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isBn – 978-85-60064-44-1 INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013

adapta.inpa.gov.br

INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013


INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013 EXPEDIENT COORDINATORS

Adalberto Luis Val (INPA) coordinator Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade (INPA) vice-coordinator PRODUCTION

Editora Cubo PROOFREADER

Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val (INPA) TRANSLATION

Ana Luisa Hernandes Costa (INPA) Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val (INPA) PHOTOGRAPH

LEEM/INPA Anselmo d’Affonseca Pedro Val STEERING COMMITTEE

Adalberto Luis Val (INPA-Manaus) - coordinator Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade (INPA-Manaus) - vice-coordinator Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val (INPA-Manaus) - applied progams Bernardo Baldisserotto (UFSM) Eliana Feldberg (INPA-Manaus) Francisco de Assis Leone (USP-SP) Helder Lima de Queiroz (IDSM Tefé-AM) Jansen Alfredo Sampaio Zuanon (INPA-Manaus) José Augusto Baranauskas (USP-Ribeirão Preto) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AQUATIC BIOTA ADAPTATION IN THE AMAZON INCT-ADAPTA HEADQUARTERS

Av. André Araújo, 2936, CEP 69.067-375, Manaus-AM TELEPHONE

+55 (92) 3643-3187 | 3643-3191 E-MAIL

adapta@inpa.gov.br HOME PAGE

http://adapta.inpa.gov.br

PRODUCTION

Adaptações da Biota Aquática da Amazônia INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013 / Adaptações da Biota Aquática da Amazônia. – São Carlos : Editora Cubo, 2014. 48 p. : il. ISBN – 978-85-60064-44-1 1. Amazon. 2. Aquatic Biota. 3. Adaptation. 4. Climate Changes. 5. Pollution. I. Título.


INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013

S達o Carlos, 2014


4 8 10 16 20

FOREWORDS

ABOUT ADAPTA

AQUATIC BIOTA ADAPTATIONS

MAIN GOALS

MAIN RESULTS


26 38 40 42 44

SHORT NEWS

LITERATURE PRODUCTION

HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINED

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER TO SOCIETY

EDUCATION AND SCIENCE COMMUNICATION

SUMMARY


FOREWORDS

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T

he expressive biodiversity of Amazon region has been exaustively documented. However, we are far from being able to measure it, both quantitative or qualitatively. We are also far from reaching the ideal and sustainable way to reach a high IDH (human quality index) both from social and economic point of view. The amount of research projects that search for the intrinsec richness of Amazon region to support the development of new products and processes based in its natural resources have been growing in the last decades. Actions that increase financial income and social inclusion, avoinding deforestation are fundamental for the defense of this region and, as expected, the role of Science, Technology and Innovation is vital under such context. Amazon biome is singular. Its size and environmental dynamics must be considered when designing any initiatives to match economic development with social inclusion and environmental sustainability. In fact, strategies for defense and monitoring the region should take into account the potential effects of climate changes, the lack of robust information, and, indeed, its vigorous environmental, biological, social, and cultural diversities.

Intrinsicaly attached to these processes of adaptation are contless compounds such as proteins, hormones, and others of great importance for mankind. To explicit these interactions is the main challenge for the future generation of molecular biologists. However, before we can track this goal, we have taken the important task to teach people at laboratory benches in the Amazon region. At this moment, what represented a bottleneck in the beginning of this project is still a wonder to all of us, although we have reached good marks, and more specialized researchers are entering in the academic system and able to understand the size of the gap we have in Amazon molecular knowledge. Moreover, this lack strongly contrasts with the velocity environmental changes are taking place. Deforestation, urbanization, climate changes, mining, energy requirements, and other constraints are occuring in the Amazon in higher velocity than in other already developed regions.

Making these environments as healthy as possible for the future generations is a major concern.

The conservation of tropical forests must be reinvented – a new agenda in Science, Technology, and Innovation is required and must include initiatives to address the biodiversity studies and its importance for development of region.

Other important characteristics of Amazon basin are its dinamicity and the myriad of ways the organisms interact among themselves and with their environment. These interactions require the control of metabolism, which is mostly based in gene regulation. Thus, the investigation of diferentialy expressed genes, their control, and their role in the adaptation to the environment are among the most required actions in Amazon life. However, the available information on environmentally induced gene expression clearly suggests that we are only touching the iceberg top: undoubtedly we have a long way ahead before we can safely predict the adaptive capacity of tropical organisms to face environmental challenges.

The mission of the Centre for Studies of Adaptations of Aquatic Biota, INCT ADAPTA, is “to generate scientific information for public policies and new products and processes for the benefit of man from the adaptive capacity of aquatic organisms of the Amazon facing natural and anthropogenic environmental changes”. As far as we know, this is the first program in the Amazon that aims to identify, from the adaptive ability of the organisms and through functional genomics, the main characteristics that allow different organisms (species) to face similar environmental challenges, or the same species to face different challenges. Thus, several actions were taken to identify the strategies that species of aquatic plants and animals accumulated

FOREWORDS

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during their evolutionary time to interact with their environment dynamicity in a way to guarantee evolutionary success. This represents understanding their phenotypic and genotypic plasticity. The results are being crucial to anticipate three main lines: the first is understanding the function of the organisms in their environment; the second is identifying the effects of environmental interventions that are currently going on in the planet and, particularly, their effects in the Amazon region, such as expansion of urban areas, deforestation, changes in land use, mining, river damming to produce energy (electricity), and climate changes; and the third is the contribution that the Centre may bring to social inclusion, which goes much beyond personnel training and possible welfare-system proposals. This Centre has proposed a new way of thinking; its aim is to provide data for the

development of new products and applied processes, which can be socialized through different strategies. Improve the life quality of the Amazon inhabitants throughout generating information about the way organisms adapt to their environment is an ongoing task for all participants of ADAPTA. At last, but not least, the defense of the Amazon region strongly depends on knowledge about the environment we live. The old faction dominion with fences and arms will not prosper in the Amazon. The future holds fundamental questions such as social inclusion, increases of personal income, and other benefits based on the rational use of natural resources, lato sensu. In conclusion, only knowledge will lead the Amazon to a sustainable and rational development, protection and self-defense. Manaus, March, 2014.

Adalberto Luis Val (coordinator) Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade (vice-coordinator)

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ABOUT ADAPTA

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T

he Amazonian region comprises one of the widest tropical areas of the planet. Two marking sceneries dominate this extensive region: solid ground forests and aquatic environments and their associated forests, which constitute the floodable areas. The highland forests (“florestas de terra firme”) occupy around 80% (“ of the total area of the Brazilian Amazon, being characterized by the absence of inundations of the major rivers (Prance, 1980; Ribeiro et al., 1999), although the interior contains many important streams that are of great ecological support to the ecosystems (Anjos and Zuanon, 2007). These environments are exposed to high levels of precipitation that characterize an undefined drought season and a dominant rainy season. The soil provides few nutrients for plants, due to high temperatures and intense lixiviation that occurred in geological time (Sioli, 1984). The soil poverty is balanced by a closed cycling of the litter organic matter, which returns in the form of nutrients to the plants through rapid decomposition (Sioli, 1984). Due to these peculiarities, the solid ground of tropical forest is very vulnerable to human pressure. In contrast to the high land environments (terra firme), the flooded environments constitute an exceptional mosaic. If the extents of flooded areas along the rivers of all sizes that form the huge water bed distributed in the Amazonian basin are to be gathered in a continuous area, we could reach a value superior to 1,300,000 km2, what represents almost 20% of the region. The large rivers and their associated lakes can be categorized based on the flooding period, soil type and color of water (Sioli, 1984). The color keeps a close relationship with the physical-chemical and geological river’s

catchment areas, so that they are, in general, classified into rivers of clear, black and white waters. The flooded areas associated to whitewater rivers (200.000 Km 2 ), the so-called “várzeas” represented by Amazonas River and its tributaries, carry a large amount of Andean sediments, which gives them a great fertility, being the most exploited regions for agricultural, timber, bovine and buffalo raising purposes. On the other hand, the so called “igapós” or floodplains (100.000 Km2) are areas which are floodable by black or clear waters, being originated in geologically ancient and eroding areas, and consequently present low fertility. Annually, the large rivers suffer inundations where the average amplitude near the city of Manaus is around 10 m, and the water rising period goes from six to eight months, while the receding period can last from four to six months. Under such circumstances, the rivers marginal areas and also the associated lakes are subjected to both a terrestrial and an aquatic phase that alternate throughout the year, having an important ecological implication for the aquatic biota, and the colonization of these environments. Besides having their area reduced to only 20% of the total flooded area at the peak of the aquatic phase, during the terrestrial phase, the floodable areas contribute with 30% of the total balance of water flowing into the main drainage system, in a way that the storage of water is considerably superior to that of the main associated river channel. Due to this large water stocking characteristic of the floodable areas, even during the terrestrial phase, many organisms that colonize these environments must adapt to and tolerate the oscillations imposed by these flood annual pulses.

ABOUT ADAPTA

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AQUATIC BIOTA ADAPTATIONS

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THE AQUATIC FLORA

T

he flora associated to the flooded areas depends on the physical and chemical properties of water, which will determine the composition and richness of species. While high density and herbaceous plants diversity are typical in floodable areas associated to white water rivers (várzeas), these formations are practically absent in areas flooded by black waters (igapós) because of their acidic characteristic and low fertility. The distribution of herbaceous vegetation in floodable areas depends, among others, on four main points (Junk and Piedade, 1997): (i) the physical stability of the habitat, which depends on sedimentation processes, erosion and waves; (ii) succession processes linked to species longevity and habitat age in the floodable environment; (iii) anthropogenic action; and (iv) duration of aquatic and terrestrial phases. The wild rice species Oryza glumaepatula and Oryza grandiglumis, which are reproduced by seeds, will not be developed in years when the water level does not fall below 23m above sea level. Similarly, the grass Echinochloa polystachya, which remains fixed in the sediments of lakes and regions of sediments deposition up the white water rivers, will be removed if very high levels of water are reached. In both situations the species biomass can be drastically reduced at according to the water level of the previous year. On the other hand, subsequent years with small amplitude of flooding, as well as deforestation caused by human action destroying the floodable forests, may lead to the increase of biomass and herbaceous species area of distribution. One of the most conspicuous characteristics of the vegetation of floodable areas is the replacement of species in the gradient of flooding, according to the different periods of inundation and depth at which each topographic level is submitted throughout the year. In the lower portions, pioneer species may remain flooded up to nine months, showing their great ability to withstand anoxic conditions. Less adapted species normally grow at the highest points of floodplains and, in some cases, present similarities with adjacent solid ground, regarding species composition (Klinge et al., 1990).

In the Amazon, the vegetation and animal life are closely linked. Fish, birds and other vertebrates are important seed dispersers, while the invertebrates recycle the carbon, fixed by the forest. Equally important, flora and fauna promote the energetic connection between consumers and plants. The plants are the primary energy source for fish. For example, the floodable forest supports an important part of the fish production, through fruits and insects that fall from the canopy. Fish are then consumed by human populations living nearby the floodable areas.

THE AQUATIC FAUNA The Amazonian aquatic fauna has been often studied in larger rivers and in floodable areas. The aquatic invertebrates play an important role promoting a connection between the micro-vegetation and consumers, linking algae to fish, especially the ones of juvenile stages (Araujo-Lima et al., 1995; Araújo-Lima and Goulding, 1998). The zooplankton ecology has been studied in the Central Amazon, and the intimate connection between the life cycles of these animals and river levels are very well known (Hardy et al., 1984; Robertson and Hardy, 1984). The insects that inhabit the streams constitute an important source of fish food and promote an important energetic link between the “terra firme” forest, the floodable forest and aquatic vertebrates. The diversity of aquatic invertebrates in the Amazon is notorious, considering that we are far from knowing the real number of such diversity. Owning one of the greatest biological diversities of the world, the most notable fauna of the Amazon basin is the fish one, whose numbers of species are estimated to be more than 2500. Among the water bodies of the region, the biggest variety of fish is found in Amazonas River, presenting a total of 256 species. This number is extremely high, compared to the whole Europe where only 192 species are registered (Lowe McConnell, 1987). Minor diversities are found in rivers of lower sizes (Araujo-Lima et al., 1995). In sections of streams with 400 meters in length,

AQUATIC BIOTA ADAPTATIONS

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fish diversity registered may vary from 17 to 44 species. However, considering the enormous area of streams in the region and the low sampling effort (due to logistic and infrastructure problems), these numbers are certainly far from the reality (Araújo-Lima and Goulding, 1998). Just like all tropical floodable areas, the “várzeas” and “igapós” have a trend to establish permanent and/or transitory hypoxic conditions in the water of the Amazonian areas. These characteristics help fish species to occupy their habitats and behave in accordance to their oxygen demands, resulting in a peculiar distribution that are related to the amount of dissolved oxygen in the “várzea lakes” and “igapós”, floodable areas of the Amazon (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The search for private habitats such as stands of aquatic macrophytes is also very common. Several fish utilize a small quantity of oxygen released by these plants’ roots to the aquatic environment, compensating for the hypoxic negative effects (Jedicke et al., 1989). Adjustments to an irregular supply of alimentary items are also found. These adjustments include omnivorous diets and transitional accumulation of fat; when alimentary rich areas can be reached, such as tree crowns of forests and their fruits, during flooding periods. On the other hand, the seasonal supply of food culminates in including a fasting phase for all species over the hydrological cycle (Junk et al., 1983). The adaptations of fish to the Amazonian flooding areas include several strategies concerning their growth and reproduction. However they are also characterized for presenting complex morphological, anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations to ensure the survival in an ever-changing environment (Junk and Piedade, 1997; Val & Almeida-Val, 1995). A great diversity of species corresponds to a wide range of biochemical, physiological, phenological and ethological strategies, as well as a range of anatomical and morphological variations to deal with periodical flooding, making the studies in floodable areas very complex. However, an innovative approach may enable the detection of a mechanism for common regulation to all floodable biota components, with benefits for the scientific

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INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013

knowledge, for the productive chain and especially to people in the region.

ADAPTATION Over the last century an explosion of studies and ideas about the evolutionary process happened, leading to the emerging of the currently predominant concepts based on new discoveries about the genes, its multiplicity, repair, and duplication mechanisms, especially the regulation mechanisms. Currently any study concerning biological interactions of the organisms in their environments is necessarily based on the adaptations acquired during the evolutionary process of each species or population, which favor their permanence in various environments (Hochachka and Somero, 2002; Wilkelski and Cooke, 2006). The adaptive process is strongly based on the genetic variability of populations that results in a number of physiological, biochemical and metabolic mechanisms coordinated by complex gene regulation machinery, providing a wide phenotypic plasticity to the organisms. The genotypic and phenotypic plasticity is due to a number of selected genes over the evolutionary process through random mechanisms (gene variability) and deterministic mechanisms (species-specific and environment-species relations). Thus, the same selective pressure throughout the evolutionary process (for example, chronic hypoxia) may result in similar adaptive processes among different species (adaptive convergence) as well as various mechanisms that result in the same solution, for example, to maintain the metabolic homeostasis under oxygen depletion conditions. The diversity of species observed today is also due to similar processes. The genetic variability of the species is, therefore, the foundation of the speciation process and consequently, the main generator mechanism of structural and functional biodiversity. Thus, genetic diversity is the main mechanism through which the organisms adapt to environmental changes and evolve in their ecosystems. Recognition of this structural and functional variability, in time and space has great importance to the establishment of policies for environmental conservation (Frankham et al., 2002; Allendorf


and Luikart, 2007). Until some years ago, biodiversity was explained in specific level only (number of species) characterizing biodiversity “hot spots” based on high numbers of species in some biomes (Myers et al., 2000). However, the use of a non-reductionist approach is increasing in studies about biodiversity and conservation mechanisms. Currently, such studies take into account the population genetics influence as well as phylogenetic and evolutionary ecology, based on technological advance in obtaining and analyzing data, explaining the evolutionary mechanisms that occur within and between species and the key role they have in the generation and structuring of biodiversity in any environment (Salducci et al., 2004).

THE AMAZON BIOME The Amazon is a complex and delicate biome resulting from high biological diversity, one of the richest on the planet. This diversity has been explained by mechanisms resulting from the combination of geological processes occurring during the formation of the basin, climatic adjustments during the process of development and ecological-genetic mechanisms that have brought a profusion of speciation processes. Many researchers include as determinant elements of this diversity the environmental heterogeneity that occurs in the Amazon, its open character (it is linked to other adjacent hydrographical basins) and its pulsing characteristic (the basin is periodically flooded with a flooding pulse every year), which favors the existence of transitional environments and the periodic occupation of new habitats. Some authors suggest that environmental fragmentation is a mechanism that promotes the allopatric speciation and therefore promotes biodiversity (Meffe and Carroll, 1997). However, the theoretical and practical population’s genetics estimates that most of the fragmentation events caused by human activities facilitates local extinction, due to environmental degradation as well as the loss of genetic variability caused by the reduction in population size (Templeton et al., 2001). Understanding how human activities affect the genetic diversity and how the adaptation to the changed environment can be used to mitigate such influence is one of the

most difficult tasks in evolutionary biology. Differentiating between anthropogenic effects and evolutionary events that occur naturally in a population is a “jigsaw puzzle”, because these two mechanisms are the main responsible for the current distribution of species in the environment. It is increasingly important to recognize the similarities between the adaptive processes of the organisms that result in the survival or extinction of species and maintenance of the ecosystem. The same mechanisms that promote the adaptation to certain environments can be used by invasive species, completely changing the evolutionary course of the species and the community of a particular ecosystem. Adaptive processes that occurred up during the evolutionary history can be harmful to species that suffer in adverse environmental changes. The Amazon basin annually experiences inundation pulses that result in flooding of large forests extension. The mechanisms to adapt to such flooding areas may represent one of the main survival strategies to changes caused by the man. Therefore, knowing such mechanisms become extremely important when seeking environmental conservation. For identifying the main inte rac tions between organism and environment as well as the chances these organisms have to survive to changes in their environments, is necessary to examine: (i) changes in the behavior of the species facing environmental changes, which constitute a species first response level and can be initially used to characterize the occurrence, type, or intensity of the environmental change; (ii) physiological adjustments that include neurological and hormonal changes, which result in short term adjustments taking place at an individual level, and determined by gene regulation mechanisms (phenotypic plasticity); (iii) metabolic adjustments, still at the individual level, provided by gene regulation being more important within medium term, that is, only if the change is environmentally durable; (iv) changes in the genotypic frequency, which will occur after changes in the mortality rate and selective fertility of a population facing the environment change; (v) changes in the genetic composition of populations, which may cause speciation events; and (vi) morphological, anatomical or innate behavioral changes that result from pressure of a long period of time

AQUATIC BIOTA ADAPTATIONS

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involving many generations. Many examples in the literature show that all these changes may occur in many species under the same selection factor or environmental pressure. Such changes are still concurrently occurring and accumulating over the generations (mutation, chromosomal rearrangements, changes in the frequency of variant alleles, divergence between populations, species origin and adaptations to a new environment or to environmental change).

Jedicke, A., Furch, B., Saint-Paul, U. & Schlueter, U.B. 1989. Increase in the oxygen concentration in Amazon waters resulting from the root exudation of two notorious water plants, Eichhornia crassipes (Potenderiaceae) and Pistia stratoides (Araceae). Amazoniana 11(1), 53-89. Junk, W.J., Soares, G.M., Carvalho, F.M. 1983. Distribution of fish species in a lake of the Amazon river floodplain near Manaus (Lago Camaleão), with special reference to extreme oxygen conditions. Amazoniana, 7(4): 39-431. Junk, W.J.; Piedade, M.T. 1997. Plant life in the floodplain with special reference to herbaceous

REFERENCES

plants, p. 147- HYPERLINK “http://181.in/”181:

Allendorf, F. W. and Luikart, G. 2007. Conserving

Springer-Verlag, New York 126.

Global Biodiversity? Conservation and the

Klinge, H., Junk, W.J. & Revilla, C.J. 1990. Status

Genetics of Populations Blackwell Publishing,

and distribution of forested wetlands in tropical

Oxford, UK, 642 pp.

South America. For. Ecol. Manage. 33/34:81-101.

Anjos, M. B. and J. Zuanon. 2007. Sampling effort

Lowe-McConnell, R. H. 1997. Ecological studies in

and fish species richness in small terra firme

tropical fish communities. Cambridge University

forest streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil.

Press, Cambridge. 382 pages.

Neotropical Ichthyology 5(1): 45-52. Araújo-Lima, C. A. R. M.; Agostinho, A. A. & Fabré, N. N. 1995. Trophic aspects of fish communities in brazilian rivers and reservoirs. In: TUNDISI, J. B.; BICUDO, C. E. M. & MATSUMURA-TUNDISI, T. eds. Limnology in Brazil. São Paulo, ABC/SBL. p.105-136. Araújo-Lima, C.A.R.M.; Goulding, M. 1998. Os frutos do Tambaqui: ecologia, conservação e cultivo na Amazônia. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá/ CNPq/ Rainforest Alliance. Brasília, DF. 186p. Frankham, R., J.D.; Ballou, D.A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 617 p.

Meffe, G.K. and Carroll, C.R. 1997. Principles of Conservation Biology, 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. Myers, N.; Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Fonseca, G. A. B & Kent. J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853-858. Prance, G.T. 1980. A terminologia dos tipos de florestas amazônicas sujeitas à inundação. Acta Amazonica, 10(3): 495-504. Ribeiro, J. E. L. do S.; Hopkins, M. J. G.; Vicentini, A.; Sothers, C. A.; Costa, M. A. da S.; Brito, J. M.; Souza, M. A. D.; Martins, L. H. P.; Lohmann, L. G.; Assunção, P. A. C. L.; Pereira, E. da C.; Silva,

Hardy, E.R.; B.A. Robertson & W. Koste. 1984.

C. F.; Mesquita, M. R.; Procópio, L. C. 1999. Flora

About relationship between the zooplankton

da Reserva Ducke: Guia de Identificação das

and fluctuating water levels of Lago Camaleão,

plantas vasculares de uma floresta de terra firme

a Central Amazonian várzea lake, Amazoniana,

na Amazônia Central. Manaus, INPA. 816p. il.

Plön, 9: 43-52.

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Junk, W.J. (Ed.) The Central Amazon Floodplain.

Robertson, B.A. & E.R. Hardy. 1984. Zooplankton

Hochachka, P.W. & Somero, G.N. 2002. Biochemical

of Amazonian lakes and rivers, p. 337-352. In:

a d a p t at i o n : m e c h a n i s m a n d p ro c e s s i n

H. SIOLI (Ed.). The Amazon. Limnology and

physiological evolution. New York: Oxford

landscape. Ecology of a mighty tropical river

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and its basin. Dr. The Hague, W. Junk Publishers,

New Jersey. 537p.

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Salducci, M. D., Martin, J.-F., Pech, N., Chappaz, R., Costedoat, C. & Gilles, A. 2004. Deciphering the evolutionary biology of freshwater fish using multiple approaches-insights for the biological conservation of the vairone (Leuciscus souffia souffia). Conservation Genetics 5, 63-77. Sioli, H., 1984. The Amazon and its main affluents Hydrography, morphology of river courses and river types. In: Sioli, H. (Ed.) The Amazon: limnology and landscape ecology af a m af a mighty tropical river and its basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands. p.127-165.

Val A. L and Almeida-Val V. M. F 1995. Fishes of the Amazon and their environment. Physiological and Biochemistry Feaures. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 224 pp. Wilkelski, M.; Cooke, S. J. 2006. Conservation physiology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 38-46.

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he innovative character of ADAPTA consists in learning from the organisms responses to environmental challenges and use the responses as valuable information, senso lato, to man.

MAIN GOALS

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1) Generate concise scientific information to support public rules; and 2) Generate new products and processes for the benefit of humankind as the project developments reveal the adaptive ability aquatic biota presents to changes in environment, both natural and manmade changes.

MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

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he INCT ADAPTA has been designed with three main study proposals (research lines): adaptation to biological environments, biomarkers and functional genomics, and applied Programs (Figure 1). A repository with collected data was planned for each component aiming to gather and integrate data. DB-I, DB-II, and DB-III are databases structured to each one of the research lines. The two Databases were constructed to gather main information and facilitate the use and comparison of data.

DB – I The vast amount of characteristics deposited in DB-I showed an important distribution of different animal and vegetal groups; three major Fila were collected: Vertebrate (Chordata) - 63.7%, Invertebrate (Arthropoda) 32.6% and Gimnosperms (3.7%). The distribution of these samples reflected the groups’ interests. Thus, almost 90.0% are represented by two phylogenetic Classes: 57.7% Actinopterygii (teleost fishes) and 32.1% Insecta. These collections were performed in seven environmental types: landscape influenced

Figure 1: The pyramid shows the three levels of activity, encompassing the three research lines. The bottom of the figure indicates that environments and microcosms will be studied and where the data for DB-I was generated. Left side presents the actions that will be developed to build the components. Right side lists the main products and their developments, which will integrate all actions. DB-I stores all interaction data collected in the field, laboratory and literature by researchers and has been used in different analyses; DB-II stores and allows the analysis of information about RNA extraction, gene expression and RNA sequencing of those organisms stored at DB-I; and DB-III serves for comparison of gene products. Legend: natural environment: H - high water season, L - low water season, T - temperature, CO2 - carbon dioxide; UP - urban pollution; M - mining (oil, cooper, and other transition metals); modified environment: H - hydroelectric plants; QHRF - qualified human resources training.

MAIN GOALS

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Some environmental characteristics were assessed, such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO). An initial analysis shows that pH falls in a range of 3.0 to 8.0, with 72.0% of all sampling done in environments between pH 5.8 and 7.0. Water temperature varied between 16 and 34 o C (97.0% between 26.0 and 34.0oC). Dissolved Oxygen (DO) ranged from 0.0 to 7.5 ppm, of which 68.0% between 5.0 and 7.5 ppm.

1400 1400 1200 1200 CO2 levels (ppm) CO2 levels (ppm)

A relevant data that could be noticed in DB-I is the type of water where the sampling occurred: black water (água preta) 66.9%, clear water (água clara) 18.3% and white water (água branca) 14.8%.

Environmental Rooms – Experimental Strategy to Investigate the Effects of Climate Changes

1000 1000 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 00

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4242 4040 3838 Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)

by rivers (igarapé), river, natural lake, inundation forests (várzea), transition land between dry land and igarapé (igapó), interfluvial fields, and natural breeding areas. Both igarapes and rivers were the places where more than 75.0% of all samples were collected.

3636 3434 3232 3030

DB-II DB-II was constructed to gather information about organism’s transcriptome either for the comparison of different environmental conditions, or for the comparison of different species exposed to similar challenges. Most sequences have been generated with the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technic, which involves total RNA extraction plus cDNA development from the total RNA.

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2828 26 26

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Figure 2: CO2 and Temperature oscillations during daytime according to each scenario described by IPCC for year 2100. Control room (Current Scenario) reflects real time conditions.


The next sections, “Main Results” and “Short News”, presented in the current issue, were obtained from different research groups

that collaborate with INCT ADAPTA. These groups are managed by the Principal Investigators.

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Adalberto Luis Val (INPA-Manaus) Andrea Ghelfi (UFAM-Coari) Bernardo Baldisserotto (UFSM) Carlos Edwar de Carvalho Freitas (UFAM-Manaus) Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço Diniz (UFOPA-Oriximiná) Efrem Jorge Gondim Ferreira (INPA-Manaus) Eliana Feldberg (INPA-Manaus) Elizabeth Gusmão Affonso (INPA-Manaus) Francisco de Assis Leone (USP-Ribeirão Preto) Helder Lima de Queiroz (IDSM-Tefé-AM) Hillândia Brandão da Cunha (INPA-Manaus) José Augusto Baranauskas (USP-Ribeirão Preto) José Reinaldo Pacheco Peleja (UFOPA-Santarém) Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade (INPA-Manaus) Neusa Hamada (INPA-Manaus) Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val (INPA-Manaus) Vilma Barretto Vila (UNEMAT-Cáceres) Wanderli Pedro Tadei (INPA-Manaus)

INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATORS COLLABORATING WITH ADAPTA FROM 2009 TO 2013: Christopher Wood - Mc Master University, Canada Colin Brauner - Univsersity of British Columbia, Canada Gillian Renshaw - Griffith University, Australia Katherine Sloman - University of Pymouth, UK Florian Wittmann -Max Planck Institute, Germany Jochen Schoengart - Max Planc Institute, Germany William Driedzic - Memorial University, Canada Gudrun De Boeck - University of Antwerp, Belgium Steve Perry - University of Ottawa, Canada Kathleen Gilmour - University of Ottawa, Canada Jeffrey Richards - University of British Columbia, Canada Graham Scott - Mc Master University, Canada Ora Johannsson - Fisheries and Oceans, Canada Georg Bernd Pelster - University of Innsbruck, Austria Grant McClelland - Mc Master University, Canada

MAIN GOALS

19


D

ata collection in field and experimental rooms (microcosms) revealed many different facts in aquatic fauna and flora.

MAIN RESULTS

20


Environmental Characteristics Determine Organisms Distribution, Including Plants, Fish, and Microorganisms

T

he number of fish species collected differed among different rivers, with different types of water: 40 species were collected in Amazonas River (Ama), 18 in Solimões River (Sol), 28 in Tapajós River (Tap), 14 in Arapiuns River (Ara), and 34 in Negro River (Neg) (Figure 1).

The highest diversity of the organisms is at white waters.

FISH

Figure 1: Fish group distribution according to collected site; Ama, Sol – white water; Tap and Ara – clear water, Neg – black water.

Triporteus albus (sardinha): One (out of three) of the species that was collected in all different sites.

MAIN RESULTS

21


ABSTRACT TITLE

FISH

Condition factor (K) of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) progressively and directly exposed to climate scenarios for the year 2100. C – current scenario; B1 – mild; A1B – moderate; A2 – extreme.

Colossoma macropomum - tambaqui

22

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013


THE HIGHER DIVERSITY OF THE ORGANISMS IS AT WHITE WATERS

PLANTS The highest diversity is in white waters

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7-5

5-3

3-1

Average flood (m)

Igap贸

V谩rzea

Igap贸 forests present approximately 600 species of threes that are tolerant to flooding (Wittmann et al., 2010). Varzea forests present approximately 1,000 three species that are tolerant to the flooding pulses of the rivers (Wittmann et al., 2006).

MAIN RESULTS

23


New Climate Scenaries Induce Plant and Animal Changes - A Risk to Conservation of Biodiversity

PLANTS

H. spruceana after 115 days in different scenaria showing infestation by acari. The higher the temperature and CO2, the higher the infestation.

24

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013


Polluted Sites Induce Genetic Changes in Fish The appearance of Retrotransposons REX in animals collected in polluted sites indicates differential allocation of transposable elements that might influence in gene expression.

Hoplosternum littorale - tamoatรก

Retrotransposons REX (in pink) appear in higher intensity at the chromosomes (blue) of fish collected in polluted sites compared with fish collected in clean water sites.

MAIN RESULTS

25


SHORT NEWS

26


Summary

28 Tambaqui and Other Amazon Species, as Ornamental Fish, are Ranked by Inct Adapta as the Main International Fish References in Studies of Adaptations to any Environmental Changes 29 Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is Used to Study Target Genes with Adaptive Roles in Animals and Plants 30 Animals and Plants that Adapt to High Levels of Temperature and CO2 Can Harm Human and Environmental Health 31 Warming Water Bodies Must Impose the Lose of Swimming Mobility in Fish Due to Changes in Anaerobe Atp Production 33 Tambaqui Adaptive Trait to Hypoxia (Lips Swelling) is Related to Cell Recruitment and Osmoregulation 34 Climate Changes In 2100 May Increase the Occurrence of Dengue in Various Regions that are Sensible to this Disease 35 INCT ADAPTA Installs Bioinformatics Laboratory In Coari (AM) for Undergraduate Students Booming Out High Qualified Human Resources 36 Scientific Community Is Encouraged by INCT ADAPTA to Use the Term “Adaptation” as a Determinant for Species Survival in Changing Scenarios 37

Species of Fish Known as Oscar are the Main Model Study of Adaptations to Hypoxia

SHORT NEWS

27


Tambaqui and Other Amazon Species, as Ornamental Fish, are Ranked by INCT ADAPTA as the Main International Fish References in Studies of Adaptations to any Environmental Changes

W

ith regard to high temperature tolerance, tolerance to high concentrations of CO 2 , and its synergic effects, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the main international reference. Because of its commercial importance, this species has been initially studied for its performance in surviving environmental changes and its ability to live in captivity. Abundant information was generated about this species that seems to be one of the most resistant species to any environment change. Although endemic to the Amazonian basin, C. Macropomum is already created throughout Brazil and other countries of the world, and can be found in Europe and North America. It has been a climate change study model and is tolerant to low levels of O2, and high levels of CO2 because of its resistance to osmoregulation changes. Its gill ion exchange channels are being studied as a model of changes in water pH too. As this species survives in ion poor and acidic waters, it has been also a model for these kinds of studies. Some of the most important discoveries in this field have also been made in ornamental fish species of the upper Rio Negro, such as the cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) that has no salt exchange coupled to ammonia excretion, as occurs in most fish. This aspect has been considered common among ornamental fish in the region and has been widely investigated. The presence of DOC – Dissolved Organic Carbon in the black waters of Amazonian

28

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013

basin was also surprisingly suggested as a mechanism of animal protection when exposed to environments contaminated with transition metals, since, by being poor in ions and eager salt species, DOC acts like a metal chelator, preventing them to be available for the uptake by the gills of fish inhabiting these waters. Thus, the BLM (Biotic Ligand Model), applied worldwide by the industry of metals, is being tested in Amazon waters and now serves as a reference for most polluted places in the world such as the basins of Asian rivers.

ORNAMENTAL FISH

Paracheirodon axelrodi – cardinal (A) and P. simulans – green neon (B)


Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is Used to Study Target Genes with Adaptive Roles in Animals and Plants

W

e already know that fish species distribution in different rivers of the Amazon is directly related to the types of water, its geographical proximities, and evolutionary history. Also, that there are few species that inhabit, concurrently, the different types of water. These species, in particularly, will be genetically analyzed (transcriptome analysis) to recognize their genotypic and phenotypic plasticity, i.e., to study which genes are differentially regulated (expressed or suppressed) in an environment and the other. In doing so, the use of the expressed DNA sequencing tools in large scale (NGS – Next Generation Sequencing) became essential.

The figure shows the differential expressed genes (black spots) by NGS between two gene libraries. We choose the 100 most differentially expressed to analyze GO (Gene Ontology)

Similarly, understanding the physiology of a plant species population, which has specific adaptations to different environments in which it occurs, will also be amplified using the NGS technic, and will bring us many information about the main genes of adaptive interest.

SHORT NEWS

29


Animals and Plants that Adapt to High Levels of Temperature and CO2 Can Harm Human and Environmental Health

T

he experiments already performed in microcosms (four acclimatized rooms where CO 2, temperature and humidity are kept controlled according to predicted future scenarios) have shown that different species can respond positively or negatively to these scenarios, suggesting that climate changes will have effects on the aquatic biodiversity of the Amazonian region. Besides this, the scenarios effects on vital parameters of species may lead to increase the incidence of tropical diseases, decrease in fish production, and the reduction of plant species adaptation. All these results are currently being acquired and will be, shortly, subject of publications in high impact Scientific Journals. The analysis of invertebrates, which are very sensitive to the quality of the environment in which they occur, shows that the Urban Environment Growth has shifted habitats and changed their distribution, giving place to species that are tolerant to polluted environments. These changes have direct

impact on human life and health once the increase of tropical endemic diseases can result either in the destruction of natural habitats or in environment changes by the increasing of the temperature and CO2. Some animals do not adapt to new environments, and the others that fit can be harmful to human and environmental health.

5 cm

Effects of the Elevation of CO2 And Temperature in Montrichardia Arborescens (Araceae) Lopes, A., Pantoja, P.O.; Castro, N; Val, A. & Piedade, M.T.F (Unpublished data)

0.25

150

100

a

ab

ab b

50

ab

a

0.10

0.00 1

2 3 Treatment ďƒĄ

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013

0.15

b

Shoot Root

0.05

0

30

b

0.20 Biomass (g)

Germination time (days)

200

1

4

CO2 and temperature

2

3

Treatment ďƒ˘

Time of germination

4


Warming Water Bodies Must Impose the Lose of Swimming Mobility in Fish Due to Changes in Anaerobe ATP Production

T

he advancement of our analysis of conserved genes families such as Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) shows that there is a fairly clear adaptation in the enzymes functioning to temperature acclimation. The impending heating of Amazonian water bodies, arising out of climate change, may affect several species of fish survival in this region, either by loss of tolerance to hypoxia or even loss of mobility swim.

HEATING OF AMAZONIAN WATER BODIES BY CLIMATE CHANGES CAN AFFECT FISH SPECIES SURVIVAL IN THE REGION The advancement of our analysis of conserved genes families such as Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) shows that there is

a fairly clear adaptation in the enzymes functioning to temperature acclimation. The impending heating of Amazonian water bodies, arising out of climate change, may affect several species of fish survival in this region, either by loss of tolerance to hypoxia or even loss of mobility swim. Our latest results show a differential expression of ldh-a and ldh-b genes in two ornamental fish species from the Amazon, Paracheirodon axelrodi (cardinal tetra) e Paracheirodon simulans (neon verde), when exposed to different climate change scenarios proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Survival was also differential between congeners, whose distinct thermal preferences in their natural environment currently lead their responses and adaptation to environmental variations, such as those provided by IPCC for the end of XXI century.

Expression of ldh-a (A) and ldh-B (B) of neon verde exposed to climate scenarios for the year 2100. Note: no mortality

SHORT NEWS

31


WARMING WATER BODIES MUST IMPOSE THE LOSE OF SWIMMING MOBILITY IN FISH DUE...

Expression of ldh-a (A) and ldh-B (B) of cardinal exposed to climate scenarios for the year 2100. Note: high mortality at A1B and A2

32

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013


Tambaqui Adaptive Trait to Hypoxia (Lips Swelling) is Related to Cell Recruitment and Osmoregulation

O

f major importance, the first results obtained with de transcriptomic analyzes may be emphasized. They have led us to better understand the mechanisms of fish adaptation to hypoxia, as well as the mechanisms that are activated after exposure to pollutants. Several candidate genes show that the swell of the lower lips in tambaqui, phenomenon d e s c r i b e d 3 0 y e a r s a g o, to improve oxygen uptake in the aquatic environment, involves many metabolic mechanisms that can be explained by cell recruitment and osmoregulation, all orchestrated by transcription factors and gene expression inductors. The same occur with the pollutant cadmium in cichlids responses.

A

A

B

Photos: show tambaqui at normal oxygen conditions (A) and at hypoxic conditions* (B). *note the expanded lips and the search of the animals for the surface water layer.

SHORT NEWS

33


Climate Changes in 2100 May Increase the Occurrence of Dengue in Various Regions that are Sensible to this Disease

W

ithin the study of endemic diseases caused by vectors, the microcosm’s experiments showed that the larval development of the mosquito that causes DENGUE, Aedes aegypti, occurs more quickly in the severe scenario, which is a concern, since a decrease in the life cycle period of these animals can accelerate the processes of Aedes aegypti - mosquito that transmits Dengue. disease transmission and, Photo: Collection of Malaria and Dengue Laboratory. consequently, increase number of i n fe c te d p e o p l e . T h u s , climate changes predicted by IPCC (Intergovernmental Pannel of Climate Change) would tend to increase the occurrence of Dengue in various regions where it occurs. The next agent to be tested will be the Anopheles darlingi, which transmits malaria.

34

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013


INCT ADAPTA Installs Bioinformatics Laboratory in Coari (AM) for Undergraduate Students Booming Out High Qualified Human Resources

O

ne branch of INCT was implanted in Coari (AM), with the installation of a complete Bioinformatics laboratory facility, reflecting the laboratory headquarters at Manaus. Coari’s new facility brought greater chances in Bioinformatics training for undergraduate students within the Amazonas. With regard to training human resources, INC T ADAPTA contributed and still contributes with training post graduate students (MSc and PhD). Some of them are, today, working in different areas of Science and Technology. Also, there are several post-doctoral students (former PhD students at ADAPTA) who are contributing with other institutions and INCTs. These human resources have been instrumental for the advancement of knowledge in the different areas of INCT ADAPTA. In addition to the Graduate Program in Aquaculture, our team also helped to develop and nucleate the Graduate Program in Continental Aquatic Resources, at the University of West of Para (Universidade do Oeste do Parå - UFOPA), which also represents Science and Technology activities in remote regions of the Amazon.

Bioinformatic Laboratory - LEEM. Photo: Ana Luisa Hernandes/Ascom ADAPTA

Control Pannel of Microcosms at Bioinformatic Laboratory - LEEM. Photo: Ana Luisa Hernandes/Ascom ADAPTA

SHORT NEWS

35


Scientific Community is Encouraged by INCT ADAPTA to Use the Term “Adaptation” as a Determinant for Species Survival in Changing Scenarios

T

he greatest and most important contribution of INCT ADAPTA for a change in the state of art was, indeed, conceptual. What has once been considered just a branch of knowledge has become a central object of climate change speeches, it means, t h e s c i e nt i f i c c o m mu n i t y b e g a n to incorporate the word ADAPTATION to its major dialogues about global climate changes effects. This arises from the fact that INCT has been demonstrating that living beings adaptations, acquired during the evolutionary process, which determined their distribution in terrestrial biomes, will be the keys to the success or failure of species survival in changing scenarios, compromising biodiversity and, consequently, regions’ climate. In the Amazon, particularly, the modification of natural habitats, loss of habitat, and climate change may displace, diminish or even extinguish aquatic species, changing the region ecological setting, bringing a new paradigm for human life. The whole society may suffer negative consequences if no anticipation of such changes is done, what requires initiating actions for species preservation, biological conservation, and environmental education. Tropical diseases can and are, at present, having a higher incidence in consequence of the recently occurred droughts and floods. The availability of fish and fruit commercial species also begins to change in some Amazonian regions. We must understand much more clearly the adaptation processes and try to contribute to economically important issues such as avoiding decrease population of species with low phenotypic and genotypic plasticity, which must have their environment protected, not destroyed.

36

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013

MICROCOSMS – THE WORLD’S FIRST ENVIRONMENTAL ROOMS THAT CONTROL TEMPERATURE AND CO2 The construction of 4 microcosms, growth rooms with climate control and CO2, are a reality without parallel in the world. The experiments started will bring unprecedented results that will help better predict the consequences of global warming, with the first data set for the year 2011.


Species of Fish Known as Oscar are the Main Model Study of Adaptations to Hypoxia

F

or fish, the increase of information generated by INCT ADAPTA brought an increment to the comparative study of metabolic and molecular processes unparalleled in the world. Until very recently, the main study models were r e s t r i c te d to t ro u t , s a l m o n , channel catfish and ‘goldfish’. Today, when we study hypoxia adaptation, the species Astronotus ocellatus, commonly called Oscar (or Apaiarí, or Acará-Açu) is the main study model. The advances made during INCT ADAPTA works shows that the species represents an integrated model, where anaerobic metabolism, coupled with metabolic suppression is orchestrated by hypoxia inducible genes, and represents one of the best models of ‘channel arrest’ described until today in vertebrates.

Astronotus ocellatus – Oscar ou Acará-Açu. Foto: Ramon Baptista/pesquisador

SHORT NEWS

37


LITERATURE PRODUCTION

38


T

he INCT ADAPTA is also responsible for the annual production of books, articles, papers and publications in journals and newspapers. Besides this, from conducting laboratory experiments and its results, many

researchers who are part of ADAPTA’s project are invited to participate in TV, radio, internet and other media programs. In the graphics below, we can check the main improvements.

Published papers from January 2010 to March 2013.

Published papers according to Impact Factor (IF)

Literature types

14

Abstracts in events

14 24

Induced journal (papers) Platform presentations

51

Books and book chapters

12

5 6 14 12 11

1 1

1

30

65

Thesis contributions

576

95

Newspaper and magazines Events Short term courses Radio and TV news

150

Research reports Accepted papers Other technical production

164

Other library production Outridge contribution Artistic and cultural work Technologies

265

463

Patents Prefaces Model

LITERATURE PRODUCTION

39


HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINED

40


R

egarding the training of human resources, the INCT ADAPTA obtained, in the period 20092014, the following results: 86 MSc students, 50 undergraduate students,

30 doctoral students, 13 students with scholarships DTI (Desenvolvimento Tecnol贸gico e Industrial), and 9 postdoctorate fellows.

Human Resources Trained

9

30

50

13 86

Undergrade students

PhD dissertations

Developmental technicians (DTI)

Postdoctoral

Master thesis

HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINED

41


KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER TO SOCIETY

42


Adapta Contest in Rio+20 Students of Elementary and Middle Education

A

ccording to INCT ADAPTA, the main objectives of this activity are the relationship with society, education focused on science, and the interaction with the teachings basic, elementary, middle and higher.

QUESTION: IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT, HOW COULD BRAZIL CONTRIBUTE, BASED ON A GREEN ECONOMY, TO IMPROVE THE PLANET WE LIVE ON?

WINNERS

Name: Maria Gabriela Ferreira dos Santos Cesar Age: 13 years old School: Escola Estadual Idalice Nunes Grade: 8th City/State: Guanambi – Bahia Theme: Green Tax (Imposto Verde)

Name: José Adalberto Souza Júnior Age: 16 years old School: IFAM – Amazonas Grade: 3rd year of High School/Chemical technician City/State: Manaus - Amazonas Theme: Biochar (Biocarvão)

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER TO SOCIETY

43


EDUCATION AND SCIENCE COMMUNICATION

44


B

etween 2010 and 2011, courses, workshops and science fairs were promoted to improve the knowledge dissemination in various lines of research. The course “Conservation and Management of Water Resources in the State of Amazonas” was held within the event “Circuit of

Science/INPA”. Also, the presentation “Aquatic Insects” and the workshop “Urban Water (Watershed of Educandos and Quarenta)” were held. Besides this, members of INCT granted series of interviews and participated in reports to disclose the results obtained with the project.

EDUCATION AND SCIENCE COMMUNICATION IN ORIXIMINÁ TO OVER 300 CHILDREN OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

INSECTS PLUSH

EDUCATION AND SCIENCE COMMUNICATION

45


APPLIED PROGRAMS Graduate Program in aquaculture can benefit fish production for the Amazon region

Population analyses have shown that species occupying urbanized places are losing genetic variability and may have their population sizes reduced. Animals raised in captivity, such as tambaqui and pirarucu, may be entering in an adaptation process (no return) to the artificial environments where they are created, which, not necessarily, represent a genetic improvement, since those processes are not controlled. More studies have been made to improve the knowledge about fish created in artificial environments. In doing so, the INCT ADAPTA brought to the region a Graduate Program in Aquaculture, where physiological, parasitological, nutritional, and reproductive studies have been complemented by genetic data, which can greatly improve the quantitative and qualitative production of fish for the region, increasing the human capacity of generate new information that will ameliorate this important economic activity in the Northern Region of Brazil. Other graduate programs that have been partially suported by ADAPTA are: Master in Water Resources Continental – Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), a recently created program and the programs in genetics (GCBEv), botanics (BOT). Ecology (ECO), and Aquatic Biology (BADPI).

46

INCT ADAPTA - 2009-2013

TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY One of the environmental pressures in the Amazon happens because of the lack of alternatives for income generation and social inclusion. Thus, alternatives to increase income are essential for sustainable development and poverty reduction in the region. Among the actions of INCT ADAPTA is the technology transfer for stream channels construction for matrinxã’s creation.

Fish tank (A) and blood test laboratory (B) at INPA's Aquaculture facilities


Formato: 210 × 280 mm Impressão: Gráfica Multipress, Jaboticabal, SP 2014


INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013 EXPEDIENT COORDINATORS

Adalberto Luis Val (INPA) coordinator Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade (INPA) vice-coordinator PRODUCTION

Editora Cubo PROOFREADER

Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val (INPA) TRANSLATION

Ana Luisa Hernandes Costa (INPA) Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val (INPA) PHOTOGRAPH

LEEM/INPA Anselmo d’Affonseca Pedro Val STEERING COMMITTEE

Adalberto Luis Val (INPA-Manaus) - coordinator Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade (INPA-Manaus) - vice-coordinator Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val (INPA-Manaus) - applied progams Bernardo Baldisserotto (UFSM) Eliana Feldberg (INPA-Manaus) Francisco de Assis Leone (USP-SP) Helder Lima de Queiroz (IDSM Tefé-AM) Jansen Alfredo Sampaio Zuanon (INPA-Manaus) José Augusto Baranauskas (USP-Ribeirão Preto) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AQUATIC BIOTA ADAPTATION IN THE AMAZON INCT-ADAPTA HEADQUARTERS

Av. André Araújo, 2936, CEP 69.067-375, Manaus-AM TELEPHONE

+55 (92) 3643-3187 | 3643-3191 E-MAIL

adapta@inpa.gov.br HOME PAGE

http://adapta.inpa.gov.br

PRODUCTION

Adaptações da Biota Aquática da Amazônia INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013 / Adaptações da Biota Aquática da Amazônia. – São Carlos : Editora Cubo, 2014. 48 p. : il. ISBN – 978-85-60064-44-1 1. Amazon. 2. Aquatic Biota. 3. Adaptation. 4. Climate Changes. 5. Pollution. I. Título.


isBn – 978-85-60064-44-1 INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013

adapta.inpa.gov.br

INCT ADAPTA 2009-2013

INCT ADAPTA  

2009-2013

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