Annual Activity Report of National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research, 2(4): 73-6. Ryan, M.F. & Byrne, O. (1988). Plant-insect co-evolution and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 14: 1965-75. Soderlund, M.D. (2012). Molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticide neurotoxicity: recent advances. Archives of Toxicology, 86:165-81. Stankiewicz, M; Dabrowski, M. & de Lima, M.E. (2012). Nervous system of Periplaneta americana as model in Toxinological Studies: A short historical and actual view. Journal of Toxicology, 2012: 1-12. Viegas Junior, C. (2003). Terpenes with insecticidal activity: an alternative to chemical control of insects. Química Nova, 26(3): 390-400. Weisel-Eichler, A.; Haspel, G.; Libersat, F. (1999). Venom of a parasitoid wasp induces prolonged grooming in the cockroach. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 202: 957-64.

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3 GAMETOPHYTE LENGTH VARIATION AMONG ANTARCTIC POPULATIONS OF Polytrichum juniperinum HEDW. (POLYTRICHACEAE) Valdir Marcos Stefenon*, Rayssa Garay Medina, Suziane Barcellos, Carla Roberta Rodrigues, Mônica Munareto Minozzo, Filipe de Carvalho Victoria, Margéli Pereira de Albuquerque & Antonio Batista Pereira Universidade Federal do Pampa - Campus São Gabriel, Av. Antonio Trilha, 1847, CEP 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil *e-mail: valdirstefenon@unipampa.edu.br

Abstract: Up to now, no sporophytes of Polytrichum juniperinum were recorded in Antarctica. Therefore, the long distance dispersal may be a rare event in this continent. In this study, we recorded the length of gametophytes sampled in natural populations from an Antarctic island, aiming to evaluate the presence of patterns of morphological differentiation related to short distance dispersal of vegetative propagules. The mean size of gametophytes ranged from 2.85±0.59 cm to 7.01±1.34 cm, with significant overall differentiation according to the analysis of variance. The populations’ pair-wise comparison was significant in 20 out of 21 pairs. In terms of clustering of morphologically similar populations due to short distance dispersal, the degree of morphological differentiation between sample locations slightly increased with geographical distance, although not statistically significant. Considering the absence of significant correlation between gametophyte size and geographic distance observed for the populations studied, adaptation to micro-environment seems to be the best explanation for the observed differentiation. Further morphological records and studies based on molecular genetic markers are being developed by our group, in order to determine if such differences have also some genetic basis. Keywords: Moss, Phenotypic Plasticity, Polytrichaceae

Introduction Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. (Polytrichaceae) is a common dioecious medium-sized pioneer moss species with cosmopolitan distribution over the world. In the Antarctic continent, P. juniperinum is confined to maritime Antarctic, where it is a widespread moss species (Ochyra 1998), developing on ice-free areas, except in sites with excess moisture (Victoria et al., 2009). Previous field observations suggest the occurrence of variation in gametophyte size among Antarctic populations of P. juniperinum. Geographic variation in morphology may reflect phenotypic responses to environmental gradients and evolutionary history of populations, suggesting local or regional changes in environmental conditions. Despite the cosmopolitan occurrence of P. juniperinum, the Antarctic continent lacks studies dealing with morphological

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variation among populations of this species. Up to now, no sporophytes of P. juniperinum were recorded in Antarctica (Ochyra 1998; Putzke & Pereira 2001) and, therefore, the long distance dispersal may be a rare event in this continent. If morphological characteristics have a solely genetic ground, short distance dispersal of vegetative propagules may result in the establishment of clusters of morphologically similar populations. On the other hand, if morphological characteristics are effect of plasticity to micro-environments, the populations tend to lack patterns of clustering related to morphological characteristics. In this study, we report the analysis of the length of gametophytes sampled in seven natural populations from Nelson Island, Antarctica, aiming to evaluate the presence


of patterns of morphological differentiation related to short distance dispersal of vegetative propagules.

a

Materials and Methods Gametophytes of P. juniperinum were collected in seven populations (P27, P967, P32, P81, P63, P34 and P166) occurring in ice-free areas of the Nelson Island (Figure 1). Thirty individuals from each population were randomly selected and gametophytes length were measured using a millimetric scale (see insert in Figure 2). Pair-wise population means were compared using a two-tailed t-test. The correlation between morphological differentiation (Euclidean distance) and geographical distance among populations was evaluated by regressing the population pair-wise morphological differentiation matrix against the pair-wise geographical distance matrix, using a Mantel test with 1000 permutations for the determination of the statistical significance.

b

Results

Figure 1. (A) Location of the Nelson Island in the Antarctic Continent. (B) Location of the seven studied populations (P27, P967, P32, P81, P63, P34 and P166) in Nelson Island.

The mean size of gametophytes ranged from 2.85±0.59 cm to 7.01±1.34 cm (Figure 2), with significant overall differentiation (F = 70.01; p<0.0001) according to the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The populations´ pair-wise comparison was significant in 20 out of 21 pairs (Table 1). Since the population’s mean is highly influenced by extreme values in the data-set, we also recorded the mode (the most frequent value in the data) for each population. The values of the mode were similar to the means (data not shown), suggesting that the outliers do not bias the results. In terms of clustering of morphologically, similar populations due to short distance dispersal, showed through the Mantel test that the degree of morphological

differentiation between sample locations slightly increased with geographical distance, although not statistically significant (r = 0.12; p = 0.72).

Discussion At morphological level, the present study revealed significant inter-population differentiation for the gametophyte length. Excluding phenotypic plasticity, the existence of differences among populations of P. juniperinum may be related to three different facts: (i) newly arriving

Table 1. Populations pair-wise comparison for the gametophyte size.

P967 P32 P81 P63

P32

P81

P63

P166

P34

P27

***

***

***

***

***

***

***

***

**

***

***

**

***

***

n.s.

***

***

**

***

***

P166 P34

***

Statistical significance assessed by Student’s t-test. ***: p < 0.001; **: p < 0.01; n.s.: not significant.

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Even considering the significant differentiation of gametophyte size among populations, the absence of significant correlation between this morphological characteristic and geographic distance observed for the studied populations of P. juniperinum suggests that adaptation to micro-environment is the best explanation for this differentiation. However, garden experiments and genetic analysis are required to test this hypothesis.

Conclusion Figure 2. Means of the data recorded from gametophytes sampled in seven populations (P27, P967, P32, P81, P63, P34 and P166) in Nelson Island, Antarctica. Bars in the means are the standard deviation. Insert: Measurement of a gametophyte of Polytrichum juniperinum using a millimetric scale.

propagules colonizing limited areas only, (ii) a drift-like effect of random elimination of haplotypes during periods of population decline, and (iii) adaptation to the local environment (Adam et al., 1997). Bur yová & Shaw (2005) evaluated the size of gametophytes and leaves of the moss Philonotis fontana in a garden experiment aiming to study the phenotypic plasticity of the species. These authors reported absence of significant difference in length of the gametophytes, whereas size of the leaves expressed statistically significant difference among populations. They suggested the existence of genetic differences among populations and significant effects of light intensity detected in stem diameter, nerve and cell width, whilst water levels in the experiment had a noticeable effect just on leaf length.

The overall and pair-wise significant difference among populations of P. juniperinum based on gametophyte length revealed in this study suggests the presence of plasticity related to micro-environmental conditions, although genetic differentiation cannot be discarded. Further morphological records and studies based on molecular genetic markers are being developed by our group, in order to determine if such differences have a genetic ground.

Acknowledgments This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Adam, K.D.; Selkirk. P.M.; Connett, M.B. & Walsh, S.M. (1997). Genetic variation in populations of the moss Bryum argenteum in East Antarctica. In: Battaglia, B.; Valencia, J. & Walton, D.W.H. Antarctic Communities: Species, Structure and Survival. Cambridge University Press. Buryová, B. & Shaw, A.J. (2005). Phenotypic plasticity in Philonotis fontana (Bryopsida: Bartramiaceae). Journal of Bryology, 27:13-22. Ochyra, R. (1998). The moss flora of King George Island, Antarctica. Cracow: W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences. Putzke, J. & Pereira, A.B. (2001). The Antartic Mosses Witch Special reference to the South Shetland Islands. Canoas: Ulbra. Victoria, F.C.; Pereira, A.B. & Costa, D.P. (2009). Composition and distribution of moss formations in the ice-free areas adjoining the Arctowski region, Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Iheringia Série Botânica, 64(1):81-91.

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4 Dechampsia antarctica CRUDE EXTRACT PROTECTS AGAINST HG(II) INDUCED TOXICITY IN Drosophila melanogaster Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Mauro Eugênio Medina Nunes, Ana Paula Zemolin, Mariane Trindade de Paula, Antonio Batista Pereira, Jeferson Luis Franco, Thaís Posser* Centro Interdisciplinar de Pesquisas em Biotecnologia – CIPBIOTEC, Campus São Gabriel, Universidade Federal do Pampa, CEP 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil *e-mail: thaisposser@unipampa.edu.br

Abstract: In this study the potential protective activity of Dechampsia antarctica crude extract (DaE) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster exposed to mercury (HgCl2; 100 µM) during 48hrs was evaluated. The survival rate and locomotor activity were evaluated as well as signs of toxicity. Flies (both genders; 1-4 days old) were exposed to HgCl2 100 µM dissolved in 1% sucrose in the presence or absence of different concentrations of DaE (1% and 5% in sucrose). After 48hrs of exposure, the live flies were counted. The negative geotaxis behavior was determined as an index of locomotor activity. After treatments, the live flies were transferred to glass tubes and gently tapped to the bottom of the tube. The number of flies that climbed 6 cm during 6 seconds was counted. The exposure of flies to mercury caused a significant increase in mortality (25%) when compared to controls (treated with 1% sucrose solution only). In parallel, mercury exposure induced a significant decrease in locomotor activity. The co-administration of DaE at all concentrations tested completely abolished the mercury-induced signs of toxicity. In conclusion, our results show, for the first time, the protective effects of Dechampsia antarctica against the deleterious effects of mercury in vivo. Keywords: Dechampsia antarctica, Mercury, Fruit Fly, Toxicity

Introduction Mercur y has been recognized as a ubiquitous environmental toxicant whose toxicity is associated to neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Environmental hazards such as those in Japan and Iraq between the 50s and 70s, marked the toxicological importance of this environmental contaminant (Clarkson et al., 2003). Anthropogenic sources of mercury still pose high risk to human and environmental health in present times. Furthermore it is important to note that it has been shown that mercury transport from more densely populated regions (lower latitudes) results in the accumulation of methylmercury in the food chain of Arctic and Antarctic environments (Barkay & Poulain, 2007). Due to its potential bioaccumulation in fish, as well as its intensive applications in industry, coal fired power plants and mining, intoxication episodes are mainly related to

diet and occupational exposures (Clarkson et  al., 2003; Honda et al., 2006). Despite being extensively studied in the last decades, mercury is still considered a major human and environmental health problem (Clarkson & Magos, 2006), in this aspect, there is no effective treatment available for mercury intoxication associated damage. The mechanisms underlying mercury toxicity are not well understood. However, it has been shown that oxidative stress plays a central role in this process (Farina  et  al., 2011). Thus, compounds that possess antioxidant activity may be potential candidates in the treatment of mercury poisoning. Studies in literature have shown that plant extracts and natural compounds are able to block the toxic actions of mercury in animal models (Farina et al., 2005; Franco et al., 2007).

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D. antarctica are native vascular plants of Antarctica, occurring extensively from the South Orkney and South Shetland Islands in the north, to Terra Firma Islands, in the southwestern Antarctic Peninsula (Alberdi et al., 2002). Previous studies have reported extracts obtained from D. antarctica protected from DNA damage and mutation triggered by UVC radiation in yeast (Betina et al., 2009). Considering its promising potential, there is a lack of studies focused on its biological and biotechnological properties. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of modern genetics premier model systems, with an extensive literature ranging from classical and modern genetics to biochemistry to physiology and complex phenotypes. Although humans and D. melanogaster are only distantly evolutionarily related, almost 75% of disease-related genes in humans have functional orthologs in the fly (Pandey & Nichols, 2011), making the fly a reasonable model system for humans and other vertebrate. D. melanogaster have a rapid reproductive cycle and are easily maintained and handled in the lab making them ideal organisms for the use in in vivo bioassays. They also have been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of development and functioning of the nervous system and for the study of fundamental cellular pathways responsible for metal and insecticide toxicity (Ahamed et al., 2010). Considering (i) the absence of effective treatments for mercury poisoning (Tchounwou  et al., 2003), (ii) the protective effects of plant extracts against mercury-induced toxicity in animal models in vivo and in vitro (Farina et al., 2005) and (iii) the observed protective effect of Dechampsia antarctica against UV toxicity (Betina  et  al., 2009), the present study was aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Dechampsia antarctica (DaE) crude extract against mercury-induced mortality and locomotor deficits in Drosophila melanogaster.

Materials and Methods Drosophila stock and culture: Drosophila melanogaster (Harwich strain) was obtained from the National Species Stock Center, Bowling Green, OH, USA. The flies were reared in 2.5 cm × 6.5 cm glass bottles containing 5 mL of standard medium (1% w/v brewer’s yeast; 2% w/v sucrose; 1% w/v powdered milk; 1% w/v agar; 0.08% v/w Nepagin) at constant temperature and humidity (25°C ± 1°C; 60%

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relative humidity, respectively). All experiments were performed with the same strain. Mercury Chloride exposure: Adult flies, 1- to 4- days post eclosion, were exposed to HgCl2 using the following protocol: 120 adult flies (both genders) were starved in empty vials for 3 h at 25ºC. Following starvation, groups of 30 flies were placed for 48 hours in vials containing a filter paper saturated with 500 µl of sucrose 1% (control); 500 µl of HgCl2 (100 µM) solution diluted in 1% sucrose; 500 µl of HgCl2 (100 µM) + different concentrations of DaE; different concentrations of DaE diluted in sucrose 1%. The concentration of HgCl2 used in this work was based on a previous study of our group (Paula et al., 2012). Survival rate analysis: To quantify fly survival rates, three replicates of groups of 30 adult flies were exposed to HgCl2 for 48 hours and the number of live and dead was counted every 24 hours. Results were analyzed and plotted as percent live flies (Paula et al., 2012). Locomotor assay: Locomotor ability was determined using the negative geotaxis assay as described previously (Paula et al., 2012) with some modifications. Briefly, for each assay, 20 flies (1-4 days old; both genders) were immobilized on ice for 1-2 min and placed separately in vertical glass columns (length, 25 cm; diameter, 1.5 cm). After 30 mins recovery, the flies were gently tapped to the bottom of the column and the time required for flies to climb up to 6 cm in the columns during 6 seconds was registered.

Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Differences were considered significant when p < 0.05.

Results In the present study, flies (D. melanogaster) were exposed to Hg(II) toxicity for 48 hours using a concentration of 100 µM of HgCl2 dissolved in a sucrose solution and survival and locomotor activity was quantified. Hg(II) exposure resulted in significant fly mortality (Figure 1), which is in agreement with our previous publication (Paula et al., 2012). Hg(II) exposure also had a significantly deleterious impact on locomotor behavior. Flies treated with 100 µM Hg(II) for 48 h took longer to achieve 6 cm in the vials (Figure 2) and significantly more flies remained at the base of the flasks


Figure 1. Analysis of survival rate after exposure to Hg (II) and/or DaE concentrations. We calculated percent survival after flies were exposed to HgCl2 100 µM for 48 hours in the presence or absence of DaE. Bars represent the mean ± SEM of three experiments performed individually and are expressed as percent live flies in relation to control group (absence of Hg). * p < 0.05 in comparison to control.

Figure 2. Negative geotaxis behavior after exposure to Hg (II) and DaE concentrations. We quantified negative geotaxis after flies were treated with 100 µM HgCl2 for 48 hrs in presence or absence of DaE. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM of three independent experiments and represents the number of flies that reached the top of a column and those that remained at the bottom after 6 s. * p < 0.05 in comparison to control.

when tapped to the bottom of tubes when compared to control groups (Figure 2). Both assays indicated that Hg(II) exposure significantly impacts complex phenotypes, such as survivorship and locomotor behavior.

with antioxidant activity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact mechanisms of protection and identify the chemical components of the extract that are responsible for its protective actions.

Discussion and Conclusion

Acknowledgements

The co-administration of Hg(II) and concentrations of DaE was undertaken to investigate the potential of this plant extract to revert the phenotypes induced by Hg (II) exposure. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the two DaE concentrations tested (1 and 5%) were able to block Hg (II)induced mortality and locomotor behavior impairment. In conclusion, our results show for the first time the protective effects of Dechampsia antactica extract against Hg(II) toxic effects in vivo. The observed protective effects of DaE may be related to the presence of secondary metabolites

This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCTAPA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and InterMinistry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Ahamed, M.; Posgai, R.; Gorey, T.J.; Nielsen, M.; Hussain, S.M. & Rowe, J.J. (2010). Silver nanoparticles induced heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 242(3):263-269. Alberdi, M.; Bravo, L.A.; Gutierrez, A.; Gidekel, M. & Corcuera, L.J. (2002). Ecophysiology of Antarctic vascular plants, Physiologia Plantarum, 115 (4): 479–486.

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Aschner, M.; Syversen, T.; Souza, D.O.; Rocha, J.B. & Farina, M. (2007). Involvement of glutamate and reactive oxygen species in methylmercury neurotoxicity. Brazilian Journal Of Medical and Biological Research, 40(3): 285-291. Barkay, T. & Poulain, A.J. (2007). Mercury (micro)biogeochemistry in polar environments. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 59(2):232-41. Clarkson, T.W.; Magos, L. & Myers, G.J. (2003). The toxicology of mercury—current exposures and clinical manifestations. The New England Journal of Medicine, 349(18): 1731-1737. Clarkson, T.W. & Magos, L. (2006). The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 36(8):609-62. Farina, M.; Cereser, V.; Portela, L.V.; Mendez, A.; Porciúncula, L. O.; Fornaguera, J.; Gonçalves, C.A.; Wofchuk, S.T.; Rocha, J.B. & Souza, D.O. (2005). Methylmercury increases S100B content in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 19(2): 249–253. Farina, M.; Rocha, J.B. & Aschner, M. (2011). Mechanisms of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity: evidence from experimental studies. Life Sciences, 89(15-16):555-63. Franco, J.L.; Braga, H.C.; Stringari, J.; Missau, F.C.; Posser, T.; Mendes, B.G.; Leal, R.B.; Santos, A.R.; Dafre, A.L.; Pizzolatti, M.G. & Farina, M. (2007). Mercurial-induced hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse brain mitochondria: protective effects of quercetin. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 20(12): 1919-1926. Honda, S.; Hylander, L. & Sakamoto, M. (2006). Recent advances in evaluation of health effects on mercury with special reference to methylmercury-A minireview. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 11(4):171-6. Pandey, U.B. & Nichols, C.D. (2011). Human Disease Models in Drosophila melanogaster and the Role of the Fly in Therapeutic Drug Discovery. Pharmacological Reviews, 63(2):411–436. Paula, M.T.; Zemolin, A.P.; Vargas, A.P.; Golombieski, R.M.; Loreto, E.L.S.; Saidelles, A.P.; Picoloto, R.S.; Flores, E.M.M.; Pereira, A.B.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Merritt, T.J.S, Franco, J.L. & Posser, T. (2012) Effects of Hg(II) exposure on MAPK phosphorylation and antioxidant system in D. melanogaster. Environmental Toxicology, doi: 10.1002/tox.21788. Pereira, B.K.; Rosa, R.M.; Silva, J.; Guecheva, T.N.; Oliveira, I.M.; Ianistcki, M.; Benvegnú, V.C.; Furtado, G.V.; Ferraz, A.; Richter, M.F.; Schroder, N.; Pereira, A.B. & Henriques, J.A.P. (2009). Protective effects of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet radiation in several biological models. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 96(2):117–129. Tchounwou, P.B.; Ayensu, W.K.; Ninashvili, N. & Sutton, D. (2003). Environmental exposure to mercury and its toxicopathologic implications for public health. Environmental Toxicology, 18(3): 149-175.

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5 TOXICITY OF Prasiola crispa EXTRACT FRACTIONS IN THE ADULT FRUIT FLY Drosophila melanogaster: AN UPDATE Ana Paula Pegoraro Zemolin, Mauro Eugenio Medina Nunes, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Antonio Batista Pereira, Thais Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco* Centro Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa Biotecnológica, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Avenida Antonio Trilha, 1847, CEP 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil *e-mail: jefersonfranco@unipampa.edu.br

Abstract: In a previous report we tested the insecticidal effect of a crude extract of Prasiola crispa. In the present study, we obtained three different fractions and tested which of them presents higher toxicity on a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) model. Fraction 1 (ethanol), Fraction 2 (methanol) and Fraction 3 (ethyl acetate) we administered to flies for 48 hours at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 µg/ml in a 1% sucrose solution. Sucrose alone was used as control. Toxicity was assessed as % mortality and negative geotaxis behavior. A significant decrease in survivability of flies exposed to Fraction 1 and 2 at the higher concentrations tested was observed, while Fraction 3 posed a significant increase in mortality also at intermediate concentrations. The comparison between the three fractions showed that Fraction 3 was significantly most prominent in inducing mortality. Similar results were observed for the climbing performance, indicating an alteration in negative geotaxis behavior. In our previous report we showed that Prasiola crispa crude extract presents high toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster. Our present results show that Fraction 3 may contain high concentrations of toxic metabolites compared to other two fractions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact mechanisms of toxicity of this Antarctic alga to Drosophila melanogaster and to identify which components of Fraction 3 are responsible for such an effect. Keywords: Prasiola crispa, Toxicity, Drosophila melanogaster, Antarctica

Introduction The bioinsecticide ability of a number of plants has been investigated for thousands of years, and some of the plants can substitute many synthetic means of control. In this respect, it is important to emphasize that natural agents are environmentally less harmful than synthetic pesticides. Moreover, natural agents can act in many insects in different ways (Sujatha, 2010). In this respect, in this study we intended to evaluate the potential insecticidal properties of the Antarctic alga Prasiola crispa. Prasiola crispa is a terrestrial eukaryotic green alga from Antarctic continent. Although there are no studies targeting the biological effects of this algae, interesting characteristics, like adhesive properties have been described for the plant of the genus Prasiola sp. (Mostaert et al., 2006), highlighting the biotechnological importance of this organism. Other

studies carried out with other Antarctic plant species, have demonstrated low toxic effects for mammalian and non-mammalian cells, associated with protective effects against UV-induced damage (Pereira et al., 2009). It has been recognized that organisms living in Polar Regions, are subject to extreme environmental conditions. This fact has lead to the developing of natural strategies that enable these organisms to survive under the most extreme environmental conditions on Earth. Among these adaptation strategies is the production of photoprotective compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, scytonemim secreted by cyanobacteria and flavonoids secreted by plants (Pereira et al., 2009). This fact emphasizes the importance of studies concerning the biological effects of these organisms, which may present in its constitution a

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combination of chemical compounds normally not found in other organisms. In a previous report we tested the insecticidal effect of a crude extract of Prasiola crispa (Posser et al., 2011). In the present study, we obtained three different fractions and tested which of them presents higher toxicity on a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) model.

Materials and Methods Plant material: Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing 1843 was collected in the ice-free areas near Arctowski Polish Station Region, Admiralty Bay, King George Island (61°50’ 62°15’ S and 57°30’ - 59°00’ W), Antarctica. The extract was fractionalized into three different fractions and an ethanolic (Fraction 1), methanolic (Fraction 2) and ethyl acetate (Fraction 3) was obtained. Drosophila stock and culture: Drosophila melanogaster (Harwich strain) was obtained from the National Species Stock Center, Bowling Green, OH, USA. The flies were reared in 2.5 cm × 6.5 cm glass bottles containing 5 mL of standard medium (1% w/v brewer’s yeast; 2% w/v sucrose; 1% w/v powdered milk; 1% w/v agar; 0.08% v/w Nepagin) at constant temperature and humidity (25°C ± 1°C; 60% relative humidity, respectively). All experiments were performed with the same strain. Prasiola crispa Fractions exposure: Adult flies, 1- to 4- days post eclosion, were exposed to alga fractions using a

the following protocol. 180 adult flies (males) were starved in empty vials for 3 hrs at 25ºC. Following starvation, groups of 30 flies were placed for 48 hours in vials containing a filter paper saturated with 500 µl of Fractions 1, 2 or 3 (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 µg/ml) solution diluted in 1% sucrose. Sucrose only, served as control. Survival rate analysis: To quantify fly survival rates, five replicates of groups of 30 adult flies were exposed to Fractions for 48 hours and the number of live, and dead, flies counted every 24 hours. Results were analyzed and plotted as total “number of dead flies”. Locomotor assay: Locomotor ability was determined using the negative geotaxis assay as described previously with some modifications. Briefly, for each assay, 20 flies (1-4 days old; both genders) were immobilized on ice for 1-2  min and placed separately in vertical glass columns (length, 25 cm; diameter, 1.5 cm). After 30 min recovery, flies were gently tapped to the bottom of the column and the number of flies that climbed up 6 cm in the columns during 6 seconds was registered and plotted as the “number of flies on top”.

Results Treatment of flies with Prasiola crispa extract fractions resulted in a substantial increase in mortality after 48 hours (Figure 1A). Fractions 1 and 2 presented toxicity towards b

Figure 1. Drosophila melanogaster mortality and behavior after treatment with Prasiola crispa extract Fractions. (A) mortality (B) negative geotaxis behavior. Statistical significance was assessed by One Way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s post hoc test. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, comparing to control (sucrose only). # p < 0.05 comparing different Fractions.

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mortality rate at concentrations of 10 and 50 µg/ml, while Fraction 3 showed increased mortality at concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 µg/ml. The comparison between the three different fractions showed that Fraction 3 caused a significantly (p < 0.05) increased mortality when compared to the other two fractions. Similar results were observed for the locomotor behavior (Figure 2B), being Fraction three significantly more effective in decreasing locomotor activity of flies.

concentrations of toxic metabolites, which are responsible

Discussion and Conclusion

Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ

In a previous report, our group presented for the first time the potential bioinsecticide action of an Antarctic alga, Prasiola crispa. The present results point that the ethyl acetate fraction (Fraction 3) may contain increased

for the observed effects in Drosophila melanogaster.

Acknowledgements This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Mostaert, A.S.; Higgins, M.J.; Fukuma, T.; Rindi, F. & Jarvis, S.P. (2006). Nanoscale mechanical characterisation of amyloid fibrils discovered in a natural adhesive. Journal of Biological Physics, 32:393-401. Pereira, B.K.; Rosa, R.M.; da Silva, J.; Guecheva, T.N.; Oliveira, I.M.; Ianistcki, M.; Benvegnú, V.C.; Furtado, G.V.; Ferraz, A.; Richter, M.F.; Schroder, N.; Pereira, A.B.; & Henriques, J.A.P. (2009). Protective effects of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet radiation in several biological models. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 96: 117-129. Posser, T.; Pereira, B.K.; Zemolin, A.P.P.; Dal Belo, C.; Pereira, A.P. & Franco, J. L. (2011). Insecticidal effect of antartic algae Prasiola crispa extract in the adult fruit fly Drosophila malanogaster. Annual Activity report of the INCTAPA, v. 2011, p. 73-7. Sujatha, S. (2010). Essential oil and its insecticidal activity of medicinal aromatic plant Vetiveria zizanioides (l.) against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (herbst). Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2:84-8.

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6 PYROSEQUENCING REVEALS SHARED BACTERIAL TAXA ACROSS CONTINENTS Tauê Posada Pereira, Anthony Diego Barboza, Afnan Khalil Ahmad Suleiman, Antônio Batista Pereira, Luiz Fernando Wurdig Roesch* Universdade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA, Campus São Gabriel, Avenida Antônio Trilha, 1847, CEP 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil *e-mail: luizroesch@unipampa.edu.br

Abstract: Soil bacterial community structures differ markedly between environments but apparently there is a degree of prokaryote endemism across broad geographic scales. With this work we aimed to analyze the membership of the soil bacterial communities from soil samples collected across a continental scale and test whether contrasting environments present a subset of the soil microbial community that is shared between environments. Bacterial community composition from soils collected at the Keller Peninsula, Antarctica and from the Brazilian Pampa was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. The sequences obtained were processed to calculate the Good’s coverage, to perform a Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA), to calculate Jaccard’s and Sorensen’s beta diversity dissimilarity indexes, and to perform a network-based analysis for the visualization of the OTUs that are either unique or shared by specific groups of soil samples. The overall composition of the bacterial community differed whether or not the abundance of taxa was considered. However, it was possible to detect the presence of 7.56% bacterial taxa (1,940 OTUs) shared between biomes. Our results showed that although organisms in environments at the extremes of temperature are presumably under strong selective pressures contrasting soils can harbor at least a fraction of shared bacterial taxa. Keywords: Antarctica, Brazilian Pampa, Biodiversity, Culture-independent Technique

Introduction Soil bacterial community structures differ markedly between systems, and even across landscapes that appear macroscopically homogeneous. Whole community studies, and studies on the genotypes of individual taxa have revealed that, at high levels of taxonomic resolution, there is a degree of prokaryote endemism apparent across broad geographic scales (Fulthorpe et al., 2008). The mechanisms involved in this endemism might be related with the small size and high abundance of microorganisms as well as other aspects like probability of chance dispersal via an accidental vector, wind, water, among others (Green & Bohannan, 2006). One of the major questions involving the soil microbiome is whether there is a subset of the soil microbial community that is shared between most soils. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial communities of soil samples from ice-free areas of Keller Peninsula and from the Brazilian Pampa. Our

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goal was to obtain a detailed baseline description of the soil bacterial communities from soil samples collected across a continental scale in order to address the following question: Is there a common diversity structure within soil bacterial communities from contrasting environments under strong selective pressures?

Materials and Methods Soil samples were collected from three distinct environments across two continents, including eight samples from the Brazilian Pampa and eight samples from Antarctica. From the Brazilian Pampa, we collected four soil samples from a well-preserved gallery forest (30° 24’ 09.3”  S; 53° 52’ 59.1” W), and four samples from grassland under severe degradation (30° 24’ 08.9” S; 50° 53’ 05.9” W). From Antarctica, we collected eight soil samples from ice-free


areas in the northwest side of the Keller Peninsula, King

the similarity of the biological communities; c) calculate

George Island (62° 03’ 51.1” S; 58° 24’ 47.5” W). Soil was

Jaccard’s and Sorensen’s beta diversity dissimilarity indexes;

collected removing the plant cover and taking cores of 5

d) perform a network-based analysis for the visualization of

cm diameter and 5 cm depth. All soil samples were stored

the OTUs that are either unique or shared by specific groups

on ice upon collection and transported to the laboratory

of soil samples. All raw sequences were submitted to the

for DNA extraction.

NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under the accession

Bacterial community composition was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments (V1–V2 hypervariable regions) using 454 GS FLX Titanium (Lib-L) chemistry for unidirectional sequencing of the amplicon libraries. The DNA extraction, 16S rRNA amplification and pyrosequencing were performed following the procedures adopted by Roesch et al. (2012). The raw sequences obtained were processed using QIIME (Caporaso et al., 2010) with default parameters. Briefly, the multiplexed reads were first filtered for quality and assigned to the starting soil samples. The filtering criteria included a perfect match to the sequence barcode and primer, 200 bp in length, no more than two undetermined bases, and a least 60% match to a previously determined 16S rRNA gene sequence (Hamady et al., 2008). The fasta-output file was used for building a table with the Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundance of each sample and the taxonomic assignments for each OTU. To do this, the sequences were clustered into OTUs based on the relatedness of the sequences (97% similarity) and a representative sequence from each OTU was selected. These representative sequences were subjected to the RDP naïve Bayesian rRNA Classifier (Wang et al., 2007), which

numbers SRA048722.2 (Antarctica) and SRA013204.1 (Brazilian Pampa).

Results A total of 240.000 sequences were obtained from the sixteen soil samples. This number of sequences represented on average 96% coverage for soils from Antarctica and 89% coverage for the soils from the Brazilian Pampa. These values are indicative that the number of OTUs identified was sufficient to reasonably describe the communities. The dataset was used to find clusters of similar bacterial communities by applying a Jackknifed Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) (Figure 1). The weighted and unweighted PCoA analyses showed that the soil bacterial communities clustered in two distinctive groups using both weighted distance metric, which accounts for changes in the relative abundance of taxons, and unweighted distance metric, which accounts for presence/absence of taxons. Also, a pairwise dissimilarity calculation using Jaccard’s and Sorensen’s metrics showed 92% and 86% of dissimilarity between the bacterial communities from Antarctica and the Brazilian Pampa, respectively. Thus, the overall composition of the bacterial community differed whether

attaches complete taxonomic information from domain to

or not the abundance of taxa was considered. However,

species to each sequence in the database with 80% taxonomy

when we mapped soil microbial community composition

confidence and an e-value of 0.001. The representative set

and structure and displayed microbial partitioning across

of sequences was also used to align the sequences against a

soil samples in a network, it was possible to detect the

reference database and to build a phylogenetic tree necessary

presence of 7.56% bacterial taxa (1,940 OTUs) shared

for downstream measurements.

between both biomes (Figure 2). Across all shared

The dataset was used to: a) calculate the Good’s coverage

OTUs, 1.9% was not able to be classified below the

(Good, 1953) in order to verify how well an environment

domain level. Of the classifiable sequences, 15 phyla were

was sampled and indicate the percentage of individuals

identified in both continents. They were Acidobacteria,

sampled in a microbial community; b) perform a

Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria,

Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) used for the overall

Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, OD1,

comparison for significant differences among the bacterial

OP10, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, SR1, TM7 and

communities by finding clusters of samples that reflect

Verrucomicrobia.

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Figure 1. Jackknifed PCoA showing clusters of similar bacterial communities with unweighted UniFrac distance metric, which accounts for presence/absence of taxons and weighted UniFrac distance metric, which accounts for changes in the relative abundance of taxons. The clusters were generated using a subset of 1000 sequences from each environment for 100 replicate trials. The positions of the points are the average for the jackknife replicates and are displayed with a network around the points representing the statistical dispersion in each axis.

Figure 2. Network based analysis showing the clusters of bacterial communities and the co-occurrences of taxonomic unities in soil samples from ice-free areas of Antarctica and Brazilian Pampa. Small circles are representative sequences from each taxonomic unity clustered based on the relatedness of the sequences (97% similarity). Large circles represent the environment where the bacterial community came from. Each environment is connected with a taxonomic unity through edges. The nodes connected by two edges represent a taxonomic unity shared between environments. The nodes connected by only one edge represent a taxonomic unity found specifically in one environment.

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Discussion The data illustrates the amount of similarity/dissimilarity found between randomly chosen soils, separated by up to 3,700 km. The main finding of this study was that less than 8% of the bacterial OTUs, as defined at the 97% similarity level, were detected with pyrosequencing in all soils. Large population sizes and short generation times are claimed to be the major mechanism resulting in high bacterial dispersal rates (Finlay & Clarke, 1999). For instance, most soils, including agricultural ones, seem to be dominated by only a small number of phyla, namely Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes (Janssen, 2006; Roesch et al., 2007; Fierer et al., 2009; Lauber et al., 2009; Uroz et al., 2010). Community similarity declines with increasing geographic distance if species tend to be locally adapted or if they are dispersal limited (Bell, 2010; Nekola & White, 1999). Although organisms in environments at the extremes of temperature are presumably under strong selective pressures, our results showed that the soils in ice-free areas of Keller Peninsula are dominated by these same phyla. This indicates that at least at a coarse level of taxonomic resolution it is possible to find some degree

of ubiquity in soil samples. Some taxonomic units have a wide distribution.

Conclusion The strategy applied here allowed us to detect different patterns in bacterial community structure in soil samples across a continental scale. Although organisms in environments at the extremes of temperature are presumably under strong selective pressures, our results showed that contrasting soils can harbor at least a fraction of shared bacterial taxa.

Acknowledgements This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCTAPA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and InterMinistry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Bell, T. (2010). Experimental tests of the bacterial distance-decay relationship. The ISME Journal, 4(11): 1357-65. Caporaso, J.G.; Kuczynski, J.; Stombaugh, J.; Bittinger, K.; Bushman, F.D., Costello, E.K.; Fierer, N.; Peña, A.G.; Goodrich, J.K.; Gordon, J.I.; Huttley, G.A.; Kelley, S.T.; Knights, D.; Koenig, J.E.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; McDonald, D.; Muegge, B.D.; Pirrung, M.; Reeder, J.; Sevinsky, J.R.; Turnbaugh, P.J.; Walters, W.A.; Widmann, J.; Yatsunenko, T.; Zaneveld, J. & Knight, R. (2010). QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nature Methods, 7: 335-336. Fierer, N.; Strickland, M.; Liptzin, D.; Bradford, M. & Cleveland, C. (2009). Global patterns in belowground communities. Ecology Letters, 12(11): 1238-1249 Finlay, B.J. & Clarke, K.J. (1999). Ubiquitous dispersal of microbial species. Nature, 400: 828. Fulthorpe, R.R.; Roesch, L.F.W.; Riva, A. & Triplett, E.W. (2008). Distantly sampled soils carry few species in common. The ISME Journal 2: 901–10. Good, I.J. (1953). The population frequencies of species and the estimation of the population parameters. Biometrika, 40(3): 237-64. Green, J.L. & Bohannan, B. (2006). Spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 501-507. Hamady, M.; Walker, J.J.; Harris, J.K.; Gold, N.J. & Knight, R. (2008). Error-correcting barcoded primers for pyrosequencing hundreds of samples in multiplex. Nature Methods, 5(3): 235-7.

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Janssen, P. (2006). Identifying the dominant soil bacterial taxa in libraries of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(3): 1719-28. Lauber, C.; Hamady, M.; Knight, R. & Fierer, N. (2009). Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of Soil pH as a Predictor of Soil Bacterial Community Structure at the Continental Scale. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(15):5111-20. Nekola J.C. & White P.S. (1999). The distance decay of similarity in biogeography and ecology. Journal of Biogeography, 26(4): 867â&#x20AC;&#x201C;78. Roesch, L.F.W.; Fulthorpe, R.R.; Riva, A.; Casella, G.; Hadwin, A.K.M.; Kent, A.D.; Daroub, S.H.; Camargo, F.A.; Farmerie, W.G. & Triplett, E.W. (2007). Pyrosequencing enumerates and contrasts soil microbial diversity. The ISME Journal 1(4): 283â&#x20AC;&#x201C;90. Roesch, L.F.W.; Fulthorpe, R.R.; Pereira, A.B.; Pereira, C.K.; Lemos, L.N.; Barbosa, D.A.; Suleiman, A.K.A.; Gerber, A.L.; Pereira, M.G.; Loss, A. & Costa, E.M. (2012). Soil bacterial community abundance and diversity in ice-free areas of Keller Peninsula, Antarctica. Applied Soil Ecology, 61: 7-15. Uroz, S.; Buee, M.; Murat, C; Frey-Klett, P. & Martin, F. (2010). Pyrosequencing reveals a contrasted bacterial diversity between oak rhizosphere and surrounding soil. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 2(2): 281-8. Wang, Q.; Garrity, G.M.; Tiedje, J.M. & Cole, J.R. (2007). Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(16): 5261-7.

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7 FINDING KRILL: FORAGING EFFORT OF Pygoscelis antarcticus ON ELEPHANT ISLAND Fernanda Caminha Leal Valls*, Lucas Krüger, Maria Virginia Petry Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Laboratório de Ornitologia e Animais Marinhos, Av. Unisinos, 950, Cristo Rei, São Leopoldo, CEP 93.022-000, RS, Brazil *e-mail: fernandaclvalls@gmail.com

Abstract: Penguins were tagged with geolocators to determine individual variations in the foraging habitat of the Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) from a breeding group on Elephant Island. The Kernel Density showed two large foraging areas, with the highest centre of density at the north of the Island. There is a difference in habitat between individuals, two individuals remained closer to the island, while two went farther, to the west and to the south. Chinstrap penguins are abundant seabirds that range widely across circumpolar regions. Understanding the foraging ecology of this specie is important for monitoring and ecosystem conservation and management. Keywords: Foraging Behavior, Geolocation, Chinstrap Penguin, Elephant Island

Introduction The foraging ecology of seabird species is an essential

Lat 2900 geolocators were used on penguins in the

component for monitoring the ecosystem in Southern

reproductive period. The devices were fixed in the feathers

Ocean (CCAMLR, 2004), especially to trace a tendency in

of the bottom dorsal part of the animals back with Tesa

habitat use by species (Miller et al., 2010; Wilson, 2010). The

tape. The registered geographical points were filtered using

factors influencing the breeding seabirds foraging behavior

the Standard Distance of ArcGis tool, through which was

include the physical limitations (like the ice barriers at sea),

calculated a threshold distance of two standard deviations

the proximity of the prey concentration to nesting sites,

from the mean position of the cloud of points. All points

the inter-specific competition, the physiological capacities

outside the threshold distance were excluded from the

of each individual, the obligation to return to their colony

analysis.

to feed their chicks, and finally the necessity of a favorable

The extracted variables were: geographic positioning,

body condition (Clarke et al., 2006). However, individual

distance from breeding group, depth from the used area and

variations of foraging areas should exist as consequence of

Kernel Density. ArcGis was used to extract the variables.

the factors that act on a population. Therefore, the goal of

Individual variation was assessed using Discriminant

this work is to evaluate foraging habitat used by individuals

Analysis and ANOVA Multifatorial through SPSS 18.

of Pygoscelis antarcticus tagged with geolocators and comparing the individual variations.

Materials and Methods

Results F o u r ( 4 ) i n d i v i d u a l s o f C h i n s t r a p Pe n g u i n (Pygoscelis antarcticus) were monitored. The foraging

The study was conducted in the region of Stinker Point,

effort of individuals within the Polar Front zone was not

Elephant Island (61º13'20.5"S 55º21'35"W) (Figure 1).

homogeneous (Figure 2), but associated with productivity

Penguins were monitored by using Geolocators in the

of oceanic areas (Nicol, 2006). The association between

austral summer, December 2011 to March 2012. Lotek

the foraging habitats of Chinstrap Penguin with these

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a

c

b

Figure 1. Study area: A. Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands and South America; B. Elephant Island; C. Stinker Point region and a breeding group of Pygoscelis antarcticus.

productive oceanic areas reflects the availability of prey. Kernel Density showed two major foraging areas distributed latitudinally towards Elephant Island, with the center of higher density northeast of the island (Figure 2). The Discriminant Analysis resulted in 2 Functions. Function 1 explained 95.1% of variation of data (Canonical Correlation = 0.97) and the Function 2 explained 4.9% of the variation of data (Canonical Correlation = 0.65) (Figure 2). The Function 1 is represented by the variables Longitude (0.83) and distance from the breeding colony (0.84), while the Function 2 is expressed by the depth (0.89), Latitude (-0.58) and Kernel (0.34) (Figure 3). There is a difference of foraging habitat between individuals (Function 1: F3,39=188,6; p < 0,001; Function 2: F3,39=9,7; p < 0,001) except between individuals A and B (Figure 4). The individual C travels more longitudes and therefore reaches distances far from the breeding colony, while other individuals remain at

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latitudes closer to the colony. However, individual D used less profound, southernmost of foraging areas.

Discussion The maximum distance that the individual D foraged from the breeding colony was 2.455 km, while the other individuals foraged in central areas, located north and closer to the breeding colony, corroborating with the records obtained from Chinstrap Penguins that breed on King George Island (Trivelpiece et al., 2007). The penguins in Trivelpiece et al. (2007) traveled greater distances, as far as 1.500 km, but only roaming a 20 km distance from the breeding colony area. The highest population density zone of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is in the South Atlantic around islands and along the continental shelf (Nicol, 2006). Therefore, it is expected that these habitats are targeted by seabirds, particularly the Chinstrap Penguin that relies almost exclusively of Antarctic Krill.


Figure 2. Spatial distribution of the foraging area by the individuals of Pygoscelis antarcticus on Elephant Island. Kernel Density obtained by the geographic points of the penguins tags.

Figure 4. Discriminat Scores average values (centroids) (F1 and F2) for each penguin. A, B, C and D are the tagged penguins. Error bars are standard error.

Conclusion

Figure 3. Biplot of the discriminant analysis. Penguins A (purple circle), B (yellow circle), C (green square) and D (red triangle). C and D used different habitats than B and A. The Function 1 is represented by the variables Longitude (0.83) and distance from the breeding colony (0.84), while the Function 2 is expressed by the depth (0.89), latitude ( -0.58) and Kernel (0.34).

Telemetry is an excellent tool to evaluate the foraging habitat of breeding birds thus allowing essential knowledge for project applicability of management and conservation of these areas. It can be concluded that the Chinstrap Penguins have different individual foraging strategies; however more studies are needed on the foraging habit of this species, such

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as increase the sampling numbers, use of satellite imagery resources and application of satellite tags to improve the evaluation of foraging routes.

Acknowledgments The project received funding from Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA), National Council

for Scientific and Technological Development, (CNPq, process n°574018/2008-5), Carlos Chagas Foundation for Support of Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, process E-26/170.023/2008) and was supported by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCTI) and the Secretariat of the Interministerial Commission for Resources of the Sea (SECIRM), Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level – or Education – Personnel (CAPES).

References Clarke, J.; Emmerson, L.M. & Otahal, P. (2006). Environmental conditions and life history constraints determine foraging range in breeding Adélie penguins. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 310:247-261. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources - CCAMLR (2004). Standard methods for monitoring parameters of predators species. CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program. CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia. Miller, A.K.; Kappes, M.A.; Trivelpiece, S.G. & Trivelpiece, W.Z. (2010). Foraging-niche separation of breeding Gentoo and Chinstrap penguins, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The Condor, 112(4):683-695. Nicol, S. (2006). Krill, Currents, and Sea Ice: Euphausia superba and Its Changing Environment. BioScience, 56(2):111-120. Trivelpiece, W.Z.; Buckelew, S.; Reiss, C. & Trivelpiece, S.G. (2007). The winter distribution of chinstrap penguins from two breeding sites in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. Polar Biology, 30:1231–1237. Wilson, R.P. (2010). Resource partitioning and niche hyper-volume overlap in free-living Pygoscelid penguins. Functional Ecology, 24:646–657.

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8 MORPHOMETRY OF SPECIMENS OF CAPE PETREL (Daption capense) (LINNAEUS, 1758) ON ELEFANT ISLAND, ANTARCTICA Aparecida Brusamarello Basler*, Eliara Solange M체ller, Maria Virginia Petry Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Laborat처rio de Ornitologia e Animais Marinhos, Avenida Unisinos 950, Cristo Rei, CEP 93022-000, S찾o Leopoldo, RS, Brazil *e-mail: abbasler@hotmail.com

Abstract: Birds with monomorphic plumage, such as Daption capense, could indicate a lack of research due to the difficulty in identifying males and females, especially if the difference in body size between the sexes is small. With this study we (i) verify the existence of a correlation between morphometric measures and (ii) identify which measures present a greater variation between individuals of a species. The study occurred in Sinker Point, where 10 morphometric values were measured in 45 adult individuals. The four axes of the Principal Components Analysis explained 64.3% of the variation, with axis 1 explaining 23.1%, axis 2 15.4%, axis 3 13.2% and axis 4 12.4%. The variables right wing and left wing were most highly correlated (r = 0.648), followed by the weight and beak height (r = 0.426), right wing and beak height (r = 0.352) and length and weight (r = 0.330). Distinguishing the sex of individual specimens is an essential component in animal studies. It is necessary to confirm these results through deoxyribonucleic acid analyses since factors such as geographic variation may influence the size of species. Keywords: Biometry, Cape Petrel, Principal Component Analysis, Antarctica

Introduction

The bright colors present in many animal species may be related to evolution (Andersson, 1994). Various variables have been suggested to explain colors in birds, including protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermoregulation, camouflage and predator distraction (Bortolotti, 2006). Birds with monomorphic plumage, especially if the difference in body size between the sexes is small, could indicate a lack of research due to the difficulty in identifying males and females. Morphometric measures are considered to be important tools in the determination of a specific sex. However, true identification requires other factors such as observing behaviors of copulation and courtship during the reproductive season cloacal exam (Boersma & Davies, 1987; Catry et al., 1999; Gray & Hamer, 2001), or more recently, the use of techniques based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (Ellegren & Sheldon, 1997; Jodice et al., 2000), which will truly provide adequate information. Sex determination becomes a valuable tool in behavioral and population

studies in species without apparent sexual dimorphism (Winkler & Leisler, 1985), and considerably increases the correct interpretation of ecological data (Fletcher & Hamer, 2011). According to Kilhan (1970), males and females can exploit different ecological niches. Winkler & Leisler (1985) believed that the competition between partners could be reduced through different forms of habitat exploration between the sexes. Daption capense, popularly known as the Cape Petrel (Sick, 1997), is a small Procellariiform and presents the least amount of sexual dimorphism among this order (Sagar, 1986). Weidinger & Van Franeker (1998) state that D. capense presents small morphometric differences between males and females. Sexual dimorphism is evident in most petrels, in which males tend to be larger than females, with the exception of Storm Petrels (Oceanites oceanicus), where they may be smaller (Bourne, 1985). Considering the importance of morphometric variables in the comprehension of ecological and biological aspects, and particularly in sex

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(PCA). A correlation analysis was also used as a measure

determination, which has been cited in the literature, this study aims to (i) verify whether or not there is a correlation in the morphometric data and (ii) identify which measures vary the most between individuals measured.

of similarity and the data were normalized by the principal variable method. The analyses were performed on the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 18.

Materials and Methods

Results

Study area

Forty-five individuals were captured and measured

The study was conducted on Stinker Point, Elephant Island,

(Table 1).

Antarctica (61°07’31”S, 55°19’26”W). Stinker Point is one

The four principle axes of the PCA explained 64.3%

of the diverse regions found on Elephant Island that is not

of the variation: axis 1 explained 23.1%, axis 2 explained

covered by ice during the summer, and along with the rock

15.4%, axis 3 explained 13.2% and axis 4 explained 12.4%. The variable middle toe length contributed the most to the

escarpments it serves as a nesting and reproductive area for various marine bird species, including D. capense.

variation of axis 1, followed by the variable total length

Methodology

most to the variation of axis 2, followed by the variable

(Table 2). The variables right and left wing contributed the

During the austral summer of the southern hemisphere and

tarsus (Figure 1).

in locations that would supposedly support nesting, adult

The variables right wing and left wing were most highly

individuals of D. capense were captured with bare hands.

correlated (r = 0.648), followed by the weight and beak

The captured individuals were placed in cloth bags and

height (r = 0.426), right wing and beak height (r = 0.352)

were measured. The following 10 morphometric data were

and length and weight (r = 0.330). The average weight of

collected: weight (in grams) with a dynamometer (1000g);

the 45 individuals (442.8 ±87.7) found in our study was less

total body length and length of both wings and tail (500 mm

than that found in other studies in Antarctica for known

ruler); and tarsus, middle toe length, height, width and

individuals such as D. capense males (Marchant & Higgins,

total bill length with a caliper. Measurements were usually

1990; Weidinger & Van Franeker, 1998).

taken by two different researchers. All of the measurements, except weight, which was recorded in grams, were recorded

Discussion

in millimeters in a field data sheet.

Sagar (1986) also found lower values for males of D. capense australe. Pinder (1966) found the same weight as

Data analysis

that which was measured at Signy Island and greater than the

In order to determine which morphometric measures presented the greatest variation between individuals and the consequent ability to infer sexual determination for D. capense, we applied a Principal Components Analysis

weight measured by Weidinger & Van Franeker (1998) on King George Island. The weight of the females of our study was greater than that of the females of these other islands.

Table 1. Average and standard error of the measurements of 45 individuals of Daption capense.

Beak

Tail length

Length

Mf

Tarsus

Weight

Height

Width

Length

Right

Left

Mean

442.8

13.8

15.3

30.6

277.0

276.4

97.3

358.8

46.8

41.1

SD

±87.7

±1.7

±1.4

±2.7

±9.1

±8.9

±6.4

±25.2

±3.6

±3.4

Key: Mf: middle finger, SD: standard deviation

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Figure 1. Results of the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) demonstrating the group formed and the biometric variables that best explain each axis.

Table 2. Scores of the biometric variables that participated in the formation of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) axes.

Variable

Dimension

Andersson (1994) states that in groups of birds, mammals and reptiles, the male individuals are generally larger than the females. The larger body size in males can be attributed

1

2

Weight

-0,101

0,109

Peak heigth

0,169

-0,151

females (Andersson, 1994). Body mass in birds can vary

to the act of sexual selection, or, evolutionally speaking, the larger the maleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body size the greater is his access to

Peak width

0,56

-0,483

according to the season, sex, population and hour of the

Length of nozzle

0,496

-0,404

day, since weight will usually be higher at the end of the day

Right wing

0,604

0,725

and lower after a night of fasting (Clark, 1979). However,

Left wing

0,566

0,669

due to caring efforts before and after incubation, it is

Length of the tail

-0,078

-0,217

possible that females increase their accumulated energy

Length

0,713

-0,147

Middle finger

0,776

-0,047

Tarsus

-0,321

0,576

reserves and therefore become heavier (Clark, 1979). The state of the life cycle and the activity of molting, especially in migratory birds, influence their weight since the energy spent during reproduction, reproductive resting and

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molting feathers is different and have different physiological

in their contribution of more information in explaining

requirements (Gill, 1995). Additionally, studies show that

the axes.

small variations in weight and other measurements occur in different geographical distributions (Weidinger & Van Franeker, 1998).

Conclusion Determining the sex of individuals is essential in most studies of animal species. Through comparisons of some of the morphometric measurements taken in this study with those found in the literature, it is not possible to identify whether the individuals measured in this study are males or females. It is still necessary to confirm these results with DNA analysis, which will be conducted next, as there could be other factors that influence the size of this species, such

Acknowledgments This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM) and

as geographic variation. However, we were able to determine

Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level – or

that some morphometric measurements are more important

Education – Personnel (CAPES).

References Andersson, M. (1994). Sexual selection. Princeton, Princeton University press. 624 p. Boersma, P.D. & Davies, E.M. (1987). Sexing monomorphic birds by vent measurements. The Auk, 104:779-783. Bortolotti, G.R. (2006) Natural selection and coloration: protection, concealment, advertisement, or deception? In: Hill, G.E. & McGraw, K.J. Bird coloration. Function and evolution, vol 2. Harvard. Cambridge. University Press. 477p. Bourne, W.R.P. (1985). Petrel. In: Campbell, B. & Lack, E. A Dictionary of Birds. British Ornithologists’ Union. 670p. Catry, P.; Ruxton, G. D.; Ratcliffe, N.; Hamer, K. C; Furness, R. W. (1999). Short-lived repeatabilities on long-lived Great Skuas: implications for the study of individual quality. Oikos, 84: 473-479. Clark, J.R., G.A. (1979). Body weights of birds: a review. Condor, 81:193-202. Ellegren, H. & Sheldon, B.C. (1997). New tools for sex identification and the study of sex allocation in birds. Trends Ecology Evolution, 12:255-259. Fletcher, K.L. & Hamer, K.C. (2011). Sexing terns using biometrics: the advantage of within-pair comparisons: within-par comparisons substantially improve the accuracy of sexing from biometrics for two congeneric species of seabird with monomorphic plumage and soft-tissue colouration. Bird Study, 50:78-83. Gill, F.B. (1995). Ornithology. New York: Freeman W.H. and Company. 763p. Gray, C.M. & Hamer, K.C. (2001). Food provisioning behaviour of male and female Manx Shearwaters Puffinus puffinus. Animal Behaviour, 62:117-121. Jodice, P.G.R.; Lanctot, R.B.; Gill, V.A.; Roby, D.D. & Hatch, S.A. (2000). Sexing adult Black-legged Kittiwakes by DNA, behaviour, and morphology. Waterbirds, 23: 405-415. Kilhan, L. (1970). Feeding behavior of downy woodpeckers. I preference for paper birches and sexual differences. The Auk, 87:544-556.

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Marchant, S. & Higgins, P.J. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Vol.1: Ratites to Ducks: Part A Ratites to Petrels. Melbourne, Oxford University Press. 1400p. Pinder, R. (1966). The Cape pigeon, Daption capense Linnaeus, at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. Bulletin British Antarctic Survey, 8:19-47. Sagar, P.M. (1986). The sexual dimorphism of Snares Cape pigeons (Daption capense australe). Notornis, 33:259-263. Sick, H. (1997). Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro, Editora Nova Fronteira. 912p. Weidinger, K. & Van Franeker, J.A. (1998). Applicability of external measurements to sexing of the Cape petrel Daption capense at within-pair, within-population and between-population scales. Journal of Zoology, 245:473-482. Winkler, H. & Leisler, B. (1985). Morphological aspects of habitat selection in birds. In: Cody, M.L. Habitat selection in birds. 1.ed. San Diego. Academic Press. 558p.

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9 BIPARENTAL CARE OF CHINSTRAP PENGUIN: MOLECULAR SEXING AND LIFE HISTORY IN THE SOUTH SHETLAND ISLANDS, ANTARCTICA Jaqueline Brummelhaus*, Victor Hugo Valiati1, Maria Virginia Petry2 Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – UNISINOS, Av. Unisinos, 950, Cristo Rei, CEP 93022-000, São Leopoldo-RS, Brazil 2 Laboratório de Ornitologia e Animais Marinhos, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – UNISINOS, Av. Unisinos, 950, Cristo Rei, CEP 93022-000, São Leopoldo-RS, Brazil15001000 1

*e-mail: jaquebrummelhaus@gmail.com

Abstract: Chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica, breeding biology involves several distinct stages of chick rearing, in which each parent varies in their relative contribution to reproductive success. We investigated tertiary adult sex ratios using molecular sexing in breeding colonies during guard and crèche stages of chick rearing at Admiralty Bay (King George Island) and on Stinker Point (Elephant Island) in the 2010/2011 breeding season. We analyzed 52 blood samples and found this represented 31 males and 21 females. We observed that the adult sex ratio in guard and crèche stages did not vary significantly. However, we feel evidence did infer differences in relative biparental care behavior between the two stages studied. Thus, it was possible to develop a potential hypothesis of relationship between sex ratio of adults present during different stages of the breeding season by molecular biology technique with Chinstrap penguin life history and gain understanding of the importance of contributions of both sexes in raising their offspring and for attaining reproductive success. Keywords: Chinstrap Penguin, Guard and Crèche Stage, Biparental Care, Molecular Sexing.

Introduction Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) are an Antarctic species that breed during the austral summer in colonies on

returning at intervals to feed their chick(s) (Conroy et al.,

ice-free areas of coast, mainly on sub-Antarctic islands and

1975a,b). After molt of chick down, the fledgling stage

the Antarctic Peninsula. In South Shetland Islands, the total

occurs from late February-early March. This is when chicks

breeding population was estimated to be 1.248.350 pairs

go to sea, leave their parents and become self-sufficient,

(Harris, 2006). Adults return to  breeding colonies  from

returning again to undergo a second molt to adult plumage

late October to early November. Both members of a given

the following year (Williams, 1995).

pair remain for about a month until the laying of one or two eggs is complete (Williams, 1995).

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are left in the colony, while both parents are foraging and

The Chinstrap penguin is a  monogamous species (Moreno et al., 2000) and fairly equal parental investment

During the incubation stage, adults remain at the nest

is made by both members of the pair. Male and female

for extended periods to incubate and protect the eggs. They

participate in nest building and maintenance, taking turns

each spend shorter alternating periods attending the nest

to care for eggs during incubation, and guarding and feeding

during the hatching and guard stages (Trivelpiece et  al.,

of chicks (Conroy et al., 1975a; Moreno et al., 1995, 1999;

1990; Williams, 1995). The guard stage may last up to 30

Williams, 1995; Jansen et al., 2002), in a similar manner to

days after hatching. After that, chicks begin to organize

all species that forage at sea and that breed on land they

themselves into loose aggregations (crèche) and chicks

form strong pair bonds and exhibit exclusive biparental

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care (Cockburn, 2006). Since both parents are essential to reproductive success, the optimum sex ratio is 1:1 for maximum Chinstrap penguin breeding success, is to be expected. The species actual sex ratio for each breeding colony represents population response to local genetic, environmental, behavioral and evolutionary factors, so it is an important parameter to understanding population life history (Seger & Stubblefield, 2002; Fargallo et  al., 2004; Jenouvrier et al., 2010). We investigated tertiary sex ratio (adult stage) in breeding colonies during guard and crèche stages of P. antarctica in Admiralty Bay (King George Island) and on Stinker Point (Elephant Island) in the 2010/2011 breeding season, by molecular sexing. Our goal was to gain a better insight into behavioral parameters of breeding success for the species.

Materials and Methods Chinstrap penguin adults were sampled while away

characteristic) (Griffiths & Tiwari, 1993; Griffiths, 2000). For molecular sexing, the CHD gene region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using P2 and P8 primers (Griffiths  et  al., 1998). PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gel and bands were visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Sex ratio was calculated for each date and breeding colony. The predicted hypothesis of existence of a balanced male/female sex ratio on different dates (different rearing stages) and separate breeding colonies was tested through chi-square (χ2) analysis by Systat 13 software.

Results We analyzed 52 samples and found 31 males and 21 females. The PCR amplification showed a single band of about 270 base pairs (pb) for males, while females showed two bands of about 370 and 270 pb (Figure1).

from their nests at Admiralty Bay (King George Island)

For Chabrier Rock breeding colony, in Admiralty Bay, we

(62°05’S; 58°23’W) and Stinker Point (Elephant Island)

found a sex ratio equal to 0.52 (χ2 = 0.05, p > 0.05) (10 males

(61°08’S; 55°07’W), South Shetland Islands, Antarctica,

and 11 females) for dates that correspond to the chick guard

in the 2010/2011 breeding season. In Admiralty Bay, we took 21 blood samples from the Chabrier Rock colony on December 30/2010 (guard stage) and ten samples in Uchatka Point colony on February 7/2011 (crèche stage). At Stinker Point, we took 21 blood samples in two breeding colonies on December 29/2010 and January 23/2011 (guard stage). Blood samples were centrifuged, since for this study we used only red blood cells. The latter were refrigerated and stored in a sample bank at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS). Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples through standard phenol/chloroform technique with digestion by proteinase K enzyme. In birds, sex identification is determined by chromosomes Z and W, which have either CHD-Z or CHD-W genes (Griffiths & Tiwari, 1993; Griffiths, 2000). The gene CHD-Z occurs in both sexes, while CHD-W occurs only in the female. A female has two different chromosomes, W and Z in her karyotype and two bands result on an electrophoresis gel in analysis, a heterogametic characteristic. The male has two copies of the single chromosome type (Z) and thus shows a single band of stain via electrophoresis (a hemizygous

Figure 1. PCR products of P2-P8 primers on DNA from female (about 370 and 270 pb) and male (about 270 pb) of Pygoscelis antarctica and molecular weight (100 bp DNA ladder - Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA).

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stage. In Uchatka Point breeding colony (Admiralty Bay) we found the sex ratio of 0.8 (χ = 3.6, p > 0.05) (08 males 2

and 02 females) for dates that correspond to the crèche stage. In Stinker Point, Elephant Island, we found a sex ratio of 0.6 for December 29/2010 (χ 2 =  0.4,  p  >  0.05) (06 males and 04 females) and 0.54 for January 23, 2011 (χ2 = 0.09, p > 0.05) (06 males and 05 females). These dates correspond to the guard stage. For guard and crèche stages, sex ratio did not differ significantly from the expected ratio of males to females 1:1.

Discussion and Conclusion Our results show that sex ratios for Chinstrap penguin adults present at the breeding colony during chick rearing in guard stage did not deviate from the expected ratio of 1:1. This information confirms biparental care of offspring during one of the most critical reproductive stages. Data collected in December and January correspond to chick hatching and guard stages. During this period, adults alternate turns between foraging and chick care every ½ day to 1 day, thus both parents have the opportunity to feed and bring prey for chicks (Conroy et al., 1975b; Williams, 1995; Meyer  et  al., 1997; Jansen  et  al., 2002). Chinstrap penguins feed their offspring soon after hatching, which determines the need for the adults to exchange foraging and protection duties at short intervals during this life phase (Conroy  et  al.,  1975b; Croxall & Furse, 1980) and helps explain the sex ratio observed during chick hatching which we observed in December 2010. During incubation stage (36-40 days), females alternate turns with males at incubating eggs, in periods of three-ten days, spending a longer time at sea for feeding after a prolonged non-feeding courtship period in which the couple remained in colonies to ensure mating and posture (Conroy  et  al., 1975a,b; Williams, 1995). However, the sex of offspring may affect the duration of foraging trips during the guard phase, as in Pygoscelis adeliae, indicating that adults can adjust their level of parental investment differently according to the sex of offspring (Beaulieu et al., 2009). During the crèche stage, the sex ratio difference observed was larger, but not significant, probably due to small sample size. However, this implies that at least one pair member spends more time in the colony. This is similar to what occurs at the beginning of the incubation stage for this penguin species, when exchange intervals are of

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longer duration. Observations from past studies similarly report that individual adults remain longer at sea to feed before returning to feed chicks during the crèche stage (Conroy et al., 1975b; Jansen et al., 2002), which explains the greater variation of sex ratio of adults sampled in our study in February 2011. For Chinstrap penguins, quality of biparental care is essential for reproductive success, because successful rearing of offspring is subject to many factors, such as parent’s inexperience, lack of adequate thermal protection and consequent egg and chick losses (Conroy  et  al., 1975a,b; Trivelpiece et al., 1990; Williams, 1995). In addition, there are important reasons for biparental care, among them the need to obtain food from the sea over long distances and interspecific predation, in that some species of birds specialize on preying on the nests of others, as argued by Cockburn (2006). Through use of molecular techniques to determine sex of P. antarctica, it was possible to examine possible relationships between adult sex ratios present for different stages of the breeding season with the specie’s life history and improve the understanding of the importance of contributions of both sexes in raising their offspring to achieve reproductive success.

Acknowledgements The project received funding from the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, (CNPq) process n° 574018/2008-5, the Carlos Chagas Foundation for Support of Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) n° E-16/170.023/2008 and the support of the Ministry of Environment (MMA), the Ministry of Science and Technology and Innovation (MCTI) the Secretariat of the Interministerial Commission for Resources of the Sea (SeCIRM), and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level – or Education – Personnel (CAPES). We are grateful to laboratory operators Igor Radamés de Oliveira (UNISINOS) and the biologist Guilherme Pinto Cauduro for the technical support provided. We appreciate the improvements in English usage made by Phil Whitford through the Association of Field Ornithologists’ program of editorial assistance.


References Beaulieu, M.; Thierry, A-M.; Raclot, T.; Le Maho, Y.; Ropert-Coudert, Y.; Gachot-Neveu, H. & Ancel, A. (2009). Sex-specific parental strategies according to the offspring in the Adélie penguin. Behavioral Ecology, 20:878–883. Cockburn, A. (2006). Prevalence of different modes of parental care in birds. Proccedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, 273:1375-1383. Conroy, J.W.H.; Darling, O.H.S. & Smith, H.G. (1975a). The annual cycle of the Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. In.: Stonehouse, B. (ed). The Biology of penguins. University Park Press. p. 353-362. Conroy, J.W.H.; White, M.G.; Furse, J.R. & Bruce, G. (1975b). Observations on the breeding biology of the chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica, at Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin, 40:23-32. Croxall, J.P. & Furse, J.R. (1980). Food of chinstrap penguins, Pygoscelis antarctica, and macaroni penguins, Eudyptes chrysolophus, at Elephant Island Group, South Shetland Islands. Ibis, 122:237-245. Fargallo, J.A.; Dávila, J.A.; Potti, J.; Léon, A. de & Polo, V. (2004). Nest size and hatchling sex ratio in chinstrap penguins. Polar Biology, 27:339-343. Griffiths, R. (2000). Sex identification in Birds. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, 9(1):14-26. Griffiths, R.; Double, M.C.; Orr, K. & Dawson, R.J.G. (1998). A DNA test to sex most birds. Molecular Ecology, 7:1071-1075. Griffiths, R. & Tiwari, B. (1993). The isolation of molecular genetic markers for the identification of sex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90:8324-8326. Harris, C.M. (2006). Wildlife Awareness Manual: Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Island. Wildlife Information Publication No. 1. Prepared for the UK Foreing & Commonwealth Office and HMS Endurance. Environmental Research & Assesssment, Cambridge. Jansen, J.K.; Russell, R.W. & Meyer, W.R. (2002). Seasonal shifts in the provisioning behavior of chinstrap penguins, Pygoscelis antarctica. Oecologia, 131:306-318. Jenouvrier, S.; Caswell, H.; Barbraud, C. & Weimerskirch, H. (2010) Mating Behavior, Population Growth, and the Operational Sex Ratio: A Periodic Two-Sex Model Approach. The American Naturalist, 175:739-752. Meyer, W.R.; Bengtson, J.L.; Jansen, J.K. & Russell, R.W. (1997). Relationships between brood size and parental provisioning performance in chinstrap penguins during the chick guard phase. Polar Biology, 17:228-234. Moreno, J.; Boto, L.; Fargallo, J.A.; de Léon, A. & Potti, J. (2000). Absence of extra-pair fertilization in the Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarctica. Journal of Avian Biology, 31:580-583. Moreno, J.; Bustamante, J. & Viñuela, J. (1995). Nest maintenance and Stone theft in the Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) 1. Sex roles and effects on fitness. Polar Biology, 15:533-540. Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. & León, A de. (1999). The effect of nest size on stone-gathering behavior in the Chinstrap penguin. Polar Biology, 22:90-92. Seger, J. & Stubblefield, J.W. (2002). Models of sex ratio evolution. In. Hardy, I.C.W. (ed). Sex ratio: Concepts and research methods. Cambridge. p. 2-25. Trivelpiece, W.Z.; Trivelpiece, S.G.; Geupel, G.R.; Kjelmyr, J. & Volkman, N.J. (1990). Adélie and Chinstrap Penguins: Their Potential as Monitors of the Southern Ocean Marine ecosystem. In. Kerry, K.R. & Hempel, G. (eds). Antarctic Ecosystems. Ecological Change and Conservation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. p. 191-202. Williams, T.D. (1995). The Penguins – Spheniscidae. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.

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10 YOUR NEIGHBOR IS AN ENEMY: THE RELATION BETWEEN CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY AND THE DISTANCE FROM FOOD SOURCE Suzana Seibert*, Maria Virginia Petry Laboratório de Ornitologia e Animais Marinhos, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – UNISINOS, Av. Unisinos, 950, Cristo Rei, CEP 93.022-000, São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil *e-mail: suzanaseibert@gmail.com

Abstract: The Brown skua is a top predator seabird. During the breeding season it feeds mainly on terrestrial resources, where the most recorded are penguins. The presence of Cape petrel in Brown skua chicks regurgitations was evaluated in relation to nesting distance to the Cape petrel colony at Elephant Island. A 45% rate of spontaneous regurgitations of Cape petrels was registered and this frequency was significantly related to nesting distance from the Cape petrel colony. Pygoscelis sp. remains were registered in just 15% of samples. Two hypotheses can be accepted, either it indicates that brown skuas are selecting nesting sites that are closer to Cape petrel colonies, or they are just acting opportunistically. An important observation is that penguins were not the most consumed seabird. Food consumption patches were different than expected, reinforcing the importance of more diet investigations. Keywords: Brown Skua, Diet, Chick, South Shetlands

Introduction Skuas (Stercorariidae) are known to be pelagic, top predator and opportunistic seabirds, playing an important role in the food web. Brown skua (Catharacta lonnbergi) breeds in Southern Ocean islands, from Antarctic Peninsula to New Zealand islands (Watson, 1975). Nests are built in ice-free areas. In the breeding season they feed mainly on terrestrial resources, like seal carrion and placenta, penguin, petrels and opportunistically available eggs and chicks (Watson, 1975; Burton, 1968; Reinhardt et al., 2000). But diet composition varies along the seasons according to availability of resources (Phillips et al., 2004; Anderson et al., 2009). Sometimes adults defend their feeding territory inside a penguin colony (Trivelpiece et al., 1980; Hahn & Peter, 2003; Hahn & Bauer, 2008) in order to ensure sufficient food for the chicks. Skuas predation may pose threats to other seabird populations like the Cape petrel (Daption capense), (Weidinger, 1998), Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica) (Varpe & Tveraa, 2005) and burrowing petrels (Halobaena caerulea and Pachytila belcheri) (Mougeot  et  al., 1998). Because skuas reproductive success may vary according to

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food availability, populations can be affected by bottom-up effect (Ritz et al., 2005). Predator and prey relations may vary along time and space, so, diet studies play an important role in population monitor. We aim to evaluate if the presence of the Cape petrel on Brown skua chicks’ diet is related to nesting distance from the Cape petrel colony.

Materials and Methods Brown skua chicks spontaneous regurgitation samples were collected at Stinker Point, Elephant Island (61°07’31”S, 55°19’26”W), South Shetlands, during 2010/11 austral summer. Regurgitations were collected opportunistically during routine chick weighing and ringing (Phillips et al., 2004; Barrett et al., 2007). The regurgitations were frozen until identification in laboratory. Just animal items were considered and identified to lowest possible taxon. During incubation, Brown skua nest positions were recorded with a hand-held GPS receiver (60CSx, Garmim), as well as the Cape petrel and Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) colonies. Distances from nests to the Cape petrel colony


were calculated by means of GIS software Arcgis. Data was tested for normality and homogeneity variances. Statistical analyses were performed in SPSS software (Version 18.0). Significance level was assumed as 0.05, and means are presented as ±SE. Logistic regression (Entered Method) was used in order to evaluate the relationship between Cape petrel presence at regurgitations and the distance from nests to its colony.

Table 1. Comparison among distances. Distances from Brown skua nests to Cape petrel and Chinstrap penguin colonies if species had or had not been registered at chicks’ regurgitation.

Registered at spontaneous regurgitation

Distance to Pygoscelis sp(m)

Distance to Cape petrel (m)

Cape petrel

260 ± 147 (n 13)

208 ± 107(n 13)

Pygoscelis sp

428 ± 273 (n 4)

302 ± 218(n 4)

Results A total of 33 Brown skua chicks’ spontaneous regurgitations were collected. For two, fish remains were registered, at five Pygoscelis sp. and for 15 Cape petrel contents. It was not possible to identify the material taxon of seven samples. Mean distances from nests to Chinstrap penguin colony was 269 ±187m and to Cape petrel 244 ±131m. It is important to note the relationship between distances from nests to colonies and the presence or absence of both species at chicks’ regurgitations (Table 1). Cape petrel presence in regurgitation samples was significantly related to nesting distance from the Cape petrel colony (β = 0,008; Wald = 4,261, R² = 0,23; p < 0,05) (Figure 1). It means that the nearer the nests are to a Cape petrel colony, the higher is the probability to register it at chicks’ regurgitations.

Figure 1. Predicted probability (extracted from logistic regression). Cape petrel (Daption capense) remains at Brown skua (Catharacta lonnbergi) chick’s spontaneous regurgitation in relation to the distance (m) from Brown skua nests to the Cape petrel colony at Stinker Point, Elephant Island.

Discussion Brown skuas diet described for South Shetlands at breeding season consists less of fish and more on terrestrial resources, mainly penguins, rarely feeding on Cape petrel (Reinhardt, 1997; Malzof & Quintana, 2008). A low fish frequency at regurgitations was expected. On King George Island, in 1993/4 and 1994/5 breeding seasons, Brown skua chicks received 80% penguin components and 12% station garbage (Reinhardt, 1997). A high frequency of penguin at chicks’ regurgitation was expected because, Brown skuas’ main food source is from penguin colonies (Trivelpiece et al., 1980; Hahn & Peter, 2003; Young, 2005; Hahn & Bauer, 2008). At Elephant Island, the main food source, for this specific breeding season, based on chicks’ regurgitation, was from the Cape petrel colony. Brown skua’ predation can pose a real threat for Cape petrel colonies, as happened at Nelson Island, where 76% of specie’ nesting failure were attributed to Brown skua predation

in the 1991/92 breeding season (Weidinger, 1998). Nests where Cape petrel contents were registered were nearer to its colony than to penguin colonies. In this way, two hypothesis can be considered, either skuas are selecting breeding sites so that they are located close to Cape petrel colonies and not near to penguins’; or, as they are known to be an opportunistic species, they are just accessing the nearest resource acting opportunistically. In order to answer those questions, more studies have to be developed, not just diet investigations but to understand deeply inter-specific relations at Elephant Island.

Conclusion Predator and prey relationship may vary according to breeding site characteristics, which can also vary over time. The well-known relation between skuas and penguins was

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different at Elephant Island because the presence of the

Environmental Research (INCT-APA, Portuguese acronym),

Cape petrel colony. Food source is one of the factors that

the National Council for Scientific and Technological

dictate reproductive success, consequently population

Development, (CNPq, Portuguese acronym) process n°

dynamics. It is a crucial factor, not just for predators, but

574018/2008-5, Carlos Chagas Foundation for Support of

also for prey species’ ecology. In this way, we reinforce the

Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, Portuguese

importance of dietary investigations, and also the need to

acronym), process n° E-16/170.023/2008, and was

continue this investigation in order to enhance quantitative

supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology and

and qualitative data.

Innovation (MCTI, Portuguese acronym) the Secretariat of

Acknowledgments The project received funding from the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic

the Interministerial Commission for Resources of the Sea (SECIRM, Portuguese acronym), and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level – or Education – Personnel (CAPES).

References Anderson, O.R.J.; Phillips, R.A.; Shore, R.F.; Mcgill, R.A.R.; Mcdonald, R.A. & Bearhop, E.S. (2009). Diet, individual specialization and breeding of Brown Skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi): an investigation using stable isotopes. Polar Biology, 32:27-33. Barrett, R.T.; Camphuysen, C.J.; Anker-Nilssen, T; Chardine, J.W.; Furness, R.W. Garthe, S.; Hüppop, O.; Leopold, M.F.; Montevecchi, W.A. & Veit, R.R. (2007). Diet studies of seabirds: a review and recommendations. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64:1675-1691. Burton, R.W. (1968). Breeding biology of the Brown Skua, Catharacta skua lonnbergi (Matheus) at Signy, South Orkney Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin, 15:9-28. Hahn, S. & Bauer, S. (2008). Dominance in feeding territories relates to foraging success and offspring growth in Brown Skuas Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi. Behavior Ecology Sociobiology, 62:1149-1157. Hahn, S. & Peter, H-U. (2003). Feeding territoriality and the reproductive consequences in Brown Skuas Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi. Polar Biology, 26:552-559. Malzof, S.L. & Quintana, R.D. (2008). Diet of the south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki and the brown skua C. antarctica lonnbergi at Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology, 31:827-835. Mougeot, F.; Genevois F. & Bretagnolle, V. (1998). Predation on burrowing petrels by the brown skua (Catharacta skua lonnbergi) at Mayes Island, Kerguelen. The Zoological Society of London, 244:429-438. Phillips, R.A.; Phalan, B. & Forster, I.P. (2004). Diet and long-term changes in population size and productivity of brown skuas Catharacta antarctica lonnbergiat Bird Island, South Georgia. Polar Biology, 27:555-561. Reinhardt, K. (1997). Food and feeding of Antarctic skua chicks Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi and C. maccorrnicki. Journal für Ornithologie, 38:199-213. Reinhardt, K.; Hahn, S.; Peter, H.-U. & Wemhoff, H. (2000). A review of the diets of Southern Hemisphere skuas. Marine Ornithology, 28:7-19. Ritz, M.S.; Hahn, S. & Peter, H-U. (2005). Factors affecting chick growth in the South Polar Skua (Catharacta maccormicki): food supply, weather and hatching date. Polar Biology, 29:53-60. Trivelpiece, W.; Bulter, R.G. & Volkman, N.J. (1980). Feeding territories of Brown Skuas (Catharacta lonnbergi). Auk, 97:669-676.

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Varpe, Ă&#x2DC;. & Tveraa, T. (2005). Chick survival in relation to nest site: is the Antarctic petrel hiding from its predator? Polar Biology, 28:388-394. Watson, G. E. (1975). Birds of the Antarctic and Sub-Anterctic.1.ed.Richmond: The William Byrd Press Inc. 375p. Weidinger, K. (1998). Effect of predation by skuas on breeding success of the Cape petrel Daption capense at Nelson Island, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 20:170-177. Young, E. (2005) Skua end penguin: predator and prey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 472p.

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11 COLLEMBOLA (ARTHROPODA, HEXAPODA) ASSOCIATED TO TERRESTRIAL GREEN ALGAE FROM ICE-FREE AREAS IN ADMIRALTY BAY (KING GEORGE ISLAND, SOUTH SHETLANDS ISLANDS, ANTARCTICA) Maria Cleide de Mendonça1,*,Gabriel Costa Queiroz1; Eduardo Assis Abrantes1,2, Adriana Galindo Dalto3 & Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin3 1

Setor de Apterygotologia, Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/nº, São Cristóvão, CEP 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil 2 Museu de Zoologia, Serviço de Invertebrados, Laboratório de Lepidoptera, Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Avenida Nazaré, 481, CEP 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brasil 3 Laboratório de Macroalgas Marinhas, Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, bloco A, sala A1-094, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21.941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil *e-mail: cleidecollembola@gmail.com

Abstract: Two species of Collembola were identified associated to the terrestrial green algae Prasiola crispa of ice-free areas near penguin rookeries at Polish Antarctic Station Henryk Arctowski, Admiralty Bay. Cryptopygus antarcticus and Friesea grisea are Collembola species frequently recorded for the Antarctic region, although some discrepancies were observed regarding the morphological characteristics of F. grisea specimens collected in this study. However, more specimens should be collected in other areas of Admiralty Bay and analyzed to confirm this diagnosis. Thus, this research can contribute to the knowledge of the biodiversity of Collembola in the region, particularly in Admiralty Bay, which is an Antarctic Specially Managed Area. Keywords: Microinvertebrates, Penguin Rookeries, Prasiola crispa, Springtail

Introduction The Class Collembola is one of the most abundant groups of arthropods in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the planet, which also includes the Antarctic continent (Rapoport, 1971; Schulte et al., 2008). During the thawing period, part of the melt water accumulates between rocks, in addition to the organic detritus of seabirds creating a favorable habitat for the development of moss and algae patches, such as the green algae Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing 1843 (Hayward et al., 2004; Elnitsky et al., 2008). These patches also support relatively diverse fauna of microinvertebrates, among these; there are some arthropods with a high degree of endemism, such as Collembolla (Wise, 1971; Hayward  et  al., 2004; Convey  et  al., 1999). Furthermore, P. crispa is also part of food source items of some Collembola

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species and others microinvertebrates (Bokhorst et al., 2007; Roger & Lukesova, 2000). In addition, Admiralty Bay is a protected area of the Antarctic Continent, classed as an Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA no. 1) by the “Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection” and is located in the Antarctic Peninsula, one of the world’s warming areas (Mulvaney et al., 2012).These facts are an important incentive for the development of research studies on the biological diversity of the Antarctic Peninsula, which can contribute to the knowledge and protection of this region. In this context, the aims of this study are to quantify and identify the Collembola species associated to the algae Prasiola crispa in the ice-free areas of Admiralty Bay


(King George Island, Antarctica). It was achieved through a

to be observed in optical microscope with magnification of

collaborative research between the Collembola Laboratory

1.000 x. The identification was carried out using specialized

of Museu Nacional/UFRJ and INCT- APA (Antarctic

literature.

Environmental Research).

Materials and Methods

Results A total of 16 Collembola specimens, belonging to the

Samples of P. crispa tuft were taken at penguin rookeries

families Isotomidae (Entomobryomorpha) and Neanuridae

areas next to the Polish Station Henryk Arctowski

(Poduromorpha) were collected. The Isotomidae species

(Admiralty Bay, King George Island). The samples of

Cryptopygus antarcticus Willem, 1902 was represented by

approximately 3 cm² were fixed in 4% formaldehyde for

13 specimens, while of the Neanuridae species Friesea grisea

transportation. In Brazil, the material was processed at the

(Shaeffer, 1891), only 3 specimens were obtained. Both

Marine Macroalgae Laboratory (UFRJ, INCT-APA) through

species have strong dark pigmentation on their bodies, as

stereomicroscope and the associated fauna was sorted in

described in the literature.

taxonomic groups and preserved in ethanol 70%. Springtails were separated and sent to Collembola Laboratory of Museu

Discussion

Nacional/UFRJ. There, the specimens of Collembola with

The species C. antarcticus is found widespread in the

strong body pigmentation were diaphanized using a solution

Antarctic continent and its adjacent islands (Wise, 1971;

with 1/3 potassium bichromate and 2/3 of hydrochloric

McGaughran et  al., 2010). Deharveng (1981) found that

acid. Subsequently, the specimens were mounted on slides

many specimens, from different regions of the continent,

Figure 1. Sampling station in Admiralty Bay (blue triangle), highlighting its location in relation to King George Island and South Shetland Islands (Antarctic Peninsula). Illustration: Rafael Bendayan de Moura.

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had enough differences in morphological characters to separate them into four subspecies: C. antarcticus antarcticus, C. a. maximus, C. a. reagens and C. a. travei. More recently, McGaughran et  al. (2010) tested the validity of the subspecies previously described in a biogeographic study of circum-Antarctic Cryptopygus by means of molecular data. Nevertheless, no great support was obtained by the results for a conclusive separation of some of the species that forms the Cryptopygus “complex” of Antarctic. It was evident, however, that the species present in the region of the Antarctic peninsula is C. a. antarcticus, as that originally described by Willem (1901), despite the fact that there were recent and subsequent colonization events in the islands of this region. The specimens of C. antarcticus obtained in this study have the same characters described in original description, corroborating the works cited above. The specimens of F. grisea obtained and studied in the present work are largely consistent with the morphological characters previously described (e.g. Salmon, 1962). However,

there are some discrepancies, such as the presence of serrated dorsal chaetae. The dorsal chaetotaxy of this species was described as being composed only of smooth chaetae throughout the body. Furthermore, the material examined by Salmon (1962) presented differences between males and females regarding the apical bulb, on fourth antennal segment, and chaetae of the sixth abdominal segment, near the anal spines. Such differences were not observed in the specimens in this study. Thus, further analysis of more specimens of the region, with special attention to the characteristics mentioned, besides others such as the mouthparts, can generate new information about this species.

Conclusion The study of endemic springtail from Antarctic enriches the collections and expertise of taxonomists of the country and also provides greater integration between the research teams. Both species identified, although common, are important in the Antarctic continent, which reinforces the

a

b

c

d

Figures 2. Friesea grisea: A. Anal spines and setae of abd.seg.VI, female, specimen collected by INCT equip in 2011; B. Anal spines and setae of abd.seg. VI, male (modified from Salmon, 1962); C. Anal spines and setae of abd.seg.VI, male (modified from Salmon, 1962); D. Anal spines and setae of abd.seg. VI, female (modified from Salmon, 1962).

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valuable information obtained from this wildlife research by a Brazilian team. The material of C. antarcticus from the South Shetlands islands of the present study corroborates recent studies regarding the taxonomy of the Antarctic species. In this context, the importance of increasing knowledge of biological

Acknowledgements This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development

diversity, particularly in the case of Admiralty Bay, which is an

(CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas

Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA 1), under Annex

Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de

V of the Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental

Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors

Protection (Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, XX ATCM, Utrecht, 1996), should be stressed. Although widely distributed and well known in the region, no specimen of F. grisea had yet been reported with the dorsal chaetotaxy showing serrated chaetae. The analysis of new samples can

also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM). Dr Eduardo Assis Abrantes is

bring valuable information on this important Antarctic

granted by FAPESP (Process #2012/12959). MSc. Gabriel

species.

Costa Queiroz is granted by CAPES.

References Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (XX ATCM, Utrecht, 1996). Final Report of the Twentieth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. Utrecht, Netherlands, 29 April-10 May 1996: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 1997, 78 p. Bokhorst, S.; Ronfort, C.; Huiskes, A.; Convey, P. & Aerts, R. (2007). Food choice of Antarctic soil arthropods clarified by stable isotope signatures. Polar Biololy, 30:983-990. Convey, P.; Greenslade, P.; Arnold, R.J. & Block, W. (1999). Collembola of sub-Antarctic South Georgia. Polar Biology, 22:1-6. Deharveng, L. (1981) Collemboles des Iles Subantarctiques de L’Ócean Indien, Mission J. Travé 1972-1973. CNFRABiologie des Sols, 48: 33-108. Elnitsky, M.; Benoit, J.; Denlinger, D. & Lee Junior, R. (2008). Desiccation tolerance and drought acclimation in the Antarctic collembolan Cryptopygus antarcticus. Journal of Insect Physiology, 54: 1432–1439. Hayward, S.; Worland, M.; Convey, P. & Bale, J. (2004) Habitat moisture availability and the local distribution of the Antarctic Collembola Cryptopygus antarcticus and Friesea grisea. Soil biology and Biochemistry, 36: 927-934. McGaughran, A. Stevens, M. & Holland, B.R. (2010). Biogeography of circum-Antarctic springtails. Molecular Phylogenetics& Evolution, 57: 48-58. Mulvaney, R.; Abram, N. J.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Arrowsmith, C.; Fleet, L., Triest, J., Sime L. C.; Alemany, O. & Foord, S. (2012). Recent Antarctic Peninsula warming relative to Holocene climate and ice-shelf history. Nature, 489: 141-145. Rapoport, E. (1971). The Geographical Distribution of Neotropical and Antarctica Collembola. Pacific Insects Monograph, 25: 99-118. Roger, M.W. & Lukesova, A. (2000). The effect of feeding on specific soil algae on the cold-hardiness of two Antarctic microArthropods (Alaskazetes antarcticus and Cryptopigus antarcticus).Polar Biology, 23:766-774. Salmon, J.T. (1962). A New Species and Redescriptions of Collembola from Antarctica. Pacific Insects, 4(4): 887-894. Schulte, G.; Elnitsky, M.; Benoit, J.; Denlinger, D. & Lee Junior, R. (2008). Extremely large aggregations of collembolan eggs on Humble Island, Antarctica: a response to early seasonal warming? Polar Biology, 31: 889-892. Wise, K.A.J. (1971). The Collembola of Antarctica. Pacific Insects Monograph, 25: 57-74.

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THEMATIC AREA 3

IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE ANTARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT 102 Fernandes, L.F., Calixto, M., Lange, P., Tenenbaum, D.R. Benthic Diatoms In the Plankton of

Admiralty Bay (Western Antarctic Peninsula): Taxonomy and Potential Implications To the Pelagic Community

109 Tenório, M.M.B., Barrera-Alba, J.J., Tenenbaum, D.R. Plankton Structure of the Shallow Coastal

Zone at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, West Antarctic Peninsula (Wap): Chlorophyll Biomass and Size-Fractionated Chlorophyll During Austral Summer 2010/2011

115 Corbisier, T.N., Bromberg, S., Gheller, P.F., Ujikawa, M.C.Y., Petti, M.A.V. Long-Term Monitoring of

Anthropogenic Impacts From the Brazilian Antarctic Station “Comandante Ferraz” (King George Island): Isotopic Analysis of C and N

119 Figueiredo, M.I.S., Lavrado, H.P. Population Structure of Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908)

(Gastropoda – Nacellidae) at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica, In Austral Summer 2010/2011

122 Rodrigues Júnior, E., Feijó-Oliveira, M., Vani, G.S., Suda, C.N.K., Donatti, L., Machado, C., Lavrado, H.P., Rodrigues, E. Impact Assessment of Sewage of Brazilian Antarctic Station on the Plasma Constituents of Antarctic Fish Notothenia rossii

126 Gomes, V., Ngan, P.V., Passos, M.J.A.C R., Rocha, A.J.S., Hasue, F.M., Machado, A.S.D., Sartório,

P.V., Ferreira, J.P.L., Vignardi, C.P., Campos, D.Y.F., Ito, M. Study on the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and organic contaminants on Antarctic marine animals from shallow waters

131 Rocha, B.R., Bastos, A.C.F., Junqueira, A.O.R. Potential of Bioinvasion By Human Activities In the Antarctic Marine Environment

136 Suda, C.N.K., Feijó-Oliveira, M., Rodrigues Jr., E., Vani, G.S., Donatti, L., Lavrado, H.P., Rodrigues,

E. Biochemical Marker of Environmental Changes In Antarctic Animals: Screening of Energy Metabolism Enzymes of Nacella concinna For Monitoring of Intertidal Environment of Admiralty Bay, King George Island

140 Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y., Silva, I.B., Fujii, M.T., Yokoya, N.S., Pupo, D., Guimarães, S.M.P.B., Martins, A.P., Sanches, P.F., Pereira, D.C., Dalto, A.G., Souza, J.M.C., Pereira, C.M.P., Pellizzari, F.M., Colepicolo, P. Marine Macroalgal Diversity In Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetlands Islands, Antarctica

149 Lazaneo, C.Z., Rosa, L.D., Secchi, E.R. Structure of the Cetacean Community Around the Antarctic Peninsula 149

155 Salazar, R.T., Faria, G.M., Campos, T.M.S., Dalto, A.G. Harpacticoida Copepod Associated To

Macroalgae Himantothallus grandifolius (Ochrophyta, Desmarestiaceae) From Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands Island, Maritime Antarctica)

160 Lanna, A.M., Barboza, C.A.M., Moura, R.B., Lavrado, H.P., Dalto, A.G., Campos, L.S. Species

Composition and Spatial Distribution of Echinoderms In the Shallow Coast of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

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Team Leader

Dr. Helena Passeri Lavrado – IB/UFRJ Vice-Team Leader

Dr. Edson Rodrigues – UNITAU

Introduction The environmental monitoring undertaken in the last 4 years by INCT-APA (Brazilian National Institute for Science and Technology –Antarctic Environmental Research) has generated information which permits the evaluation of temporal trends in the properties and functions of marine ecosystems, as well as contributing to the management and conservation of the Antarctica Specially Managed Area (ASMA), which comprises the area of Admiralty Bay. The results obtained in the last year have revealed not only an environmental heterogeneity of the marine biota, but also important temporal variations, mainly in the water column. The phytoplankton has reflected this temporal variability, with alterations in the size and composition of species between the beginning and end of summer (Tenório et al., in this volume). This fact suggests the existence of relevant intra-annual variations associated to the influence of the period of thawing in the area, intensified at the end of summer, together with the increase in temperature, light and nutrients. Within the objectives of the long term monitoring, is the detection of changes in the populations and communities whose causes can be related to some anthropic influence. For example, in terms of trophic web, long term temporal data obtained through isotopic signature analysis of C/N already suggest a change in the feeding relations in the area close to the sewage outfall at EACF (Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station), with a small reduction of organic material from anthropic origin for the local benthic community between 2000 and 2005, considering the beginning of the austral summer (Corbisier et al., in this volume). Some organisms have also been used as biomonitors or bioindicators of environmental quality. The most conspicuous gastropod of the intertidal zone of Admiralty Bay, Nacella concinna, is considered a biomonitor for the region. Data of its

population structure in Admiralty Bay suggests that the spatial variations of that species abundance are still related to natural physical processes such as the wave action or to biological ones, such as the availability of food or predation by birds (Figueiredo e Lavrado, in this volume). Regarding the search for biochemical biomarkers of environmental changes (anthropic or natural) in Nacella over time, some enzymes of the energetic metabolism were analysed in various locations of the bay. In general terms, the MDH, LDH and HK of foot muscle tissue and the CS, PFK and G6PDH of gills have shown themselves to be little sensitive to the population genetic variations or to local natural variations, although being, however, strong candidates to be used as biomarkers of anthropic impacts (Suda et al., in this volume). Another group of marine organisms in which possible biochemical biomarkers are investigated, are notothenioid fishes, the majority endemic to Antarctica. At the moment, the analysis of the plasmatic constituents of Notothenia rossii and N. coriiceps have shown that the variations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins and albumin found are more related to local physical and chemical differences naturally present in Admiralty Bay (Rodrigues Jr et al., in this volume). One knows that the exposure of the Antarctic region to Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is also intense, especially in the summer, a period of intense primary productivity and of reproduction of a great number of marine species. The presence of pollutants in the marine environment, such as oil or sewage, can have their effects maximized or not through interaction with other environmental factors, such as UV radiation. With the purpose of evaluating the interaction of this radiation on the action of sewage pollutants and hydrocarbons in the marine biota near EACF, experimental studies have been undertaken with

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invertebrates (the amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica) and fish (Trematomus newmesi) to evaluate, shortly, the cytogenetic and immunochemical effects of this interaction (Gomes et al., in this volume). In general, the Antarctic marine environment shows a high degree of endemism. In this context, the introduction of exotic species by human activities or the expansion of the sub-Antarctic species distribution to the Antarctic region, as a result of climate change, could represent a serious risk to the marine biodiversity. A preliminary bio-geographic analysis, considering 529 benthic species in Admiralty Bay, indicated the existence of a small percentage of species with disjunct or cosmopolitan distribution (8.3%), which can or not include exotic species and which, for this reason, would deserve further investigation (Junqueira et al., in this volume). Although Admiralty Bay is the target of a number of environmental studies, the marine biodiversity in the bay is still underestimated. The evidence is the recent survey of the diatom benthic species, with 25 new records of species out of the 53 found in the last 10 years (Fernandes et al., in this volume) or copepods associated to marine algae, such as Himantothallus grandifolius (Salazar et al., in this volume). For this reason, the inventory of marine species is still fundamental, as well as the mapping out of the occurrence of these species. This has been undertaken for several groups of organisms, as is the case of benthic macroalgae, whose research revealed an occurrence of 60 species (Yoneshigue et al., in this volume). Four macroalgae species also occur in Brazilian waters, suggesting a certain degree of connectivity between Sub-Antarctic and tropical South Atlantic regions. The habitat heterogeneity also influences on the distribution of several groups of benthic invertebrates. Amongst them, the echinoderms generally dominate in the shallow sublittoral zone and have their

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spatial distribution determined by local variations of substrate types, hydrodynamic conditions or even feeding habits (Lanna et al., in this volume). Cetaceans occupy the position of top predators in the marine Antarctic environment, exploiting several regions of the Peninsula, amongst them the Gerlache and Bransfield straits, the latter being responsible for part of the water influx into Admiralty Bay. Humpback whales, for example, are frequently seen in the bay, feeding or moving around the inlets, which reinforces the need for studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of these populations. The comprehension of the role of top predators is fundamental for the monitoring and management of marine austral ecosystems, since the knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns of these species can contribute with the refinement of ecosystem models and in the establishment of new areas of environmental protection in the region. Recent data indicates that the diversity of the cetaceans varies between different regions of the Antarctic Peninsula, generally due to different oceanographic conditions (Lazaneo  et  al., in this volume). The greatest values are found in more open regions, such as Elephant Island or the Weddell Sea, whereas the more confined areas, such as the Gerlach strait shows a predominance of Humpback, Mink and Orca whales. In summary, the results presented here reinforce the importance of studying the several biological and environmental compartments of the marine ecosystem of Admiralty Bay. Only the simultaneous and integrated analysis of the information generated over time, as has been carried out within the sphere of initiative of INCT-APA, will enable the development of predictive ecological models of the Antarctic marine environment in the light of the natural environmental or anthropic changes.


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1 BENTHIC DIATOMS IN THE PLANKTON OF ADMIRALTY BAY (WESTERN ANTARCTIC PENINSULA): TAXONOMY AND POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS TO THE PELAGIC COMMUNITY Luciano F. Fernandes1,*, Mariana Calixto1, Priscila Lange2, Denise Rivera Tenenbaum2 Departamento de Botânica, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná - UFPR, Jardim das Américas, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR, Brazil 2 Laboratório de Fitoplâncton Marinho, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Avenida Professor Rodolfo P. Rocco, 211, Prédio CCS, Bloco A, Sala A1-61, Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 1

*e-mail: luc.felicio@gmail.com

Abstract: In coastal regions of Antarctica, primary production is a result of the interaction between four communities: cryophilic microalgae, phytoplankton, microphytobenthos and macroalgae. Microphytobenthos can be equally important to eponthic microbiota, or even hold the bulk of primary production in periods after the ice melting in late spring. Among the various groups forming the benthic community, diatoms are the most important photoautotrophs regarding diversity as well as the biomass available to the consumers. In this report we present a taxonomic survey of diatoms belonging to the Class Bacillariophyceae found in the plankton of Admiralty Bay, from samples collected between 2002 and 2010 in every December and February. A total of 53 species was recorded. The majority of the diatoms have benthic habit, usually associated to ice or rocks and macroalgae, indicating the influence of bottom communities over the superjacent plankton. Those species were recorded in the water column possibly due to the local hydrographic dynamics, which might resuspend cells from microphytobenthos. Regarding taxonomy, about 25 species are newly reported to Admiralty Bay, and several identification and nomenclatural problems were found. We recommend that the ongoing monitoring program in the region includes sampling of the benthic community looking for different substrates like ice, rocks and macroalgae, also aiming to determine the origin of benthic diatoms found in the plankton of Admiralty Bay. Keywords: Antarctic Peninsula, Coastal Zone, PROANTAR, Benthic Diatoms

Introduction In coastal regions of Antarctica, the primary production is the result of interactions between four biotic communities: ice microalgae (cryophilic), phytoplankton, microphytobenthos and macroalgae. The relative contribution of cryophilic microalgae and phytoplankton has been intensively investigated, while the benthic environment lacks studies on ecology and biomass fluxes through the trophic web (Kang & Fryxell, 1993; Knox, 2006). Regarding microphytobenthos, though a few estimates of carbon stocks have been performed (Gilbert, 1991), other studies using cell densities as a parameter for evaluating the benthic biomass have already pointed out its significant role (Dayton et al.,

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1986; Everett & Thomas, 1986). Moreover, a large fraction of the microphytobenthic cells is made available in the water column periodically, increasing the biomass stock available to the zooplankton (Ahn et  al., 1997). Indeed, Ligowsk (2000) found that benthic diatoms represented the major food item of the krill Euphausia superba in Admiralty Bay. In shallow neritic areas like bays and inlets, the highest densities of microphytobenthos are found in hard substrates (rocks and macroalgae) and bottom sediments (Dayton et al., 1986; Gilbert, 1991; Corbisier et al., 2004). Usually, diatoms (Phylum Bacillariophyta sensu Medlin & Kaczmarska, 2004) have been found to be the most


important. contributor to the pelagic system by comprising most of the phytoplankton biomass, as reported in Maxwell Bay (Ahn et al., 1997), Davis Station (Everett & Thomas, 1986) and Admiralty Bay (Lange et al., 2007). In Adm ir a lt y B ay, Ki ng G e orge Isl and, t he microphytoplankton is generally originated from the adjacent Bransfield Strait (Kopczynska, 2008). The community is greatly dominated by centric diatoms like Thalassiosira, Rhizosolenia, Corethron and Chaetoceros, and pennate diatoms such as Fragilariopsis, Pseudo-nitzschia and Fragilaria, composed of either planktonic or benthic species (Lange  et  al., 2007). Cells from the microphytobenthos could be resuspended in the water column through local upwelling (Brandini & Rebello, 1994; Schloss et al., 2002) and advection caused by the continental ice melting (Pichlmaier et al., 2004) An important component of investigations related to the phytoplankton ecology is the correct identification of the microalgae species, allowing for the community categorization (plankton, epilithon, epiphyton, eponthic), and to estimate their role in the biomass stock available to the consumers. Regarding the phytoplankton, diatoms are responsible for most of the biomass in the Antarctic pelagic ecosystem, and a high species diversity has been usually recorded (Medlin & Priddle, 1990; Knox, 2006). A previous report (Tenenbaum et al., 2011) described the structure of the phytoplankton community from Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, also furnishing the initial results concerning the influence of benthic diatoms in the plankton system. In the present work, we provide the taxonomic analysis of diatoms belonging to the Class Bacillariophyceae (“pennate” diatoms), based on samples taken in Admiralty Bay from 2002 to 2010. In addition, we discuss the potential contribution of benthic diatoms to the plankton community.

Materials and Methods Field sampling was carried out in the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, in eight fixed points (Figure 1) from 2002 to 2010 every December and February, also coincident with the sampling points of the Brazilian Monitoring Program. Phytoplankton was sampled using 20 µm plankton net through vertical hauls up to 30 meters depth and preserved with formaldehyde 2%. The samples were cleaned for microscopy according to the technique of Hasle & Fryxell (1970). Permanent slides

were mounted with Naphrax (refractive index = 1.74), totalizing 56 slides. Valves were measured and photographed in an Olympus BX50 light microscope. For scanning electron microscopy, small drops of cleaned samples were put in aluminum stubs, air dried and coated with gold. Observations were made using a Jeol JSM 6360 electron microscope. Data on distribution were based mainly in Scott & Thomas (2005). Diatom classification followed Medlin & Kaczmarka (2004) and Round et al. (1990, for orders), and frustule terminology after Ross et al. (1979) and Round et al. (1990).

Results A total of 53 species was established, included in 30 genera (Table 1). The most representative in terms of species richness were: Cocconeis Ehrenberg (10 species and one variety), Fragilariopsis Hustedt (6 species), Licmophora Agardh (4 species), Navicula Bory (3 species) and Gyrosigma Hassal (3 species). Despite no quantitative evaluation has been carried out, the species Fragilaria striatula, Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia, Cocconeis antiqua, C. fasciolata, C. imperatrix, Navicula cf. perminuta, Gyrosigma subsalinum and Fragilariopsis kerguelensis were the most abundant in the slides. Moreover, these diatoms occurred in all the sampling sites. Most of the diatoms were benthic like Achnanthes, Cocconeis, Pseudogomphonema, Amphora, Trachyneis and Licmophora (Table 1). Only P. turgiduloides and perhaps several species of Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma could be assigned as truly planktonic. About 25 infrageneric taxa are newly reported for Admiralty Bay (Table 1).

Discussion and Conclusion The results in this work as well as from previous investigations confirmed a diatom flora composed of species quite similar to other coastal areas around the Antarctic (Scott & Thomas, 2005). After reviewing the few papers dealing with diatom diversity in the study area, it was found that a great number of species (25 out of the total 53 species) recorded here have not been reported in the Admiralty Bay previously (Brandini & Rebelo, 1994; Lange et al., 2007; Kopczynska, 2008). On the other hand, only two species are newly recorded for the Antarctic region, namely Pleurosigma strigosum and Bacillaria paxillifer. A comprehensive reading of classic and recent literature on diatom taxonomy

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Figure 1. Study area with the position of the sampling sites in the Admiralty Bay, King George Island. Ferraz Station (EACF), Botany Point (BP), Ullman Point (UP), Machu Picchu (MP), Refugio 2 (Re2), Hennequin Point (He), Arctowski (AR), Point Thomas (PT).

Table 1. List of species and habitat preference of commonly found benthic diatoms in Admiralty Bay during the 2002-2010 monitoring program. New additions to the Admiralty Bay’s diatom flora are indicated by “*”.

Order Fragilariales Fragilaria islandica Grunow3 Fragilaria striatula Lyngbye2,4,5

E

Licmophora antarctica Carlson*

E

Licmophora belgicae M. Peragallo3,4,5 Licmophora gracilis (Ehrenberg) Grunow

1,2, 3, 4,5

Licmophora luxuriosa Heiden et Kolbe*

Ep

E E E

Tabulariopsis australis (M. Peragallo) Williams3 Thalassionema gelida M. Peragallo* Thalassionema nitzschioides var. lanceolata (Grun.) Perag. et Perag.* Thalassionema nitzschioides var. gracilis Heiden et Kolbe* Order Lyrellales Petroneis plagiostoma (Grunow) D.G Mann* Order Cymbellales Gomphonemopsis littoralis (Hendey) Medlin* E: epiphytic; Ep: eponthic; El: epilithic; P: planktonic. 1 Ligowski (2000) in krill stomach; 2 Procopiak (2001); 3 Portinho (2003); 4Kopczynska (2008), 5 Lange (2011)

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El


Table 1. Continuação.

Order Achnanthales Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia (Kutzing) Cleve2,4,5

Ep

Cocconeis antiqua Tempere et Brun1,2

E

Cocconeis californica (Grunow) Grunow var. californica2

E

Cocconeis californica var. kerguelensis Heiden2

E

Cocconeis costata Gregory1,2,4,5

E

El

Cocconeis dalmannii Al-Handal; R.-Gobin; Romero et Wulff* Cocconeis extravagans Janisch2,4,5

E

Cocconeis fasciolata (Ehrenberg) Brown1,4,5

E

Cocconeis imperatrix A.Schmidt*

E

Cocconeis melchioroides Al-Handal, R.-Gobin, Romero et Wulff*

E

Cocconeis orbicularis Frenguelli et Orlando5

E

Cocconeis pinnata Gregory ex Greville3

E

Order Naviculales Banquisia belgicae (Van Heurck) Paddock*

Ep

Fallacia marnieri (Manguin) Witkowski, Lange-Bertalot et Metzeltin2 Gyrosigma fasciola (Ehrenberg) Griffith et Henfrey* Gyrosigma subsalinum (H. Peragallo) Frenguelli et Orlando*

P?

Gyrosigma tenuissimum var. hyperborea (Grunow)*

P?

Navicula directa (W. Smith) Ralfs

Ep

El

Navicula glaciei Van Heurck1,2,4,5

Ep

El

1,2,4,5

Navicula cf. perminuta Grunow*

Ep

Parlibellus delognei (Van Heurck) Cox5

Ep

Pinnularia quadratarea (A.Schmidt) Cleve5

Ep

El

Pleurosigma strigosum W. Smith*

P

Pleurosigma cf. eudon (Pantocsek) var. kerguelensis Heiden et Kolbe*

P?

Plagiotropis paddockii Simonsen*

Ep

El

Pseudogomphonema kamtschaticum (Grunow) Medlin1,2,4,5

Ep

El

Trachyneis aspera (Ehrenberg) Cleve2 Tropidoneis gaussii Heiden et Kolbe*

Ep

Order Bacillariales Bacillaria paxillifer (O.F. Muller) Hendey*

Ep

Fragilariopsis curta (Van Heurck) Hustedt*

Ep

Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Helmcke et Krieger1,4,5

Ep

Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (O’Meara) Hustedt1,4,5

Ep

Fragilariopsis obliquecostata (V. Heurck) Heiden et Kolbe1

Ep

Fragilariopsis rhombica (O’ Meara) Hustedt1

Ep

Fragilariopsis sublinearis (Van Heurck) Heiden1

Ep

Nitzschia hybrida Grunow*

Ep

Pseudo-nitzschia turgiduloides (Hasle) Hasle*

P

Order Thalassiophysales Amphora marina (W. Smith) Van Heurck*

El

Amphora proteus Gregory3,4,5 Halamphora coffeaeformis (Agardh) Z. Levkov* Order Surirellales Entomoneis paludosa (W. Smith) Reimer5 E: epiphytic; Ep: eponthic; El: epilithic; P: planktonic. 1 Ligowski (2000) in krill stomach; 2 Procopiak (2001); 3 Portinho (2003); 4Kopczynska (2008), 5 Lange (2011)

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a

b

e

f

c

g

d

h

Figure 2. Some common pennate diatoms recorded in the Admiralty Bay during the 2002 - 2010 monitoring program of phytoplankton. All pictures in scanning electron microscope except for Figure 2B (light microscope). A: Pseudogomphonema kamtschaticum. B: Licmophora belgicae. C: L. belgicae, showing rimoportula (arrow) at the head pole. D: L. belgicae. Foot pole with rimoportula and multiscissurae (arrow). E: Nitzschia hybrida. F: Gyrosigma fasciola. G: G. fasciola. Apex showing the raphe. H: Cocconeis imperatrix, raphe valve.

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in Antarctica has revealed that the problems regarding identification and nomenclature still exist, even after the intensification of investigations using electron microscope. In our material, some species were identified only after intense research and detailed examination of the frustule in electron microscope. Even though, two species await further confirmation, and several others presented nomenclatural uncertainties. Therefore, the need for thorough taxonomic studies in the region is clear, a gap in knowledge already claimed by Wulff et  al. (2009). Additionally, we suggest the intensification of samplings in the benthic community aiming to investigate the microflora inhabiting different substrates like ice, rocks and macroalgae, ultimately allowing the precise determination of habitat preferences for many species, which are found in the water column as well. These studies will surely support the monitoring program of phytoplankton currently being held by the Brazilian Antarctic Program. Most of the species recorded are benthic like Cocconeis, Pseudogomphonema, Amphora, Trachyneis and Licmophora (Table 1), and their presence in the water column might be the consequence of the local hydrographic dynamics, resuspending the cells from the bottom. Corroborating this hypothesis, Lange et al. (2007), working with quantitative samples for cell density estimates in the same sampling stations of our work, reported a significant contribution of microphytobenthic diatoms to the plankton community.

Finally, in a recent review on the phytoplankton studies in Admiralty Bay, Kopczynska (2008) emphasized the potential role of benthic diatoms in the local plankton community and to the pelagic biota as a whole.

Acknowledgements This study first integrated the project “Implementation of a Strategy for Assessment of Environmental Impacts on Coastal Shallow Water Benthic Fauna of Admiralty Bay” (Brazilian Antarctic Program) and later the project “Marine Antarctic Biodiversity in Relation to Environmental Heterogeneity at Admiralty Bay, and adjacent areas” (International Polar Year). Those projects were funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment (MMA), Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), and National Council for Research and Development (CNPq), and were also part of multidisciplinary projects inserted in the International Polar Year (IPY) and the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML). This research is currently supported by the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA, Portuguese acronym), CNPq proc. n° 574018/2008-5 and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The Center of Electron Microscope of Federal University of Paraná made available all the facilities, including the scanning electron microscope.

References Ahn, I.Y.; Chung, H.; Kang, J.S. & Kang, S.H. (1997). Diatom composition and biomass variability in nearshore Waters of Maxwell Bay, Antarctica, during the 1992/1993 austral summer. Polar Biology, 17:37-45. Brandini, F. P. & Rebello, J. (1994). Wind field effect on hydrography and chlorophyll dynamics in the coastal pelagial of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 6 (4): 433-442 Corbisier, T.N.; Petti, M.A.V.; Skowronski, R.S.P. & Brito, T.A.S. (2004). Trophic relationships in the nearshore zone of Martel Inlet (King George Island, Antarctica): d13C stable-isotope analysis. Polar Biology, 27:75-82. Dayton, P.K.; Watson, D.; Palmisano, A.; Barry, J.P.; Oliver, J.S. & Rivera, D. (1986) Distribution patterns of benthic microalgal standing stock at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 6:207-213 Everett, D.A. & Thomas, D. (1986). Observations of changes in diatoms at inshore localities near Davis Station, East Antarctica. Hydrobiologia, 139:3-12. Gilbert, N.S. (1991) Primary production by benthic microalgae in near shore marine sediments of Signey Island, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 11:339-346.

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Hasle, G.R. & Fryxell, G.A. (1970). Diatoms: cleaning and mounting for light and electron microscopy. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 84: 469-474. Kang, S.H. & Fryxell, G.A. (1993). Phytoplankton in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: Composition, abundance and distribution in the water-column assemblages of the marginal ice-edge zone during austral autumn. Marine Biology, 116:335-348. Knox, G.A. (2006). The biology of the Southern Ocean. 2a. ed.; Cambridge University Press, :127-176. Kopczynska, E. (2008). Phytoplankton variability in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Island: six years of monitoring. Polish Polar Research, 29:117-139. Lange, P.K. (2011). O Fitoplâncton da Baía do Almirantado (Antártica): Variações espaciais e temporais entre os anos de 200 e 2009. Dissertação de Mestrado em Oceanografia Biológica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, RS, 141p. Lange, P.K.; Tenenbaum, D.R.; Braga, E.S. & Campos, L.S. (2007). Microphytoplankton assemblages in shallow Waters at Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) during the Summer 2002-2003. Polar biology, 30:1483-1492. Ligowski, R. (2000). Benthic feeding by Krill, Euphasia superba Dana, in coastal waters off West Antarctica and in Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Island. Polar Biology, 23:619-625. Medlin, L. K. & Kaczmarska, I. (2004). Evolution of the diatoms: V. Morphological and cytological support for the major clades and a taxonomic revision. Phycologia, 43: 245-270. Medlin, L.K. & Priddle, J. (1990). Polar marine diatoms, British Antarctic Survey/NERC, 214 p. Pichlmaier, M.; Aquino, F.E.; Da-Silva, C.S. & Braun, M. (2004). Suspended sediments in Admiralty Bay, King George Island (Antarctica). Brazilian Antarctic Research 4: 77-85. Portinho, D. (2003). Diatomáceas (Bacillariophyta) marinhas bênticas da Baía Do Almirantado e ilha Elefante, Península Antártica. I. Classe Fragilariophyceae. Dissertação de Mestrado, Curso de Pós-graduação em Botânica, UFPR, Curitiba, 86 p. Procopiak, L.K. (2001). Levantamento taxonômico das diatomáceas (Bacillariophyta) epilíticas da Ilha Elefante e Baía do Almirantado, Península Antártica. Monografia de Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, UFPR, Curitiba, 89p. Ross, R.; Cox, E.J.; Karayeva, N.I.; Mann, D.G.; Paddock, T.B.B.; Simonsen, R. & Sims, P.A. (1979). An amended terminology for the siliceous components of the diatom cell. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft, 64:513-533. Round, F.E.; Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990). The diatoms: biology and morphology of the genera, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747p. Schloss, I. R.; Ferreyra, G. A. & Ruiz-Pino, D. (2002). Phytoplankton biomass in Antarctic shelf zones: a conceptual model based on Potter Cove, King George Island. Journal of Marine Systems 36: 129-143. Scott, F.J. & Thomas, D.P. (2005). Diatoms. In: Scott, F. J; Marchant, H. J. Antarctic marine protists. Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart. :13-202. Tenenbaum, D.; Lange, P.; Fernandes, L. F.; Calixto-Feres, M. & Garcia, V. T. (2011). Plankton structure in a shallow coastal zone at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, West Antarctic Peninsula. In: Valentin, Y.Y.; Dalto, A.G. & Lavrado, H.P. Annual Activity Report 2010 INCT - APA. Rio de Janeiro: INCT-APA. 240 p. Wulff, A.; Iken, K.; Quartina, M.L.; AL-Handal, A.; Wiencke, C. & Clayton, M.N. (2009). Biodiversity, biogeography and zonation of marine benthic micro- and macroalgae in the Arctic and Antarctic. Botanica Marina, 52:491-507.

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2 PLANKTON STRUCTURE OF THE SHALLOW COASTAL ZONE AT ADMIRALTY BAY, KING GEORGE ISLAND, WEST ANTARCTIC PENINSULA (WAP): CHLOROPHYLL BIOMASS AND SIZE-FRACTIONATED CHLOROPHYLL DURING AUSTRAL SUMMER 2010/2011 Márcio Murilo Barboza Tenório*, José Juan Barrera-Alba** & Denise Rivera Tenenbaum*** Laboratório de Fitoplâncton Marinho, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/n, CCS, BL A, SL.67, Cidade Univers., CEP 20530-310, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil e-mails: *marcio.tenorio@biologia.ufrj.br, **juanalba@biologia.ufrj.br, ***deniser@biologia.ufrj.br

Abstract: Chlorophyll a concentration and size structure of the phytoplankton community were studied in Admiralty Bay in early and late summer of 2010/2011, using spectrofluorometry chlorophyll analysis. The contribution of three size fractions: picoplankton (< 2 µm), ultraplankton (2-10 µm) and microplankton (> 10 µm) in chlorophyll a biomass was analysed. Chlorophyll a biomass increased from early to late summer and showed a relatively spatial homogeneity. During early summer biomass was co-dominated by ultra and microplankton size classes in with account 84% of Chla biomass, while in the late summer >10 µm size classes dominated completely Chla concentrations (88%). Keywords: Size Structure, Spectrofluorometry, Antarctic, King George Island

Introduction Phytoplankton pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids, phycobiliproteins) remain a major source of information on biomass, community structure, dynamic, and physiological state of phytoplankton (Neveux et al., 2009). Among the pigments, chlorophyll a concentration is used to access biomass of phytoplankton. In Antarctic waters, chlorophyll a and rates of primary production are generally low, yet concentrations of inorganic nutrients are very high (Mitchell & Holm-Hansen, 1991). Chlorophyll a distribution in the Southern Ocean also showed high spatial and temporal variability (Marrari et al., 2008). Although chlorophyll biomass is important, it does not necessarily draw out the relationships between primary producers and other organisms higher up the food chain (Gin et al., 2000). This inconvenient can be largely elucidated by assessing the size structure of the plankton community. The size distribution of the primary producers plays an

important role in the trophic organization of marine ecosystems and in the global flux of organic matter towards the aphotic layer (Jacques & Panouse, 1991). Size structures of phytoplankton communities are quantitative expressions of the relative success of certain different community size compartments to survive or grow in an essentially unstable environment controlled by physical and chemical characteristics (Rodriguez & Guerrero, 1994). Recent studies demonstrated that in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), picoplankton and nanoplankton are the dominant groups, with microplankton diatoms being the second group in abundance (Montes-Hugo et al., 2009). In this study we present the preliminary results of the monitoring program of chlorophyll a biomass and chlorophyll a size fraction biomass conducted in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, during the summer of 2010/2011.

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Materials and methods

bottle from the surface, middle water column and near the

Study area

2010 to March 2011). Temperature was measured in situ

Admiralty Bay (62°03’-12’S, 58°18’-38’W), located at King George Island, is a deep fjord-like embayment with 500 m maximum depth at its centre (Rakusa-Suszczewski et al., 1993). The waters from the bay mix with the deep oceanic waters from the Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas at its southern opening, which connects to the Bransfield Strait (Lipski, 1987). The maximum depth varies between 60 m close to the shore and 500 m in the centre of the bay. Deep currents generated by tides, frequent upwellings, vertical mixing and current velocities of 30-100 cm s-1 in the 0 -100 m surface stratum are characteristic of the bay (RakusaSuszczewski, 1993).

bottom (≈ 30m) at five stations in six surveys (December while salinity analyses were carried out by the Laboratório de Química Orgânica (IO-USP).

Chlorophyll a Water samples (0.3L) were filtered onto Whatman® GF/F (Ø 47 mm) for total pigment analyses, while 0.5-1L were used for the size structure study. In the latter case at CF, MP and AR stations, water sampled at 3 depths was fractionated by serial filtration on 10 µm and 2 µm polycarbonate filters and GF/F (Ø 47 mm) to access the pigment concentration of picoplankton (< 2 µm), ultra plankton (2-10 µm) and microplankton (> 10 µm). The filters were folded, placed

Sampling

into a 1.2 mL cryotube and immediately quick-frozen in

The fractionate analysis of chlorophyll a was performed from splits of the 5 L water sample collected using a Niskin

liquid nitrogen (-196 ºC) and stored at -80 ºC. For pigment extraction, GF/F filters were dipped in 5.4 mL of 100%

Figure 1. Study area with the position of the sampling sites: Ferraz Station (CF), Botany Point (BP), Machu Picchu (MP), Thomas Point (TP), Arctowski (AR), modified from Moura (2009).

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acetone (final concentration ≈ 90% acetone taking into

Chlorophyll a biomass and size structure

account water retention by the filter (≈ 0.621 ± 0.034 mL)

Chlorophyll a (Chla) biomass increased from early to late

and ground with the freshly broken end of a glass rod, and

summer from 0.54 ± 0.12 µg L-1 (n = 15) to 4.03 ± 1.33 µg L-1

left in the dark at 4 C for a 12h extraction. Polycarbonate

(n = 15) and was positively correlated with temperature (r =

filters, on the other hand, were just left in the dark at 4 C

0.74, p < 0.001) (Figure 3a). Values lower than 1 µg L-1 were

for a 24h in 5 mL of 90% acetone. Following extraction,

observed in 64% of the samples during early summer and

the tubes were centrifuged for 5 min at 3500 rpm and the

only 17% in late summer. A significant spatial variability

extracted fluorescence was measured with a Varian Cary

among each survey was not observed, except on 14 th

Eclipse® spectrofluorometer. Concentrations of chlorophyll

December and 21st February. BP showed biomass twice as

a were assessed using a modified version of Neveux &

high (0,72 µg L-1) than the other stations during the first

Lantoine’s (1993) method in Tenório et al. (2011).

survey, while on 21st February the TP and AR presented

o

o

biomass twice as superior (2,64 µg L-1) to the inner stations

Statistical analyses Differences among surveys (n = 6), sampling stations (n = 5), vertical profile (n = 3) were tested using a One-Way ANOVA with a Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). Spearman’s correlation factor was also calculated.

located in Mackellar and Martel inlet. In early summer, picoplanktonic fraction (< 2 µm) represented on average 17 ± 7% (n = 28) of Chla, whereas ultraplankton represented 33 ± 10 % (n = 28) and microplankton accounted on average 51 ±11% (n = 28). In late summer, microplankton contribution to Chla biomass

Results

increased and represented on average 88 ± 10% (n = 18) reaching over 93% at the end of the sampling period

Thermohaline structure During the sampling period, thermohaline structure was characterized both by spatial and vertical homogeneity, except on the 21th February when temperature and salinity differed significantly in the water column. Early summer

(Figure 3b). The vertical and spatial variability of size fractionated Chla was not significantly different (p > 0.05).

Discussion

(December and January) presented colder waters (0.75 ±

Late summer values of temperature and salinity

0.42 ºC, n = 54) than those observed during late summer

observed were similar to those reported in previous

(1.61 ± 0.15 ºC, n = 25). Although salinity decreased slightly

studies (Lange et al., 2007; Tenório et al., 2011), however

during the sampling period, mean values were similar

early summer water temperatures were higher than those

between early summer (34.2 ± 0.2, n = 51) and late summer

observed during summer 2009/2010 in the same Bay

(34.1 ± 0.2, n = 30) (Figures 2a and 2b).

(Tenório et al., 2011). a

b

Figure 2. Temporal variation of water temperature (a) and salinity (b) in Admiralty Bay during December 2010 to March 2011.

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a

b

Figure 3. Temporal variation of Chlorophyll a: a) concentrations and b) contribution to size distribution in Admiralty Bay during December 2010 to March 2011.

Low Chla biomass (∼2 µg L-1), as observed during early summer of 2010/2011, was commonly reported in previous studies in Admiralty Bay (Brandini, 1993; Lange et al., 2007, Tenório et al., 2011) as well as in adjacent areas (Brandini & Kutner, 1986; Kang & Lee, 1995) and in Antarctic oceanic waters (Platt et al., 2003). In late summer the increase of biomass was mainly conditioned by the rise of temperature that melts the ice providing the micronutrient iron to phytoplankton growth (Martin et al., 1991) and promoting water column stratification maintaining the phytoplankton in the euphotic zone (Lipski, 1987). The size distribution of the primary producers plays an important role in the trophic organization of marine ecosystems and in the global flux of organic matter towards the water column (Jacques & Panouse, 1991). During early summer biomass was co-dominated by ultra and microplankton representing 84% of Chla biomass, while in the late summer only microplanktonic fraction dominated completely Chla concentrations (88%). Previous studies in the same area have reported the dominance of 2-20 µm size fraction on phytoplankton (Brandini, 1993; Kopczynska, 2008) or microplanktonic diatom dominance as observed on James Ross Island (Weddell Sea) (Souza, 2012). In this sense, a positive correlation with total chlorophyll biomass and microphytoplankton cells count (r = 0.77, p < 0.05) was observed for Admiralty Bay by Barrera-Alba et al. (2012). Similarly, our results showed positive correlation between total Chla and microplanktonic fraction concentration (r = 0.67, p < 0.05), pointing out that fraction was the main component of the phytoplankton community. However, this pattern was not observed in the previous study during

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the summer 2009/2010, when pico and ultraplankton dominated the Chla biomass (Tenório et  al. 2011). This variability of the size structure and functional composition of phytoplankton are closely linked to physical, chemical and biologic factor gradients in the coastal waters (Rodríguez et al., 2002; Kang & Lee, 1995). The temperature sensitivity of planktonic organisms suggests that Southern Ocean plankton communities may be particularly sensitive to global warming (Wright et al., 2009). A change in the size spectrum of Southern Ocean phytoplankton would be expected to have serious consequences for krill and other herbivores that are adapted to a diet of nano- and microplankton, and would also affect the dynamics of the microbial loop and the transport of carbon to the deep ocean (Wright  et  al., 2009). These observations highlight the importance of a long-term monitoring study of Chl a size fraction data in this region.

Conclusion The preliminary results of the present study showed a relatively spatial homogeneity in chlorophyll a concentration. Temporal variation presented a significant variability between early and late summer, highlighting that a short-term temporal variation study is necessary to understand the environmental effects on phytoplankton organisms. Phytoplankton populations were co-dominated by ultra and microplankton, which represented more than 80% of chlorophyll a concentrations. Chla biomass and size fractionated studies in Admiralty Bay proved to be a good tool for monitoring the global effect of changes on the region.


Acknowledgments

the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science,

This work integrates the National Institute of Science

Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment

and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research

(MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources

(INCT-APA) that receive scientific and financial supports

(CIRM) and Marine Organic Chemical Laboratory of

of the National Council for Research and Development

the Oceanographic Institute of São Paulo University

(CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Research Support

(LabQOM-IOUSP). M. M. B. Tenório thanks FAPERJ/

Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n°

CAPES for the post-doctoral fellowship under process no

E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge

E-26/102.015/2009.

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Neveux, J.; Tenório, M.M.B.; Jacquet, S.; Torréton, J.-P.; Douillet, P.; Ouillon, S. & Dupouy, C. (2009). Chlorophylls and Phycoerythrins as Markers of Environmental Forcings Including Cyclone Erica Effect (March 2003) on Phytoplankton in the South west Lagoon of New Caledonia and Oceanic Adjacent Area. International Journal of Oceanography. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/232513 Neveux, J. & Lantoine, F. (1993). Spectrofluorometric assay of chlorophylls and phaeopigments using the least squares approximation technique. Deep-Sea Research I, 40(9): 1747-1765. Platt, T.; Broomhead, D.S.; Sathyendranath, S.; Edwards, A.M. & Murphy, E.J. (2003). Phytoplankton biomass and residual nitrate in the pelagic ecosystem. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 459:1063-1073. Rakusa-Suszczewski, S.; Mietus, M. & Piasecki, J. (1993). Weather and climate. In: Rakusa-Suszczewski S (ed) The maritime coastal ecosystem of Admiralty Bay. Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw. Rodriguez, V. & Guerrero, F.J. (1994). Chlorophyll a size-fractionated summer phytoplankton blooms at a coastal station in Málaga Bay, Alboran Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 39:413-419. Rodríguez, J.; Jimenez-Gomez, F.; Blanco, M.J. & Figueroa, F. L. (2002). Physical gradients and spatial variability of the size structure and composition of phytoplankton in the Gerlache Strait (Antarctica). Deep-Sea Research II, 49: 693-706. Souza, M.S. (2012). Comunidades fitoplanctônicas da Península Antártica e Patagônia, na primavera e verão: distribuição espacial e relação com parâmetros oceanográficos. Tese em Oceanografia Biológica, Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande. Tenório, M.M.B.; Duarte, R.B.; Barrera-Alba, J.J. & Tenenbaum, D.R. (2011). Plankton Structure of shallow coastal zone at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP): chlorophyll biomass and size-fractionated chlorophyll during austral summer 2009/2010. Annual Activity Report/National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research-2009:115-120. Wright, S.W.; Ishikawa, A.; Marchant, H.J.; Davidson, A. T.; van den Enden, R.L. & Nash, G.V. (2009). Composition and signicance of picophytoplankton in Antarctic waters. Polar Biology, 32:797-808.

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3 LONG-TERM MONITORING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS FROM THE BRAZILIAN ANTARCTIC STATION “COMANDANTE FERRAZ” (KING GEORGE ISLAND): ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF C AND N Thais Navajas Corbisier, Sandra Bromberg, Paula Foltran Gheller, Maria Cláudia Yuri Ujikawa, Mônica Angélica Varella Petti Instituto Oceanográfico, Departamento de Oceanografia Biológica, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP, Brazil *e-mail: tncorbis@usp.br

Abstract: Stable isotopic analysis has been used for assessing anthropogenic influence in marine communities. The variation of stable C and N isotope signatures in sources of organic matter and benthic invertebrates was investigated at the nearshore zone in front of the Brazilian Antarctic Station (EACF - Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz) (Martel Inlet), to attend a long-term monitoring program. Suspended organic matter (SPM), the algae Desmarestia, sediment, and selected invertebrates of different trophic levels (suspensivore, depositivore, grazer and carnivore) were sampled in the subtidal zone (up to 25m) in three summers since 2000/01. The δ13C values for consumers ranged from -26.70 (Laternula elliptica) to -12.34‰ (Nacella concinna), and the δ15N from 2.86 to 10.71‰ (L. elliptica and Parborlasia corrugatus, respectively). Linear regression lines fitted to the data (R > 69%), and there were differences between the sampling periods. The results suggested some influence of the sewage organic matter on benthic communities in the coastal area near the Brazilian Station, mainly in the first summers analysed, and a slight increase towards the end of the summer. Keywords: Stable Isotopes, Benthic Communities, Long Term Monitoring

Introduction

anthropogenic inputs of sewage effluents. Stable-carbon or

Stable isotopes have been utilized to trace the transference

stable-nitrogen isotope analysis are also becoming useful

of organic matter of different origins along the trophic web

to identify the source, extent and the fate of biologically

(Peterson, 1999). The isotopic signatures in consumer

available sewage carbon and nitrogen (Peterson, 1999;

tissues are, in general, related to the isotopic composition

Costanzo et al., 2001; Waldron et al., 2001; Gartner et al.,

of their diet, occurring an enrichment of heavy isotopes,

2002; Rogers, 2003). Scientific and logistic activities in

e.g. of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) around 1‰

Antarctica have introduced anthropogenic compounds

and of 3-4‰, respectively, between the consumer and its

in otherwise pristine areas (Martins et al., 2005). Sewage

food (Peterson & Fry, 1987). The carbon and nitrogen

isotopic signatures of C or N have already been detected in

ratios (expressed as δ C and δ N) are generally utilized to

sediment and in some benthic organisms near McMurdo

indicate the organic matter source and the δ15N the trophic

Station (Conlan et al., 2006).

13

15

level, as well.

The influence of sewage, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs)

Eutrophication or increased load of organic matter

and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was observed only

in marine nearshore environments can be attributed to

near the sewage outfall close to the Brazilian station (EACF).

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Their presence was detected within a distance of 200 m in the water column and of 400 m (human sterols) and 700 m (hydrocarbons) in the sediment. Nonetheless, the dispersion of the sewage plume in the shallow coastal zone of Martel Inlet is favored by the hydrodynamics, mainly influenced by the tides. As a result, the contamination in Admiralty Bay is assumed to be punctual and restricted to the proximities of EACF, especially concerning the sewage outlet (Martins et al., 2005; Bicego et al., 2009). The area in front of EACF, which is slightly influenced by sewage and oil, showed significantly lower δ13C values for some invertebrates than other reference areas in Martel Inlet (Corbisier et al., unpublished). We analyzed the variation in the isotopic signature of selected benthic organisms to verify if there was anthropogenic influence off the Antarctic Brazilian Station (sewage and hydrocarbons), in four summer periods, since 2000/2001. These trophic web studies using stable isotopes were part of studies done in the summers of 2000/2001 (Bromberg, 2004), 2003 (Network 2 - Weber & Montone, 2006) and 2005/2006 (INCT-APA programs). More recent data, from the summer of 2010/2011, will be included in future comparisons.

Materials and Methods Water, macroalgae (Desmarestia sp), sediment and invertebrates of different trophic levels (suspensivore L. elliptica, depositivore Sterechinus neumayeri, grazer N. concinna and carnivores Paraserolis polita and P. corrugatus) were sampled at the subtidal zone (up to 25m) off the Brazilian Station (EACF), under the sewage outfall influence area, in Dec/2000-Jan/2001, Nov-Dec/2003, Nov/2005 (beginning of summer), and Feb/2006 (end of summer) (Figure 1). The benthic samples were obtained on board of the R/B SKUA, using a van Veen grab, a dredge, or by Scuba diving. Surface water samples for suspended particulate organic matter (SPM) analysis were obtained with bottles. Methods followed those of a previous study (Corbisier et al., 2004) with the addition of the δ15N analysis. The stable isotope measurements were performed by the Stable Isotope Facility of the Department of Agronomy and Range Science, Davis, California, USA, using a Europa Hydra 20/20 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Stable isotope ratios are expressed

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in δ notation as part per thousand (‰) according to the following relationship: δX = [(Rsample/Rstandard) – 1] × 103 where X = 13C or 15N, and R = 13C/12C or 15N/14N (Peterson and Fry, 1987). The standard reference for carbon is Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) and atmospheric N2 for nitrogen.

Dispersion graphics and linear regression lines were

made considering δ13C and δ15N mean values (or single values) of sources and consumers in order to verify long term variations.

Results The R values for δ13C and δ15N data linear regressions were high for the sampling periods (> 69%) showing that the data fitted to a linear model (Figure 1). There was a tendency of increasing δ13C values and decreasing δ15N values from 2000/2001 to 2005 in the beginning of summer (Figure 1). Data from the end of summer in 2006 were intermediate between 2000/01 and 2005.

Discussion and Conclusion In front of the Brazilian station (EACF), the set of δ13C and δ15N values for some selected components of the community differed between the four sampling summer periods, which could suggest that there had been a temporal variation in contribution of sewage organic matter since 2000/2001. The material originated from sewage has usually low δ13C (Peterson, 1999; Waldron et al., 2001; Rogers, 2003; Conlan et al., 2006). The δ15N values for sediment under the sewage influence are more enriched and can be related to a higher ammonia concentration of anthropogenic origin (Peterson, 1999; Waldron et al., 2001; Conlan et al., 2006). The differences between the summer periods in EACF suggest a decrease of sewage contribution to the benthic community from past summers to more recent ones, and a slight increase of its influence towards the end of the summer. In the summer of 2010/11 a new sampling, including the sewage, was undertaken directing the monitoring of Admiralty Bay in the scope of INCT-APA program. For a better understanding of the anthropogenic influence, the


Figure 1. Linear regression lines for δ13C and δ15N data from four sampling summer periods.

isotopic signatures of more areas, periods and different

(CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas

organisms need to be analyzed in Admiralty Bay.

Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de

Acknowledgements

financial support from Network 2 Project (CNPq process

This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development

Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008), and also received 550354/2002-6), and CNPq process 480251/00-2. The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

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References Bicego, M.C.; Zanardi,-Lamardo, E.; Taniguchi, S.; Martins, C.C.; Silva, D.A.M.; Sasaki, S.T.; Albergaria-Barbosa, A.C.R.; Paolo, F.S.; Weber, R.R. & Montone, R.C. (2009). Results from a 15-year study on hydrocarbon concentrations in water and sediment from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 21(3): 209-220. Bromberg, S. (2004). A macrofauna bentônica da zona costeira rasa e o seu papel na trama trófica da enseada Martel, Baía do Almirantado (Ilha Rei George, Antártica). Ênfase para o grupo Polychaeta (Annelida). Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto Oceanográfico. Conlan, K.E.; Rau, G.H. & Kvitek, R.G. (2006). 13C and 15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52(12): 1695-1707. Corbisier, T.N.; Petti, M.A.V.; Skowronski, R.S.P. & Brito, T.A.S. (2004). Trophic relationships in the nearshore zone of Martel Inlet (King George Island, Antarctica): 13C stable isotope analysis. Polar Biology, 27(2): 75-82. Costanzo, S.D.; O’Donohue, M.J.; Dennison, W.C.; Loneragan, N.R. & Thomas, M. (2001). A new approach for detecting and mapping sewage impacts. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42(2): 149-156. Gartner, A.; Lavery, P. & Smit, A.J. (2002). Use of 15N signatures of different functional forms of macroalgae and filter-feeders to reveal temporal and spatial patterns in sewage dispersal. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 235: 63-73. Martins, C.C.; Montone, R.C.; Gamba, R.C. & Pellizari, V.H. (2005). Sterols and fecal indicator microorganisms in sediments from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 53(1-2): 1-12. Peterson, B.J. (1999). Stable isotopes as tracers of organic matter input and transfer in benthic food webs: A review. Acta Oceanologica, 20(4): 479-487. Peterson, B.J. & Fry, B. (1987). Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 18: 293-320. Rogers, K.M. (2003). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46(7): 821-827. Waldron, S.; Tatner, P.; Jack, I. & Arnott, C. (2001). The impact of sewage discharge in a marine embayment: a stable isotope reconnaissance. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 52(1): 111-115. Weber, R. R. & Montone, R. C. (Coord.) (2006). Rede-2: Gerenciamento ambiental na Baía do Almirantado, Ilha Rei George, Antártica. Relatório final. Ministério do Meio Ambiente/ CNPq/SeCIRM/Proantar, Brasil. 255 p.

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4 POPULATION STRUCTURE OF Nacella concinna (STREBEL, 1908) (GASTROPODA – NACELLIDAE) AT ADMIRALTY BAY, KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA, IN AUSTRAL SUMMER 2010/2011. Maria Isabel Sarvat de Figueiredo*, Helena Passeri Lavrado Laboratório de Bentos, Departamento de Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Prédio do CCS – Bloco A, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil *e-mail: belfig@gmail.com

Abstract: Antarctic intertidal zones are extremely stressful environments, and the limpet Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908), colonize those areas at Admiralty Bay, King George Island. This species has the potential to be a biomonitor, since it suffers the direct effects of environmental variations and anthropic impacts. In the summer of 2010/2011, specimens of N. concinna were collected in three sites in Admiralty Bay, in order to investigate its population structure variability. Most individuals were larger than 20 mm, i.e, most of them were adults, with positive allometric growth. In general, sex ratio was 1.5 females to one male. Limpet population structure near the Brazilian station did not present any atypical values, but, temporal analyses are necessary for more precise evaluation. Spatial differences found not only should be considered a response to natural physical factors such as wave action and food availability, but also to biological factors, such as seagull predation. Keywords: Nacella concinna, Population Structure, Admiralty Bay

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Antarctic intertidal zone is extremely stressful, since it is often subject to large environmental variation, such as freezing and ice foot in winter, and melt water runoff in summer (Weihe & Abele, 2008). The gastropod Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908), is the most conspicuous invertebrate of the intertidal megafauna (Kim, 2001), colonizing throughout most of the intertidal zone of Admiralty Bay. However, the knowledge about its ecology is still incipient, and the knowledge about population dynamics is fundamental to understand the ecosystem processes (Jones et al., 2007) and to evaluate the meaning of environmental changes, increasingly evident in the Southern Ocean. The present study aimed to describe the natural spatial variability of that gastropod population structure in order to establish a baseline for environmental monitoring.

In the summer of 2011, 3 sites were chosen in Admiralty Bay, encompassing areas under the influence of ice, anthropic activities (Brazilian Station), and far from both, where specimens of N. concinna were counted in transects parallel to the shore at low tide. Limpets were collected until the number of individuals reached at least 100 at each site, and they were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The sex of each individual was determined, and shell length, body weight, and gonad weight were measured. The gonadsomatic index (GSI) was determined according to formula: GSI = (gonad weight/total soft body weight)*100. To verify the contribution of biometric variables on variance populations, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed. Homogeneity of variances was checked by Cochran’s test, and data was log-transformed whenever necessary. Shell length (SL) and wet weight (W) were used

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to plot regression curves (W = a.SLb). To verify differences in sex ratio, Chi-Square test was performed, and a two-way ANOVA was used for differences in size and weight between sites and sexes.

Results The mean size and weight of N. concinna significantly varied among sites (F = 21.62; p < 0.0001 and F = 16.12; p < 0.0001, respectively). The smallest individuals occurred at EACF (Brazilian station), while the lightest ones were found at Botany Point (Figure 1). Furthermore, no statistical differences were found between mean size and weight of male and female limpets (F = 0.30; p = 0.57) and no interaction between sites and sex was found (F= 1.40, p = 0.24). Females outnumbered males in the population (~1.5 females / 1 male), being the sex ratio significantly different from 1:1 (χ2 = 11.44; p < 0.001). In summer, specimens showed a positive allometric growth (Table 1). The PCA showed an evident distinction of Punta Plaza population (Figure 2), in which length and Gonadosomatic Index (IGS) presented the highest contributions to the first axis (90,40% and 90,45%, respectively).

Discussion and Conclusion Spatial differences in size and weight seem to be related, among other factors, to variations in food availability, since growth rates are improved by better food offer. The

largest individuals were found at the sites which presented the highest values of epilithic chlorophyll a (Lavrado, unpublished data). Environmental stress at intertidal zones may be one feasible explanation for the scarceness of limpets with shell size smaller than 20 mm in the population. Small specimens have high surface-to-volume ratios, being unable to tolerate desiccation conditions, thermal and osmotic stress (Weihe & Abele, 2008). So, small limpets are at a disadvantage if compared to the large ones, probably being restricted to lower intertidal levels, or to the sublittoral zone. On the other hand, an evident distinction was observed for Punta Plaza population, in which gonadal development seems to be the main factor for this observation, since weight and IGS were the variables with major contribution. In addition, positive allometric growth found in all populations of this study can be a result of the high gonad weight, since summer is a reproductive period of this species (Kim, 2001). Finally, Kim (2001) also found more females than males in the population of Maxwell Bay, adjacent to Admiralty

Table 1. Weight–length relationship of individuals of N. concinna collected at Admiralty Bay, in the summer of 2010 / 2011.W(g) = aL(mm) b.

Sites

Total number

Weight-length relationship Slope (b)

Coefficient of determination (R2)

Punta Plaza

133

3,577

0,943

EACF

74

3,349

0,981

Botany Point

92

3,515

0,883

Figure 1. Shell length and mean individual weight of individuals of N. concinna collected in the intertidal zone of Admiralty Bay in the summer of 2010/2011. Different letters indicate statistically different means.

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and its nests were observed nearby the sample sites, specially Punta Plaza and Botany Point. Therefore, our results suggest that differences found between sites seem to be related to a response to food availability, physical stress and predation rates in the intertidal zone. Positive allometric growth can be related to high gonadal development, since summer is the reproductive period for this species. Lastly, since the Brazilian Station did not show either abnormal or discrepant values for all the parameters analyzed, its presence apparently does not interfere in the N. concinna population. However, temporal studies become necessary for a better evaluation.

Acknowledgments

Figure 2. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using the main population variables of N. concinna (austral summer 2010/2011).

Bay. This author suggests that, in the case of N. concinna, the dominance of females in the intertidal population may be explained by the migratory behavior. Moreover, some of the spatial differences found may have occurred as a result of predation by the Kelp gull Larus dominicanus, since this bird is a significant predator of N. concinna (Barbieri, 2008),

This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and InterMinistry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM). The first author thanks to CNPq for master fellowship under process nº. 132125/2010-2.

References Barbieri, E. (2008). Diversidade da dieta e do comportamento do Gaivotão Antártico (Larus dominicanus) na Península Keller, Ilha Rei George, Shetland do Sul. O Mundo da Saúde, 32(3):302-307. Jones, D.O.B.; Bett, B.J. & Tyler, P.A. (2007). Depth-related changes to density, diversity and structure of benthic megafaunal assemblages in the Fimbul ice shelf region, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 30:1579-1592. Kim, J. (2001). Seasonality of marine algae and grazers of an Antarctic rocky intertidal, with emphasis on the role of the limpet Nacella concinna Strebel (Gastropoda: Patellidae). Tese de Doutorado em Biologia/Química, Universidade de Bremen. 120p. Weihe, E. & Abele, D. (2008). Differences in the physiological response of inter- and subtidal Antarctic limpets Nacella concinna to aerial exposure. Aquatic Biology, 4:155-166.

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5 IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SEWAGE OF BRAZILIAN ANTARCTIC STATION ON THE PLASMA CONSTITUENTS OF ANTARCTIC FISH Notothenia rossii Edson Rodrigues Júnior3,*, Mariana Feijó-Oliveira3, Gannabathula Sree Vani1, Cecília Nahomi Kawagoe Suda1, Lucélia Donatti3, Cíntia Machado3, Helena Passeri Lavrado2, Edson Rodrigues1 Instituto Básico de Biociências, Universidade de Taubaté, Av. Tiradentes 500, Centro, Taubaté, CEP 12030-180, SP, Brazil 2 Departamento de Biologia Celular, Centro Politécnico s/no, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Jd das Américas, CEP 81990-970, Curitiba, PR, Brazil 3 Departamento de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

1

*e-mail: edsonrodj@gmail.com

Abstract: The burning of fossil fuels, sewage dumping and leakage of combustible oil has been polluting Antarctica around the scientific stations and ship anchoring locations. The present work evaluated the effect of sewage effluent of Antarctic Station Commandant Ferraz (EACF) on the plasmatic levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin and globulins of Antarctic fish Notothenia rossii. The bioassays were conducted with effluent from the sewage processing station of EACF diluted in seawater. In the presence of sewage, glucose, triglycerides, total proteins and globulins reduced in the plasma of N. rossii, where as albumin and cholesterol increased. In this case, the reduction of energy metabolites (glucose and triglycerides) plasmatic levels can be related with the rise in energy demand of N. rossii induced by the sewage. Keywords: Antarctica, Fish Metabolism, Biochemical Marker, Notothenia rossii

Introduction Antarctica was rapidly explored and occupied as soon as it was discovered in the XIX century. In 1959, the Antarctic treaty was officially signed and set forth the rights and duties of all those who occupy this continent. The formal commitment for the preservation and monitoring of Antarctica as a natural

the scientific stations has raised concerns about its impact on the Antarctic ecosystems (Aronson et al., 2011). The present study aims to evaluate the chronic effect of sewage effluents of the EACF on the plasmatic constituent’s levels of the Antarctic fish Notothenia rossii.

reserve restricting the continent to peace and science was explicitly stated in the Environmental protection protocol (Madrid Protocol) and signed by the parties to the Antarctic Treaty of 1991(Roura & Hemmings, 2011). The scientific occupation introduced pollutants that were not originally present in Antarctica. The burning of fossil fuels, effluents from the scientific stations/ships and the leakage of combustible oil has contaminated the coastal regions with human sewage, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (Tin et al., 2009; Aronson et al., 2011). The global climatic changes and localized pollution around

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Materials and Methods Specimens of N. rossii were captured at Punta Plaza, Keller Peninsula, Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica, from January to March 2011, at depths of 10 to 20 m using fishing line. The fishes were transferred to aquariums at EACF and after 48 hours, anesthetized, measured, weighed, marked and sorted for bioassay. The effluent from the sewage processing station (SPS) of EACF was fed slowly into the tanks for final concentrations of 0.05% (v/v) and 0.5% (v/v), with 10 fish for each experiment. The experimental


controls (EC) were 10 fish kept at thermo-saline conditions of 0-35, without effluents from SPS. The fishes were kept in the experimental condition for 25 days. Every two days the fish were fed with Antarctic fish muscle, corresponding to 1% of the body mass. The blood of the nature control group (NC) fish was collected as soon as the N. rossii were removed from the water to minimize the possible effect of stress arising from the capture. The blood of the fish was obtained by caudal vein puncture

of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins and albumin were determined by spectrophotometric methods adapted for micro volumes using reagent kits from LabTest Diagnostica S/A. The statistical comparison of the control and experimental groups was done using one way ANOVA followed by a Tukey multiple comparison post tests. The differences were considered significant for p <Â 0.05 (Motulsky, 1995).

with a heparinized syringe. The sample was centrifuged for

Results

5 min at 2000 rpm, the plasma was transferred to cryogenic

The effect of sewage on the levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol are shown in figure 1. The total proteins

tubes and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The plasma levels

a

d

c

b

e

f

Figure 1. Levels of glucose (a), triglycerides (b) and cholesterol (c), proteins (d), albumin (e) and globulins (f) in the plasma of N. rossii. Different letters above the bars indicate significant difference (p < 0,05) between nature control (NC), experimental control (EC) and sewage groups.

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reduction (Figure 1d) observed in the sewage groups was due to reduction in the globulin levels (Figure 1f) and were followed by a rise in the albumin fraction (Figure 1e).

Discussion The glucose levels in both the sewage groups were less than the experimental control. The difference of the glucose levels in the nature and experimental control indicates that confinement stress results in hyperglycemia (Figure 1a). The difference in glycaemia between the two experimental groups with SPS effluents was not significant. The increase in glucose in vertebrates has been associated with the energy demands of “fight-or-flight” reaction (Pottinger  et  al., 2000). The reduction in plasma glucose levels of N. rossii in experimental conditions with sewage could be due to increased energy demands. The same profile of glucose was observed for triglycerides (Figure 1b). The presence of ample and diffuse adipose tissue, as well as elevated oxidative potential of liver muscle and heart in the Antarctic fish, supports the view of metabolism based on lipids (Crockett & Sidell, 1990; Sidell et al., 1995). The lipid plasmatic transport in the fish is similar to mammals, the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) being the main transporter of TG, whereas low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) are rich in cholesterol. In fish, the low levels or absence of albumin is compensated by fatty acid transport through HDL (Metcalf et al., 1999; Nanton et al., 2006). The relatively high levels of cholesterol in the plasma of experimental control and sewage, compared to the nature control (Figure 1c), could be related with the rise in the energy demands and the plasmatic transport of fatty acids through HDLs. So, the tendency of cholesterol

levels to rise as a function of sewage concentration could be related with to the possible increase in energy demand. The albumin levels in the vertebrates has been associated with fatty acid, divalent metallic cations transport and blood colloidosmotic pressure (Metcalf et  al., 1998). Therefore, the elevation in the albumin levels and reduction in the globulins of N. rossii plasma were impacted by experimental confinement and the sewage.

Conclusion The confinement was capable of inducing rise of glucose, triglycerides (not significant) and cholesterol in plasma of N. rossii. In the presence of sewage, the glucose and triglycerides levels suffered reduction, signaling possible rise in energy demand. The elevation of cholesterol levels in the presence of sewage could be related to the lipid relocation with energetic aims. The alterations observed in the presence of sewage were not proportional to the concentration of this effluent. Plasmatic cholesterol and globulins emerge as potential biomarkers of the sewage pollution.

Acknowledgements This study was sponsored by the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA, Portuguese acronym), and with the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, (CNPq, Portuguese acronym) process n° 574018/2008-5 and the Ministry of Environment (MMA, Portuguese acronym), the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT, Portuguese acronym) and the Secretariat of the Interministerial Commission for Resources of the Sea (SECIRM, Portuguese acronym).

References Aronson, R.B.; Thatje, S.; McClintock, J.B. & Hughes, K.A. (2011). Anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems in Antarctica. 1223: 82-107p. Crockett, A.B. & Sidell, B.D. (1990). Some pathways of energy metabolism are cold adapted in Antarctic fishes. Physiological Zoology, 63: 472-488. Metcalf, V.; Brennan, S.; Chambers, G. & George, P. (1998). The Albumins of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Appear to Lack a Propeptide. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 350(2): 239-244.

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Metcalf, V.J.; Brennan, S.O.; Chambers, G. & George, P.M. (1999). High density lipoprotein (HDL), and not albumin, is the major palmitate binding protein in New Zealand long-finned (Anguilla dieffenbachii) and short-finned eel (Anguilla australis schmidtii) plasma. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1429(2): 467-475. Motulsky, H. (1995). Intuitive Biostatistics. ed. New York. Oxford University Press. Nanton, D.A.; McNiven, M.A. & Lall, S.P. (2006). Serum lipoproteins in haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus L. Aquaculture Nutrition, 12(5): 363-371. Pottinger, T.G.; Carrick, T.R.; Appleby, A. & Yeomans, W.E. (2000). High blood cortisol levels and low cortisol receptor affinity: Is the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, a cortisol-resistant teleost? General and Comparative Endocrinology, 120(1): 108-117. Roura, R.M. & Hemmings, A.D. (2011). Realising strategic environmental assessment in antarctica. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management. 13(3): 483-514. Sidell, B.D.; Crockett, E.L. & Driedzic, W.R. (1995). Antarctic fish tissues preferentially catabolize monoenoic fatty acids. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 271(2): 73-81. Tin, T.; Fleming, Z.L.; Hughes, K.A.; Ainley, D.G.; Convey, P.; Moreno, C.A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Scott, J. & Snape, I. (2009). Impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment. Antarctic Science, 21(1): 3-33.

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6 STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UV) AND ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS ON ANTARCTIC MARINE ANIMALS FROM SHALLOW WATERS Vicente Gomes*, Phan Van Ngan, Maria José de A. C. R. Passos, Arthur José da Silva Rocha, Fabio Matsu Hasue, Alex Sander D. Machado, Priscila Verónica Sartório, João Paulo Leme Ferreira, Carolina Patrício Vignardi, Débora Yamane Furquim Campos, Maysa Ito Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, CEP 05508-120, São Paulo, SP, Brasil *e-mail: vicgomes@usp.br

Abstract: The effects of UV and organic pollutants on coastal species of Antarctic marine organisms are being studied using selected methods for animal behaviour, citogenotoxicity and immunohistochemistry. Results obtained up to the present indicate that the methods are suitable and the species chosen is appropriate to indicate alterations related to local contamination. These kind of procedures are promising for future biomonitoring programs. Keywords: Antarctic, Environmental Monitoring, UV, Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers, Genotoxicity, Immunohistochemistry.

Introduction Antarctica is largely considered to be a pristine environment. However, local contaminations by a wide range of pollutants including hydrocarbons (Cripps & Priddle, 1991), persistent organic pollutants (Fuoco et  al., 1996; Weber & Goerke, 2003) and those of sewage effluents (Hughes, 2004; Hughes & Thompson 2004) have been recorded in shallow marine habitats in the vicinities of populated areas such as scientific stations. The research REDE-2, already finished, and now the INCT-APA (the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology – Antarctic Environmental Research) are integrated cooperative programs that are developing comprehensive studies on the state of the environment in Admiralty Bay, under the influence of the Brazilian Station “Comandante Ferraz” (EACF, Portuguese acronym). Results of good quality in a diversity of aspects will serve as a baseline for future monitoring activities. The present research aims to develop different methods to investigate the effects of pollutants and water contaminated by sewage and petroleum hydrocarbons on fish and amphipods of shallow waters around the EACF, as well as the interactions of these factors with ultraviolet radiation

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(UV). The genotoxic effects of these parameters are being assessed by the micronucleus (Mn), erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) and the comet assays, which have been successful to investigate damage to fish and amphipods DNA. Animal behavior and imunohistochemistry analysis are also being carried out in order to identify alterations due to pollutants and UV. The MN assay is a quite simple method to detect genotoxic effects of chemical compounds. They are cytoplasmic chromatin masses similar to a small nucleus, originated from fragments or whole chromosomes that were left behind during cell division. The frequency of micronucleated cells has been employed as a suitable index of chromosome damage for more than 20 years (Ayllon & Garcia-Vazquez, 2000). Nowadays, different studies have also described the presence of other ENAs on cells of fish exposed to genotoxic compounds that can complement the MN assay (Pacheco & Santos, 2002). The single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay is also a highly suitable method for evaluating the effects of contamination of aquatic environments on the DNA of organisms (Frenzilli et  al., 2009). In this assay, after the


DNA is unwound in a highly alkaline solution, subsequent electrophoresis causes the relaxed and broken fragments of negatively charged DNA to move towards the anode, away from the nucleoids. After staining, the size and intensity of the comet head and tail represent the degree of DNA damage in individual cells. Recently, immunohistochemistry techniques were included in our work to identify protein activation related to temperature increase, as well as to the metabolic effects of pollutants and UV. Heat shock protein (HSP-70), tumor protein (p-53) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are the main focus of these studies.

Materials and Methods Individuals of the amphipod species Gondogeneia antarctica and fish Trematomus newnesi were collected in shallow water using a hand sieve or a small otter trawl net. Animals were kept for 5 days in aquaria inside a cold chamber at 0º C and 35 psu to diminish stress due to handling. Thereafter, the amphipods were transferred to a circular 4L aquarium and exposed to natural light or to different UV intensities, combined with the presence or absence of anthracene used as a standard PAH. The animal behavior was assessed during 5 hours per day through recordings for 3 days, with resting periods in the dark of 19 hours. The aquarium was covered by a metal frame to support blue UV filter sections and/or transparent UV filter sections, and also sections free of filters, so that the animals could swim freely under those areas. Choice of a certain area can indicate avoidance or not to radiation enhanced or not by pollutants. At the end of exposition, the hemolymph was sampled to evaluate genotoxicity through the comet assay. Amphipods from control places far away from the EACF influence and places in front of the fuel tanks and sewage outlet had the hemolymph sampled for comet assay. Samples of whole animals from the same locations were taken and prepared for immunohistochemistry assays. Experiments were also made with fishes that were placed inside cages and submerged for 12 days at 1m depth in shallow water in front of the fuel tanks, near sewage outlet and at control places far away from EACF. After exposure, fish blood samples were taken and used for comet assay and MN and ENA assays. Comet assays were performed as described by Singh et al. (1988), with modifications, and DNA damage was

established by calculating the Index of Damage (ID) of 100 scored comets per animal (García et  al., 2004). MN and ENA were quantified by assessing 2000 erythrocytes per individual (Phan et al., 2007). The ENAs were classified as kidney-shaped (K), lobed (L) and segmented (S) (Ayllon & Garcia-Vazques, 2000). Preliminary immunohistochemical studies are being carried out in order to identify and quantify the expression of HSP-70, p-53 and VEGF proteins, using appropriated methodologies. Means (SD±) calculated from ID, MN and ENAs data were tested for normality and homogeneity of variances, and submitted to Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, followed by Mann-Whitney U test and Newman Keuls multiple comparison non-parametric tests. Differences of p < 0.05 were considered as significant.

Results Phase I experiment results showed that the UV and the anthracene affects the survival and behavior of Antarctic amphipods. In normal conditions, amphipods always prefer blue filter shadowy places. Animals subjected to UV and anthracene showed an altered behavior on the first day, probably due to stress. The surviving stronger animals reestablished normal behavior by the second day. On the third day the animals lost their mobility. The avoidance behavior to UV may exist, although it is still to be confirmed by the coming results of experiments without blue filters. Data of comet, MN and ENAs assays of amphipods G. antarctica obtained at the laboratory and from the biomonitoring natural areas are being analysed. Preliminary results of the comet assay showed significant high ID on the DNA of G. antarctica sampled from places close to the fuel tanks and sewage outlet, in relation to control places (Figure 1). The ID was higher in animals from the sewage outlet in comparison to those from fuel tanks areas. DNA damage was significantly higher in fish exposed to the waters in front of the fuel tanks and near the sewage outlet when compared to those of fish exposed to control areas. Differences in DNA damage between fish maintained at the sewage outlet and those in the water in front of the fuel tanks were also significant in both experiments performed (Figure 2). Slides with tissue of amphipods for immunohistochemical studies are being prepared. At the moment, preliminary

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Figure 1. DNA damage index of amphipods G. antarctica captured from shallow water around the EACF.

Figure 2. DNA damage index of T. newnesi exposed to water at different sites. Data are showed as means Âą standard deviations (n=5). * Significantly different to control.

Figure 3. Immunohistochemical assay for the p-53 protein of G. antarctica. Arrows indicate the protein expression. Experiment 1 (light control): animals under natural light; Experiment 2: animals exposed to anthracene; Experiment 3: animals exposed to anthracene plus UV; Experiment 4 (dark control): animals kept in dark.

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results were obtained for p-53 protein of animals exposed in laboratory to UV and to anthracene (Figure 3).

Discussion and Conclusion In spite of being scarce, the importance of behavior studies rely on the fact that they can detect early signals of sublethal effects of contaminants and other environmental factors (Little et al., 1982), such as UV and HPAs. At this moment, behavior data of (phase I) were analyzed. They were obtained in experiments with amphipods exposed to PAR and UV radiations, in the presence or absence of the anthracene, under frames composed of transparent, blue radiation filters and without radiation filter. Other experiments are being conducted in order to assess the animal behavior under UV and natural light only (phase II), without the synergism with the PAHs, and without the presence of blue filters. In spite of being preliminary, immunohistochemical data on p-53 protein can be visualized in preparations and its expression was higher in animals subjected to the UV combined with anthracene. Data of other experiments and those sampled from the environment are being processed.

Results obtained so far demonstrate that both the animals and methods employed are suitable for the assessment of the environmental quality, being capable of detecting the contamination effects of sewage discharge as well as those of petroleum origin. Nevertheless, many data have been obtained and are to be processed by trained researchers. At the moment, there is a lack of qualified researchers sponsored by the INCT-APA that could help our laboratory in this task.

Acknowledgements This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCTAPA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Ayllon, F. & Garcia-Vazquez, E. (2000). Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus and Poecilia latippina: an assessment of the fish micronucleus test. Mutation Research, 467:177-186 Cripps, G.C. & Priddle, J. (1991). Hydrocarbons in the Antarctic marine environment. Antarctic Science, 3(3):233-250. Fuoco, R.; Colombini, M.P.; Ceccarini, A. & Abete, C. (1996). Polychlorobiphenyls in Antarctica. Microchemistry Journal, 54:384-390. Frenzilli, G.; Nigro, M. & Lyons, B. P. 2009. The Comet assay for the evaluation of genotoxic impact in aquatic environments. Mutation Research, 681(1): 80-92. García, O.; Mandina, T.; Lamadrid, A. I.; Diaz, A.; Remigio, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Piloto, J.; Gonzalez, J. E. & Alvarez, A. 2004. Sensitivity and variability of visual scoring in the comet assay. Results of an inter-laboratory scoring exercise with the use of silver staining. Mutation Research, 556: 25-34. Hughes, K.A. & Thompson, A. (2004). Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers. Environmental Pollution, 127:315-321. Hughes, K.A. (2004). Reducing sewage pollution in the Antarctic marine environment using a sewage treatment plant. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49:850-853. Little, E. E.; Flerov, B. A. & Ruzhinskaya, N. N. (1982). Behavioral approaches in aquatic toxicity investigations: a review. Water Quality Section. Amer Fish, 92-98.

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Pacheco, M. & Santos, M.A. (2002). Biotransformation, genotoxic, and histopathological effects of environmental contaminants in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.). Ecotoxicology Environmental Safety, 53( 3):331-347. Phan, V.N.; Gomes, V.; Passos, M.J.A.C.R.; Ussami, K.A.; Campos, D.Y.F.; Rocha, A.J.S. & Pereira, B.A. (2007). Biomonitoring of the genotoxic potential (micronucleus and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay) of the Admiralty Bay water surrounding the Brazilian Antarctic Research Station â&#x20AC;&#x153;Comandante Ferrazâ&#x20AC;?, King George Island. Polar Biology, 30:209-217. Singh, N. P.; McCoy, M. T.; Tice, R. R. & Schneider, E. L. (1988). A simple technique for quantitation of low level of DNA damage in individual cells. Experimental Cell Research, 175:184-191. Weber, K. & Goerke, H. (2003). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic fish: levels, patterns, changes. Chemosphere, 53:667-678.

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7 POTENTIAL OF BIOINVASION BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES IN THE ANTARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT Bruna Rachel Rocha*, Ana Carolina Fortes Bastos, Andrea de Oliveira Ribeiro Junqueira Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, CCS, bloco A, sala 089, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil *e-mail: rochabruna2@gmail.com

Abstract: Expansion of human activities increases the likelihood of species introductions in Antarctica. Considering this fact we studied the main vectors and pathways of potential introductions in the King George Island. Three main areas of human activities were considered: tourism, fishing and scientific research. We conducted a literature review and a survey of statistical data on sites of human activities in Antarctica. We observed that the transport of people and goods by human activities increased during the period under analysis. The places most visited by tourists on King George Island were scientific stations. The routes taken by several types of cruises departed mainly from ports located in Chile and Argentina. So, there is a greater likelihood of possible introductions of alien species from southern South America. The scientific stations Bellingshausen, President Eduardo Frei and Henryk Arctowski are the oldest in operation; they must be targets of investigation for a possible presence of non-native species, since time and human activities are essential factors in the processes of bioinvasion. The increase of licensed vessels and trawlers on King George Island, also enhances the risk of possible introductions of species in the marine environment. Therefore, this study is important to make inferences about the presence of introduced species besides contributing to avoid possible future introductions in the Antarctic marine environment. Keywords: King George Island, Marine Introduction, Human Activities

Introduction The Southern Ocean is considered one of the planet’s largest

to considerable structural changes in marine communities

natural laboratories regarding the effects of environmental

(Tin et  al., 2009). In this context, biological invasion by

change on ecosystems, communities, populations, organisms

non native species should be considered a critical impact,

at different spatial and temporal scales. Its high degree of

especially in isolated ecosystems like the Southern Ocean.

endemism (Griffiths et al., 2010) caused by a long period of

Therefore, research aimed at reducing the potential

geographic isolation, makes Antarctica an important target

bioinvasion is critical to maintaining the intrinsic

of research and scientific discussions, resulting in a better

characteristics of pristine communities, such as the

understanding of its ecological diversity.

Antarctic marine environment. These studies need to

However, the warming of the Southern Ocean, detected

combine human activities and its routes to generate

in the Antarctic Peninsula (Meredith & King, 2005), has

management guidelines to decrease the potential invasions

physiological relevance, since the Antarctic marine fauna

of species from outside the Antarctic continent, and also

appears to be particularly sensitive to small changes in

between different biogeographic regions inside Antarctica

water temperature (Peck, 2005; Barnes & Peck, 2008;

and thus prevent the break of regional endemism causing

Peck et  al., 2008, 2009). The effects generated by global

the consequent loss of genetic distinction between these

changes associated with human activities, can influence

locations. So the goals of this study have been to understand

synergistically the potential for dispersal of species, and lead

the main routes related to human activities (scientific

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research, tourism and fishing) in Antarctica and identify the locations in King George Island which are more susceptible to invasions of exotic species.

Materials and Methods We studied the main vectors and pathways of potential introductions in King George Island. Thus, three main areas of human activities were considered: tourism, fishing and scientific research. We conducted a literature review and a survey of statistical data on sites of human activities in Antarctica. We surveyed the tourism activity on King George Island: the places most visited by tourists, their nationality, the ports of departure, the types of vessels used for this activity and the recommendations transmitted to the tourists to reduce the impact of visitation and the likelihood of introduction of species. This data was surveyed on IAATO site (International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators). We also investigated the amount of scientific research: the existing stations and shelters on King George Island and the countries involved in the operation of these stations and the ports where scientists travel to Antarctica. Investigations about fishing activities were also undertaken, because it is another important vector of non intentional introduction, especially related to marine ecosystems.

Related data was reviewed on CCAMLR site (Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resource).

Results The tourist season occurs during the austral summer, Antarctic visits are mainly concentrated at ice-free coastal zones over the five month period from November to March. According to data published by the IAATO and compiled by SCAR KGIS (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, King George Island) there are 21 main points of tourist visitation in King George Island: 1-Cape Melville, 2- Turrent Point, 3-Penguin Island, 4-Lion`s Rump, 5-King George Island, 6-Comandante Ferraz (Brazil), 7-Martel Inlet, 8-Admiralty Bay, 9-Henryk Arctowski (Poland), 10-Point Thomas, 11-Ezcurra Inlet, 12-Potter Cove, 13- Carlini (Argentina), 14-King Sejong (Korea), 15- Maxwell Bay, 16-Artigas (Uruguay), 17-Ardley Island, 18-Fildes Peninsula, 19-Bellingshausen (Russia), 20- President Eduardo Frei (Chile) and 21- Great Wall (China). During the period from 2007 to 2010, the places most visited by tourists on King George Island were mainly the Henryk Arctowski station (Poland), followed by Penguin Island and the President Eduardo Frei of Chile station (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Number of visitors in the main points of tourist visitation on King George Island. Source: IAATO, 2011.

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According to IAATO, the cruises are carried out by some 40 vessels each carrying from 6 to 500 tourists. The vessels sail primarily to the Antarctic Peninsula region. Occasional voyages to Antarctica also have included larger passenger vessels carrying from 500 to 3.000 tourists. Most cruises depart from one of the ports in southern South America, such as Ushuaia (Argentina), Punta Arenas (Chile) or Montevideo (Uruguay) to the Antarctic Peninsula. These cruises often include visits to the nearby Falkland Islands and South Georgia. During the period from 2007 to 2010, tourists that visited Antarctica came mainly from: United States, Germany and United Kingdom. Despite the proximity of the Antarctic continent to South America, none of the major nationalities who visited the Antarctic came from countries of South America (Figure 2). According to IAATO, the boots, clothing and equipment must be cleaned with running water for decontamination before and after of landing. Clothing and equipment have to be checked thoroughly by a member of the ship’s crew or staff. The main recommendations provided to tourists are to protect Antarctic wildlife, respect protected areas, respect scientific research, be safe and keep Antarctica pristine. Regarding the scientific bases, there are permanent bases (that work throughout the year) and seasonal ones (which work only during summer) are scattered mainly in

the southwestern region of King George Island closer to Bransfield Strait. The scientific bases are located at points of the island where the soil is exposed during the summer through melting. The permanent stations are: 1) Argentina: Carlini; 2) Brazil: Comandante Ferraz, 3) Chile: President Eduardo Frei, 4) Chile: Professor Julio Escudeiro, 5) China: Great Wall, 6) Korea: King Sejong, 7) Poland: Henryk Arctowski, 8)  Russia: Bellingshausen, 9) Uruguay: Artigas. Other countries have the following temporary stations: 1) Peru: Machu Picchu, 2) Germany: Dallmann Laboratory. Russia, Brazil, Korea, Argentina, United States, Poland and Ecuador have also full and temporary shelters in King George Island. The Bellingshausen (Russia), President Eduardo Frei (Chile) and Henryk Arctowski (Poland) stations are the oldest in operation on King George Island, with 42, 41 and 33 years of age respectively. According to Frenot et al. (2005), the routes taken by the researchers conducting scientific activities in King George Island leave from the following countries and ports: 1) Argentina: Buenos Aires, El Palomar, Mar del Plata and Ushaia; 2) Brazil: Rio de Janeiro and Punta Arenas; 4) Chile: Valparaiso; 5) China: Shanghai; 6) Germany: Bremerhaven; 7) Korea: Ulsan; 8) Poland: Gdynia; 9) Russia: St Petersburg; 10) Uruguay: Montevideo.

Figure 2. Number of visitors by nationality in Antarctica. Source: IAATO, 2011.

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CCAMLR has adopted the same divisions of fishing areas used by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). In the Southern Ocean, three fishing areas are located, as follows: 88 (Pacific, Antarctic), 48 (Atlantic, Antarctic) and 58 (Antarctic and Southern Indian Ocean). Fishing area 48 is divided into six sub-areas: 48.1-Peninsular, 48.2-South Orkney, 48.3-South Georgia, 48.4-South Sandwich, 48.5-Weddel Sea and 48.6-Bouvet. King George Island is located in sub-area 48.1 as well as all the Antarctic Peninsula. According to CCAMLR, the targets of fishery at three areas located in the Southern Ocean are: Champsocephalus gunnari, Lithodidae, Euphausia superba, Myctophids, Rajiformes, Dissostichus eleginoides and Dissostichus spp. During the period from 2008 to 2012 in sub-area 48.1, only the species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) was target of fishery and all licensed vessels used trawling gear for fishing.

presence of non-native species, since time and human activities are essential factors in the processes of bioinvasion. In addition, the bases are distributed mainly near the Strait of Bransfield, so this region should be a priority target for research on bioinvasion. The increase of licensed vessels for fishing over the years in the subarea 48.1, where King George Island is located, enhances the risk of possible introductions in this region. Thus, it is important to study the routes of these vessels from the port of origin to their areas of fishing activities within the Southern Ocean. Furthermore, the licensed vessels for fishery in sub-area 48.1 also carry out activities in other sub-areas and in other fishing areas of Antarctica (area 58), which may contribute to the dispersal of species between different areas of endemism. In addition, trawlers may be possible vectors of introduction of alien species in the Antarctic marine environment.

The number of vessels during this period was 2008/2009 - 9, 2009/2010- 11, 2010/2011 - 13 and 2011/2012 -13. Most of these vessels came from: Chile, China, Japan, Norway, Korea and Poland.

Discussion We highlight the scientific stations as main tourist places on King George Island, because of the infrastructure which facilitates the landing of the tourists and are also major attractions for visitors. Therefore, the most visited places are more likely to suffer introductions of species (Frenot et al., 2005; IAATO, 2011). The routes taken by vessels of tour operators depart mainly from ports located in Chile and Argentina or ports located in regions such as Stanley in the Falkland Islands. According to Frenot et al. (2005), the only exception would be the port of Bluff in New Zealand. Thus, there is a greater likelihood of unintentional introductions of species from southern South America. Bellingshausen (Russia), President Eduardo Frei (Chile) and Henryk Arctowski (Poland) bases are the oldest in operation. This means that both the pathways and vectors used by these stations, must be targets of investigation for a possible

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Conclusion The transport of people and goods are increasing as a result of human activities (tourism, fishing and scientific research) at King George Island as demonstrated in this study. Therefore, the study of the main vectors and pathways as well as of the most vulnerable places is essential before making inferences about the presence of introduced species in the Antarctic marine environment. It also contributes to avoiding possible future introductions.

Acknowledgments This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCTAPA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).


References Barnes, D.K.A. & Peck, L.S. (2008). Examining vulnerability of Antarctic shelf biodiversity to predicted climate warming. Climate Research, 37:149-163. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living - CCAMLR. Available from: <http://www.ccamlr.org/pu/e/genintro.htm>. Consulted on 2012-01-16. Frenot, Y.; Chown, L.S.; Whinam, J.; Selkirk, P. M.; Convey, P.; Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom, D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antartic: extent, impacts and implications. Biological Reviews, 80:45-72. Griffiths, H. J. (2010). Antarctic Marine Biodiversity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; What Do We Know About the Distribution of Life in the Southern Ocean? PLoS ONE 5(8): e11683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011683 International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators - IAATO. Available from: <www.iaato.org/tourism_overview.html>. Consulted on 2011-03-14. Meredith, M.P. & King, J.C. (2005). Rapid climate change in the ocean west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century.Geophysical Research Letters, 32:1-5. Peck, L.S. (2005). Prospects for survival in the Southern Ocean: vulnerability of benthic species to temperature change. Antarctic Science, 17:497-507. Peck, L.S.; Webb, K.E.; Miller, A.; Clark, M.S. & Hill, T. (2008). Temperature limits to activity, feeding and metabolism in the Antarctic starfish Odontaster validus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 358:181-189. Peck, L.S.; Clark, M.S.; Morley, S.A.; Massey, A. & Rossetti, H. (2009). Animal temperature limits and ecological relevance: effects of size, activity and rates of change. Functional Ecology, 23:248-256. Tin, T.; Fleming, Z.L.; Hughes, K.A; Ainley, D.G.; Convey, P.; Moreno, C.A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Scott, J. & Snape, I. (2009). Impacts of local human activities on the Antartic environment. Antartic Science, 21(1):3-33.

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8 BIOCHEMICAL MARKER OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN ANTARCTIC ANIMALS: SCREENING OF ENERGY METABOLISM ENZYMES OF Nacella concinna FOR MONITORING OF INTERTIDAL ENVIRONMENT OF ADMIRALTY BAY, KING GEORGE ISLAND. Cecilia Nahomi Kawagoe Suda1,*, Mariana Feijó-Oliveira2, Edson Rodrigues Junior2, Gannabathula Sree Vani1, Lucélia Donatti2, Helena Passeri Lavrado3 & Edson Rodrigues1 Instituto Básico de Biociências, Universidade de Taubaté, Av. Tiradentes 500, Centro, CEP 12030-180, Taubaté, SP, Brazil 2 Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico s/no, Jd das Américas, CEP 81990-970, Curitiba, PR, Brazil 3 Departamento de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 1

*e-mail: cnksuda@hotmail.com

Abstract: The Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna inhabits the intertidal shores of Admiralty Bay. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes of this species were determined in order to evaluate their potential as biochemical markers of intertidal environment changes. The limpets were collected on February 2011 at six intertidal sites at Admiralty Bay: Ullman Point, Botany Point, Punta Plaza, Hennequin Point, Brazilian Refuge 2 and in front of the oil tank of Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz. The enzyme activities were undertaken on the gills and foot tissues of these limpets. There were no significant differences in the activities of malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and hexokinase from foot tissue and citrate synthase, phosphofrutokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from gills in samples from the six sites. Thus, they are candidates for biochemical markers because these enzyme activities are not affected by small genetic variations between populations, as well as small natural differences in the environment. Keywords: Antarctica, Intertidal Zone, Biochemical Marker, Nacella concinna

Introduction Impact of human activities on the environment can be determined by physical and chemical measurements of the contaminants. However, the analysis of biochemical markers, such as enzyme activity, can be a sensitive indicator

(Hoffman et al., 2011). The activities of enzymes of energy metabolism were investigated in N. concinna in order to evaluate their potential as biochemical markers of intertidal environment changes caused by natural or anthropic factors.

of penetration of environmental contaminants into tissues and cells of organisms. Biochemical markers can detect sublethal effect of contaminants and can contribute for early decision about environmental management (Slatinská et al., 2008). The limpet, Nacella concinna occurs in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic rocky intertidal and sub-tidal zones south of 54°S, colonizing areas along the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands, including King George Island

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Materials and Methods N. concinna were collected in the intertidal zone of Admiralty Bay, King George Island on February 2011. The collection sites were Ullman Point (UP: 62o04’55.5”S 58o21’17.6”W), Botany Point (BO: 62o06’19.4”S 58o21’28.2”W), Punta Plaza (PP: 62o05’28.9”S 58o24’21.3”W), Hennequin Point (HP: 62 o07’33.8”S 58 o23’36.6”W),


Brazilian refuge, Refúgio 2 (R2: 62o04’16.0”S 58o25’17.6”W)

The enzyme activities in a specific tissue were compared

and near the Oil Tank of Brazilian Antarctic Station

between different sampling sites by One-way Anova

Comandante Ferraz (OT: 62 o4’59.1”S 58 o23’23.6”W).

followed by Tukey test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn’s

The feet and gills were separated and the tissues were

post test (p <  0.05). GraphPad Prism 5.00 for Windows

homogenized with 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4). The

(GraphPad Software) was used for the statistical analysis.

ratio tissue mass (g) to buffer volumes (mL) were 1:10 and 1:5 for gills and feet, respectively. The homogenized material was sonicated, centrifuged (14000g) for 10 minutes and the

Results In eukaryotes, at least, cytosolic and mitochondrial

supernatant was utilized for activity assay of hexokinase

isoforms of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) are present.

(Baldwin et al., 2007), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

In this work, activities of all isoforms were determined as

(Ciardiello et al., 1995), phosphofrutokinase (Baldwin, et al.,

total activity. The lowest and highest activities of MDH in

2007), lactate dehydrogenase (Thuesen et al., 2005), malate

the gills were observed in the samples collected at UP and

dehydrogenase (Childress & Somero, 1979) and citrate

PP, respectively. The activity of MDH from feet was not

synthase (Saborowski & Buchholz, 2002).

significantly different between collection sites (Figure 1a). b

a

c

Figure 1. Activity (average ± standard error of the mean) of malate dehydrogenase (a), citrate syntase (b) and lactate dehydrogenase (c) from gills and foot muscle of N. concinna collected at different sites in Admiralty Bay (UP: Ullman Point, OT: Oil Tank, BO: Botany Point, PP: Punta Plaza, HP: Hennequin Point, R2: Refúgio 2). Different letters above bars indicate significant difference between the sampling sites.

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Citrate synthase (CS) is the first enzyme in the citric acid cycle and is an indicator of aerobic metabolism. The CS activity did not vary in samples from different sites except for foot CS from UP (Figure 1b). In general, the activity of gill CS was higher than foot CS, suggesting that aerobic metabolism prevails in gills. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme of anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate. The activity in the gills was lowest in N. concinna collected at UP. However, for the feet, the level of activity was not significantly different between collection sites (Figure 1c). Other glycolytic pathway enzymes such as hexokinase (HK) and phosphofrutokinase (PFK) were investigated, glucose 6-phosfate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), an enzyme of pentose phosphate pathway that provides NADPH for antioxidative defense system and intermediary compounds for glycolysis was also investigated (results not shown). The results of HK were similar to LDH in the foot tissue. No difference between collection sites was found in relation to PFK and G6PDH extracted from gills.

Discussion During the austral spring and summer, melt waters from neighboring glaciers and snowfields flow into the intertidal zone at BO and R2. Thus, these are potentially stressful environments for N. concinna, which is a stenohaline osmoconformer. Exposition for 96 hours to salinity of 20.9 is lethal for 50% of the animals, and 50% die if exposed to freshwater for 2h and 18 min (Davenport, 2001). PP is far from scientific stations and far from anthropic influence but subject to wave action. HP is a place also exposed to wave action due to currents between Admiralty Bay and Bransfield Strait. OT is the site with anthropic influence whereas UP is a sheltered place far from the scientific station and the anthropogenic influence. A study with isotopic analysis of biotic and abiotic elements from UP indicated that C and N from sewage could have been incorporated into organic matter in front of the Brazilian station but not in UP, suggesting that UP was not impacted by sewage (Corbisier et  al., 2010). Perhaps UP is the less stressful environment compared to others sites. Curiously, in UP

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samples, the high activity of CS and low activity of LDH in gills suggested this tissue has an elevated capacity of aerobic metabolism. However, in foot tissue, activities of both LDH and CS were high suggesting that foot muscles of UP samples may have high potential for aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. The opposite was found in samples from other sites, where gills probably have elevated potential for both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, whereas foot muscle apparently has more capacity for anaerobic than aerobic metabolism.

Conclusion For monitoring purposes of Admiralty Bay, MDH, LDH and HK from foot tissue and CS, PFK and G6PDH from gills are candidates for biochemical markers since their levels were not significantly different at the several sampling sites. The ideal biochemical marker molecules for detecting environmental change should be sensitive to contaminants but should not be affected by small genetic variation between populations living in the area and/or by small natural variations in the environment. The activity of some energy metabolism enzymes of N. concinna from UP were different from those from other sampling sites at Admiralty Bay.

Acknowledgements This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCTAPA, Portuguese acronym) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq, Portuguese acronym), process: n° 574018/2008-5 and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, Portuguese acronym), process: n° E-16/170.023/2008. The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI, Portuguese acronym), of Environment (MMA, Portuguese acronym) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM, Portuguese acronym).


References Baldwin, J.; Elias, J.P.; Wells, R.M.G. & Donovan, D.A. (2007). Energy metabolism in the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linné: Comparisons with temperate abalone species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 342(2):213-225. Childress, J. J. & Somero, G. N. (1979). Depth-related enzymic activities in muscle, brain and heart of deep-living pelagic marine teleosts. Marine Biology, 52(3):273-283. Ciardiello, M.A., Camardella, L. & Di Prisco, G. (1995). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the blood cells of two antarctic teleosts: Correlation with cold adaptation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, 1250(1):76-82. Corbisier, T.N.; Bromberg, S.; Gheller, P.F.; Piera, F.E. & Petti, M.A.V. (2010). Monitoring the impact of human activities in Admiralty Bay, King George Island: Isotopic analysis of C and N in the summer of 2005/2006. Annual Activity Report 2010, INCT-APA, p. 182-187. Davenport, J. (2001). Meltwater effects on intertidal Antarctic limpets, Nacella concinna. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 81:643-649. Hoffman, J.I., Peck, L.S., Linse, K. & Clarke, A. (2011). Strong population genetic structure in a broadcast-spawning Antarctic marine invertebrate. Journal of Heredity, 102(1):55-66. Saborowski, R. & Buchholz, F. (2002). Metabolic properties of Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, from different climatic zones. II. Enzyme characteristics and activities. Marine Biology, 140(3):557-565. Slatinská, I.; Smutná, M.; Havelková, M. & Svobodová, Z. (2008). Review article: biochemical markers of aquatic pollution in fish - glutathione s-transferase. Folia Veterinaria, 52(3-4):129-134. Thuesen, E.V.; McCullough, K.D. & Childress, J. J. (2005). Metabolic enzyme activities in swimming muscle of medusae: is the scaling of glycolytic activity related to oxygen availability? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 85(3):603-611.

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9 MARINE MACROALGAL DIVERSITY IN ADMIRALTY BAY, KING GEORGE ISLAND, SOUTH SHETLANDS ISLANDS, ANTARCTICA Yocie Yoneshigue-Valentin1,*, Ingrid Balesteros Silva2, Mutue Toyota Fujii2, Nair Sumie Yokoya2, Diclá Pupo2, Silvia Maria Pita de Beauclair Guimarães2, Aline Paternostro Martins3, Paola Frazan Sanches4, Dinaelza Castelo Pereira3, Adriana Galindo Dalto1 Jonatas Martinez Canuto de Souza2, Cláudio Martin Pereira de Pereira5, Franciane Maria Pellizzari6 & Pio Colepicolo3 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21941-902, Brazil 2 Instituto de Botânica, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ficologia, Av. Miguel Estéfano, 3867, Água Funda, CEP 04301-902, São Paulo, SP, Brazil 3 Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil 4 Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Universitário, CEP 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil 5 Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão S/N,Campus Universitário, CEP 96010-900, Brazil 6 Universidade Estadual do Paraná, campus FAFIPAR, Rua Comendador Correia Júnior - 117, Centro, CEP 82203-280, Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil 1

*e-mail: yocie@biologia.ufrj.br

Abstract: The Antarctic Continent is undergoing environmental alterations due to global climate changes and anthropic activities. The knowledge of the biodiversity and of the ecophysiology of the organisms in this region is of essential importance to delineate strategies of protection and for the management of such a fragile region of the planet. Among the organisms to be monitored, the macroalgae are an important natural resource. Admiralty Bay, including the Martel inlet, is an Antarctica Special Management Area (ASMA), which undergoes changes during the year due to the coverage of ice creating perturbed climatic conditions, negatively affecting the macroalgae. Previous studies suggest that Admiralty Bay is an ecotone between the Sub-Antarctic Islands and the coastal zone of Continental Antarctica. This research has the purpose of contributing to the knowledge of the macroalgae clarifying the transitory character of the macroalgal community and its distribution in the bay. From the analysis of the samples of macroalgae collected in the period of December 2010 to February 2011 and from December 2011 to January 2012, it was possible to identify 60 species of algae, of which, 29 Rhodophyta, 14 Chlorophyta and 17 Heterokontophyta. The Ceramiales order (10 species) was the most representative among the Rhodophyta, in that 80% consisted of Delesseriaceae. The presence of Heterokontophyta of large size, such as Himantothallus grandifolius, Phaeurus antarcticus, Ascoseira mirabilis and Cystophaera jacquinotii, and the Rhodophyta, Pyropia endiviifolia and Georgiella confluens confirm the endemic character of these species in Maritime Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula. The Chlorophyta, Blidingia minima, Ulva compressa, U. intestinalis and the Heterokontophyta, Petalonia fascia encountered in Admiralty Bay have wide geographical distribution in both hemispheres. In the southern hemisphere, in the Cabo Frio region, of the State of Rio de Janeiro, these species appear fully developed during the summer, a period marked by the occurrence of phenomenon of upwelling, which confirms the connectivity of the Sub-Antarctic waters with the tropical region of the South Atlantic. Keywords: Admiralty Bay, Antarctica, Macroalgae, Taxonomy

Introduction Antarctica could be considered the most preserved region in the planet and the most vulnerable to global environmental changes, and it has been defined as the Science Continent.

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Although submitted to geographical isolation, this region has been undergoing environmental alterations due to global climate changes and anthropic activities (Reich, 1980). Many


of the global climatic alterations observed today may be related with those that occur in Polar Regions, especially in Antarctica, with repercussions even as far as the North of Brazil. To understand them it is necessary to study their ecosystemic aspects, as much terrestrial as marine. Thus, in the marine ecosystem, the organisms, including the algae, are well adapted to extreme climatic conditions with very low temperatures (Bischoff-Bäsmann & Wiencke, 1996), effects of ice, prolonged freezing of seawater and variations in the periods of solar radiation between winter and summer (Wiencke et al., 2007). In this context, the knowledge of biodiversity and ecophysiology is of essential importance for delineating the strategies of protection and handling of such a fragile region of the planet. Among the organisms that are being monitored, the macroalgae constitute an important natural resource. Such organisms, formed by a thallus (no roots, stalk, leaves, flowers and fruit), possess great diversity of forms. Colours and dimensions play a fundamental ecological role, in the form of food, shelter, refuge plus spawning ground, which significantly reinforces their role in the ecosystem, as well as in the conservation and preservation of the natural renewable marine resources (Lee, 2008). Up to the moment 119 species of macroalgae have been registered for the Antarctica region (Wiencke & Clayton, 2002). According to a revision of the bibliography by Pedrini (1992), it was estimated that the Antarctic Peninsula and The South Shetland islands present approximately 82 species. The diversity in the surroundings of the Polish Station Henry Arctowski (Admiralty Bay) was estimated in 36 taxons (Zielinski, 1981; Rakusa-Suszczewski & Zielinski, 1993). However, Oliveira  et  al. (2009) identified 42 species (21 Rhodophyta, 14 Heterokontophyta and 7 Chlorophyta) only in the vicinity of Brazilian Antarctic Station-Comandante Ferraz (Admiralty Bay), corresponding to approximately 31% of the total estimated biodiversity of the whole archipelago of South Shetlands, showing that possibly the macroalgae marine diversity was underestimated for a number of years, especially because all these studies were concentrated in intertidal zones and not shallow infralittoral zones. It is known that the benthic macroalgae of Antarctica present a high degree endemism in approximately 90% of the Heterokontophyta, 70% of the Rhodophyta and 40% of the Chlorophyta with the majority of species occurring in the peninsula area and there are only a few species registered

in existence further south, for example, in the Ross Sea (Wiencke et al., 2007), suggesting that Admiralty Bay is an ecotone between the Sub-Antarctic Islands and the coastal zone of the Antarctic Continent (Rakusa-Suszczewski & Zielinski, 1993). The recent phycological studies in Antarctica and the South Atlantic were principally concentrated in the areas of biochemistry and physiology (Amsler  et  al., 2009; Hoyers  et  al., 2002; Peters  et  al., 2002), including those developed by researchers linked to the Brazilian Antarctic Programme, there being few surveys of flora (Pedrini, 1992; Oliveira et al., 2009), however, many gaps related to taxonomy and the life history of some species, especially from the infralittoral areas, still exist (Wiencke et al., 2007; Hommersand et al., 2009). Admiralty Bay, including Martel inlet, is an Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA), which undergoes changes during the year due to ice coverage creating perturbed climatic conditions, negatively affecting the macroalgae. Thus, the present work has the purpose of contributing to the knowledge of macroalgae, making evident the transitory nature of the macroalgal community and its distribution in the bay.

Materials and Methods Admiralty Bay (62o04’14,5’’-62o10’03,5’’S and 58o20’15’’58o27’60’’W) is the biggest bay of King George Island, as well as all the other islands of the archipelago of the South Shetlands. This bay is an area of great scientific and environmental interest and is divided in three sectors covered or not by permanent glaciers, which drain their glacial melt water into the bay. The water of the bay occupy 138 km2 and communicate to the south by means of the Bransfield Strait and to the North is divided in three fjords forming the inlets of Ezcurra, Mackelar and Martel with depths varying from shallow water of up to 550 metres, with on average 176.3 metres (Rakusa-Suszcewski, 2002). The ice-free areas located along the beach zone and some rock prominences, such as Keller Peninsula, Hennequin Point, Demay Point, and the region of Thomas Point complete Admiralty Bay. In these regions of the intertidal zone and infralittoral shallows predominate rock substrates in the form of pebble stones that can represent an area of development and concentration of biomass for benthic

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macroalgae flora (Figures 1-2), which covers 30% of the bottom of the bay (Nedzarek & Rakusa-Suszcewski, 2004) and contributes as a source of organic material for organisms that inhabit this environment. Seaweed specimens were collected during Austral Summer season from December/2010 to February/2011

and from December/2011 to January/2012 from a total of 30 sites at Martel, Marckelar and Ezcurra inlet, which are shown in the Figure 3. The marine macroalgae were

Figure 1. General view of the consolidated substrate formed by pebbles at Baleia beach, adjacent to Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz (EACF). (Photo: M.T. Fujii, January/2012).

Figure 2. Detail of the seaweeds attached to the pebbles, during low tide in Botany Point (Photo: M.T. Fujii, January/2012).

Figure 3. Seaweed sampling sites at Martel, Marckelar and Ezcurra inlets at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctic.

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collected fixed to consolidated substrate during low tides, as well as by dredging at depths of up to 30 metres, but also washed up on the beaches (Figure 4). Although the presence of calcarian algae encrusted on the consolidated substrate is conspicuous (Figure 5) these were not included in the present study due to the need of a specific methodology to identify this group of algae. The material collected was preserved in a solution of formaldehyde with 4% of sea water for morphological studies and preparation of vouchers. For the identification of taxonomy of the macroalgae the standard methodology was followed in Phycology, using longitudinal and transversal sections stained with blue aniline at 0.5% acidity with HC1 1N, whenever necessary, for the better visualization of the diagnostic structures. The exsiccates were included in the Phycological Herbary of the Botanic Institute in São Paulo (SP).

Figure 4. Drift macroalgae biomass during Summer season of 2011, in front of EACF (Photo: Rafael Bendayan de Moura).

Figure 5. Calcareous seaweeds on the consolidated substrate during low tide at Punta Plaza, Admiralty Bay (Photo: M.T. Fujii, January/2012).

Results 60 taxonomic samples were identified, 29 Rhodophyta, 14 Chlorophyta and 17 Heterokontophyta (Table 1). Figure 6 shows that the Ceramiales order, with 10 species, is the most representative among the Rhodophyta, in that 80% of the order consists of Delesseriaceae (Table 1).

Discussion and Conclusion Chlorophyta Endophyton atroviride (Figure. 7) develops in the form of small green markings on the thallus of Iridaea chordata, showing its affinity, which almost specifies it as host, showing geographical distribution in the regions of Sub-Antarctica and Antarctica (Ricker, 1987). Green filamentous tufts formed by Ulothrix flacca, U. australis and Urospora peniciliformis were very conspicuous in the higher levels of the intertidal region during the collection of samples, characterising the ambiences of the calm waters of Admiralty Bay (Figure 8). In the northern hemisphere, the heteromorphic life cycle of these species, whose sporophyte corresponds to the Codiolum (Druehl, 2000) variety, suggesting a strategy of survival for a period of freezing and absence of light during winter. However, in Admiralty Bay this phase has still not been identified, suggesting that the abiotic conditions can take place in a form and intensity differently from the northern hemisphere. Prasiola crispa is a green nitrophyla algae which grows forming extensive carpets in the region of penguin rookeries, benefitting from the nitrogen composts originating from the excrements of birds (Figures 9-10). On the other hand, Prasiola sp. was found forming extensive carpets in the supralittoral zone, in localities not related to the penguin rookeries. The molecular analyses showed that the latter species is close to P. stipitata, however more studies will be necessary to definitively identify the specie (A. Medeiros et al. data unpublished). It is also noteworthy, the first indications of Callophyllis pinnata (Figure 11) in Admiralty Bay, broadening in this way its area of geographic distribution further south, after recordings by Hoffmann & Santelices (1997) who informed the species in Concepción, Chiloé island and Valdívia on the Chilean coast which is also mentioned in the North American Atlantic Ocean (Abbott & Norris, 1965; Abbott & Hollenberg, 1976; Ramírez & Rojas, 1988; Ramírez & Santelices, 1991).

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Table 1. Species of marine algae collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetlands Archipelago, Antarctic, during summer season from December/2010 to February/2011 and from December/2011 to January/2012.

RHODOPHYTA Bangiales Bangiaceae Porphyra plocamiestris R.W. Ricker Pyropia endiviifolia (A.Gepp & E.Gepp) H.G. Choi & M.S. Hwang Hildenbrandiales Hildenbrandiaceae Hildenbrandia lecannellieri Hariot Bonnemaisoniales Bonnemaisoniaceae Delisea pulchra (Greville) Montagne Palmariales Palmariaceae Palmaria decipiens (Reinsch) R.W. Ricker Palmaria georgica (Reinsch) R.W. Ricker Ceramiales Wrangeliaceae Georgiella confluens (Reinsch) Kylin Delesseriaceae Delesseria lancifolia J. Agardh Delesseria salicifolia Reisch Microrhinus carnosus (Reinsch) Skottsberg Myriogramme manginii (Gain) Skottsberg Neuroglossum delesseriae (Reinsch) M.J. Wynne Phycodrys antartica (Skottsberg) Skottsberg Phycodrys austrogeorgica Skottsberg Phycodrys quercifolia (Bory) Skottsberg Rhodomelaceae Picconiella plumosa (Kylin) J. De Toni Gigartinales Cystocloniaceae Acanthococcus antarcticus J.D. Hooker et Harvey Gigartinaceae Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L. Gardner Iridaea cordata (Turner) Bory de Saint-Vincent Sarcothalia papillosa (Bory) Leister Kallymeniaceae Callophyllis atrosanguinea (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Hario Callophylis pinnata Setchell & Swezy Phyllophoraceae Gymnogongrus antarcticus Skottsberg Gymnogongrus turquetii Hariot Gracilariales Gracilariaceae Curdiea racovitzae Hariot Halymeniales Halymeniaceae Pachymenia orbicularis (Zanardini) Setchell & N.L. Gardner Plocamiales Plocamiaceae Plocamium cartilagineum (L) P.S. Dixon Plocamium hookeri Harvey Rhodymeniales Rhodymeniaceae Rhodymenia coccocarpa (Montagne) M.J.Wynne

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CHLOROPHYTA Chaetophorales Chaetophoraceae Endophyton atroviride O´Kelly Ulotrichales Gomontiaceae Monostroma hariotii Gain Ulotrichaceae Protomonostroma undulatum (Wittrock) K.L.Vinogradova Ulothrix australis Gain Ulothrix flacca (Dillwyn) Thuret Ulvales Kornmanniaceae Blidingia minima (Nägeli ex Kützing) Kylin Ulvaceae Ulva bulbosa (Suhr) Hariot Ulva compressa Linnaeus Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus Prasiolales Prasiolaceae Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing Prasiola sp. Acrosiphoniales Acrosiphoniaceae Acrosiphonia arcta (Dillwyn) J. Agardh Urospora penicilliformis (Roth) Areschoug Cladophorales Cladophoraceae Chaetomorpha sp. HETEROKONTOPHYTA Syringodermatales Syringodermataceae Syringoderma australe Levring Fucales Seirococcaceae Cystosphaera jacquinotii (Montagne) Skottsberg Ectocarpales Chordariaceae Haplogloia moniliformis Ricker Haplogloia andersonii (Farlow) Levring Elachista antarctica Skottsberg Acinetosporaceae Geminocarpus austrogeorgiae Skottsberg Geminocarpus geminatus (Hooker & Harvey) Skottsberg Pylaiella littoralis (L.) Kjellman Adenocystaceae Adenocystis utricularis (Bory) Skottsberg Scytosiphonaceae Petalonia fascia (O. F. Müller) Kuntze Desmarestiales Desmarestiaceae Desmarestia anceps Montagne Desmarestia antarctica R.L. Moe & P.C. Silva Desmarestia confervoides (Bory) M.E. Ramírez & A.F. Peters Desmarestia menziesii J Agardh Himantothallus grandifolius (A and E Gepp) Zinova Phaeurus antarcticus Skottsberg Ascoseirales Ascoseiraceae Ascoseira mirabilis Skottsberg


Rhodophyta 48%

Chlorophyta 24%

Heterokontophyta 28%

Number of species

12 10 8 6 4 2

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Rhodymeniales

Plocamiales

Halymeniales

Gracilariales

Gigartinales

Ceramiales

Palmariales

Bonnemaisoniales

3 2 1

Cladophorales

Acrosiphoniales

Prasiolales

Ulvales

Ulotrichales

0 Chaetophorales

Ascoseirales

Desmarestiales

Ectocarpales

Fucales

Number of species

4

Syringodermatales

Number of species

Bangiales

Hildenbrandiales

0

Figure 6. Diversity of marine macroalgae in admiralty bay.

Figure 7. Endophyton atroviride growing in the thallus of rhodophycean Iridaea chordata.

Figure 8. Green filamentous algae formed by Ulothrix flacca, U. australis e Urospora peniciliformis are frequently observed growing on the upper portion of intertidal zone of Admiralty Bay.

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Figure 9. Penguin colony in the Polish Station Arctowski.

The presence of Heterokontophyta of large size such as, Himantothallus grandifolius, Phaeurus antarcticus, Ascoseira mirabilise Cystophaera jacquinotii, and linked to the Rhodophyta Pyropia endiviifoliae and Georgiella confluens confirm the endemic characteristic of this species in Maritime Antarctica and in the Antarctica Peninsula (Clayton, 1994; Wiencke & Clayton, 2002). In Admiralty Bay, Oliveira et al. (2009) 42 species distributed as follows were found: 21 Rhodophyta, 14 Heterokontophyta and 7 Chlorophyta. Of the species informed by these authors Porphyra woolhouseae Agardh Notophycus fimbriatus R.L. Moe, Plocamium aff. secundatum, Ballia callitrichia (C. Agardh) Kützing and Desmarestia chordalis J.D. Hooker & Harveynão were found in the course of the present study. On the other hand, in the collecting that took place in 20102011 and 2011-2012, the diversity was greater in comparison with that obtained by Oliveira  et  al. (2009), through the register of a further eighteen species (Palmaria georgica, Callophyllis pinnata, Acanthococcus antarcticus, Sarcothalia papillosa, Plocamium hookerii, Rhodymenia coccocarpa, Delesseria salicifolia, Myriogramme mangini, Phycodrys antarctica, P. austrogeorgica, Desmarestia confervoides, Syringoderma australis, Endophyton atroviride, Ulothrix flacca, Blidingia mínima, Ulva compressa, U. intestinalis and Chaetomorpha sp). The Chlorophyta Blidingia minima, Ulva compressa, U. intestinalis and the Heterokontophyta Petalonia fascia found in Admiralty Bay have wide geographic distribution in both hemispheres. In the southern hemisphere, in the region

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Figure 10. Population of Prasiola crispa growing in a wetland under the influence of penguin droppings.

Figure 11. Callophyllis pinnata identified from macroalgae collected in Admiralty Bay.

of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, these species appear fully developed during the summer, a period marked by the occurrence of a resurgence phenomenon (Yoneshigue, 1985; Yoneshigue-Valentin & Valentin, 1992; Reis & YoneshigueValentin, 1996), which confirms the connectivity of the Sub-Antarctic waters with the tropical region of the South Atlantic.

Acknowledgments We thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, (CNPq, Portuguese acronym) process: 574018/2008-5 and process: 557030/2009-9, and Carlos Chagas Foundation for Support of Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, Portuguese acronym), process n° E-26/170.023/2008) for the financial support and FAPERJ´s Grant E.26/102.757/2011 for the first author.


References Abbott, I.A. & Norris, R.E. (1965). Studies on Callophyllis (Rhodophyceae) from the Pacific coast of North America. Nova Hedwigia, 10: 67-84. Abbott, I.A. & Hollenberg, G.J. (1976). Marine algae of California. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 827p. Amsler, C.D.; Iken, K.; McClintock, J.B. & Baker, B. (2009).Defenses of polar macroalgae against herbivores and biofoulers. Botanica Marina, 52: 535-545. Bischoff-Bäsmann, B. & Wiencke, C. (1996).Temperature requirements for growth and survival of Antarctic Rhodophyta. Journal of Phycology, 32: 525-535. Clayton, M.N. (1994). Evolution of the Antarctic marine benthic algal flora. Journal of Phycology, 30: 897-904. Druehl, L. (2000). Pacific Seaweeds: A guide to common seaweeds of the west coast. 1st ed. British Columbia, Harbour Publishing, 190 p. Hoffmann, A. & Santelices, B. (1997). Marine flora of central Chile. Santiago: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile. 434pp. Hommersand, M. H.; Moe, R.L.; Amsler, C.D. & Fredericq, S. (2009). Notes on the systematics and biogeographical relationships of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Rhodophyta with descriptions of four new genera and five new species. Botanica Marina, 52: 509-534. Hoyers, K.; Karsten, U.& Wiencke, C. (2002). Induction of sunscreen compounds in Antarctic macroalgae by different radiation conditions. Marine Biology, 141(4): 619-627. Lee, R. E. (2008). Phycology. 4th ed Cambridge. University Press. Cambridge, 547 p. Nedzarek, A.& Rakusa-Suszczewski, S. (2004). Decomposition of macroalgae and the release of nutrients in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica.Polar Bioscience, 17: 16-35. Oliveira, E. C.; Absher, T.; Pellizzari, F.M. & Oliveira, M.C. (2009). The seaweed flora of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic.Polar Biology, 32: 1639-1647. Pedrini, A.G. (1992). Catálogo de espécies, ocorrência geográfica e bibliografia de algas marinhas bentônicas das Ilhas Shetlands do Sul, Antártica. Arquivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, 31: 87-102. Peters, K.J.; Amsler, C.D.; Amsler, M.O.; McClintock, J.B.; Iken, K.B.& Baker, W.J. (2002). The effects of thallus toughness and nutritive quality on palatability of Antarctic macroalgae.Jounal of Phycology, 38: 29-30. Ramírez, M.E. & Rojas, G.(1988). Nuevos registros de algas marinas para la costa de Chile, I. Boletín Museo Nacional de Historia Natural Chile (Chile), 41: 17-43. Ramírez, M.E. & Santelices, B. (1991). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas de la costa temperada del Pacífico de Sudamérica. Monografías Biológicas, 5: 1-437. Rakusa-Suszczewski, S. & Zielinski, K. (1993). Macrophytobenthos. In: Rakusa-Suszczewski, S. (ed) The maritime Antarctic coastal ecosystem of Admiralty Bay. Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 57-60p. Rakusa-Suszczewski, S. (2002).King George Island – South Shetlands Islands, Maritime Antarctic. In.: I. Beyer & M. Bölter (eds.) Geoecology of Antarctic ice-free coastal landscape ecological studies.Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 23-40p. Reich, R.J, (1980). The development of Antarctic tourism.Polar Record, 20: 203-214. Reis, R. P. & Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y. (1996). Distribuição das macroalgas na Lagoa de Araruama, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 19(1): 77-85.

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Ricker, R.W. (1987).Taxonomy and Biogeography of Macquarie Island Seaweeds. London: British Museum (Natural History). 344p. Wiencke C. & Clayton, M.N. (2002). Antarctic seaweeds. In: J.W. Wägele &J. Sieg (eds.) Synopses of the Antarctic Benthos, vol 9. Gantner, Ruggell. 239p. Wiencke, C.; Clayton, M.N.; Gómez, I.; Iken, K.; Lüder, U.H.; Amsler, C.D.; Karsten, U.; Hanelt, D.; Bischoff, K. & Dunton, K.(2007). Life strategy, ecophysiology and ecology of seaweeds in polar waters.Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotecnology, 6: 95-126. Yoneshigue, Y. (1985). Taxonomie et ecologie des algues marines dans la region de Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro, Brésil). Thèse Docteur d’État-Sciences.Université d’Aix Marseille II, 466p. Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y. & Valentin, J. L. (1992).Macroalgae of the Cabo Frio. Upwelling region, Brazil: ordination of communities. Seeliger, U. (ed.). In: Coastal plant communities of Latin America.Academic Press, San Diego. 31-50p. Zielinski, K. (1981). Benthic macroalgae of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) circulation of algal matter between the water and the shore. Polish Polar Research, 2: 71-94.

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10 STRUCTURE OF THE CETACEAN COMMUNITY AROUND THE ANTARCTIC PENINSULA Cauê Zirnberger Lazaneo*, Luciano Dalla Rosa, Eduardo Resende Secchi Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Av. Italia, Km 8, Centro, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil *e-mail: cauezlazaneo@gmail.com

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate if cetacean diversity varies among areas with different oceanographic conditions around the Antarctic Peninsula. The study area consisted of the Drake Passage, Bransfield and Gerlache Straits and the Weddell Sea. This region has a complex circulation pattern, including mesoscale jets and eddies, which together with dimensions of shallows and canyons in bays, fjords and straits make the complexity of current fields. These characteristics play an important role in the transportation, concentration and retention of nutrients, favoring primary and secondary productivity and attracting the top consumers. The area was divided into 10 sub-areas based on oceanographic features such as surface circulation patterns. Cetacean distribution data were obtained during ship-based surveys run by the Brazilian Antarctic Program from 1998 to 2011 austral summers. Line transect sampling methods were used to calculate cetacean encounter rates. The diversity index for each area was determined by the Shannon-Weaver diversity index. Humpback, minke and killer whales were the most frequently sighted species, predominating in areas with low species richness such as Gerlache Strait. Areas without species dominance (e.g. Elephant Island and Weddell Sea) showed greater diversity. Our results suggest that open areas and areas close to oceanographic fronts sustain lower encounter rates for individual species but support greater diversity than confined areas. Keywords: Diversity, Encounter Rate, Distribution

Introduction A biological community, defined as coexisting organisms in

Waters around the Antarctic Peninsula show a great mix

an ecosystem or habitat, maybe described with respect to all

of circumpolar and shelf water processes (Martinson et al.,

taxonomic groups in a particular ecosystem, or regarding

2008). In general, these waters are characterized by high

a single functional group (e.g. cetaceans). Characterizing

nutrient concentration and low productivity in the upper

biological communities is important not only to understand

ocean (El-Sayed and Tomo, 1987). Mesoscale processes

the functionality and structure of ecosystems but also

together with dimensions of shallows and canyons in bays,

to assess the effects of environmental changes and to

fjords and straits makes the complexity of current fields

identify critical areas for conservation (Kiszka et al., 2010).

(Zhou et al., 2002). The intricate circulation and the high

Cetaceans occupy upper trophic levels in marine ecosystems

productivity present at all trophic levels in the Antarctic

and have an important role as sentinels of the environment

Peninsula and adjacent waters have been of interest to

(e.g. Bowen 1997). Their distribution, diversity and some

research groups from several institutions and international

ecological aspects have been described from tropical to

programs, including the Brazilian Antarctic Program

polar regions (Thiele et  al., 2000, 2004; Gannier 2002;

(PROANTAR). Biological productivity in the Southern

Secchi et al., 2001; Moreno et al., 2005). However, knowledge

Ocean is particularly evidenced by high concentration of

is still limited on cetacean spatial diversity and community

zooplankton (Marrari et al., 2011) and abundance of upper

structure in the Southern Ocean.

level consumers such as marine mammals (Thiele et al., 2000;

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Secchi et al., 2001, 2011; Dalla Rosa, 2010;Friedlaender et al. 2011; Santora & Reiss, 2011). Prey availability is likely to be a major factor driving cetacean distribution patterns among different areas, resulting in observed variation in encounter rates (ER) (Secchi et al. 2001). The hypothesis is that rich areas support higher cetacean diversity or densities mainly due to prey availability. In this study, we investigate whether the diversity and relative abundance of cetaceans vary between different oceanographic areas surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula.

Materials and Methods Cetacean sighting data were collected between 1998 and 2011, during the austral summer (January to March), except for the summers of 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. Two ships (R/V Ary Rongel and P/V Almirante Maximiano) were used during cetacean dedicated studies or as platforms of opportunity operating in the Drake Passage and around the Antarctic Peninsula. Sampling is described following Secchi et al. (2001). All the information was recorded using specific software (WINCRUZ or LOGGER) in a computer linked to the vessel’s GPS system. Because both dwarf and Antarctic minke whale (B. acutorostrata and B. bonaerensis) as well as beaked whales (Ziphiidae) were, on many occasions, difficult to identify to species level, they were grouped into one taxonomic group each, herein referred to as minke whales and ziphiids, respectively. The study area was split into 10 sub-areas based on oceanographic features such as surface circulation patterns, bathymetry, primary productivity and oceanographic fronts. The oceanographic front positions in the Drake Passage were obtained through the Australian Antarctic Data Center. The spatial divisions included: (1) Southern (GS) and (2) Northern (GN) Gerlache Strait, (3) Southwestern (BS) and (4) Northeastern (BN) Bransfield Strait, (5) surroundings of Elephant Island (IE), (6) Subantarctic Front (SAF), (7) Polar Front (PF) and (8) Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SAC), (9) coastal area of the Weddell Sea (WC) and (10) Weddell gyre region (WG) (figure 1). The most sheltered regions such as Gerlache and Bransfield Straits were systematically and widely surveyed while the other areas were only opportunistically sampled.

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Effort and sighting data were imported to an ArcGis 9.3 database. Transect lines crossing sub-areas were divided into segments and assigned to their respective area. Transect segments less than five nautical miles were eliminated from statistical analyses. Encounter Rate (ER) was defined as the number of individuals sighted per nautical mile navigated (ind/NM). ER of all identified species was calculated for each sub-area to investigate variability in relative abundance. The significance of the variability of ER among sub-areas was tested by a Kruskall-Wallis test with α=0.05, while the Species Richness, Shannon-Weaver and Equitability indices were calculated to investigate cetacean spatial diversity.

Results Approximately 7000 nautical miles were navigated along the 10 sub-areas, during which 1823 sightings of ten species were recorded around the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Drake Passage. Survey effort and sightings were distributed unevenly among sub-areas. The most frequently sighted cetacean species were humpback and minke whales. Humpbacks presented the highest encounter rate (ER) in Gerlache Strait. These two species showed a coastal distribution dominating the Gerlache and Bransfield Straits as well as the coastal areas in the Weddell Sea while Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were recorded near Elephant Island, close to the Polar Front and in Bransfield Strait. Only these species showed significant differences in ER between sub-areas (phw<0.001; pmw<0.001; pfw=0.001). The remaining baleen whale species were registered mainly in pelagic sites. With the exception of killer whales that showed the highest ER in southern Gerlache Strait, few sightings of other odontocetes were made in the study area, and they were restricted to pelagic areas. However, all odontocetes, except the ziphiids, showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in ER among sub-areas. Diversity showed a great variation among sub-areas. The coastal area of Weddell Sea presented the highest value of Shannon-Weaver index (H = 1.418) (Figure 1 left). The species richness in this area (S = 5) was lower than the surroundings of the Elephant Island (S = 7), though the abundance was more evenly distributed, which might explain the greater diversity (Figure 1 right). Despite its highest ER, Gerlache Strait presented the lowest richness (S = 3). Due to the equitability among species, the northern


portion of the strait showed low diversity (H = 0.526) while

High chemical and biological gradients (Kahru et  al.,

the southern portion showed higher diversity (H = 1.006).

2007; Reiss et  al., 2009) associated with mesoscale circulation patterns in this area (Zhou et al., 2010) likely

Discussion and Conclusion Our results suggest that coastal areas are preferred by humpback, minke and killer whales. Dalla Rosa (2010) suggests that the high abundance of humpback

influence prey and, consequently, cetacean distribution. In general, the distribution patterns observed in this study were similar to those reported in eastern parts of the Southern Ocean (Thiele et  al., 2000, 2004; Williams et al., 2006).

whales in the Gerlache Strait may be explained by high

Baleen whales tend to be abundant in productive areas with

productivity, as evidenced by the high primary productivity

high concentration of sea ice during the previous winter.

(e.g. Lorenzo et al., 2002). The higher ER of killer whales

The structure of the cetacean community around

in southern Gerlache Strait might be explained by the

Antarctic Peninsula, considering the data grouped over the

higher minke whale concentration and the abundance

years, indicates that the region has low relative diversity (H =

of crabeater seals floating in growlers that concentrate at

0.9451) compared to tropical regions such as Mayotte Island

several bays in this area (authors pers. obs.). These are two

in the Indian Ocean (H = 1.76) (Kiszka et al., 2010) and

of the most frequently preyed species by killer whales in the

French Polynesia (H = 1.57) (Gannier, 2002). Nevertheless,

Southern Ocean (Pitman & Ensor, 2003). Despite of some

waters around Elephant Island showed similar diversity

significant differences among sub-areas, this result should

values as those tropical areas. Elephant Island exhibits

be interpreted with caution because the variation of ER

a complex topography and the influence of a variety of

could be an artifact of reduced sample size in some areas.

hydrographic properties from the Antarctic Circumpolar

Figure 1. Shannon -Weaver index (H) distribution among sub – areas (left); Species Richness index (S) distribution among sub-areas (right). Acronyms are described in Material and Methods.

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and Bransfield currents, Weddell Sea and local waters might promote diversity of primary producers, grazers and their predators. Species richness around Elephant Island was also the highest among all the study areas. The southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) and ziphiids were seen only on a few occasions near Elephant Island and Weddell Sea, and thus, were considered rare in the study area during the summer. Stone & Hamner (1988) reported few sightings of southern right whales in the Gerlache Strait later in the feeding season (April) and Aguayo-Lobo et al. (2008) reported this species in the Drake Passage and around Antarctic Peninsula between August and October. The southern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon planifrons, occurs near oceanographic fronts like the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front (Santora & Brown, 2010). In general, relatively high diversity indices were observed in areas with complex topography and prominent fronts, which suggest the relevance of oceanographic features in shaping the spatial pattern of cetacean diversity on a regional scale. The physical mechanisms promote prey availability, which attracts higher trophic level predators (e.g. Bost et al., 2009). Kasamatsu (2000) suggested that cetacean diversity increases as a function of the distance to coast, which in turn causes a decrease in cetacean density. Seasonal and geographical changes in diversity may also be explained by the convex function of sea surface temperature (SST) (Whitehead et al., 2008). Some authors suggest that hotspots of marine mammals, areas of high biological activity (e.g. Sydeman et al., 2006), are associated with peaks of primary productivity (Field  et  al., 1998). The overall empirical evaluation over large spatial scales, however, suggests that SST is the major force in determining the distribution of

marine biodiversity, including cetaceans from zooplankton (Rutherford et  al., 1999), tuna (Worm  et  al., 2005) and cetaceans (Whitehead  et  al., 2008, 2010; Kaschner  et  al., 2011). Whitehead  et  al. (2010) showed that, on a large spatial scale, cetacean diversity is best explained by SST, whereas chlorophyll-a concentration, as a proxy of primary productivity, did not increase the models predictive ability. These authors stated that peaks in cetacean richness occur at 40o N and S, and that this pattern is rather associated with SST than primary productivity. Certain areas around the Antarctic Peninsula that showed high cetacean densities may be considered biological hotspots. Upwelling, melting sea ice and oceanographic frontal zones can support high density of few species, such as Gerlache Strait, or more richness, for example near Elephant Island and Weddell Sea. Both can be considered hotspots due the high biological activity.

Acknowledgements This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and InterMinistry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM). This is a contribution of the Research Group ‘Ecologia e Conservação da Megafauna Marinha-EcoMega/CNPq’.

References Aguayo-Lobo, A.; Acevedo, J.; Brito, J.L.; Olavarría, C.; Moraga, R. & Olave, C. (2008). La ballenafranca del sur, Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822) en aguas chilenas: análisis de susregistros desde 1976 a 2008. Revista de biología marina y oceanografía, 43(3), 653-668. Bost, C.A.; Cotté, C.; Bailleul, F.; Cherel, Y.; Charrassin, J.B.; Guinet, C.; Ainley, D.G. &Weimerskirch, H. (2009). The importance of oceanographic fronts to marine birds and mammals of the southern oceans. Journal of Marine Systems 78:363–376. Bowen, W.D. (1997). Role of marine mammals in aquatic ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series,158:267-274.

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Dalla Rosa, L. (2010). Modeling the foraging habitat of humpback whales. Doctoral Dissertation, TheUniversity of British Columbia. El-Sayed, S.Z. & Tomo, A.P. (1987). Biological productivity of Antarctic waters: present paradoxesand emerging paradigms. Antarctic Aquatic Biology 1–21. Field, C.B., Behrenfeld, M.J.; Randerson, J.T. and Falkowski, P. (1998). Primary production of thebiosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281:237–240. Friedlaender, A.S.; Johnston, D.W.; Fraser, W.R.; Burns, J.; Halpin, P.N. & Costa, D.P. (2011).Ecological niche modeling of sympatric krill predators around Marguerite Bay, westernAntarctic Peninsula. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58:1729–740. Gannier, A. (2002). Cetaceans of the Marqueses Islands (French Polynesia): distribution and relativeabundance as obtained from a small boat dedicated survey. Aquatic Mammals 28:198–210. Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B.G.; Gille, S.T.; Hewes, C.D. & Holm-Hansen, O. (2007). Eddies enhancebiological production in the Weddell-Scotia confluence of the southern ocean. GeophysicalResearch Letters 34:L14603. Kasamatsu, F. (2000). Species diversity of the whale community in the Antarctic. Marine Ecology.Progress Series 200:297–301. Kaschner, K.; Tittensor, D.P.; Ready, J.; Gerrodette, T. & Worm, B. (2011). Current and future patternsof global marine mammal biodiversity. PLoS One 6:e19653. Kiszka, J.; Ersts, P.J. & Ridoux , V. (2010). Structure of a toothed cetacean community around atropical isle (Mayotte Isle, Mozambique Channel). African Journal of Marine Science 543–551. Lorenzo, L.M.; Arbones, B.; Figueiras, F.G.; Tilstone, G.H. & Figueroa, F.L. (2002). Photosynthesis,primary production and phytoplankton growth rates in Gerlache and Bransfield straits duringaustral summer: Cruise fruela 95. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography49:707–721. Marrari, M.; Daly, K.L.; Timonin, A. & Semenova, T. (2011). The zooplankton of Marguerite Bay,western Antarctic Peninsula - Part II: Vertical distributions and habitat partitioning. Deep SeaResearch Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58:1614–1629. Martinson, D.G.; Stammerjohn, S.E.; Iannuzzi, R.A.; Smith, R.C. & Vernet, M. (2008). WesternAntarctic Peninsula physical oceanography and spatio–temporal variability. Deep Sea ResearchPart II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 55:1964–1987. Moreno, I.B.; Zerbini, A.N.; Danilewicz, D.; Santos, M.C.O.; Simões-Lopes, P.C.; Lailson-Brito, J. &Azevedo, A.F. (2005). Distribution and habitat characteristics of dolphins of the genus Stenella(Cetacea: Delphinidae) in the southwest Atlantic Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series300:229–240. Pitman, R.L., & Ensor, P. (2003). Three forms of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Antarctic waters.Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5:131–140. Reiss, C.S.; Hewes, C.D. & Holm-Hansen, O. (2009). Influence of atmospheric teleconnections andupper circumpolar deep water on phytoplankton biomass around Elephant Island, Antarctica.Mar Ecol Prog Ser 377:51–62. Rutherford, S.; D’Hondt, S. & Prell, W. (1999). Environmental controls on the geographic distributionof zooplankton diversity. Nature 400:749–753. Santora, A.J. & Brown, E.T. (2010). Spatial distribution patterns of southern bottlenose whales,Hyperoodon planifrons, near the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Marine Mammal Science26(4): 960-968. Santora, A.J. & Reiss, C.S. (2011). Geospatial variability of krill and top predators within an Antarcticsubmarine canyon system. Marine Biology 158:2527-2540. Secchi, E.R.; Dalla Rosa, L.; Kinas, P.G.; Santos, M.C.O.; Zerbini, A.N.; Bassoi, M. & Moreno, I.B. (2001). Encounter rates of whales around the Antarctic Peninsula with special reference tohumpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the Gerlache strait: 1997/98 to 1999/2000.Memoirs-Queensle Museum 47:571–578.

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Secchi, E.R.; Dalla Rosa, L.; Kinas, P.G.; Nicoletti; R.; Rufino, A.M.N. & Azevedo, A.F. (2011). Encounter rates and abundance of humpback whales in Gerlache and Bransfield Straits,Antarctic Peninsula. The Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (SI3):107-111. Stone G.S. & Hamner, W.M. 1988. Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae and southern rightwhales Eubalaena australis in Gerlache Strait, Antarctica. Polar Record 24(148):15-20. Sydeman, W.J.; Brodeur, R.D.; Grimes, C.B.; Bychkov, A.S. & McKinnell, S. (2006). Marinehabitat“hotspots” and their use by migratory species and top predators in the north Pacific Ocean:Introduction. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 53:247–249. Thiele, D.; Chester, E.T. & Gill, P.C. (2000). Cetacean distribution off eastern Antarctica (80–150°E)during the austral summer of 1995/1996. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies inOceanography 47:2543–2572. Thiele, D.; Chester, E.T.; Moore, S.E.; Širovic, A.; Hildebrand, J.A. & Friedlaender, A.S. (2004).Seasonal variability in whale encounters in the western Antarctic Peninsula. Deep sea researchpart II: topical studies in oceanography 51:2311–2325. Whitehead, H.; McGill, B. & Worm, B. (2008). Diversity of deep-water cetaceans in relation totemperature: implications for ocean warming. Ecology Letters 11:1198–1207. Whitehead, H.; O’Brien, K. & Worm, B. (2010). Diversity of deep-water cetaceans and primaryproductivity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408:1–5. Williams, R.; Hedley, S.L. & Hammond., P.S. (2006). Modeling distribution and abundance of Antarcticbaleen whales using ships of opportunity. Ecology and Society. Worm, B.; Sandow, M.; Oschlies, A.; Lotze, H.K. & Myers, R.A. (2005). Global patterns of predatordiversity in the open oceans. Science 309:1365–1369. Zhou, M.; Niiler, P.P. & Hu, J.H. (2002). Surface currents in the Bransfield and Gerlache straits,Antarctica. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 49:267–280. Zhou, M.; Zhu, Y.; R.D.; Dorland, R.D. & Measures, C.I. (2010). Dynamics of the current system inthe southern Drake Passage. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers57:1039-1048.

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11 HARPACTICOIDA COPEPOD ASSOCIATED TO MACROALGAE Himantothallus grandifolius (OCHROPHYTA, DESMARESTIACEAE) FROM ADMIRALTY BAY (KING GEORGE ISLAND, SOUTH SHETLANDS ISLANDS, MARITIME ANTARCTICA) Rafael Tostes Salazar*, Geyze Magalhães de Faria, Tais Maria de Souza Campos, Adriana Galindo Dalto** Laboratório de Macroalgas Marinhas, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Avenida Brigadeiro Trompowski s/nº, CEP 21044-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil e-mail:*rafael14th@hotmail.com; **agdalto@gmail.com

Abstract: This research work is a pioneer study related to the Harpacticoida Copepod species of the phytal environment of Antarctica, contributing to the knowledge of the biodiversity of copepods, associated to the macroalgae of Admiralty Bay, especially those of the Harpacticoida Order. Samples of the four genus types of Harpacticoida Copepod were found in a macroalgae (Himantothallus grandifolius) especially in its appressoria, collected in the melt water area of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Archipelago, South Shetlands, Antarctica: Stygonitocrella (Ameiridae Family), Porcellidium (Porcellidiidae Family), Alteutha potter (Peltidiidae Family), Tisbisoma (Paramesochridae Family). The copepods found in this study possess adaptation qualities that may facilitate the exploration of macroalgae, such as: epibenthic body format, which allows greater swimming capacity or a dorso-ventrally flattened body, with prehensile first pair of legs or with a large maxilliped subchelate, the latter being adaptations to be able to fix itself to thalloid surfaces, in locations with strong water currents. The genus Porcellidium and the Paramesochridae Family are frequently found associated to macroalgae. Alteutha potter is described in literature as planktonic. However, we suggest that the specie can be benthonic and is capable of migrating to zooplankton. Stygonitocrellaé is described as a species of continental and subterranean waters. The fact that algae have been found at just 15m depth with strong water melt current can help explain its presence. The identifications continue underway and include analysis of phytal samples of other macroalgae collected in the Admiralty Bay from 2010 to 2011. Keywords: Harpacticoida, Antarctica, Macroalgae, Phytal

Introduction Benthic harpacticoid copepods occur with frequency associated to marine macroalgae, being part of the phytal meiofauna (Moore,1973). The marine macroalgae (kelps) have an important function in these regions. They influence the patterns of distribution and diversity of many marine organisms, by indirectly modifying the physical factors such as light intensity and flow of local water (Reed & Foster, 1984; Bulleri et al., 2002). The number of ecological niches and forms or usage of environmental resources can be potentially greater in these habitats (Tews et al., 2004). At

present, the marine macroalgae banks are considered to be the hotspots of Antarctic biodiversity (Gray, 2001). In Admiralty Bay the macroalgae Himantothallus grandifolius forms large aggregates in the subtidal bottom between 10 and 100 metres deep. This kelp with coral coloured thallus in the form of a tongue (himanto) and with wavy edges, can reach more than 10 metres in length and 1 metre wide (Dieckmann et al., 1985; Zieliński, 1990), having circumpolar distribution (Skottsberg, 1964) and it is common in the subtidal rocky region of Maritime Antarctica

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(Moe & Silva, 1977, 1981). The thallus and holdfast of this

sieves of 500 and 32 µm fixed in formaldehyde neutralized

alga are considered to be complex habitats (Steneck et al.,

at 4%. The copepods were firstly sorted by means of a

2002) and can shelter a great variety of associated organisms.

stereomicroscope and separated by Order. Afterwards

In this context, the present study intends to contribute

the taxonomic identifications by Family and genera of

to the knowledge of the biodiversity of copepods associated

the Harpacticoida were undertaken through observation

to macroalgae in Admiralty Bay, especially those of the

under an optical microscope, based on specific literature

Harpacticoida Order.

for this Order (Lang, 1948, 1965; Huys et al., 1996; Boxshall & Halsey, 2004). After identification, the specimens were

Materials and Methods The macroalgae Himantothallus grandifolius was collected in February 2011 in Mackellar Inlet (Admiralty

photographed and schematized through camera lucida.

Results

Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica) at a depth

The absolute density of Harpacticoida copepods

of 15 metres (Figure 1). The thallus of the H. grandifolius

associated to H. Grandifolius reached 239 individuals,

specimen measured 8m in length and was 60cm wide,

originating principally from the holdfast of these algae.

with 45cm diameter in its appressoria (Figure 2). In the

Amongst these were identified up to the moment one

laboratory, the associated fauna was separated by means of

specie and three more genera originating from four

Figure 1. Study área and sampling station in Mackellar Inlet , Admiralty Bay, King George Island (Illustration: Rafael Bendayan de Moura).

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families: Alteutha potter (Peltidiidae Family), Stygonitocrella (Ameiridae Family), Porcellidium (Porcellidiidae Family), Tisbisoma (Paramesochridae Family) (Figure 3). The individuals identified as being of the Tisbisoma genus had the body of a ciclopiform, as if they were, according to Boxshall & Halsey (2004) of the primitive Paramesochridae. The copepods of the Porcellidiidae Family, like those of the Peltidium genus, identified in present study, have a strongly flattened body and ventral sucking disc, which helps to fix its classification among the macroalgae (Boxshall & Halsey, 2004). A. potter, as well as the other members of the gender Alteutha have a dorso-ventrally flattened body

and are strongly chitinised with developed appendices and strong subchelate maxiliped (Veit-Kรถhler & Fuentes, 2007). Stygonitocrella has a cylindrical body, reduced P2P4 appendices and endopodite of P4 with just one vestigial segment.

Discussion and Conclusion The copepods of this study have adaptation qualities for life in the phytal ecosystem. The individuals identified as belonging to the genus Tisbisoma Bozic, 1964 possess the body of the ciclopiform. Because of this factor, it probably has greater capacity to swim and this could be an

Figure 2. Himantothallus grandifolius (length: 8m; width: 60cm; diameter of the holdfast: 45cm).

a

b

c

d

Figure 3. A) Alteutha potter (Peltidiidae Family), B) Porcellidium (Peltidiidae Family), C) Stygonitocrella (Ameiridae Family), D) Tisbisoma (Paramesochridae Family). Zoom 100X.

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advantageous characteristic to colonize macroalgae, when compared to interstitial forms of Harpacticoida (Hicks, 1986; Boxshall & Halsey, 2004). The copepods of the Porcellidiidae and Peltidiidatrae families, including the respective genders identified in this study (Alteutha e Porcellidium), have strongly flattened body and are commonly found associated to macroalgae, being considered algal-dwellers, or live in sediment, where they have epibenthic habitation. Porcellidiideos have furthermore a ventral sucking disc, which helps to fix them in the macroalgae (Boxshall & Halsey, 2004). A. potter, has like other species of the same genus, may have a greater capacity to swim in relation to the other Harpacticoida copepods, being probably a potential predator (Veit-Köhler & Fuentes, 2007). All these characteristics combined are important to overcome the strong currents that occur on the thalloid surfaces of some algae. The Peltidiidae Family is regularly reported in samples of plankton (Hicks, 1986). The genus Alteutha is commonly found in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic water, where 10 of its 16 valid species can occur (Veit-Köhler & Fuentes, 2007). Recently, Veit-Köhler & Fuentes (2007) identified a new species of this gender (A. potter) in samples of zooplankton of Potter Cove, located to the Southwest of the King George Island (Archipelago, South Shetlands). These authors found A. potter in greater densities, in the samples close to the sea ice, formulating furthermore the hypothesis that these copepods are benthonic and migrate to zooplankton colonizing the habitats proportioned by the ice. According to Veit-Köhler & Fuentes (2007), it is not possible to sample the copepods of the Potter Cove sediment and perhaps these could be found associated to the macroalgae

of the region, such as H. grandifolius, which is also found in Potter Cove. This study found A. potter associated to H. grandifolius in the Mackellar Inlet, in Admiralty bay which is close to Potter Cove, some data which contributes to the confirmation of the hypothesis. In the future, new studies could be undertaken comparing the associated fauna to the macroalgae of Admiralty bay and Potter Cove. Stygonitocrella is described as exclusive of continental waters, groundwater and coastal waters with the intake of fresh water (Boxshall & Halsey, 2004; Suárez-Morales & Llife, 2005). In spite of having been found in the marine environment, Himantothallus grandifolius was collected in shallow waters, in Admiralty bay, where there is strong intake of fresh water, including melt water. Even so, it is necessary to confirm the finding, since the Ameiridae family still needs to be revised (Boxshall & Halsey, 2004). The identifications of these and other phytal samples, collected in Admiralty bay between 2010 and 2011, continue underway.

Acknowledgements This works integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCTAPA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPQ process: 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (CAPES/ FAPERJ process: E-26/102.016/2009) for the scientific and financial support including the grants awarded.

References Boxshall, G.A. & Halsey S.H. (2004). An introduction to copepod diversity. London: The Ray Society, 966 p. Bulleri, F.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L.; Acunto, S.; Cinelli, F. & Hawkins, S.J. (2002). The influence of canopy algae on vertical. Journal of experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 267: 89-106. Dieckmann, G.; Reichardt, W. & Zieliński, K. (1985). Growth and production of the seaweed, Himantothallus grandifolius, at King George Island. In: Siegfried, W.R.; Condy, P.R. & Laws, R.M. Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Berlin, Springer, 104-108. Gray, J.S. (2001). Marine diversity: the paradigms in patterns of species richness examined. Scientia Marina, 65: 41-56.

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Hicks, G.R.F. (1986). Distribution and behaviour of meiofaunal copepods inside and outside seagrass beds. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 31: 159-170. Huys, R.; Gee, J.M.; Moore, C.G. & Hamond, R. (1996). Marine and brackish water harpacticoid copepodods. Part 1. In: Barnes, R.S.K. and Crothers, J.H. (eds.), Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series), 51: 1-352. Lang, K.; (1948). Monographie der Harpacticiden I und II. Reprint Koeltz Science Publ.; Königstein. Germany. Lang, K.; (1965). Copepoda Harpacticoidea from the Californian Pacific coast.—Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar (Series 4), 10(2):1-560. Moore, C.G. (1973). The kelp fauna of Northest Britain. Multivariate Classification: Turbidity as anecological factor. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 13: 127-163. Moe, R. L. & Silva, P. C. (1977). Sporangia in the brown algal genus Desmarestia with special reference to Antarctic D. ligulata. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for Phycology, 25(Suppl.): 157-167. Reed, D.C. & Foster, M.S. (1984). The effects of canopy shadingon algal recruitment and growth in a giant kelp forest. Ecology, 65: 937-948. Skottsberg, C. J. F. (1964). Antarctic Phycology. In: Carrick, R.; Holgate, M. y Prevost, J. (eds) Biologie Antarctique. 1st S.C.A.R. Symposium. Hermann, Paris: 147-154. Steneck, R.S.; Graham, M.H.; Bourque, B.J.; Corbett, D.; Erlandson, J.M.; Estes, J.A. & Tegner, M.J. (2002). Kelp forest ecosystems: Biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation, 29: 436-459. Suárez-Morales, E. & Llife, T.M. (2005). A new Stygonitocrella Petkovski (copepoda: Harpacticoida) from a cave in Northern Mexico with comments on the taxonomy of the genus. Hydrobiologia, 544:215-228. Tews, J.; Brose, U.; Grimm, V.; Tielborger, K.; Wichmann, M.C.; Schwager, M. & Jeltsch, F. (2004). Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneitiy/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. Journal of Biogeography, 31: 79-92. Veit-Köhler, G. & Fuentes, V. (2007). A new pelagic Alteutha (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica—description, ecology and information on its year round distribution. Hydrobiologia, 583:141-163. Zieliński, K. (1990). Bottom macroalgae of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Polish Polar Research, 11 (12): 95-131.

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12 SPECIES COMPOSITION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ECHINODERMS IN THE SHALLOW COAST OF ADMIRALTY BAY, KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA Andre Monnerat Lanna1,*, Carlos Alberto de Moura Barboza2, Rafael Bendayan de Moura1, Helena Passeri Lavrado3, Adriana Galindo Dalto4, Lúcia de Siqueira Campos1,** Laboratório de Echinodermata, Departamento de Zoologia 2 Laboratório de Polychaeta, Departamento de Zoologia 3 Laboratório de Bentos, Departamento de Biologia Marinha 4 Laboratório de Macroalgas Marinhas, Departamento de Botânica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, bloco A, sala A0-124, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 1

*e-mails: andremolanna@gmail.com; **luciascampos@gmail.com

Abstract: The echinoderm species composition from the shallow coast of Admiralty Bay was assessed from specimens collected during the austral summers of 2008/9 and 2010/11. Their density, diversity and community structure at four sampling stations in two bathymetric zones [shallow (20 – 30 m) and deep (50 – 60 m)] were compared. We tested the following hypotheses based on previous environmental and biological data: 1) echinoderm density is lower in the shallowest zones; 2) diversity from the deepest zone is higher; 3) community structure differs among stations and bathymetric zones. The hypothesis that the total density is lowest in the shallowest zone was rejected, and density differed only among stations. Diversity differed only between stations, but lowest values occurred mainly in the shallowest zones. PERMANOVA analysis showed that assemblages differed between depths, there being an interaction with stations. Environmental condition differences (e.g., sediment texture) between areas and depths probably induced the highest abundance of the sea star Odontaster validus and the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri in the shallowest zone, and that of the brittle stars Ophionotus victorae and Amphioplus acutus in the deepest zone. These results will support future investigations that should also incorporate multiple spatial and temporal scales. Keywords: Megafauna, Echinodermata, South Shetlands, Species Composition, Diversity.

Introduction Admiralty Bay at the King George Island, South Shetlands, became an Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA #1) in 1996. Brazil has systematically monitored the bay since the Austral summer of 2002/03 (Montone et al., 2013). Three research stations - the Brazilian Comandante Ferraz, the Polish Henryk Arctowski, and the Peruvian Machu Picchu – are located in this bay and therefore the area is subject to fairly high human scientific activities. Echinoderms represent one of the most conspicuous groups of marine invertebrates in Antarctica (e.g., Clarke et al. 2004; Barnes, 2005; Arntz et al., 2006), and this is also the case for Admiralty Bay (Sicinski et al., 2011). They

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are particularly diverse in Antarctica, representing about 10% of the 4.100 known benthic species (Clarke & Johnston, 2003). In Admiralty Bay they represent about 6% of the 1.300 known species of the benthic fauna (Sicinski et al., 2011). Echinoderms play an important role in Antarctic marine ecosystems as they are abundant and usually show patchy, but fairly high biomass (Clarke & Johnston, 2003). Corbisier  et  al. (2004) recorded a wide range of feeding habits in Admiralty Bay, for instance, the sea star Odontaster validus as carnivore, the brittle star Ophionotus victoriae as omnivore, and the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri as herbivore (these animals represented in Figure 2).


Nonato et  al. (2000) and Sicinski  et  al. (2011) showed that benthic depth zonation in Admiralty Bay is essentially influenced by the sediment texture and by the action of the ice. The latter reduces the occurrence of sessile forms in shallowest zones, and generally a low diversity of organisms is dominated by wandering animals (Sicinski et al., 2011). At depths more than 20-25 m, conditions are more stable and these authors suggest that a more diverse benthic community occurs. Taking into account the relevance of echinoderms for the Antarctic benthic communities and also the different conditions existent at different depths in the Admiralty Bay coastal marine environment, the following hypotheses were raised: 1) the density of echinoderms is lowest in the shallowest zone of the bay (20-30 m) in relation to the deepest zone (50-60 m), and it differs between distinct sampling stations; 2) the diversity in the shallowest zone is lower than the deepest zone and differs between sampling stations; 3) the echinoderm assemblages differ between stations and depths.

Materials and Methods Study site main features Admiralty Bay is the largest bay of King George Island with a maritime area of 144 km2. It is very heterogeneous and characterized as a fjord system with a 550 m deep central basin (Pruszak, 1980; Campos et al., 2013). The presence of blocks of ice resulting from melting icebergs and glaciers in the seawater and on beaches are common. According to Sicinski (2004), the sediment of Admiralty Bay is very heterogeneous, with several grain size fractions originated from the coastal erosion and melting of icebergs.

Sampling Samples were taken using an “Agassiz Trawl” dredge with an opening of 56 x 36 cm, a bottom sack of 60 cm long and a 4 mm mesh size at four monitoring stations: Refuge II (R2), Ferraz Station (FS), Ullman Point (UP) and Botany Point (BP) (Figure 1), in two bathymetric zones during

Figure 1. Study area, in highlight Admiralty Bay with three inlets (Ezcurra (EZC), Mackellar (MKL) and Martel (MRT)) and the four sampling stations. R2 = Refuge II; FS = Ferraz Station; UP = Ullman Point; BP = Botany Point. Modified from Moura (2009).

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a

c

b

d

Figure 2. Echinoderms from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. A) Odontaster validus; B) Sterechinus neumayeri; C) Molpadia musculus; D) Ophionotus victoriae. Photos A, B and D by Gabriel S.C. Monteiro (IO-USP); Photo C by Andre M. Lanna.

the Austral summers as follows: 50-60 m depth in 2008/09 (deepest zone); and 20-30 m in 2010/11 (shallowest zone).

Data analyses Density (ind.100 m-2) was calculated by dividing the number of organisms by the total area dredged (about one minute long for each dredging). Species diversity was calculated using Shannon-Wiener Index. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the difference between the values of total density of Ophionotus victoriae, Sterechinus neumayeri, Amphioplus acutus and Odontaster validus. Sampling station was considered a fixed factor with four levels and orthogonal to depth a random factor with two levels, replicated three times. The same model was used to test the difference between the

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species diversity using the Shannon index. Normality and heteroscedasticity were tested using the Shapiro-Wilk and Cochran tests, respectively. When these premises were not satisfied, the values were transformed to log x+1. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed to describe spatial and temporal variations in community assemblages. The Hellinger transformation was applied to the biological matrix, which preserves the Euclidian distance, and is considered a robust procedure for ordination of biological data using principal components (Legendre & Gallagher, 2001). All the analyses were done using the R program (R Development Core Team, 2007), with the assistance of GAD (Sandrini-Neto & Camargo, 2011) and the vegan (Oksanen et  al., 2011) packages, and PERMANOVA program (Anderson, 2005).


Results

Discussion

A total of 2.473 echinoderms were collected, represented by 18 species in seven families of sea stars, three of sea urchins, three of sea cucumbers and two of brittle stars (Table 1). The total density and that of O. victoriae differed only between stations, being lowest at Refuge II. A difference occurred between depths, where the density of A. acutus was highest in the deepest zone, and that for O. validus in the shallowest zone. The density of S. neumayeri was highest in the shallowest zones of the bay, there being a significant interaction between station-depth (Figure 3; Table 2). The diversity of echinoderms differed between stations. The lowest values occurred at Botany Point, especially in the shallowest zone. But generally, the diversity did not differ between the shallowest and deepest zones (Figure 3; Table 2). The principal components analysis explained 60% of the biological variability and the diagram divided the stations into two main groups, shallowest and deepest zones (Figure 4.). S. neumayeri and O. validus were associated with the shallowest zone, whilst A. acutus and O. victoriae were associated with the deepest zone. PERMANOVA analysis corroborated the results found using the PCA, showing that echinoderm assemblages differed between bathymetric zones, but there was a significant interaction within stations (Table 3).

In this study, 18 species of echinoderms were registered. This is equivalent to 22% of the total echinoderm species (81 species) known for Admiralty Bay (Sicinski et al., 2011). Ice scouring along the seabed (Nonato et al., 2000), as well as anthropogenic disturbances (Martins et al., 2012) have been mentioned as the main drivers for benthic bathymetric variability in the shallow coastal zones of Admiralty Bay. Even though these may influence communities’ structure (Sicinski et al., 2011), we rejected the hypothesis that the total echinoderm density decreases in the shallowest zones here sampled. Conversely, the density of the echinoderms differed among sampling stations, and was lowest in Refuge II, where during the studied Austral summers (2008/09 and 2010/11) a considerable amount of blocks of ice was observed, even though not recorded. This ice was probably derived from the Domeiko Glacier, which occupies an extensive area of Mackellar Inlet. The effect of anchor ice and ice scour could be the main causes for the low community density at the Refuge II sampling station. And this might have been true for both bathymetric zones analysed here, as the echinoderms showed low densities in both the shallowest and deepest zones. In high latitudes, processes such as anchor ice and ice scour are common in the bottom of bays, and are known to cause disturbances in benthic

a

b

Figure 3. a) Density (±SD) and b) Diversity (±SD) of the echinoderms in the four sampling stations, in the shallow and deep zones in Admiralty Bay. BP = Botany Point; UP = Ullman Point; FS = Ferraz Station; R2 = Refuge II.

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communities, as well as freezing or even crushing the

should be considered important regulatory sources for their

organisms, and therefore reducing diversity (Gutt, 2001).

distribution within Admiralty Bay.

The slower speed of the tidal currents in the Mackellar Inlet

Differences between depths were found when the species

(~0.02 m.s ) in comparison to Martel (~0.10 m.s ) (Weber

densities were investigated separately. For example, the

& Montone, 2006) could reduce salinity condition and

density of the amphiurid brittle star A. acutus was always

increase turbidity during the summer, accentuated by the

highest in the deepest zone of the bay. In general, amphiurids

melting ice. As echinoderms are typically marine organisms

are infaunal deposit feeders, and characteristically live in

with low tolerance for salinity changes, these processes

muddy sediments (Rosenberg, 1995). The Admiralty Bay

-1

-1

Table 1. Echinoderms species collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica.

Class Asteroidea Family Odontasteridae Acodontaster conspicuus (Koehler, 1920) Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906 Family Ganeriidae Perknaster charcoti (Koehler, 1912) Family Poraniidae Porania antarctica (Smith, 1876) Family Korethrasteridae Remaster gourdoni Koehler, 1912 Family Solasteridae Cuenotaster involutus (Koehler, 1912) Family Asteriidae Diplasterias brucei (Koehler, 1908) Family Astropectinidae Psilaster charcoti (Koehler, 1906) Class Echinoidea Family Echinidae Sterechinus neumayeri (Meissner, 1900) Family Schizasteridae Abatus sp. Family Ctenocidaridae Ctenocidaris rugosa (Koehler, 1926) Class Holothuroidea Family Psolidae Psolus charcoti Vaney, 1906 Family Cucumariidae Cucumaria georgiana (Lampert, 1886) Trachythyone bouvetensis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) Family Molpadiidae Molpadia musculus Risso, 1826 Class Ophiuroidea Family Ophiuridae Ophionotus victoriae Bell, 1902 Ophiura rouchi (Koehler, 1902) Family Amphiuridae Amphioplus acutus Mortensen, 1936

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Figure 4. PCA diagram of echinoderm species. (O.val) O. validus, (S.neu) S. neumayeri, (A.acut) A. acutus, (O.vic) O. victoriae, (P.char) P. charcoti, (D.br) D. brucei, (T.bou) T. bouvetensis. R2(S) = Refuge II Shallow; FS(S) = Ferraz Station Shallow; UP(S) = Ullman Point Shallow; BP(S) = Botany Point Shallow; R2(D) = Refuge II Deep; FS(D) = Ferraz Station Deep; UP(D) = Ullman Point Deep; BP(D) = Botany Point Deep.

shallowest zones consist of predominantly thick sediment with a significant presence of pebbles, while the deepest zone is characterised by muddy sediment (Schaefer et al., 2004), and this would possibly explain the highest density of A. Acutus at this zone. S. neumayeri, a macroalgae consumer (Corbisier et al., 2004), was more abundant in the shallowest zones. We expected that this could be positively related to the macroalgae biomass found in these zones. And a regression of the density of S. neumayeri against the biomass of macroalgae showed a significant positive relationship (n   =  12, p  <  0.05) between them. Large quantities of macroalgae were found in Ferraz and Ullman Point, creating suitable conditions for the dominance of S. neumayeri. The lack of macroalgae from the Botany Point samples could be related to the intake of melting water with terrigenous material originated from the Krak Glacier. This would cause

high turbidity and reduce the photic layer, being less suitable for the algae growth. S. neumayeri was not recorded from this sampling station. This was the reason of the interaction between the station-depth found in the ANOVA analysis. The hypothesis that the diversity is highest in the deepest zones was not corroborated. The evidence suggested that regulatory processes controlling diversity do not have an effect on the bathymetric scale sampled. Although the values of diversity found were similar, the PCA diagram and the PERMANOVA analysis showed that the assemblages differed between depths. The sea star Odontaster validus and sea urchin S. neumayeri were more abundant in shallowest zones, the latter absent in deepest zones, while the brittle stars A. acutus and O. victorae were abundant in deepest zones, and rare in shallowest zones. Also, diversity was different between stations. Ullman Point showed the highest

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Table 2. Summary of ANOVA analysis of the total density, density of Ophionotus victoriae, Amphioplus acutus, Sterechinus neumayeri, Odontaster validus and diversity. DF = Degrees of Freedom; SS = Sum of Squares; MS = Mean of Squares. Values of p in bold <0.05.

Density (Echinoderms) Factor

DF

SS

MS

F

p

Station

3

82.844

27.614

13.233

0.031

Depth

1

0.326

0.3259

0.237

0.633

Depth x Station

3

6.26

2.086

1.517

0.248

Residuals

16

22.003

1.3752

Station

3

106.117

35.372

13.1637

0.031

Depth

1

0.045

0.045

0.0094

0.924

Depth x Station

3

8.061

2.687

0.5568

0.651

Residuals

16

77.216

4.826

Station

3

33.969

11.323

1.6865

0.339

Depth

1

47.314

47.314

21.9432

0.000

Depth x Station

3

20.142

6.714

3.1138

0.056

Residuals

16

34.499

2.156

Station

3

32.638

10.879

1

0.500

Depth

1

31.384

31.384

86.465

0.000

Depth x Station

3

32.638

10.879

29.973

0.000

Residuals

16

5.808

0.363

Station

3

1.5362

0.5121

0.2883

0.833

Depth

1

22.231

22.231

27.6415

0.000

Depth x Station

3

5.3284

1.7761

2.2084

0.127

Residuals

16

12.8682

0.8043

Station

3

2.54815

0.84938

57.8906

0.000

Depth

1

0.00282

0.00282

0.0706

0.790

Depth x Station

3

0.04402

0.01467

0.3678

0.780

Residuals

16

0.63827

0.03989

Ophionotus victoriae

Amphioplus acutus

Sterechinus neumayeri

Odontaster validus

Diversity

Table 3. Summary of PERMANOVA analysis. DF = Degrees of freedom; SS = Sum of squares; MS = Mean of squares. p(MC) probability of Monte Carlo permutation.

Factor

166

DF

SS

MS

F

P(perm)

p(MC)

Station

3

3.3631

1.1210

1.1060

0.3942

0.4281

Depth

1

3.3033

3.3033

10.4893

0.0001

0.0001

Depth x Station

3

3.0408

1.0136

3.2186

0.0002

0.0009

Residuals

16

5.0388

0.3186

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diversity followed by Ferraz and Botany. Despite the fact that the highest density and species richness occurred in Botany, diversity there was depressed by the dominance of O. victoriae. Conlan et  al. (2004) reported that marine benthos is affected by sewage discharges from McMurdo Station. These authors showed declined diversity and changes of the dominant species in that area. Previous studies (e.g. Schaefer et al., 2004, Santos et al., 2005) pointed out high values of total organic matter in the vicinity of Ferraz in comparison with those obtained in other reference areas (Botany, Hennequin and Arctowski) from Admiralty Bay. Montone et al. (2010) reported high values of faecal steroids in front of Ferraz. Also, the Ferraz sewage appear to influence an area up to approximately 200 m distant from its effluent (Montone et al., 2013), which includes the 60 m isobath sampled here. However, our results showed that possible disturbances caused by sewage discharges not necessarily could be considered as a primary source for the variability in echinoderms distribution. They were fairly dense and diverse in front of Ferraz Station compared to other stations.

Conclusion The total echinoderm density and diversity were investigated here against two different depth ranges (20-30 m and 50-60 m) and sampling stations within Admiralty Bay. Differences occurred when the species were analysed separately, probably because of their different biological characteristics, such as the preference for certain sedimentary textures (e.g., A. acutus), or feeding habits (e.g., S. neumayeri). Future studies should adopt multiple spatial and temporal scales, as the region is characterised by large temporal and spatial variability (Sicinski et al., 2011). Also, it would be relevant to study the echinoderms in relation to other biotic factors, as well as the abiotic ones, taking into account that they may

play different roles in the benthic communities according to their niche and feeding habits. Although previous studies indicated a possible anthropogenic impact in front the Ferraz Station, our results did not corroborate this evidence. The differences found in density, diversity and in the echinoderm assemblages were probably caused by distinct environmental features between the sampling stations, and biological factors related to the community structure in each area. Further studies on echinoderms’ distribution in relation to biotic and abiotic factors, including other areas and bathymetric zones from Admiralty Bay (besides the ones shown here) would be relevant to better understand their role in the benthic communities in this ASMA.

Acknowledgements The research study is part of the IPY project MABIREH/ CAML (CNPq/API – Process No. 52.0293/2006-1), and the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology on Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA), which is financed by the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq Process No. 574018/2008-5), and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ Process No. E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-ministerial Commission for the Sea Resources (CIRM). Authors attending Graduate Programs: Andre Monnerat Lanna (MSc student in Animal Biology of the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo – UFES); Carlos Alberto de Moura Barboza (PhD student in Marine Biology of the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Marinha da Universidade Federal Fluminense – UFF); Rafael Bendayan de Moura (PhD student in Animal Biology of the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE).

References Anderson, M.J. (2005). PERMANOVA: a FORTRAN computer program for permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

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Arntz, W.E.; Thatje, S.; Linse, K.; Avila, C.; Ballesteros, M.; Barnes, D.K.A.; Cope, T.; Cristobo, F.J.; Broyer, C.D.; Gutt, J.; Isla, E.; López-González, P.; Montiel, A.; Munilla, T.; Esplá, A.A.R.; Raupach, M.; Rauschert, M.; Rodríquez, E. & Teixidó, N. (2006). Missing link in the Southern Ocean: sampling the marine benthic fauna of remote Bouvet Island. Polar Biology, 29: 83-96. Barnes, D.K.A. (2005). Changing chain: past, present and future of the Scotia Arc’s and Antarctica’s shallow benthic communities. Scientia Marina, 69: 65-89. Campos, L.S.; Barboza, C.A.M.; Bassoi, M.; Bernardes, M.; Bromberg, S.; Corbisier, T.N.; Fontes, R.F.C.; Gheller, P.F.; Hajdu, E.; Kawall, H.G.; Lange, P.K.; Lanna, A.M.; Lavrado, H.P.; Monteiro, G.C.S.; Montone, R.C.; Morales, T.; Moura, R.B.; Nakayama, C.R.; Oackes, T.; Paranhos, R.; Passos, F.D.; Petti, M.A.V.; Pellizari, V.H.; Rezende, C.E.; Rodrigues, M.; Rosa, L.H.; Secchi, E.; Tenenbaum, D.R. & Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y. (2013). Chapter 8 - Environmental Processes, Biodiversity and Changes in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. In: Verde, C. & di Prisco, G. (eds.), Adaptation and Evolution in Marine Environments, Volume 2, From Pole to Pole, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Clarke, A. & Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 41, 47-114. Clarke, A.; Aronson, R.B.; Crame, J.A.; Gili, J.M. & Blake, D.B., (2004). Evolution and diversity of the benthic fauna of the Southern Ocean continental shelf. Antarctic Science 16 (4): 559–568. Conlan, K.E.; Kim, S.L.; Lenihan, H.S. & Oliver, J.S. (2004). Benthic changes during 10 years of organic enrichment by Mc Murdo Station, Antarctica. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49: 43-60. Corbisier, T.N., Petti, M.A.V., Skowronski, R.S.P. & Brito, T.A.S., (2004). Trophic relationships in the nearshore zone of Martel Inlet (King George Island, Antarctica): d13C stable-isotope analysis. Polar Biology 27, 75-82. Gutt, J. (2001). On the direct impact of ice on marine benthic communities, a review. Polar Biology, 24: 553-564. Legendre, P. & Gallagher, E.D. (2001). Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data. Oecologia. 129: 271-280. Martins, C.C.; Aguiar, S.N.; Bícego, M.C. & Montone, R.C. (2012). Sewage organic markers in surface sediments around the Brazilian Antarctic station: Results from the 2009/10 austral summer and historical tendencies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64: 2867-2870. Montone, R.C.; Martins, C.C.; Bícego, M.C.; Taniguchi, S.; Silva, D.A.M.; Campos, L.S. & Weber, R.R. (2010). Distribution of sewage input in marine sediments around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by molecular geochemical indicators. Science of the Total Environment 408: 4665-4671. Montone, R.C.; Alvarez, C.E.; Bícego, M.C.; Braga, .S.; Brito, T.A.S.; Campos, L.S.; Fontes, R.F.C.; Castro, B.M.; Corbisier, T.N.; Evangelista, H.; Francelino, M.; Gomes, V.; Ito, R.G.; Lavrado, H.P.; Leme, N.P.; Mahiques, M.M.; Martins, C.C.; Nakayama, C.R.; Ngan, P.V.; Pellizari, V.H.; Pereira, A.B.; Petti, M.A.V.; Sander, M.; Schaefer, C.E.G.R. & Weber R.R. (2013). Chapter 9 - Environmental Assessment of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. In: Verde, C. & di Prisco, G. (eds.), Adaptation and Evolution in Marine Environments, Volume 2, From Pole to Pole, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Moura, R.B. (2009). Estudo taxonômico dos Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) das Ilhas Shetland do Sul e do Estreito de Bransfield, Antártica. Dissertação de Mestrado, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Nonato, E.F.; Brito, T.A.S.; Paiva, P.C.; Petti, M.A.V. & Corbisier, T.N. (2000). Benthic megafauna of the nearshore zone of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica): depth zonation and underwater observations. Polar Biology 23:580–588. Oksanen, J.; Blanchet, F.G.; Kindt, R.; Legendre, P.; Minchin, P.R.; O’Hara, R.B.; Simpson, G.L.; Solymos, P.; Henry M.; Stevens, H. & Wagner, H. (2011) Package ‘vegan’. Pruszak, Z. (1980). Currents circulation in the Waters of Admiralty bay (region of Arctowski Station on King George Island). Polish Polar Research, 1:55-74.

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R Development Core Team. (2007). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available from: <http://www.R-project.org>. Rosenberg, R. (1995). Benthic marine structured by hydrodynamic processes and food availability. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 34 (4): 303-317. Sandrini-Neto, L. & Camargo, M.G. (2011). GAD: Analysis of variance from general principles. Santos, I.R.; Silva-Filho, E.V.; Schaefer, C.E.; Albuquerque-Filho, M.R. & Campos, L.S. (2005). Heavy metals contamination in coastal sediments and soils near the Brazilian Antarctic Station, King George Island. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50:185-194. Schaefer, C.E.G.R.; Dias, L.E.; Campos, L. S.; Albuquerque Filho, M.R.; Costa, L.M. & Borges Júnior, M. (2004). Monitoramento ambiental em sedimentos costeiros da Baía do Almirantado: granulometria, teores de macronutrientes e metais biodisponíveis. In: Schaefer, C.E.G.R.; Francelino, M.R.; Simas, F.N.B. & Albuquerque-Filho, M.R. (eds) Ecossistemas costeiros e monitoramento ambiental da Antártica Marítima, Baía do Almirantado, Ilha Rei George. NEPUT – Departamento de Solos – Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, 192 p. Sicinski, J. (2004). Polychaetes of Antarctic sublittoral in the proglacial zone (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Polish Polar Research 25:67-96. Sicinski, J; Jazdzewski, K.; De Broyer, C.; Presier, P.; Ligowski, R.; Nonato, E.F.; Corbisier, T.N.; Petti, M.A.V.; Brito, T.A.S.; Lavrado, H.P.; Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, M.; Pabis, K.; Jazdzewska, A. & Campos, L.S. (2011). Admiralty Bay Benthos Diversity — A census of a complex polar ecosystem. Deep-Sea Research II. Weber, R.R. & Montone, R.C. (2006). Rede 2: Gerenciamento ambiental da Baía Almirantado, Ilha Rei George, Antártica. 252 p.

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THEMATIC AREA 4

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 172 Ferraz, N.S., Alvarez, C.E., Rodrigues, M.P., Rodrigues, M.R. The Use of Ceramics Within the Signage Project In Hostile and Environmentally Protected Areas: the Keller Peninsula Case

176 Christo, T.M., Fardin, J.F., Simonetti, D.S.L., Alvarez, C.E., Ferreira, D.M., Silva, B.A.O., Casciano,

R.L., Araujo, M.S., Rocha, F.N.Q., Souza, J., Campos, T.M.S., Moura, R.B. Energetic Indicators For Planning and Projects In the Keller Peninsula

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Team Leader

Dr. Cristina Engel de Alvarez – UFES Vice-Team Leader

Dr. Alexandre de Ávila Lerípio – UNIVALI

Introduction The Brazilian activities in Antarctica were deeply affected from 25 February 2012, when a fire of big proportions destroyed approximately 70% of the installations which made up the Comandante Ferraz, Brazilian Antarctica Station (EACF), the main Brazilian edification in Antarctica. Immediately after the withdrawal of all the personnel from the Station – a task which counted with the assistance of a number of nations – planning initiatives were implemented, as much to remove the debris and rubble remains from the fire, as well as, to avoid discontinuity of research activities. In relation to the probable environmental consequences as a result of the fire, the first priority task made by Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and Brazilian Inter-Ministerial Commission for Resources of the Sea was to remove any contaminating materials and undertake a sealing off of the destroyed main part of the Station, having as primary objective the reduction of the environmental impact and the preparation of edifications for the beginning of winter. Simultaneously, as result of the decision of PROANTAR (The Brazilian Antarctic Program), as consequence of the accident, the necessity to install provisional support units was defined, denominated MAEs (Módulos Antárticos Emergencias – Antarctica Emergency Modules). The expectation is that the MAEs were installed in the summer of 2012/2013, initially to give support to the activity of the removal of

the debris and rubble and directed towards the support of scientific activities planned for the summer of 2013/2014. Amongst the main characteristics of the technology adopted, the system of treatment of liquid and solid waste; the minimizing maintenance necessities; the potential of reuse at other times of the modules and the quality of the materials and types of equipment in general. Although some research in the technological and environmental management areas had been naturally interrupted, the year of 2012 was dedicated to the continuity of the studies related to the adequacy of the materials used in Antarctica, as a result of a pioneer study having ceramics as the main protagonist applied to a Signage Project. The results obtained and reported in the article, “The use of ceramics within the signage project in hostile and environmentally protected areas: the Keller Peninsula case”, leads on, in addition, to the widening of the tests for eventual differentiated future uses, even related to construction materials. Continuity was also given to research studies related to the energy consumption area, whose importance, with the occurrence of the fire, was significantly increased. Based on the assumption that new buildings will be able to count with efficient systems of sourcing, distribution, usage and management of energy, the definition of the directives presented in the article “Energetic indicators for planning and projects in the Keller Peninsula” is fundamental for future planning.

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1 THE USE OF CERAMICS WITHIN THE SIGNAGE PROJECT IN HOSTILE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY PROTECTED AREAS: THE KELLER PENINSULA CASE Nicoli Santos Ferraz*, Cristina Engel de Alvarez, Mauro Pinheiro Rodrigues, Maria Regina Rodrigues Laboratório de Planejamento e Projetos, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo – UFES, Avenue Fernando Ferrari, 514, CEMUNI I, sala 7, CEP 29075-910, Vitória, ES, Brazil *e-mail: nicoli.ferraz@gmail.com

Abstract: The research goal is to measure the suitability of ceramics as a material for manufacturing sign prototypes and support components of the signage system for the Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Station, Brazil’s main base in the Antarctic region. The latter represents an environment with particular characteristics, having unique rules of occupation and material extraction and disposal, which demands a special approach when inserting any kind of foreign body to it. The methodology of tests management and suitability proofing of ceramics to the harsh Antarctic landscape conditions are split into four stages, bearing in mind that this study considers the results of the stages I and II: Stage I: identification of the ceramics properties in regard to its resistance, review of literature resources on the Antarctic environment’s specificities and identification of logistic specificities concerning the Antarctic Brazilian Program (PROANTAR); Stage II: information management (feasibility, environmental impact, maintenance, and suitability of logistics); clay choice, project launching, prototype drafts, clay baking and finally manufacturing of the first prototype. According to our findings, ceramics proves to be an adequate material in the manufacturing of the component for the Keller Peninsula Signage System. The installation of a prototype in that region is scheduled for November 2012 and the test period lasts one year. After that it will be possible to draw the final conclusions and/or work on necessary adjustments. Keywords: Signage, Ceramics, Ecodesign, Sustainability

Introduction Since its first year of activities, in 1994, the increasing number of scientific activities conducted in Antarctica demanded consecutive expansion works of the Brazilian main base, the Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Station (EACF). Furthermore the number of station users is also growing due to the ascension of touristic activities (PROANTAR, 2012), having direct influence on the density of traffic flow in that same region. Such scenario makes the organization of tracks and routes as well as the instruction for users becomes essential, when it comes to environmental

the production of the Keller Peninsula Signage System’s components. Ceramics has been chosen as the prototype manufacturing material due to its high degree of elasticity (approx. 45.500kgf/mm²), property which permits easy shaping, doing away with industrial production dependency. Furthermore, according to Ljungberg (2005), ceramics is adequate due to the fact that it is non-toxic, durable and resistant to corrosion. Even so, it is fragile, and its production demands high levels of electricity consumption and it has low resistance to impact.

protection, control over contingent remains production and people’s safety. The goal of this research consists in studying the performance of ceramics as an alternative material for

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Materials and Methods The methodology of test management and suitability proofing of ceramics to the harsh Antarctic landscape


conditions are split into four stages, bearing in mind that this study considers the results of the Stages I and II. • Stage I: identification of the properties of ceramics regarding its resistance, review of literature resources on the Antarctic environment’s specificities and identification of logistic specificities concerning the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR); • Stage II: information management (feasibility, environmental impact, maintenance, and suitability of logistics); Clay choice, project launching, prototype drafts, clay baking and finally manufacturing of the first prototype; • Stage III: technical instructions, pieces manufacturing, assembling (tests and adjustments), disassembling, technical changes, strategy of logistics, impacts caused by the assembling of the pieces, human resources, availability of time and final results; • Stage IV: final results evaluation. Three distinct types of clay were used within the prototypes’ manufacturing process, being two of them from a local manual production. They were extracted from the Mulembá Valley in Vitória (State of Espírito Santo-Brazil), known as Clay Z and Clay S. The third clay type is terracotta with chamote, from the Pascoal company, produced in São Paulo (State of São Paulo- Brazil). The two native clay types are baked up to 1200°C and present greater flexibility, making the shaping easier. Terracota is different from types previously mentioned because its material is made up of oven baked clay, which in addition to chamote, demands less water to make it ductile, given that chamote does not absorb water (Pascoal, 2012). The dry out period is significantly shorter, as well as the baking period. Chamote increases the mechanical resistance of the baked clay piece. The terracotta-chamote mixture can be baked up to 1240°C and gains a particular coloration, ranging from creamy colors to red tones. Two distinct techniques were employed during the prototypes’ shaping process, i.e. 1.Shaping technique

supported by a former plate, for the native clay types; 2.Production techniques with plates (Fricke, 1981), for the terracotta-chamote mixture. The techniques mentioned before were chosen because they enable, in practical ways, the development of prototypes with aerodynamic forms, according to the necessities established by the Antarctic environment. The shaping of terracotta-chamote prototypes were made using the production techniques with plates in which two equal thick wooden boards – precisely 18 mm – and a rolling pin were pressed together against the clay material, giving form to the signage plates which will make up the signage structure. The water quantity consumed in this process is based on the specifications by Atterberg (Greco, 2012), i.e. the consistency limit, slightly higher than the malleability limit. Figure 1 shows each step of the process. Due to the water loss the phenomenon of shrinkage takes place during the dry out period of solids, changing the sample’s original measures. It happens simultaneously to the humidity transport, which depending upon the ongoing environmental conditions, the material’s structure, and even the geometry of the plate, the dry out process can produce cracks, distortion of the shape and in the worst case breakage of the material. In order to avoid such occurrences the prototypes were covered up with newspaper, which slows down the water loss phenomenon. The prototypes made with native clay and terracotta-chamote took respectively one and two weeks to get ready. In the course of the experiment data on the prototype’s weight and dimensions were collected before and after the dry out, noticing that the weighing was made on a mechanical precision weighing balance ± 0,1g, mod. Tríplice 1610, Nwlab company. The results are displayed in Table 1. It is essential to understand the dry out process of each clay type, given that such information is indispensable for the calculation of the final prototype size. The baking experiments were carried out using an electric oven, from the Etil company, using 1200°C temperature and a duration of 20 hours.

Table 1. Prototypes weight before and after the dry up process.

Clay Z

Clay S

Terracota-chamote (lid)

Terracota-chamote (body)

Weight before dry out

480 g

710 g

650 g

1130 g

Weight after dry out

440 g

680 g

615 g

1080 g

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Figure 1. Detailed summary of the prototype manufacturing. Starting from the top, left to right: 1. plaster former plate; 2. clay material is placed into the former plate; 3. width and surface are brushed up; 4. Wooden boards for equal thick plate manufacturing; 5. Plate production; 6. width and surface brush up; 7. ready plates and lid production; 8. Joining the two plates resulting in an unfinished single piece; 9. Lid shaped cut plate.

Discussion

Conclusion

Considering that such projects are usually related to

According to our findings, ceramics proves to be an

governmental programs, their implementation depends

adequate material in the manufacturing of the component

much upon human resources and materials available within

for the Keller Peninsula Signage System.

the institution, or from complex public bidding processes (Alvarez, 2003). In this context, it is essential to make use

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Acknowledgments

of clay types which provide clear product descriptions, for

This work integrates the National Institute of Science

instance terracotta and chamote, making the public bidding

and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research

process and acquisition easier.

(INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support

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from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors

also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Alvarez, C.E. (2003). Metodologia para construção em áreas de difícil acesso e de interesse ambiental: aplicabilidade na Antártica e nas ilhas oceânicas brasileiras. Tese em Estruturas Ambientais Urbanas, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo. 193 p. Fricke, J. (1981). A Cerâmica. 2. ed. Portugal: Presença. 152 p. Greco, J.A.S. Materiais para pavimentação: Solos – Conceitos e Ensaios da Mecânica dos Solos. Available from: <http:// etg.ufmg.br/~jisela/pagina/Notas%20de%20aula%20solos.pdf>. (acesso: 20 mar. 2012). Ljungberg, L. (2005). Materials selection and design for development of sustainable products. Sweden. Materials & Design, 28 (2): 466-479p. Pascoal (2012). Matérias-Primas. Available from: <http://www.pascoalmassas.com.br/canais/mprimas/index.asp>. (acesso: 19 mar. 2012). Programa Antártico Brasileiro - PROANTAR. (2010). Atividades de Turismo e outras atividades não governamentais na Antártica. Brasil. Available from: <https://www.mar.mil.br/secirm/formulario.pdf>. (acesso: 20 mar. 2012).

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2 ENERGETIC INDICATORS FOR PLANNING AND PROJECTS IN THE KELLER PENINSULA Tiago Malavazi de Christo*, Jussara Farias Fardin, Domingos Sávio Lyrio Simonetti, Cristina Engel de Alvarez Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, Zip Code: 29075-910, Vitória, ES, Brazil *e-mail: tmalavazi@ifes.edu.br

Abstract: This paper gathers information on the energetic profile of the Brazilian Antarctic Station and shows energetic indicators obtained during the study of the renewable resources potentials of the region. The technologies for generation and use of energy are also investigated and assessed, and a proposal of a hybrid energetic matrix is presented. The technologies for processing solid waste, cogeneration in internal combustion engines and in the incinerator, use of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were assessed. Keywords: Energetic Potentials, Renewable Energies, Hybrid Matrix, Cogeneration

Introduction In order to support new projects in Keller Peninsula, this

The survey of monthly solid waste production was

paper summarizes the main results obtained by Christo

achieved by analysis of the Reports of Waste Generated in

(2012). The energy consumption profiles in the Comandante

the EACF and the calculations presented by Woelffel et al.

Ferraz Antarctic Station (EACF, Portuguese acronym) and

(2007).

energetic potential from the use of solid waste, cogeneration, use of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were studied. In addition to estimation of the energetic potentials, several compositions of hybrid energetic matrix were analyzed. The studies performed considers the liter of diesel oil as currency, thus the indicators that will be shown can be used both as indicators of performance and financial.

Materials and Methods In order to know the fuel consumption profile and the electric profile of the EACF, both the fuel control and the electric charges spreadsheets, provided by Brazilian Navy, were assessed. The data was arranged in graphs and in percentage per group. In the survey of EACF’s energetic potentials the

176

The estimations of the daily thermal energy production in the set of electricity generator engines and the daily thermal energy demand in the boilers were carried out based on the data from fuel consumption control spreadsheet for the year 2011. For estimation of the solar potential in the EACF region, the global horizontal radiation, the transparency index and the influence of albedo (ground reflectance) were assessed, based on the data from NASA (2011) and Laine (2007). A model of commercial photovoltaic panel was simulated in different positioning techniques fixed and variable, based in the methodology proposed by Altener-Greenpro (2004). For estimation of the wind potentials, 26 years of meteorological data provided by National Institute for Space Research (INPE, Portuguese acronym) from the CPTEC/

calculations for a 1-year period, with maximum resolution

Antarctic Meteorology Project (2010), was used. In addition

of the data were carried out and the annual volumes of

to wind speeds and direction, the influence of temperature

fuels that can be saved by adoption of each technology

and pressure also were taken into account. The wind profile

were estimated.

was obtained by the distribution of wind speeds frequencies

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and the modeling through Weibull distribution curve (Patel,

is higher in summer and winter months, when there occurs

1999). The data of wind potential per square meter (m ) of

respectively higher research activity and higher need for

intercepted area was obtained and three commercial wind

heating of water pipes and sewers. The higher Diesel oil

turbines models were assessed.

consumption for the boilers was found in winter, when

2

The graphical analysis of the wind resource was performed with the aid of a computer tool for analysis of winds WindGrapher 2.01. For graphical analysis of solar resource and the simulation of hybrids matrices the computer-based tool HOMER 2.81 was used. This tools uses modeling already validated by NREL â&#x20AC;&#x201C; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (WindoGrapher, 2011; HOMER Energy, 2011). The simulation of several hybrid energy matrices compositions were assigned to three groups, according to the installed renewable potency and mean demand. The results of simulations were compared for: safety and

the thermal compensation must be higher due to reduced external temperatures. The energetic diagnosis of the EACF performed in 2010/2011 showed that 54% of the electricity was uncontrolled used for heating the water and sewers pipes, which represent the equivalent to 42% of the annual Diesel oil consumption. The highest consumers of fuels are the generator engine groups (78%) and the boilers (18%). Potentials of organic solid waste and sewers: The solid waste and the sewer, depending on their characteristics, could be incinerated or processed into an Anaerobic Digestion system which consists of an organic matter

reliability, fuel consumption, environmental impact and

conversion process in conditions of lack of oxygen (Reichert,

logistic effort.

2005). In the EACF, 50% of the solid wastes are organic, and the remaining is composed of paper, plastic, metal and glass.

Results

The data surveyed from 30 days between November 2006

In the Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station, the electricity

to March 2007 (summer period) exclusively related to food

were totally produced by diesel generators without heat

production and consumption process showed that in that

recovery system, and the water heating were made by

period 573.6 kg of waste was generated reaching to 0.31 kg/

diesel boilers. The annual diesel oil consumption in 2011

inhabitant/day (Woelfell et al., 2007). From March 2009 to

was 358,985 liters, corresponding to 983.5 liters/day, on

February 2010 the mean organic solid waste production was

average. Figure 1 shows the 2011 electricity and thermal

640kg/month. The use of a biodigester in the Station would

demands in EACF.

eliminate the burning of Diesel oil from the incinerator and

By analyzing Figure 1 and the occupation of the station, it

its emissions, and the methane produced could be used

was found that the diesel oil consumption for the generators

in the kitchen stoves or to generate extra thermal energy.

Figure 1. Demands of electric and thermal energy in the EACF in 2011 calculated from the spreadsheets provided by Brazilian Navy. AC Primary Load refers to the electricity demand. (Christo, 2012).

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However, the technology to be adopted should address three critical aspects: safety, temperature and water scarcity. Potential of cogeneration: In a generator engine group powered by alternative internal combustion engines the quota of fuel that effectively is transformed into electric energy is around 36%, which results in 64% of total losses. On the other hand, by using part of heat lost in gases of exhaust and of water and oil of engine cooling, the global energetic efficiency of the system can reaches 76% (Lora & Nascimento, 2004). In the EACF, the mean daily consumption of the boilers in 2011 was about 150 liters/day in summer and 200 liters/day in winter, whereas thermal supply in the generators was about 350 liters/day in summer and 300 liters/day in winter. Although the thermal supply is higher than the demand, on average, the potential occurrence of instantaneous demands was found to be higher than the supply. This indicates the need for a system of storage of thermal energy from generator engine groups, to enable the maximum use of this source for calefaction and for the water heating system. The implantation of a cogeneration system into the incinerator was calculated too, it would represent a decrease about only 0.6% in the Station oil consumption. Photovoltaic Energy Potential: The optimal angles found for fixed positioning were azimuth of 180° and slope of 60°, resulting in a capacity factor of 10.8%. For fixed panel and albedo of 70%, the energy production is about 950 kWh/year for each 1 kWp placed (3 panels of 327Wp, efficiency of 20.1% and coefficient of variation of potency equals to -0.38%/C°). The maximum decrease in Diesel consumption expected for the fixed positioning is 257 liters/year per installed kilowatt. In the optimal positioning screening technique, the capacity factor reached was 14.9%; the energy generated was 1,309 kWh/year/kWp, and the maximum decrease of consumption expected is 354.5 liters/year per installed kilowatt. The analysis of the influence of albedo showed that, when the albedo is equal to or higher than 70%, the placement of panels in slopes angles higher that 60° (for example, on the walls of the buildings) is possible with little decreases in annual photovoltaic energy production (-3,3% for an 80º inclination). Wind Energy Potential: The Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station is located in coastland, with annual mean wind speed equal to 6.1 m/s and predominant directions

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north and west. The months with higher and lower average of winds recorded mean speeds of 9.5 m/s in February of 1984 and 3 m/s in January of 2005 (CPTEC, 2010). The modeling of wind data through Weibull distribution curve showed that “k” shaped parameter is situated about 1.45, ranging from 1.37 to 1.59, and the “c” scale parameter was situated in about 6.72 m/s, ranging from 5.34 m/s up to 8.19 m/s, of summer to winter. The density of annual mean potency found was 398.4 W/m2, with lower and upper mensal thresholds of 194.4 W/m2 and 760.3 W/m2, respectively. The annual rate of decrease of fuel consumption per installed peak kilowatt were between 729 liters/year/ kWp and 970 liters/year/kWp, respectively for the capacity factors of 30,7% and 40,9%. Hybrid Matrix Proposal: The possible configurations of hybrid energetic matrices were obtained by evaluating the Installed Renewable Potency (IRP) regarding to Mean Demand (MD) in the following conditions: IRP<MD, IRP≅MD and IRP>MD. Diesel-Solar-Wind hybrid settings with IRP<MD showed to be particularly attractive due to there being no need for using batteries or extra energy storage system, has lower cost and lower complexity for placement and maintenance in Antarctic regions. Solutions with IRP≅MD and IRP>MD showed less Diesel oil consumption, however they require damping systems for stability under variations of power flows, technologies for storing energy surpluses and largest areas for installation. Based on these three cases, 81 matrix compositions were simulated and evaluated considering their performance, reliability, technical feasibility and environmental impact. From this analysis was chosen the more attractive matrix for 2011 EACF demand, one particular composition of the IRP<MD case. Figure 2 shows a proposal of energetic matrix with three Diesel generators (Generators 1, 2 and emergency), four wind turbines (4x15kWp) and 45 solar panels (45x327Wp), totaling 74,7kWp of installed renewable potency. Considering the maximum and minimum values for the annual mean speed already recorded in the EACF region (4.6 m/s and 7.1 m/s), the expected fuel consumption for this matrix will be between 236,659 liters/year (+6.8%, for average winds of 4.6 m/s) and 213,329 liters/year (-3.6%, for average winds of 7.1 m/s). The decrease in consumption reached in the simulation was 37% (137,576 liters/year).


there is an adequate management system. In addition the excess heat from cogeneration could be used for recirculation and thermal maintenance of the lake water

Wind Turbines

pipes. Despite the use of wind turbines be interesting, must

AC Primary Load 2.8 MWh/d 150 kW peak

be performed detailed studies of soil to the correct fixation of turbines.

Generator 1 PV

Converter

Conclusion The indicators obtained show a suitability of using renewable energies in Keller peninsula. The study showed

Generator 2

that in 2011 the supply of thermal energy was on average always higher than the demand, becoming more than twice during the summer. The use of wind turbines presented a

Dump Load

Emergency Gen.

capacity factor of about three times higher than the use of photovoltaic panels. A proposal of Solar-Wind-Diesel

AC

DC

matrix for EACF was introduced, indicating a potential for reducing 37% of Diesel oil consumption, even with no use of

Thermal Load

Boiler

Figure 2. Proposed hybrid energetic matrix designed for the thermal and electrical loads profile of 2011 EACF. Adapted from Christo (2012).

batteries. As a way to continue the studies, a costs evaluation of the logistic, implementation and maintenance of the solutions presented here is suggested, especially taking into account the construction of new buildings for the EACF.

Discussion

Acknowledgements

By assessing the electric demand of the EACF in 2011, it

This work integrates the National Institute of Science and

should be taken into account that about 50% of consumption

Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA)

are from circuits of heating cables subject to efficiency

that receives scientific and financial support from the

improvement. The anaerobic digestion may produce

National Council for Research and Development (CNPq

methane enough to use in the kitchen, however safety and

process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research

operation temperature aspects of the anaerobic digester

Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ

should be investigated. The use of Diesel-Electric boilers

n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the

coupled with multiple thermal reservoirs could allow

support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology

renewable matrices with percentage of penetration higher

and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and Inter-

than 100%, with no use of electric batteries, provided that

Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM).

References Altener-Greenpro. (2004). Energia Fotovoltaica - Guia sobre tecnologia, projecto e instalação. Available from: <http://www. greenpro.de/po/fotovoltaico.pdf>. (Acesso: 2010). Christo, T. M. (2012). Uma proposta de matriz energética para a Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz: uma experiência aplicável a novas edificações. Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. 198p.

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CPTEC / Projeto de Meteorologia Antártica (2010). Projeto de Meteorologia Antártica/CPTEC. Available from: <http://antartica. cptec.inpe.br/>. (Acesso: 18 Abril 2010). HOMER Energy (2011). Ferramenta para otimização de redes de potência hibridas. Available from: <http://www.homerenergy. com/>. (Acesso: 2011). Laine, V. (2007). Antarctic ice albedo, temperature and sea ice concentration trends, 1981-2000. Annals of 2007 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference and 15th AMS Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p. 50. Lora, E. E. S. & Nascimento, M. A. R. (2004). Geração termelétrica: planejamento, projeto e operação. Rio de Janeiro: Interciência. NASA. (2011). NASA’s Surface Solar Energy Data Set. Available from: <http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/>. (Acesso: 2011). Patel, M. R. (1999). Wind and Solar Power Systems. New York: CRC Press. Reichert, G. A. (2005). Aplicação da Digestão Anaeróbia de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos: Uma Revisão, Porto Alegre-RS. Anais do 23º Congresso Brasileiro de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental - CBESA, 2005, Campo Grande-MS. p III-242. WindoGrapher (2011). Ferramenta para análise gráfica de ventos. Available from: <http://www.windographer.com/>. (Acesso: 2011). Woelffel, A. B., Alvarez, C. E., Soares, G. R. & Cruz, D. O. (2007). Resíduos sólidos gerados pelas atividades de produção e consumo de alimentos na Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz, Vitória-ES. VII Seminário Estadual sobre Saneamento e Meio Ambiente, SESMA, 2007, Vitória-ES.

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Science Highlights - Thematic Area 4 |

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EDUCATION AND OUTREACH ACTIVITIES Deia Maria Ferreira1,*, Benedita Aglai Oliveira da Silva1, Rômulo Loureiro Casciano2, Marcelle Santos de Araujo3, Francine Nascimento Quintão Rocha1, Jenifer Souza1, Tais Maria de Souza Campos4, Rafael Bendayan de Moura5 Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, bloco A, sala A2-102, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21.941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 2 Escola Municipal Santos Anjos Custódios, Cabo Frio, RJ, Brazil. 3 Escola Estadual Sargento Wolff e CIEP 375 Wilson Grey, Belford Roxo, RJ, Brazil. 4 Laboratório de Macroalgas Marinhas, Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Brazil. 5 Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE, Recife, PE, Brazil. *e-mail: deia@biologia.ufrj.br

1

The INCT-APA has undertaken a series of Education and Outreach activities transversal to all its working thematic research areas. The development of informative and educational materials about the Brazilian investigations in Antarctica aims to offer society curiosities and results of the work of scientists. Dissemination of science can be understood as an action of social commitment. The activities held by INCT-APA valorize the Antarctica as an opportunity for development of scientific investigations, promoting education and divulging information. The purpose of this project has been the diffusion and popularization of science integrated actions aimed at getting to know the Antarctic region with its peculiarities, what the INCT-APA researchers do and to contribute to this knowledge reach basic education and the general public in Brazil. The project has been developed by undergraduate students in Biological Sciences and Fine Arts, as well as Science and Biology school teachers. It integrates a set of educational materials, activities and actions in planning, developing and implementing scientific exhibitions to the general public. The methodology consisted of transcribing the language of scientific articles of different areas of knowledge developed by the researchers of INCT-APA in order to conceive educational materials. Teaching materials about Antarctic ecosystems were developed to emphasize its importance to existing conditions in South America, focusing Brazil’s coastline. These and other materials were used on large exhibitions for elementary school students and the general public.

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The transcription of scientific language takes different forms, namely: games, booklets, panels, fact sheets, and material for acting. These products and collection materials borrowed from INCT-APA researchers, such as preserved specimens of Antarctic plants and animals, EACF model, and a video were used in the exhibitions. Antarctic clothes and scenographic elements like a whale tail, penguins, and icebergs, complemented our stand at the National Week of Science and Technology by simulating a real and attractive landscape (Figures 1 and 2).

Informative and educational materials developed Informative panels: Three panels of 2.0m x 1.3m size were produced. The first one showing details of the working structure of INCT-APA, presenting its thematic research areas (Figure 3). The second presented the issue of global climate change and the importance of Antarctic Environmental Research (Figure 4). The third one was about balance between water and ice on the Antarctic continent and its effects on climate and weather (Figure 5). Institutional Pamphlet: A pamphlet was developed in order to publicize who we are and what our main activities are (Figure 6). It shows our internal structure and the objectives of each of our thematic research areas (Figure 7).

Participation in the National Week of Science and Technology, Rio de Janeiro, 15 to 19 October 2012. For the fourth consecutive year, the INCT-APA participated in the National Week of Science and Technology (SNCT), which is an event organized by the Ministry of


Figure 1. Stand in the National Week of Science and Technology 2012. Photo: Jenifer Souza.

Figure 2. Instructors at our stand in the National Week of Science and Technology 2012. Photo: Rafael B. de Moura.

Figure 3. Informative panel. INCT-APA mission and thematic research areas.

Figure 4. Informative panel. Global climate change and the importance of Antarctic Environmental Research.

Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI) since 2004. Our stand featured activities in playful and interactive ways to present the Antarctic continent and its most representative

forms of life. Some activities that have been most successful in previous years were maintained, according to the public. Amongst these, we highlight:

Education and Outreach Activities |

183


Figure 5. Informative panel. Balance between water and ice on the Antarctic continent and its effects on climate and weather.

• “A Walk in Antarctica” a board game in which the visitors play the pawns, moving to the next zone as they answer questions about the Antarctic life and its environmental conditions (Figure 8), • A magnetized panel in which the visitors recognize Antarctic organisms and their habitats, • An interactive game in which visitors played a food web wearing foam heads representing some Antarctic organisms, and • A mannequin wearing special clothes and gear for phytoplankton sampling, representing a researcher in the field. The public could still observe many preserved specimens of marine life, as well as phytoplankton microalgae under the microscope, all sampled in Admiralty Bay, King George Island (Figure 9). Some icebergs, penguins and a huge whale tail made of foam usually attracted visitors to the stand (Figure 10). About 9,000 visitors attended the stand during our four-day exhibition. The great majority were students in elementary and secondary education of public schools. The INCT-APA seeks to get the general public and researchers together by popularizing science, disseminating the research conducted in Antarctica, and the importance of this special environment for our planet.

Figure 6. Institutional Pamphlet. The importance of Antarctic Research. What is INCT-APA?

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| Annual Activity Report 2012


Figure 7. Institutional Pamphlet. Internal structure of INCT-APA and the objectives of each of our thematic research areas.

Figure 8. Students playing “A walk in Antarctica” board game about the Antarctic life and its environmental conditions. Photo: Jenifer Souza.

Figure 9. National Week of Science and Technology 2012. Phytoplankton microalgae observation under the microscope. Photo: Rafael B. de Moura.

Acknowledgements This work integrates the National Institute of Science and Technology Antarctic Environmental Research (INCT-APA) that receives scientific and financial support from the National Council for Research and Development (CNPq process: n° 574018/2008-5) and Carlos Chagas Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ n° E-16/170.023/2008). The authors also acknowledge the support of the Brazilian Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), of Environment (MMA) and InterMinistry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM). Figure 10. General panorama of our stand at the National Week of Science and Technology 2012. Photo: Jenifer Souza.

Education and Outreach Activities |

185


FACTS AND FIGURES Human Resources: Capacity Building The research activities of INCT-APA involved undergraduate and graduate students. The fellowships were esp ecially at Master of S cience, PhD and Postdoctoral, but students of scientific initiation had also been engaged in the studies, as well as trained

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technical staffs. The illustration below highlights the annual capacity of INCT-APA to develop human resources taking into account all the funding provided by CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and others regional institutions for scientific support.


Facts and Figures |

187


PUBLICATIONS Papers Albuquerque, M.P.; Victoria, F.C.; Schunemann, A.L.; Putzke, J.; Gunski, R.J.; Seibert, S.; Petry, M.V.; Pereira, A.B. (2012). Plant Composition of Skuas Nests at Hennequin Point, King George Island, Antarctica. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3: 688-692. Alonso, M.B.; Corcellas, C.; Vidal, L.G.; Bertozzi, C.P.;

Fritts, D.C.; Janches, D.; Iimura, H.; Hocking, W.K.; Bageston, J.V. & Leme, N.M.P. (2012). Drake Antarctic Agile Meteor Radar first results: Configuration and comparison of mean and tidal wind and gravity wave momentum flux measurements with Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117: D02105.

Marigo, J.; Secchi, E.R.; Bassoi, M.; Azevedo, A.F.;

Gomes V.; Passos, M.J.A.C.R.; Santos, T.C.A.; Campos,

Dorneles, P.R.; Torres, J.P.M.; Lailson-Brito, J.; Malm, O.;

D.Y.F.; Ussami, K.A.; Hasue, F.M. & Phan, V.N. (2012).

Eljarrat, E. & Barceló, D. (2012). Pyrethroids: A new threat

DNA strand breaks in caged Antarctic coastal fish

to marine mammals? Environment International, 47:

(Trematomus newnesi), following exposure to the waters

99-106

in front of the Brazilian Antarctic Research Station “Comandante Ferraz”, King George Island. Pesquisa

Alonso, M.B.; Eljarrat, E.; Gorga, M.; Secchi, E.R.; Bassoi,

Antártica Brasileira, 5: 61-70.

M.; Barbosa, L.; Bertozzi, C.P.; Marigo, J.; Cremer, M.J.; Domit, C.; Azevedo, A.F.; Dorneles, P.R.; Torres,

Kaufmann, P.; Holman, G.D.; Su, Y.; Giménez-de-Castro,

J.P.M.; Lailson-Brito, J.; Malm, O. & Barceló, D. (2012).

C.G.; Correia, E.; Fernandes, L.O.T.; Souza, R.V.;

Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated

Marun, A. & Pereyra, P. (2012). Unusual emissions at

compounds in endemic dolphins from Western

various energies and coronal mass ejection prior to the

South Atlantic: Another risk to a vulnerable species.

November 4, 2003 large solar flare. Solar Physics,

Environmental Pollution (London)., 170: 152-160.

279: 465-475.

Borges, J.C.S.; Silva, J.R.M.C.; Rocha, A.J.S.; Jensch-Junior, B.E.; Pressinotti, L.N.; Passos, M.J.A.C.R.; Gomes, V.; Branco, P.C. & Phan, V.N. (2012). Energetic metabolic differences between tropical (Lytechinus variegatus) and polar (Sterechinus neumayeri) echinoderms. Pesquisa Antártica Brasileira, 5: 71-79. Botta, S.; Hohn, A.A.; Macko, S.A. & Secchi, E.R. (2012). Isotopic variation in delphinids from the subtropical western South Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (Print)., 92: 1689-1698 Cipro, C.V.Z. Bustamante, P.; Taniguchi, S. & Montone, R.C. (2012). Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes

188

Lemos, L.N.; Fulthorpe, R.R. & Roesch, L.F.W. (2012). Low sequencing efforts bias analyses of shared taxa in microbial communities. Folia Microbiologica (Prague), 57(5): 409-13. Leripio, A.A.; Torres, J.P.M.; Viana, M.S. & Echelmeier, G.R. (2012). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Brazilian Antarctic Station ‘‘Comandante Ferraz’’. American journal of industrial medicine (Online), 55(12): 1166-1171. Machado, A.D.; Gomes, V.; Hasue, F.M.; Ferreira, J.P.L.; Affonso, S.F.; Silva, R.A.; Passos, M.J.A.C.R.; Miglino, M.A.; Paes-Leme N. & Phan, V.N. (2012). Estrutura e

in pinnipeds from King George Island, Antarctica.

morfologia de Gondogeneia Antarctica (Crustacea,

Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64: 2650-2655.

Amphipoda). Pesquisa Antártica Brasileira, 5: 187-199.

Dalla-Rosa, L.; Felix, F.; Stevick, P.T.; Secchi, E.R.; Allen,

Martins, C.C.; Aguiar, S.N.; Bícego, M. C. & Montone, R.C.

J.; Chater, K & Bassoi, M. (2012). Feeding grounds of

(2012). Sewage organic markers in surface sediments

the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population

around the Brazilian Antarctic station: Results from the

include the South Orkney Islands. Polar Research,

2009/10 austral summer and historical tendencies.

31: 17324.

Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64: 2867-2870.

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Moro, J.; Denardini, C.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Correia, E.; Schuch, N.J. & Makita, K. (2012). Correlation between the cosmic noise absorption calculated from the SARINET data and the energetic particles measured by MEPED: Simultaneous observations over SAMA region. Advances in Space Research. 51: 1692-1700. Moro, J.; Denardini, C.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Correia, E.; Schuch, N.J. & Makita, K. (2012). Latitudinal dependence of cosmic noise absorption in the ionosphere over the SAMA region during the September 2008 magnetic storm. Journal of Geophysical Research., 117: A06331-1-7.

58°W) and their stratospheric polar origin. Pesquisa Antartica Brasileira, 5: 1-10. Spielmann, A.A. & Pereira, A.B. (2012). Lichens on the Maritime Antarctica (A small field guide for some common species). GLALIA (Revista Eletrônica do Grupo Latinoamericano de Liquenólogos), 4(2): 1-28. Victoria, F.C.; Bervald, C.M.P.; Farias, D.R.; Maia, L.C.; Souza, R.O.; Panaud, O. & Oliveira, A.C. (2012). Phylogenetic relationships and selective pressure on gene families related with iron homeostasis in land

Moro, J.; Denardini, C.M.; Correia, E.; Abdu, M.A.; Schuch, N.J. & Makita, K. (2012). A comparison of two different techniques for deriving the quiet day curve from SARINET riometer data. Annales Geophysicae (Berlin), 30: 1159-1168. Passadore, C.; Domingo, A.; Szephegyi, M. & Secchi, E.R. (2012). Influence of environmental and longline fishing operational variables on the presence of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Southwestern Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (Print). FirstView Articles, pp. 1-10. Petry, M.V.; Basler, A.B.; Valls, F.C.L. & Krüger, L. (2012). New southerly breeding location of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) on Elephant Island (Maritime Antarctic). Polar Biology (Print), 300: 01-606. Petry, M.V.; Scherer, J.F.M. & Scherer, A.L. (2012). Ocorrência, alimentação e impactos antrópicos de aves marinhas nas praias do litoral do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia (Online), 20: 65-70. Proietti, M.C., Reisser, J.W., Kinas, P.G., Kerr, R., Monteiro, D.S., Marins, L.F. & Secchi, E.R. (2012). Green turtle Chelonia mydas mixed stocks in the western South Atlantic, as revealed by mtDNA haplotypes and drifter trajectories in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (Halstenbek), 447: 195-209. Putzke, J. & Pereira, A.B. (2012). Fungos Muscícolas na Ilha Elefante-Antártica. Caderno de Pesquisa. Série Biologia (UNISC), 24: 155-164. Setzer, A. & Kirchoff, V.W.H.J. (2012). Episodes of very low surface Ozone in the South Shetland Islands (63°S,

plants. Genome (Ottawa. Online). Wolfram, E.A.; Salvador J.; D’ELIA, F.R.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kuttippurath, J.; Pazmiño, A.; Goutail, F.; Casiccia, C.; Zamorano, F.; Paes-Leme, N. & Quel, E.J. (2012). The unusual persistence of an ozone hole over a southern mid-latitude station during the Antarctic spring 2009: a multi-instrument study. Ann. Geophys., 30: 1435–1449.

Monographs Araújo, A.R. Análise da qualidade de energia na Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz. Monografia de Conclusão de Curso. Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 2012. Daniel de Sales da Silva. Estudo das condições meteorológicas na região Antártica. Monografia de Conclusão de Curso. Graduando em Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, 2012. Dauner, A.L.L. Caracterização molecular das fontes naturais e antrópicas da matéria orgânica sedimentar na região de Potter Cove, Ilha Rei George, Antártica. Monografia de Conclusão de Curso. Graduação em Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, 2012. Steffen, D.D. Dieta de Thalassarche chlororhynchos. Monografia de Conclusão de Curso. Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, 2012.

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189


Master of Science Dissertations Basler, A.B. Aspectos sobre a biologia de Daption capense na Ilha Elefante, Antártica. Dissertação de Mestrado em Biologia pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação da Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – Unisinos, 2012. Christo, T.M. Uma Proposta de Matriz Energética para a Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz: Uma experiência aplicável a novas edificações. Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Elétrica pela Universidade Federal do espírito Santo, 2012. D’Olivera, C.B. Comunidades Vegetais em Áreas de Degelo na Antártica Marítima: Revisão e Estudo de Caso. Dissertação de Mestrado em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, 2012. Eugênio, D.S. Plasticidade metabólica e fisiológica do peixe antártico Notothenia rossii (Richardson 1844) aclimatado a altas temperaturas. Dissertação de Mestrado em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CAPES-REUNI, 2012. Figueiredo, M.I.S. Biologia populacional de Nacella concinna na Baía do Almirantado, Ilha Rei George, Antártica. Dissertação de Mestrado em Zoologia pelo MNHN/UFRJ, 2012. Foltran, C. Biomarcadores bioquímicos dos peixes antárticos Notthenia criiceps (Richardson, 1844) e Notothenia rossii (Richardson, 1844) aclimatados a altas temperaturas. Dissertação de Mestrado em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, 2012. Kozlowsky, D. Variabilidade interanual de microorganismos em neve recente da Ilha Rei George/ Antártica e sua associação com parâmetros ambientais regionais. Dissertação de Mestrado em Biociências nucleares, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, 2012.

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Neufeld, A.D.H. Fluxo de gases de efeito estufa em solos sob áreas de degelo em Rip Point, Ilha Nelson, Antártica. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Pampa, 2012. Raga, G. Dieta e metabolismo de Notothenia coriiceps (Richardson, 1844) e Notothenia rossii (Richardson, 1844) na Baía do Almirantado Ilha Rei George Península Antártica. Dissertação de Mestrado em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CAPES-REUNI, 2012. Wisnieski, E. Adaptação de um método analítico para determinação de marcadores orgânicos e aplicação em sedimentos marinhos antárticos. Dissertação de Mestrado em Sistemas Costeiros e Oceânicos, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, 2012. Zemolin, A .P.P. Papel de selenoproteínas na neurotoxicidade induzida por metilmercúrio, em camundongos, e potencial bioinseticida de uma alga da Antártica (Prasiola crispa) em modelo de Drosophila melanogaster. Dissertação de Mestrado em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus São Gabriel, São Gabriel, 2012.

PhD Thesis Mariano, E.V.C. Estudo do comportamento do dióxido de enxofre (SO2) atmosférico com base nos dados do espectrofotômetro Brewer na América do Sul e Antártica. Doutorado em Geofísica Espacial. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 2012.


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E-MAILS

I N C T – A PA R E S E R A C H T E A M Thematic Area 1

ANTARCTIC ATMOSPHERE AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN SOUTH AMERICA Dr. Neusa Maria Paes Leme (INPE) – Team Leader of Thematic Area 1 neusa_paesleme@yahoo.com.br

Dr. Emília Correia (INPE – CRAAM) – Vice-Team Leader of Thematic Area 1 ecorreia@craam.mackenzie.br

Dr. Amauri Pereira de Oliveira (IAG/USP) amauri@usp.br

Dr. José Henrique Fernandez (UNITAU) jhenrix@gmail.com

Dr. Damaris Kirsch Pinheiro (UFSM) damariskp@gmail.com

Dr. José Valentin Bageston (UTFPR) bageston@gmail.com

Dr. Jacyra Ramos Soares (IAG/USP) jacyra@usp.br

TECHNICAL ASSISTANTS AND STUDENTS José Roberto Chagas (DGE/INPE) chagas@dge.inpe.br

Marcelo Romão (INPE) marcromao@hotmail.com

Marilene Alves da Silva (CPTEC/INPE) marilene.alves@cptec.inpe.br

André Barros Cardoso da Silva (INPE) – MSc. Student andrebcs@hotmail.com

Thematic Area 2

IMPACT OF GLOBAL CHANGES ON THE ANTARCTIC TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT Dr. Antonio Batista Pereira (UNIPAMPA) – Team Leader of Thematic Area 2 – Vegetal communities antoniopereira@unipampa.edu.br

Dr. Maria Virginia Petry (UNISINOS) – Vice-Team Leader of Thematic Area 2 – Seabirds communities vpetry@unisinos.br

192

Dr. Adriano Afonso Spielmann (USP) adrianospielmann@yahoo.com.br

Dr. Jeferson Luis Franco (UNIPAMPA) jefersonfranco@unipampa.edu.br

MSc. Adriano Luis Shünnemam (UNIPAMPA) – PhD Student als@unipampa.edu.br

Dr. Juliano de Carvalho Cury (UFSJ) jccury@hotmail.com

Dr. Alexandre Soares Rosado (IMPPG/UFRJ) arosado@globo.com

Dr. Juliano Tomazzoni Boldo (UNIPAMPA) julianoboldo@unipampa.edu.br

Dr. Analía del Valle Garnero (UNIPAMPA) analiagarnero@unipampa.edu.br

Dr. Larissa Rosa de Oliveira (UNISINOS) larissaro@unisinos.br

Dr. Cháriston André Dal Belo (UNIPAMPA) charistondb@gmail.com

Dr. Luís Fernando da Costa Medina (UNISINOS) lfmedina@unisinos.br

Dr. Filipe de Carvalho Victória (UNIPAMPA) filipevictoria@gmail.com

Dr. Luiz Fernando Würdig Roesch (UNIPAMPA) luizroesch@unipampa.edu.br

Dr. Frederico Costa Beber Vieira (UNIPAMPA) fredericovieira@unipampa.edu.br

Dr. Margéli Pereira de Albuquerque (UNIPAMPA) margeli_albuquerque@hotmail.com

Dr. Jair Putzke (UNISC) jair@unisc.br

Dr. Paulo Marcos Pinto (UNIPAMPA) paulopinto@unipampa.edu.br

| Annual Activity Report 2012


Dr. Ricardo José Gunski (UNIPAMPA) rgunski@yahoo.com.br

Dr. Victor Hugo Valiati (UNISINOS) valiati@unisinos.br

Dr. Thais Posser (UNIPAMPA) thaisposser@hotmail.com

Dr. Uwe Schulz (UNISINOS) uwe@unisinos.br

Dr. Valdir Marcos Stefenon (UNIPAMPA) valdirstefenon@unipampa.edu.br

TECHNICAL ASSITANTS AND STUDENTS Hugo Emiliano de Jesus (UFRJ) – MSc. student hugoemil@gmail.com

MSc. Elisa de Souza Petersen – PhD Student elisapetersen@yahoo.com.br

MSc. Jacqueline Brummelhaus – PhD student jaquebrummelhaus@gmail.com

MSc. Lucas Krüger Garcia biokruger@gmail.com

Thematic Area 3

IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON ANTARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT Dr. Helena Passeri Lavrado (IB/UFRJ) – Team Leader of Thematic Area 3 hpasseri@biologia.ufrj.br/ hplavrado@gmail.com

Dr. Edson Rodrigues (UNITAU) – Vice-Team Leader of Thematic Area 3 rodedson@gmail.com

Dr. Adriana Galindo Dalto (IB/UFRJ) agdalto@gmail.com

Dr. Eduardo Resende Secchi (FURG) edu.secchi@furg.br

Dr. Ana Carolina Vieira Araujo (IOUSP) acvaraujo@gmail.com

Dr. Erik Muxagata (FURG) e.muxagata@gmail.com

Dr. Andrea de Oliveira Ribeiro Junqueira (UFRJ) ajunq@biologia.ufrj.br

Dr. Fernanda Imperatrice Colabuono (IOUSP) ferimp@hotmail.com

Dr. Andreza Portella Ribeiro (IOUSP) aportellar@yahoo.com.br

Dr. Flavia Sant’Anna Rios (UFPR) flaviasrios@ufpr.br

Dr. Arthur José da Silva Rocha (IOUSP) arthur@usp.br

Dr. Gannabathula Sree Vani (UNITAU) srvani@hotmail.com

Dr. Caio Vinicius Zecchin Cipro (IOUSP) caiovzc@gmail.com

Dr. Joel Campos de Paula (UNIRIO) depaula.joelc@gmail.com

Dr. Cecilia Nahomi Kawagoe Suda (UNITAU) cnksuda@hotmail.com

Dr. José Juan Barrera Alba (UNIFESP) juanalba@usp.br

Dr. César de Castro Martins (UFPR) ccmart@ufpr.br

Dr. Lucélia Donatti (UFPR) donatti@ufpr.br

Dr. Cleoni dos Santos Carvalho (UFSCar) carvcleo@yahoo.com.br

Dr. Lúcia de Siqueira Campos (IB/UFRJ) campos-lucia@biologia.ufrj.br

Dr. Cristina Rossi Nakayama (IOUSP) crnakayama@gmail.com

Dr. Luciano Dalla Rosa (FURG) l.dalla@furg.br

Dr. Denise Rivera Tenenbaum (IB/UFRJ) deniser@biologia.ufrj.br

Dr. Manuela Bassoi (IB/UFRJ) manu.bassoi@gmail.com

Dr. Edmundo Ferraz Nonato (IOUSP) efnonato@usp.br

Dr. Maria José de Arruda Campos Rocha Passos (IOUSP) zezemar@usp.br

E-mails |

193


Dr. Marcelo Renato Lamour (UFPR–CEM) mlamour@ufpr.br Dr. Márcia Caruso Bícego (IOUSP) marciacaruso@usp.br Dr. Márcio Murilo Barboza Tenório (IB/UFRJ) mbtenorio@hotmail.com Dr. Maurício Osvaldo Moura (UFPR) mauricio.moura@ufpr.br Dr. Mônica Angélica Varella Petti (IOUSP) mapetti@usp.br Dr. Rolf Roland Weber (IOUSP) rweber@usp.br

Dr. Satie Taniguchi (IOUSP) satie@usp.br Dr. Silvio Tarou Sasaki (IOUSP) ssasaki@usp.br Dr. Susete Wambier Christo (UEPG) wambchristo@yahoo.com.br Dr. Tânia Zaleski (UFPR) taniazaleski@gmail.com Dr. Thais Navajas Corbisier (IOUSP) tncorbis@usp.br Dr. Theresinha Monteiro Absher (UFPR) tmabsher@ufpr.br

Dr. Rosalinda Carmela Montone (IOUSP) – Vice-coordinator of INCT–APA rmontone@usp.br Dr. Rubens Cesar Lopes Figueira (IOUSP) rfigueira@usp.br

Dr. Vivian Helena Pellizari (IOUSP) vivianp@usp.br Dr. Vicente Gomes (IOUSP) vicgomes@usp.br Dr. Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin (IB/UFRJ) –

Dr. Rubens Duarte (IOUSP) rubensduarte13@yahoo.com.br

General Coordinator of INCT–APA yocie@biologia.ufrj.br/ yocievalentin@gmail.com

Dr. Sandra Bromberg (IOUSP) bromberg@usp.br

TECHNICAL ASSITANTS AND STUDENTS

194

Andre Monnerat Lanna (UFRJ) andrebioufrj@gmail.com

Nazareth Cristina da Costa Araújo (IB/UFRJ) nazareth.bio@gmail.com

MSc. Cintia Machado (UFPR) – PhD student cin_machado@yahoo.com.br

Bruna Raquel Rocha (IB/UFRJ) rochabruna2@gmail.com

MSc. Claúdio Adriano Piechnik (UFPR) – PhD student claudio.sapiens@gmail.com

MSc. Maria Isabel Sarvat de Figueiredo (IB/UFRJ) belfig@gmail.com

MSc. Edson Rodrigues Junior (UFPR) – PhD Student edsonrodj@gmail.com

MSc. Paula Foltran Gheller (IOUSP) – PhD student paulafgheller@usp.br

MSc. Eduardo de Almeida Xavier (IB/UFRJ) xavier.eduardo@gmail.com

MSc. Rafael Bendayan de Moura (UFPE) – PhD student lytechinusvariegatus@gmail.com

MSc. Gabriel Sousa Conzo Monteiro (IOUSP) gabrielmonteiro@usp.br

MSc. Rafael Tostes Salazar (IB/UFRJ) rafael14th@hotmail.com

Iza Veríssimo de Oliveira (IB/UFRJ) izaverissimo@yahoo.com.br

MSc. Priscila Ikeda Ushimaro (IOUSP) priscobain@yahoo.com.br

MSc. Josilene da Silva (IOUSP) josilenehsilva@gmail.com

MSc. Priscila Lange (IB/UFRJ) prilange@gmail.com

Mariana Feijó-Oliveira (UNITAU) – MSc. Student mari.feijo@bol.com.br

Tais Maria de Souza Campos (IB/UFRJ) tmscampos@yahoo.com.br

Mariana Vanzan (IB/UFRJ) mari_vanzan@hotmail.com

MSc. Yargos Kern (UFPR) ykern@cem.ufpr.br

| Annual Activity Report 2012


Thematic Area 4

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Dr. Cristina Engel de Alvarez (UFES) – Team Leader of Thematic Area 4 cristinaengel@pq.cnpq.br

Dr. Alexandre de Ávila Leripio (UNIVALI) – Vice-Team Leader of Thematic Area 4 leripio@terra.com.br

Dr. Domingos Sávio Lyrio Simonetti (UFES) d.simonetti@ele.ufes.br

Dr. Paulo Sérgio de Paula Vargas (UFES) paulo.s.vargas@ufes.br

Dr. Jussara Farias Fardin (UFES) jussara@ele.ufes.br

Dr. Raquel Silva Peixoto (IMPPG/UFRJ) r.s.peixoto@globo.com

Dr. Neyval Costa Reis Junior (UFES) neyval@inf.ufes.br

Dr. Ricardo Franci Gonçalves (UFES) franci@fluir.eng.br

TECHNICAL ASSITANTS AND STUDENTS MSc. Erica Coelho Pagel – PhD student erica.pagel@gmail.com

MSc. Anderson Buss Woelffel andersonbwarquiteto@gmail.com

MSc. Tiago Malavazi de Christo – (UFES) tiagomc@globo.com

Deborah Martins Zaganelli Moreira – (UFES) debbiezaganelli@yahoo.com

Nicole Santos Ferraz – (UFES) nicoli.ferraz@gmail.com

EDUCATION AND OUTREACH ACTIVITIES MSc. Déia Maria Ferreira dos Santos (IB/UFRJ) deia@biologia.ufrj.br

Dr. Benedita Aglai Oliveira da Silva (IB/UFRJ) aglai@biologia.ufrj.br

TECHNICAL ASSITANTS AND STUDENTS Rômulo Loureiro Casciano (IB/UFRJ) – Biologist rlcasciano@yahoo.com.br

Francine Nascimento Quintão Rocha (IB/UFRJ) – Biologist franqcok@hotmail.com

Marcelle Santos de Araujo (IB/UFRJ) – Biologist marcellearaujobio@gmail.com

Jenifer Souza (IB/UFRJ) – Biologist jenifersouza.bio@gmail.com

EXTERNAL COLLABORATORS Thematic Module 1

ANTARCTIC ATMOSPHERE AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN SOUTH AMERICA Dr. Alberto Waingort Setzer – Brazil (INPE/REDE CLIMA/ INCT para Mudanças Climáticas) alberto.setzer@cptec.inpe.br Dr. Heitor Evangelista da Silva – Brazil (UERJ/INCT–Criosfera) heitor@uerj.br/ evangelista.uerj@gmail.com Dr. Luciano Marani – Brazil (INPE/REDE CLIMA/ INCT para Mudanças Climáticas) lmarani@dge.inpe.br

Dr. Plínio Carlos Alvalá – Brazil (INPE/REDE CLIMA/ INCT para Mudanças Climáticas) plinio@dge.inpe.br Heber Passos – Brazil (INPE/INCT REDE CLIMA) heber.passos@cptec.inpe.br Dr. Eduardo J. Quel – Argentina (Argentine Armed Forces Scientific and Technical Research Institute – CITEFA) eduardojquel@gmail.com ; quel@citefa.gov.ar

E-mails |

195


Dr. Elian Wolfram – Argentina (Argentine Armed Forces Scientific and Technical Research Institute – CITEFA) ewolfram@gmail.com ; ewolfram@citefa.gov.ar Dr. Jacobo Salvador – Argentina (Argentine Armed Forces Scientific and Technical Research Institute – CITEFA) jsalvador@citefa.gov.ar

Dr. Félix Zamorano – Chile (University of Magallanes – UMAG) felix.zamorano@umag.cl Dr. Kazuo Makita – Japan (Takushoku University) kmakita@la.takushoku-u.ac.jp Dr. Hiromasa Yamamoto – Japan (Rikkyo University) yamamoto@rikkyo.ac.jp

Dr. Francesco Zaratti – Bolivia (University of San Andrès) zaratti@entelnet.bo

Dr. Dave C. Fritts – USA (NorthWest Research Associates – NWRA) dave@cora.nwra.com

Dr. Cláudio Cassicia R. Salgado – Chile (University of Magallanes – UMAG) c.casiccia@gmail.com ; claudio.casiccia@umag.cl

Dr. Diego Janches – USA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration – NASA) diego.janches@nasa.gov

Thematic Module 2

IMPACT OF GLOBAL CHANGES ON THE ANTARCTIC TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT Dr. Lubomir Kowacik – Slovakia (Comenius Univiversity) kovacik@fns.uniba.sk Dr. Heitor Evangelista da Silva – Brazil (UERJ/INCT–Criosfera) heitor@uerj.br/ evangelista.uerj@gmail.com Dr. Guendalina Turcatto – Brazil (PUCRS)

guendato@pucrs.br Dr. Gisela Dantas – Brazil (UFMG) dantasgpm@gmail.com Dr. Maria Angélica Oliveira – Brazil (UFSM) angelcure@gmail.com

Thematic Area 3

IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON ANTARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT Dr. Pio Colepicolo Neto – Brazil (IQ – USP/ Edital 23/2009-Biodiversidade, distribuição e histórico de vida de macroalgas e fungos algícolas associados ao monitoramento de indicadores abióticos, bioquímicos e microbiológicos na Península Antártica e arquipélagos adjacentes) piocolep@iq.usp.br Dr. Diclá Pupo Santos – Brazil (Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo/ Edital 23/2009-Biodiversidade, distribuição e histórico de vida de macroalgas e fungos algícolas associados ao monitoramento de indicadores abióticos, bioquímicos e microbiológicos na Península Antártica e arquipélagos adjacentes) dpupoibot@yahoo.com.br Dr. Mutue Toyota Fujii – Brazil (Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo / Edital 23/2009-Biodiversidade, distribuição e histórico de vida de macroalgas e fungos algícolas associados ao monitoramento de indicadores abióticos, bioquímicos e microbiológicos na Península Antártica e arquipélagos adjacentes) mutue.funjii@gmail.com

196

| Annual Activity Report 2012

Dr. Nair Sumie Yokoya – Brazil (Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo/ IQ – USP/ Edital 23/2009-Biodiversidade, distribuição e histórico de vida de macroalgas e fungos algícolas associados ao monitoramento de indicadores abióticos, bioquímicos e microbiológicos na Península Antártica e arquipélagos adjacentes) nyokoya@pq.cnpq.br Dr. Ricardo Coutinho – Brazil (IEAPM/ Edital 23 – Processos de bioncrustação) rcoutinhosa@yahoo.com Dr. Andrés Mansilla – Chile (University of Magallanes – UMAG) andre.mansilla@umag.cl Dr. Maria Cleide de Mendonça – Brazil (MNHN/UFRJ) cleidecollembola@gmail.com Dr. Eduardo Assis Abrantes – Brazil (MZUSP) collembola@gmail.com MSc. Gabriel Costa Queiroz – Brazil (MNHN/UFRJ) gabriel_cq@yahoo.com.br


A n n u a l Ac t i v i t y R e p o r t 2 012 Expedient Editors

Production Proofreader

Collaboration

Photograph Courtesy

Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin – IB/UFRJ Adriana Galindo Dalto – IB/UFRJ Helena Passeri Lavrado – IB/UFRJ Editora Cubo Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin – IB/UFRJ Adriana Galindo Dalto – IB/UFRJ Eduardo de Almeida Xavier – IB/UFRJ Daniela Rezende Peçanha Fernandes – IB/UFRJ Rafael Bendayan de Moura – UFPE Tais Maria de Souza Campos – IB/UFRJ Adriana Galindo Dalto (Blackgrounds: Presentation, Introduction, thematic Area 2, Thematic Area 3, Facts and Figures) Andre Monnerat Lanna (Backgrounds: Publications, Emails) Jaqueline Brummelhaus (Backgrounds: Science Highlights, Education and Outreach Activities) Luiz Fernando Würdig Roesch (Backgrounds; Summary, Thematic Area 4) Roberta da Cruz Piuco (Background: cover) Fernanda Caminha Leal Valls (Backgrounds: Expedient, Thematic Area 1)

The editors express their gratitude to the INCT-APA colleagues that contribute to this edition. This document was prepared as an account of work done by INCT-APA users and staff. Whilst the document is believed to contain correct information, neither INCT-APA nor any of its employees make any warranty, expresses, implies or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed within. As well, the use of this material does not infringe any privately owned copyrights. Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia Antártico de Pesquisas Ambientais (INCT-APA) INCT-APA Headquarters

Telephone/ Fax E-mail Home Page

Instituto de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS) Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373 - Sala A1-94 - Bloco A Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária - CEP: 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil +55 21 2562-6322 / +55 21 2562-6302 yocie@biologia.ufrj.br/ inctapa@gmail.com www.biologia.ufrj.br/inct-antartico

Management Committee General Coordinator Yocie Yoneshigue Valentin – IB/UFRJ Vice-coordinator Rosalinda Carmela Montone – IO/USP Education and Outreach Activities – Team Leader Déia Maria Ferreira – IB/UFRJ

Thematic Area 1 (Antarctic Atmosphere) Neusa Maria Paes Leme – INPE (Team Leader) Emília Corrêa – Mackenzie/INPE (Vice-team Leader)

International Scientific Assessor Eduardo Resende Secchi – FURG

Thematic Area 2 (Antarctic Terrestrial Environment) Antonio Batista Pereira – UNIPAMPA (Team Leader) Maria Virgínia Petry – UNISINOS (Vice-team Leader)

Project Manager Assessor Adriana Galindo Dalto – IB/UFRJ

Thematic Area 3 (Antarctic Marine Environment) Helena Passeri Lavrado – IB/UFRJ (Team Leader) Edson Rodrigues – UNITAU (Vice-team Leader)

Executive Office Carla Maria da Silva Balthar – IB/UFRJ

Thematic Area 4 (Environmental Management) Cristina Engel de Alvarez – UFES (Team Leader) Alexandre de Avila Leripio – UNIVALI (Vice-team Leader)

Finance Technical Support Maria Helena Amaral da Silva – IBCCF/UFRJ Marta de Oliveira Farias – IBCCF/UFRJ

Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia Antártico de Pesquisas Ambientais (INCT-APA) Instituto de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS) Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373 - Sala A1-94 • Bloco A Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária - CEP: 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro- RJ, Brazil +55 21 2562-6322 / +55 21 2562-6302 yocie@biologia.ufrj.br/ inctapa@gmail.com www.biologia.ufrj.br/inct-antartico

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