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VOL. 26, NO. 2 Summer 2017

IN THIS ISSUE 3 From the Editor: 1917

7 From the President: “There’s no place like home.”

9 New Orleans, Louisiana

ECS Meeting Highlights

45 Looking at Patent Law 49 Tech Highlights 51 The IE&EE Division Issue 53 Electrochemical

Technologies for Water Treatment, Management, and Efficiency

63 Electrochemical

THE

IE&EE

ISSUE

DIVISION

Engineering for Commodity Metals Extraction

69 Electrochemical-

Engineering-Based Models for Lithium-Ion Batteries— Past, Present, and Future

73 Gas Diffusion Electrodes

for Efficient Manufacturing of Chlorine and Other Chemicals

77 Chlor-alkali Production, Safety, and Industry Leadership


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Don’t Miss Out: • Professional Development Workshops are offered through ECS to help you with networking, resume review and interviewing – visit www.electrochem.org/education to learn more! • Post or search for jobs on the ECS Job Board at www.electrochem.org/jobs-board Do you have additional questions? Contact the Director of Membership Services, Shannon Reed at Shannon.Reed@electrochem.org.


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FROM THE EDITOR Published by: The Electrochemical Society (ECS) 65 South Main Street Pennington, NJ 08534-2839, USA Tel 609.737.1902, Fax 609.737.2743 www.electrochem.org Co-Editors: Vijay Ramani, ramani@wustl.edu; Petr Vanýsek, pvanysek@gmail.com

I

1917

n the 2016 fall issue of Interface, we remembered the 50th anniversary of the rotating ringdisk electrode. The related mass transport equation was derived by Benjamin Levich, born 100 years ago on March 30, 1917. A numeral in a selection of text always stands out and can create lasting associations. A part of my phone number is 314 which some recognize as pi. Another number that may evoke a strong association is 1917: one hundred years ago the Great October Socialist Revolution sparked world-wide changes. Growing up in Czechoslovakia I saw celebratory banners with 1917 displayed each fall until the number became synonymous with the events in Saint Petersburg. When I mentioned this centennial to my younger Czech colleague, to my astonishment, he did not even know the four letter Czech acronym (VŘSR) that was used for the occasion. As the Soviet influence changed in 1989, so did the related school curriculum. Still, we should reflect on history. As scientists, we always look to the literature for prior work in our subject. It was George Santayana who wrote, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” It does not say, however, that those who do, would avoid the pitfalls of history. Canadian author John Robert Colombo attributed a different pithy line to Mark Twain on this matter: “History never repeats itself but it rhymes.” Knowing history can at least teach us what lies ahead. Numerals in the novels Fahrenheit 451 (Ray Bradbury) or 1984 (George Orwell) also evoke recognition. In Fahrenheit 451 the temperature is that of the auto-ignition of paper and the story is about a society in which books were burned, with the purpose to delete any inconvenient truth. With digital storage these days one would assume the history would be better preserved and, in many cases, more readily available through on-line archives. I caught the bug of digital storage and scanned all my old receipts and statements. Now, with optical character recognition, I can locate all of them on my computer in a few seconds. But I burned all the paper. For people on the move or those living in a tiny apartment, who have no time or space even for house plants and other pesky dependents, not having filing cabinets is a real blessing. Still, I hope that somebody with extra storage space will think to preserve the paper originals. We may not even appreciate what information could be lost with the original. Perhaps DNA from someone licking a stamp on an envelope, the chemical composition of the paper, the binding glue or the ink, could reveal some so far unknown key information. ECS has done an excellent job digitizing the Journal of The Electrochemical Society and much of the twenty-five years of Interface is digitized as well. These are not merely scanned copies; they are recreated in a sophisticated way, with indexing and hyperlinking. The downside is that the ancillary material, such as the advertisements for instruments and chemicals, does not get preserved. In a few years the saved paper copies may be more valuable than an old barn discovery of a pristine BMW 2002 (An iconic car from 1968, another vivid year to those who lived then in Czechoslovakia, but likely fading now.). The number 609.737.1902 is the phone number of the ECS headquarters in New Jersey. My advisor Richard P. Buck often dialed the number on a rotary phone from his memory. “It’s easy to remember,” he said. “1902 is the year ECS was founded.” So this year we are celebrating the centum quindecennial of the Society, the 115th anniversary, which is much more recognizable as a numeral. Happy birthday! And then there is the number 600, the recommended word count of an editorial. Enough said.

Petr Vanýsek, Interface Co-Editor pvanysek@gmail.com http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5458-393X The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

Guest Editor: John Staser, staser@ohio.edu Contributing Editors: Donald Pile, donald.pile@gmail. com; Alice Suroviec, asuroviec@berry.edu Managing Editor: Annie Goedkoop, Annie.Goedkoop@electrochem.org Interface Production Manager: Dinia Agrawala, interface@electrochem.org Advertising Manager: Ashley Moran, Ashley.Moran@electrochem.org Advisory Board: Christopher Johnson (Battery), Masayuki Itagaki (Corrosion), Durga Misra (Dielectric Science and Technology), Elizabeth Podlaha-Murphy (Electrodeposition), Jerzy Ruzyllo (Electronics and Photonics), A. Manivannan (Energy Technology), Paul Gannon (High Temperature Materials), John Staser (Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering), Uwe Happek (Luminescence and Display Materials), Slava Rotkin (Nanocarbons), Jim Burgess (Organic and Biological Electrochemistry), Andrew Hillier (Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry), Nianqiang (Nick) Wu (Sensor) Publisher: Mary Yess, mary.yess@electrochem.org Publications Subcommittee Chair: Christina Bock Society Officers: Johna Leddy, President; Yue Kuo, Senior Vice President; Christina Bock, 2nd Vice President; Stefan De Gendt, 3rd Vice President; James Fenton, Secretary; E. Jennings Taylor, Treasurer; Roque J. Calvo, Executive Director Statements and opinions given in The Electrochemical Society Interface are those of the contributors, and ECS assumes no responsibility for them. Authorization to photocopy any article for internal or personal use beyond the fair use provisions of the Copyright Act of 1976 is granted by The Electrochemical Society to libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). Copying for other than internal or personal use without express permission of ECS is prohibited. The CCC Code for The Electrochemical Society Interface is 1064-8208/92. Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to: Pitney Bowes International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2 ISSN : Print: 1064-8208

Online: 1944-8783

The Electrochemical Society Interface is published quarterly by The Electrochemical Society (ECS), at 65 South Main Street, Pennington, NJ 08534-2839 USA. Subscription to members as part of membership service; subscription to nonmembers is available; see the ECS website. Single copies $10.00 to members; $19.00 to nonmembers. © Copyright 2017 by The Electrochemical Society. Periodicals postage paid at Pennington, New Jersey, and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Electrochemical Society, 65 South Main Street, Pennington, NJ 08534-2839. The Electrochemical Society is an educational, nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization with more than 8,500 scientists and engineers in over 75 countries worldwide who hold individual membership. Founded in 1902, the Society has a long tradition in advancing the theory and practice of electrochemical and solid-state science by dissemination of information through its publications and international meetings. 3 All recycled paper. Printed in USA.


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51 53 63 69 73 77

The IE&EE Division Issue by John Staser Electrochemical Technologies for Water Treatment, Management, and Efficiency by Gerardine G. Botte Electrochemical Engineering for Commodity Metals Extraction by Antoine Allanore Electrochemical-EngineeringBased Models for Lithium-Ion Batteries—Past, Present, and Future by Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Efficient Manufacturing of Chlorine and Other Chemicals by Juergen Kintrup, Marta Millaruelo, Vinh Trieu, Andreas Bulan, and Ernesto Silva Mojica Chlor-alkali Production, Safety, and Industry Leadership by Robyn Brooks

Vol. 26, No. 2 Summer 2017

the Editor: 3 From 1917 the President: 7 From “There’s no place like home.ˮ Orleans, Louisiana 9 New ECS Meeting Highlights

18 Society News 41 People News 45 Looking at Patent Law 49 Tech Highlights 83 Section News 84 Awards Program 86 New Members 89 Student News 97 2016 ECS Annual Report 112 2016 By the Numbers

On the cover . . .

A NaCl ODC electrolyzer in Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany. (Photo source: Covestro Deutschland AG). See article on page 73. Cover design by Dinia Agrawala.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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FROM T HE PRESIDENT

“There’s no place like home.ˮ

–Dorothy Gale1

A

sk members what they value about ECS and you hear: • Meetings to talk research with colleagues • Insights on cutting edge research and unresolved challenges in technology and fundamental science and engineering • Publications with the most rigorous and thorough reviews in the field • A place to find experts on a broad range of electrochemical and solid state topics • Opportunities to develop and promote new ideas • An organization that mentors • An opportunity to use my skills to make the world a better place Ask student members what they value about the Society and you hear: • A chance to meet people and ask questions • A chance to learn new things • A chance to present my research • A chance to contribute But the most passionate and final acclamations are: • ECS is my professional home; ECS is my scientific family. Specific responses vary, but the commitment of the members to the multifaceted entity that is ECS and the enthusiasm of the students are startling. The parts integrate into an organization effective to promote and disseminate electrochemical and solid state research and technology. The members have the skills, creativity, and energy to improve the world condition. But, the world is ever evolving. To focus the energy of the organization to move forward requires communications. Communications that ask where do you want to lead the organization and its research? How should we effect change as an organization? How do we enable opportunity for our young researchers? What are the unique symbiotic components of ECS that will carry the Society forward? What is the value of ECS, its members, and its science? Now and in the future? Contribute your ideas, your energy. Ask questions. This is how scientists and engineers solve problems and innovate. The address is president@electrochem.org.

“The strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the home.ˮ

“Whether you come back by page or by the big screen, Hogwarts will always be there to welcome you home.ˮ –J. K. Rowling

“Home is where you feel at home and are treated well.ˮ –Dalai Lama

“A home without books is a body without soul.ˮ

The future of scientific organizations is uncertain. To not evolve is to fail. The commitment –Marcus Tullius Cicero of members to ECS defines our future. Under the banner of Free the Science, we are focused on the long term viability of the Society. If you can support that objective, please make it so. If you have questions about or ideas in support of ECS’s viability, please convey them. We are continually refining the path forward, a process best accomplished through dynamic interactions and communications. As I step into the role of ECS president, I am confident that ECS and its members, old and new, can provide leadership in fundamental research and advanced technologies to build a better world with more efficient energy generation and storage, cleaner water, superior sensors, more light, better electrocatalysts, greater innovation, clearer education, stronger fundamentals, and better measurements. Because, “Home is where one starts from.” 2

Johna Leddy ECS President president@electrochem.org https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8373-0452

–Confucius

“Home wasn’t built in a day.ˮ –Jane Sherwood Ace

“Home is where one starts from.ˮ

“You don’t have to swing hard to hit a home run. If you got the timing, it’ll go.ˮ

–T. S. Eliot

–Yogi Berra

1. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, L. Frank Baum (1900). 2. “East Coker,” Four Quartets, T. S. Eliot (1940). The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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Issues from the 231st ECS Meeting Now Available! Browse all available titles: www.electrochem.org/ecst

Forthcoming Publications:

• 15th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-XV) – Hollywood, FL (July 23-28, 2017) Enhanced Issue • 231st ECS Meeting – New Orleans, LA (May 28-June 1, 2017) Standard Issue • 232nd ECS Meeting – National Harbor, MD (October 1-5, 2017) Enhanced Issues

• Additional 2017 volumes to be announced

Email ecst@electrochem.org for more information. 8

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


Photo by Richard Nowitz

231st ECS MEETING

NEW ORLEANS L

o

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May 28-June 1, 2017

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Highlights from the 231st ECS Meeting

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early 2,000 people from 58 countries attended the 231st ECS Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, May 28 – June 1, 2017. This was ECS’s first return visit to New Orleans since the 184th ECS Meeting in 1993. Participants could choose from 46 symposia, over 1,200 oral talks, 615 student presentations, and nearly 400 posters.

Plenary Session ECS President Krishnan Rajeshwar welcomed attendees to the meeting during Monday evening’s plenary session. In addition to wrapping up the first full day of technical sessions and honoring award winners, Rajeshwar highlighted the 115th anniversary of the founding of ECS. “For 115 years, we have been dedicated to disseminating knowledge to advance electrochemical and later solid state science and technology,” Rajeshwar said. “With help from contributors like you, we have accumulated a body of knowledge in the ECS Digital Library that includes over 132,000 articles and abstracts.”

The ECS Lecture “A Risk Look at Energy Development” was the title of the ECS Lecture given by Way Kuo, president at City University of Hong Kong. His talk focused on the many risks we face every day, ranging from air pollution to cyberattacks. While those risks exist, Kuo pointed out that the biggest risks today pertain to many aspects of energy, including issues of energy safety, reliability, consumption, global warming, and sustainability.

Way Kuo gave the ECS Lecture at the plenary session.

ECS President Krishnan Rajeshwar presented the opening remarks at the 231st ECS Meeting.

Award Highlights The Allen J. Bard Award in Electrochemical Science was presented to Doron Aurbach. Aurbach is currently a professor in the Department of Chemistry at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Under his supervision, 50 PhD and 70 MSc students received their degrees. The majority of Aurbach’s work focuses on energy storage and battery technologies. He serves as a technical editor for the Journal of The Electrochemical Society and has been named fellow by ECS, ISE, and MRS. The Allen J. Bard Award in Electrochemical Science was established in 2013. Aurbach is the second recipient of this award, which is named in honor of Allen J. Bard, in recognition of his outstanding advancements in electrochemical science. The Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid State Science and Technology was awarded to Paul Kohl. Kohl is the regents’ professor and holder of the Hercules Inc. Thomas L. Gossage Chair at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Kohl was the editor of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society from 1995 to 2007, founding editor of both Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters and Interface, and past president of ECS. (continued on next page)

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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(continued from previous page) The Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid State Science and Technology was established in 1971 as the Solid State Science and Technology Award for distinguished contributions to the field. In 2005, the award was renamed in honor of Gordon E. Moore, cofounder of Intel. The Leadership Circle Award recognized General Motors at the medallion level; Honda R&D Co., Nissan Motor Co., Hydro-Quebec, and Gamry at the silver level; and Kanto Chemical Co. at the bronze level. There were nine division awards: • Dielectric Science and Technology Division Thomas D. Callinan Award was presented to Hiroshi Iwai of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. • Energy Technology Division Research Award was presented to Hubert Gasteiger of Technische Universität München. • Energy Technology Division Supramaniam Srinivasan Young Investigator Award was presented to Ahmet Kusoglu of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

• Energy Technology Division Graduate Student Award sponsored by Bio-Logic was presented to Antoni FornerCuenca of Paul Scherrer Institute. • Electronics and Photonics Division Award was presented to D. Noel Buckley of the University of Limerick. • Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Achievement Award was presented to Muhammad Boota of Drexel University. • Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Student Achievement Award was presented to Bahareh Alsadat Tavakoli Mehrabadi of the University of South Carolina. • Nanocarbons Division Richard E. Smalley Research Award was presented to Shunichi Fukuzumi of Osaka University. • Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division David C. Grahame Award was presented to Viola Birss of University of Calgary.

ECS President Krishnan Rajeshwar (left) with Doron Aurbach (right) from Bar-Ilan University, winner of the Allen J. Bard Award in Electrochemical Science.

Ion Halalay (left) and Mark Mathias (center) of General Motors with Greg Martinchek (right) of Gamry, recipients of the Leadership Circle Award.

ECS President Krishnan Rajeshwar (left) and ECS Executive Director Roque Calvo (right) with Paul Kohl (center) from Georgia Institute of Technology, winner of the Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid State Science and Technology.

Hiroshi Iwai (center), recipient of the Dielectric Science and Technology Division Thomas D. Callinan Award, pictured here with member-at-large Durga Misra (left) and Division Chair Yaw Obeng (right).

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


Muhammad Boota (right), winner of the Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Achievement Award, pictured here with Elizabeth Biddinger (left), division member, and Division Chair Douglas Riemer (center).

Bahareh Alsadat Tavakoli Mehrabadi (right), winner of the Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Student Achievement Award, pictured here with Elizabeth Biddinger (left), division member, and Division Chair Douglas Riemer (center).

From left to right: Francis D’Souza, ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology technical editor; member-at-large Dirk Guldi; Shunichi Fukuzumi, winner of the Nanocarbons Division Richard E. Smalley Research Award; ECS President Krishnan Rajeshwar; and Division Chair Slava Rotkin.

From left to right: Petr Vanýsek, secretary; Pawel Kulesza, division chair; Viola Briss, winner of the Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division David C. Grahame Award; and Christina Bock, ECS 2nd vice president.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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Student Poster Contest ECS established the General Student Poster Session Awards in 1993 to acknowledge the eminence of its students’ work. The winners exhibit a profound understanding of their research topic and its relation to the fields of interest to ECS. The student poster awards are not possible without the generous service of the session organizers and the volunteer judges. ECS thanks them all. The winners of the Z01 General Student Poster Session Awards for the 231st ECS Meeting are as follows: • First Place: Sanjana Das and Stephanie Silic (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) • Second Place: Katrina Vuong and Laurie Clare (San Diego State University) • Third Place: Josie Duncan and Mary Heustess (Clemson University) • Third Place: Phuong Tu Mai (Osaka Prefecture University) • Honorable Mention: Emily Gullette, Natalie Handson, Emily Klutz, and Meredith Hammer (Clemson University)

Z01 General Student Poster Session winners (left to right): 1st place, Sanjana Das from University of Nevada, Las Vegas; 2nd place, Katrina Vuong from San Diego State University; 3rd place, Josie Duncan from Clemson University; 3rd place, Phuong Tu Mai from Osaka Prefecture University; honorable mention, Emily Gullette and Meredith Hammer from Clemson. Winners not pictured were Stephanie Silic, Laurie Clare, Mary Heustess, Natalie Handson, and Emily Klutz.

Exhibitors Special thanks go to all the meeting sponsors and exhibitors who showcased the tools and equipment so critical to scientific research.

Scenes from the exhibit floor. 12

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


Scenes from the Meeting

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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Looking KCAB

High Impact Papers and Their Authors “The Evolution of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology” by Jennifer Bardwell Ed. Note: With the collection of 115 years of published papers in our society journals, the most quoted publications are, or in the past certainly were, highly influential. With various databases available, we can discover very quickly which are the top-ranked articles by some metrics—usually how often they are quoted. This satisfies the need for the “faster, higher, stronger” ranking. But are not there other articles, influential, that do not make to the very top? It could be that sometimes a described method or discovery becomes so quickly accepted that the original material is not referenced. Georg Simon Ohm is famous for his current-voltageresistance study, and the proportionality relationship is universally known as the Ohm’s law. The original paper [G. S. Ohm, Die galvanische Kette, T. H. Riemann, Berlin (1827)] is seldom quoted. Not every discovery leads to eponymous naming. What a computer database cannot do, a human being can. We have asked the ECS technical editors to use their expertise and identify papers in their topical interest areas that may not necessarily have the highest formal impact factor, but which were or still are highly influential. In this issue of Interface, we are bringing you the articles chosen by two of the technical editors.

A

s can be seen by the graph in Fig. 1, this paper is truly seminal in that it received approximately 20 citations per year from 1991 to 2009, which was very healthy, but interest in this work really took off in more recent years. Kern was well ahead of his time. As stated in the abstract to the paper, the “purity of wafer surfaces is an essential requisite for the successful fabrication of VLSI and ULSI silicon circuits.” This has never been truer than in the present day, where the complexity of circuits, and the size of the wafers, have both increased drastically, while feature sizes have dropped, consistent with Moore’s law. At least 20% of all process steps used in the fabrication of state-of-the-art ICs relate to cleaning through photoresist stripping, residue removal, surface cleaning, and surface conditioning. Inorganic and organic impurities that arise from furnaces, chemicals, and wafer holders/chambers are introduced into the wafer during processing and can diffuse to junctions and interfaces, resulting in uncontrollable device properties and reliability degradation. Removal of these impurities is therefore critical. It is not an exaggeration to state that this paper is one of the reasons why the chips in your computer are as reliable and fast as they are today. Werner Kern was a scientist at the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton, New Jersey from 1959 to 1987. While at RCA he developed the RCA Standard Clean Process for silicon wafer cleaning, which with minor changes, is still used worldwide. In 1988 he joined Lam Research Corporation as a senior scientist, where the work in this publication was done. Werner Kern is the holder of 11 U.S. patents and is the author and coauthor of over 150 scientific publications. He is a fellow of The Electrochemical Society and an emeritus member of the American Vacuum Society. He is the recipient of three RCA outstanding achievement awards and the Callinan Award from the ECS Dielectric Science and Technology Division. He is also the editor of the essential book, Handbook of Semiconductor Wafer Cleaning Technology.

Read it for free: J. Electrochem. Soc., 137, 1887 (1990), http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/137/6/1887.abstract. 14

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


Fig. 1. The number of citations received by Kern’s paper, “The Evolution of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology,” since publication. The data for 2017 has been scaled for the number of days elapsed in the year.

Werner Kern, author of the seminal paper on silicon wafer cleaning, in 1971, the year he received the DS&T Division’s Callinan Award.

“Revolutions in Phosphors for Lighting Applications” by Kailash Mishra

T

he phosphor needs of the lighting industry have been a major driver for phosphor research over the last hundred years. In the past, it was the ubiquitous low pressure Hgdischarge lamps that needed a phosphor or a phosphor system to convert 254 nm radiation to white light. Now it is the solid state lighting that requires phosphors to convert partially the blue emission (~450  nm) from the InGaN LEDs to emissions in green and red to generate white light. Our focus will be on phosphors for discharge lamps.

Research on lamp phosphors for application in the Hg-discharge lamps went through two major revolutions during the last century. The first revolution occurred in 1949 with the publication of a paper by Jenkins, et al., from the General Electric Company, England on halo-apatites doped with Mn2+ and Sb3+ ions to produce white light. The second revolution occurred with the discovery of rare earth activated oxide phosphors in the early sixties. By that time, narrow (continued on next page)

Read it for free: J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 1 (1949), http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/96/1/1.abstract. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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Read it for free: J. Electrochem. Soc., 111, 47 (1964), http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/111/1/47.abstract.

(continued from previous page) band emissions from rare earth ions in halides and related hosts in the context of laser applications were being extensively studied. Developing narrow band phosphors for application in the harsh environment of Hg-discharge was not considered seriously until several papers on simple and complex oxide phosphors appeared in the literature. They showed that the stable oxide phosphors activated by Eu3+ and Tb3+ could provide narrow band red and green emissions respectively for lamp applications. One of these early revolutionary papers is by Wickersheim and Lefever from the GTE Laboratories, USA which showed that yttrium oxide could be an excellent host for Eu3+, and could generate red emission at 612 nm efficiently through excitation at 254 nm from the discharge. These two innovative studies that impacted phosphor research for the latter half of the twentieth century appeared in the Journal of The Electrochemical Society, as indicated in the above titles and abstracts. The first revolution gave us a single broad band phosphor for white light emission with a tunable spectrum, and high efficacy and color rendering index. It replaced two phosphors, MgWO4 and Zn2SiO4: Mn2+ in use in the fluorescent lamps. It made the coating process of the fluorescent lamps simpler. A single phosphor system instead of

multiple phosphors for white light generation is still a challenging problem in phosphor research. Apatites and similar phosphors continued to dominate phosphor research for the next half century. The second revolution led to the discovery of many line-emitting red and green phosphors in simple and complex oxides. Together with a broad band blue emitting phosphor such as barium magnesium aluminate activated by Eu2+, these red and green phosphors led to the fabrication of a new class of discharge lamps with higher efficacy and comparable or better CRI compared to the lamps coated with apatites. They allowed the lighting engineers to manipulate phosphor blends to achieve high efficacy and CRI, and to obtain a desired color point on demand. These phosphors continue to be the focus of theoretical and experimental studies even today and are still applied in fluorescent lamps. Today these papers are not referred to as often as when they first appeared but they certainly started revolutions in phosphor research more than half a century ago whose effect is felt even today. The Journal of The Electrochemical Society can proudly claim to be the medium for dissemination of these landmark publications. n

About the Authors Jennifer Bardwell holds a PhD from Kailash Mishra is the Technical Editor for Western University, and has worked in many the Luminescence and Display Materials, roles at the National Research Council of Devices, and Processing topical interest area Canada, most recently as Program Leader for for the ECS Journal of Solid State Science Gallium Nitride Electronics. She is the and Technology. He is a fellow of The winner of the Lash Miller Award of the Electrochemical Society. Mishra works as a Canadian Section of ECS, the Young manager in Corporate Innovation at Central Author’s Award in Electrochemical Science Research Facilities of OSRAM located in and Technology, as well as several NRC Beverly, MA. He may be reached at Kailash. awards. She has served on many ECS Mishra@osram.com. committees, and has organized or coorganized five symposia. She has been a member of ECS Downloaded on 2017-06-21 to IP 71.245.120.205 address. Redistribution subjectjournal to ECS terms of use (see ecsdl.org/site/terms_use) unless CC License in place (see abstract). editorial boards since 2004. During that time she has handled more than 2,300 manuscripts for the Society journals. Bardwell is the Technical Editor for the Electronic Materials and Processing topical interest area for the ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. She may be reached at jennifer.a.bardwell@gmail.com.

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SOCIE T Y NE WS

A New Tradition Begins: Leaders Breakfast As ECS celebrates its 115th anniversary this year, it’s important to reflect on the Society’s legacy and also listen to the membership to forge a path toward a bold future. In the first of several new events in 2017, a leaders breakfast was convened at the 231st ECS Meeting in New Orleans with fellows, board members, and special guests. Over 60 members came for a two-hour discussion on the state of the Society, the future of membership, pressures in publishing, and the value of meetings. Following brief remarks by Krishnan Rajeshwar, president, Roque Calvo, executive director and CEO, and E. J. Taylor, treasurer and chair of the Free the Science Advisory Board, the attendees shared perspectives and ideas for the volunteer leadership and staff to consider moving forward. The leaders breakfast provided an opportunity to more personally engage with and hear from leaders in the community. ECS, like most membership and scientific organizations, is facing challenges related

to its relevancy and examining how to attract and retain the next generation of researchers, and how to respond to the massive and disruptive changes happening in scholarly publishing. “We first identified the ECS fellows as a good group to begin having a discussion with,” says Roque Calvo. “Fellows have been recognized by their peers as leaders in our sciences and for making outstanding contributions to ECS and since we do not have any exclusive programming dedicated to ECS fellows, we started with them. But then, we saw opportunities to include board members and other individuals who stood out for what they represented in terms of accomplishments and organizations. We’re really pleased with the outcome and the serious conversations that happened, and we look forward to another gathering in National Harbor.” ECS will continue to develop programming for various segments of the membership so that the Society better serves each member’s needs. And, the town hall-style of meeting proved to be successful in keeping the discussions lively and respectful of a wide spectrum of opinions. If you have ideas or reactions that you want to share, email them to ECS at president@electrochem.org.

Five Questions for Associate Editor Ajit Khosla Ajit Khosla is a professor at Yamagata University in Yonezawa, Japan and a visiting professor at San Diego State University’s College of Engineering. Khosla’s work in the area of nanomicrosystems has resulted in more than 100 scientific and academic contributions. Khosla has recently been named an associate editor for the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES). What do you hope to accomplish in your role as associate editor? As an associate editor, I hope to accomplish quick and fair peer review process, as little as three weeks from submission to initial decision. I would like to encourage and convince scientists and scholars from all over the world, including ones who are presenting their work at ECS meetings, to strongly consider submitting full-length journal papers to the Journal of The Electrochemical Society. I will also be focusing on to soliciting high-quality papers in the sensor topical interest area in biosensors, micro-nano fabricated sensors, systems and devices for healthcare, and environmental monitoring. What role does peer review play in the publishing process? The peer-review process is integral to scholarly research. Scientific findings and discoveries can have far-reaching implications for individuals and society. This is one reason why they undergo a process of quality control known as peer review before they are published. It is a process of subjecting research methods and findings to the scrutiny of others who are Learn more about JES and the editors at http://electrochem.org/aboutjes.

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experts in the same field. The peer-review process is designed to prevent dissemination of irrelevant findings, unacceptable interpretations, and unwarranted claims. Furthermore, it adds to the large dialogue or findings in the field. Why is access to scholarly research so important? The original purpose of scholarly publications is to spread knowledge and allow that knowledge to be built upon globally. Most publishers will charge or have an access fee for anyone who wants to read the articles, which defeats the purpose of scholarly publications. Access to scholarly research at no cost will have a significant positive impact on everything from education to the accelerating the growth of knowledge, to the ability of entrepreneurs to innovate globally. What are your thoughts on the ECS Free the Science initiative? I believe Free the Science is an excellent initiative. This initiative will realize the original purpose of scholarly publications. Knowledge should be free and accessible to everyone globally. What type of research are you currently focusing on? My research interests have revolved around the multidisciplinary area of developing novel hybrid tunable organic micro-nano-sensor-systems, wearable biosensors, biomedical devices, microfluidics and nature inspired nanoengineered surfaces with applications in medicine, and healthcare and environmental monitoring including neural engineering. Recently, I have been exploring 3D printing as a tool to develop complex micro-nano sensor systems that are difficult to realize using conventional fabrication techniques.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


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Results of the 2017 Election of Officers and Slate of Officers for 2018

Johna Leddy President

The ECS Tellers of Election have announced the results of the 2017 society election, with the following persons elected: president—Johna Leddy, University of Iowa; and vice president—Stefan De Gendt, imec, Belgium. The terms of Yue Kuo (vice president), Christina Bock (vice president), James Fenton (secretary) and E. Jennings Taylor (treasurer) were unaffected by this election. At the board of directors meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana on June 1, 2017, members of the board voted to approve the slate of candidates recommended by the ECS Nominating Committee. The slate of candidates for the next election of ECS officers, to be held from January to March 2018, include: for president—Yue Kuo, for vice president (one to be elected) E.  Jennings Taylor and Eric Wachsman, and for treasurer (one to be elected) Gessie Brisard and Bor Yann Liaw. Full biographies and candidate statements will appear in the winter 2018 issue of Interface.

Stefan De Gendt Vice President

Five Questions for Associate Editor Alice Suroviec Alice Suroviek is an associate professor at Berry College, where she focuses her research efforts on the development of microelectrodes and applications of electrochemistry to real-time detection of biological analytes in aqueous solutions. Suroviec has recently been named an associate editor for the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES). What do you hope to accomplish in your role as associate editor? I hope to make a stronger connection between the excellent work being presented at ECS meetings and JES. I would like to see that JES becomes a go-to journal for publishing the best work in our field. That we will be able to provide excellent peer reviews in a timely manner and that the process is successful for both the authors and the reviewers. How important is the peer-review process in scholarly publications? The peer-review process is critical to the process of disseminating scientific work. The sciences are by nature a team process. In the lab we work with other team members to produce novel research. The peer-review process is an extension of that, where other experts in the author’s area weigh in to produce the best paper possible. Peer review in JES also provides a quality control so the readers of the journal know that they are reading reputable results.

Learn more about JES and the editors at http://electrochem.org/aboutjes.

What are some of the biggest barriers in the current publishing model? As a researcher at a primarily undergraduate institution with limited resources, I am not typically able to publish in open access journals that charge an author fee. But on the flip side, I also do not have access to all the traditional journals due to high library charges. Having an initiative like Free the Science means that I will have access to the latest research to use both with my research and lecture students. This would be a really powerful tool to prepare the next generation of scientists. What are your thoughts on the ECS Free the Science initiative? The principle of Free the Science is that current scientific research should be available to everyone. Students and faculty from around the world who would not normally be able to pay for access to the latest journals will have access under Free the Science. This should allow the advancement of new research to move faster with more people working on societal science issues such as clean water and renewable fuels. What type of research are you currently focusing on? My research has mainly been in the area of bioelectrochemistry, specifically looking at enzymatically modified electrodes for use as sensors. My research group uses self-assembled monolayers along with polymeric mediators to adhere enzymes to the surface and shuttle electrons. We both develop new electron mediating polymers and self-assembled monolayers in addition to looking into different classes of enzymes that have commercial interest. However, what I believe the main contribution of my research to society is to train the next generation of analytical chemists for either employment or graduate school.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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Launch of Perspective Articles

Savinell Reappointed JES Editor

Since 1902, ECS has been at the forefront of publishing electrochemical and solid state science and technology research. For the past 115 years, the Society has been disseminating high quality, peerreviewed content that includes the work of renowned scientists, engineers, inventors, and Nobel laureates. Now, ECS is providing researchers a new venue within its journals to offer insights into emerging or established fields: Perspective articles. “The Perspective article was established to facilitate new research and research directions by bringing new interpretations or thoughts of experts on a specific topic within the fields of interest of the ECS community,” says Robert Savinell, editor of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES). Perspective articles differ from traditional research articles published in ECS journals. Instead of focusing on presenting new findings and data, Perspective articles aim to tap into the expertise of researchers, giving them a platform to present thoughts on their respective field and offer new insights. The new article type will allow authors to reach a broader audience and spark discussion in the scientific community. ECS recently published its first Perspective article, “Localized Corrosion: Passive Film Breakdown vs Pit Growth,” [J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, C180 (2017)] in which corrosion experts Gerald Frankel, Tianshu Li, and John Scully discuss the modern debates in localized corrosion and share their outlook on the field. “The purpose of the Perspective article is to offer an authoritative view on a specific technical area,” Savinell says. “The new article type can also work to generate new ideas and research and advance the fields related to electrochemistry and solid state science.” Researchers looking to share ideas on new paths or visions related to their field are welcome to submit a Perspective article to either JES or the ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS). Every Perspective article undergoes a rigorous peer-review process, with the technical editor taking the article type into account, allowing for a different set of review criteria than that used on research-based articles. All Perspective articles are published open access at no cost to the authors to allow the widest possible dissemination. Additionally, Perspective articles provide a way for authors who publish in Interface, the ECS member magazine, to get directly involved with the ECS journals. Upon writing an article for Interface, the authors will be invited to contribute a Perspective article to either JES or JSS. According to Savinell, those wanting to learn about new venues of research, innovative potential applications, and wanting to gain a broader outlook on a specific topic would benefit from reading Perspective articles. “Young researchers and people just coming into the field would also benefit from these articles,” Savinell says. “They can learn about some of the significant problems in the field and possible new approaches to those problems, allowing them to explore a little further.” Above all, ECS hopes the new Perspective articles will help grow the fields of electrochemical and solid state science and technology, opening dialogue in scientific community and encouraging researchers to discuss and pursue new, innovative techniques. “ECS is a clearing house for all electrochemical research,” Savinell says. “We publish papers, we have meetings, and the whole idea is to disseminate knowledge. One of the main roles that we can have, besides publishing standard articles that report research results, is to actually stimulate and grow the field.”

Robert Savinell has recently been reappointed as editor of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES) for a three-year period, from May 2017 through May 2020. He was appointed editor of JES in 2013, where he began focusing on continuing the tradition of rigorous review, enhancing timeliness of decision and publication, while transitioning JES to full open access. Savinell was recently interviewed by ECS along with Dennis Hess, editor of the ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. You can hear the editors discuss the future of scholarly publishing in an ECS Podcast at www.ecs.podbean.com.

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ECS Appoints Experts to Editorial Advisory Committee The ECS Editorial Advisory Committee (EAC) was established to expedite and facilitate evaluation and publication decisions of manuscripts submitted to ECS journals. The committee provides support to the journal editors and are involved in various functions, which include: • Providing expertise in topical areas of growth where existing technical editors and associate editors may need additional assistance, or for providing a rapid review or another opinion to supplement conflicting or imbalanced comments from other reviewers; • Providing processing assistance in areas for which the journals already enjoy a very large number of submissions but do not require a full associate editor; and • Reviewing and expediting Communication and Perspective articles. The following individuals were recently appointed, or reappointed, to the EAC: • S. V. Babu (Clarkson University, USA) • Scott A. Calabrese Barton (Michigan State University, USA) • Byung Doo Chin (Dankook University, Korea) • Mike Hickner (Penn State University, USA) • Sean King (Intel Corporation, USA) • Rainer Küngas (Haldor Topsøe A/S, Denmark) • Anant Setlur (General Electric Global Research, USA) For more about the EAC, read the ECS Redcat blog, “Strengthening the Peer-Review Process,” www.electrochem.org/redcat-blog/strengthening-peerreview-process/.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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ECS Adds Cover Images to Journals As a publisher of ground-breaking research, ECS strives to promote the content it publishes to the widest audience possible using RSS feeds, email alerts, blog posts, Twitter, Facebook, and other social media outlets. Thereby, the Society facilitates the interactions between authors and readers that lead to many important breakthroughs. Beginning with the 2016 volumes of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES) and the ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS), ECS has been promoting some of the best papers it publishes by including a cover image in each issue’s online table of contents. A small version of the cover image is shown in the middle column of a table of contents page and beneath the image is an “About the Cover” link (Fig. 1). That link opens a new page with an enlarged version of the image, a detailed description of the image, and a link to the original article (Fig. 2).

Cover images are selected based on both reviewer and editorial input, with consideration given to the visual impact of the image as a means of drawing reader interest. The image need not necessarily be a figure used in the paper if it represents the overall importance of the reported research. During the submission process, authors are asked if they wish to have a graphic considered as a cover image. ECS encourages all authors to submit figures for consideration, but it is not a requirement. Authors do not pay a fee if their image is chosen, nor can authors pay ECS to select their image. For more information about the ECS journals and cover images, please contact publications@electrochem.org.

Fig. 1. A screenshot of a table of contents page that includes a cover image and an “About the Cover” link.

Fig. 2. A screenshot of the “About the Cover” page that includes a link to the original article.

Focus on Focus Issues ECS publishes focus issues of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES) and the ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS) that highlight scientific and technological areas of current interest and future promise. These issues are handled by a prestigious group of ECS technical editors and guest editors, and all submissions undergo the same rigorous peer review as papers in the regular issues. Beginning in 2017, all focus issue papers are open access at no cost to the authors. ECS is waiving the article processing charge (APC) for all authors of focus issue papers as part of the Society’s ongoing Free the Science initiative. The following focus issues are currently in production with many papers already published in them or are presently accepting submissions. 22

• JES Focus Issue on the Progress in Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids • JES Focus Issue on Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions for High Temperature Energy Conversion and Storage • JES Focus Issue on Mathematical Modeling of Electrochemical Systems at Multiple Scales in Honor of John Newman • JES Focus Issue on Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Materials, Mechanisms, Modeling, and Applications • JSS Focus Issue on GaN-Based Electronics for Power, RF, and Rad-Hard Applications • JSS Focus Issue on Visible and Infrared Phosphor Research and Applications To see the calls for papers for upcoming focus issues, for links to the published issues, or if you would like to propose a future focus issue, visit

www.electrochem.org/focusissues The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


23 The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2017 • www.electrochem.org The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org 23


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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


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Introducing the ECS Singapore Section

Alex Yan Qingyu, ECS Singapore Section chair.

ECS hosts over 20 region-specific sections, offering local scientists and engineers an opportunity to connect with researchers in their area and participate in a variety of events. The ECS Singapore Section is the most recent addition to that list, chartered by the ECS Board of Directors on March 7, 2017. While the section is just getting its legs, the section’s chair believes that it could help bolster a growing field in Southeast Asia. “There are extensive research activities in electrochemical science in Singapore and Southeast Asia,” says Alex Yan Qingyu, chair of the ECS Singapore Section and

professor at Nanyang Technological University. “It is important to have an organization with good leadership to promote extensive interaction and collaboration between the researchers, and increase student and researcher interests and involvement in the electrochemical community.” Yan hopes that the establishment of the ECS Singapore Section will help connect all interested parties from academia, industry, and government in an effort to bridge a scientific gap and provide networking opportunities that could lead to new developments or help members advance their careers. “We would like to organize workshops and conferences to promote the students’ and researchers’ activities and encourage them to join the ECS community,” Yan says. “We would also like to create a good platform to connect the local electrochemists to international scientists and industry representatives.” Future plans for the section include the potential for a small workshop in late 2017 and a summer school to be further conceptualized for 2018.

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2017-2018 ECS Committees Executive Committee of the Board of Directors

Marion Jones .................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Khalil Amine...................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Paul Fanson....................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Chuck Hussey.................................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Peter Fedkiw...................................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Xiaoping Jiang................................................................................................................................Spring 2020 William Mustain........................................................... Chair, Individual Membership Committee, Spring 2020 E. Jennings Taylor.......................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2018

Audit Committee

Technical Affairs Committee

Johna Leddy, Chair........................................................................................................President, Spring 2018 Yue Kuo..................................................................................................... Senior Vice-President, Spring 2018 Christina Bock..........................................................................................Second Vice-President, Spring 2018 Stefan De Gendt........................................................................................... Third Vice-President, Spring 2018 James Fenton.................................................................................................................Secretary, Spring 2020 E. Jennings Taylor ......................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2018 Roque Calvo.............................................................................................................Term as Executive Director Krishnan Rajeshwar, Chair....................................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2018 Johna Leddy..................................................................................................................President, Spring 2018 Yue Kuo......................................................................................................Senior Vice President, Spring 2018 E. Jennings Taylor.......................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2018 Stuart Swirson........................................................................... Nonprofit Financial Professional, Spring 2019

Education Committee

James Nöel, Chair...........................................................................................................................Spring 2021 Luke Haverhals...............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Vimal Chaitanya..............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Anne Co..........................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Enn Lust..........................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Kalpathy Sundaram.........................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Alice Suroviec.................................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Keryn Lian.......................................................................................................................................Spring 2021 David Hall.......................................................................................................................................Spring 2021 Margaret Calhoun...........................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Daniel Parr......................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 James Fenton.................................................................................................................Secretary, Spring 2020 William Mustain .......................................................... Chair, Individual Membership Committee, Spring 2020

Ethical Standards Committee

Krishnan Rajeshwar, Chair ...................................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2018 Fernando Garzon.........................................................................................................Past Officer, Spring 2018 Dennis Hess................................................................................................................Past Officer, Spring 2019 E. Jennings Taylor.......................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2018 James Fenton.................................................................................................................Secretary, Spring 2020

Finance Committee

E. Jennings Taylor, Chair ............................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2018 John Turner.....................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Jean St-Pierre.................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Robert Mantz...................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Mark Verbrugge..............................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Tim Gamberzky........................................................................................Chief Operating Officer, Term as COO James Fenton.................................................................................................................Secretary, Spring 2020

Honors and Awards Committee

Peter Fedkiw, Chair ........................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Marca Doeff....................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Takayuki Homma.............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Francis D’Souza..............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Joseph Stetter.................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Rohan Akolkar.................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 R. Bruce Weisman...........................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Vimal Chaitanya..............................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Thomas Moffat................................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Jean St-Pierre.................................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Viola Birss......................................................................................................................................Spring 2021 Shelley Minteer...............................................................................................................................Spring 2021 Scott Calabrese Barton....................................................................................................................Spring 2021 Johna Leddy..................................................................................................................President, Spring 2018

Individual Membership Committee

William Mustain, Chair ..................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Giovanni Zangari.............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Jordi Cabana...................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Steven Policastro............................................................................................................................Spring 2019 M. Neal Golovin..............................................................................................................................Spring 2019 R. Bruce Weisman...........................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Timothy Paschkewitz.......................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Patrick Stanley................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Beatriz Molero Sanchez...................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Rob Sides.................................................................................... Chair, Sponsorship Committee, Spring 2019 James Fenton ................................................................................................................Secretary, Spring 2020

Nominating Committee

Krishnan Rajeshwar, Chair....................................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2018 Shelley Minteer...............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 D. Noel Buckley..............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Peter Fedkiw...................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Stefan De Gendt........................................................................................... Third Vice-President, Spring 2018

Sponsorship Committee

Rob Sides, Chair.............................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Kohei Uosaki...................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Iwona Rutkowska............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Shirley Meng..................................................................................................................................Spring 2018

Yue Kuo, Chair............................................................................................Senior Vice President, Spring 2018 Johna Leddy..................................................................................................................President, Spring 2018 Krishnan Rajeshwar..............................................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2018 Daniel Scherson.......................................................................Second Immediate Past President, Spring 2018 Stefan De Gendt........................................................................... Chair, Meetings Subcommittee, Spring 2018 Christina Bock........................................................................ Chair, Publications Subcommittee, Spring 2018 Eric Wachsman......................................................................................Chair, IST Subcommittee, Spring 2019 Roque Calvo...................................................................................................... Executive Director, Term as ED

Symposium Planning Advisory Board of the Technical Affairs Committee

Stefan De Gendt, Chair................................................................................. Third Vice-President, Spring 2018 Elizabeth Podlaha-Murphy.............................................................Chair, Electrodeposition Division, Fall 2017 Turgut Gür......................................................................Chair, High Temperature Materials Division, Fall 2017 Madis Raukas .................................................Chair, Luminescence and Display Materials Division, Fall 2017 Yaw Obeng......................................................Chair, Dielectric Science and Technology Division, Spring 2018 Slava Rotkin ....................................................................................Chair, Nanocarbons Division, Spring 2018 Douglas Riemer..... Chair, Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division, Spring 2018 Christopher Johnson .................................................................................... Chair, Battery Division, Fall 2018 Sannakaisa Virtanen.................................................................................. Chair, Corrosion Division, Fall 2018 Nianqiang Wu ............................................................................................... Chair, Sensor Division, Fall 2018 Colm O’Dwyer .............................................................Chair, Electronics and Photonics Division, Spring 2019 Andy Herring...........................................................................Chair, Energy Technology Division, Spring 2019 Graham Cheek ..................................... Chair, Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division, Spring 2019 Alice Suroviec ......................................Chair, Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division, Spring 2019 Eric Wachsman...........................Chair, Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Subcommittee, Spring 2019

Publications Subcommittee of the Technical Affairs Committee

Christina Bock, Chair................................................................................Second Vice-President, Spring 2018 Stefan De Gendt, Vice-Chair........................................................................ Third Vice-President, Spring 2018 Robert Savinell................................................................................................................ JES Editor, 5/17/2020 Dennis Hess.................................................................................................................. JSS Editor, 12/31/2018 Petr Vanýsek.................................................................................................... Interface Co-editor, 12/31/2017 Vijay Ramani.................................................................................................... Interface Co-editor, 12/31/2017 Jeffrey Fergus..........................................................................................ECS Transactions Editor, 12/31/2017 .......................................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 D. Noel Buckley..............................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Scott Calabrese Barton....................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Mary Yess......................................................................................................................Publisher, Term as Pub

Meetings Subcommittee of the Technical Affairs Committee

Stefan De Gendt, Chair................................................................................. Third Vice-President, Spring 2018 Christina Bock, Vice-Chair........................................................................Second Vice-President, Spring 2018 Adam Weber....................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Bor Yann Liaw ................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Thomas Moffat................................................................................................................................Spring 2020 Mary Yess......................................................................................................................Publisher, Term as Pub

Tellers of Election

Craig Arnold, Chair ........................................................................................................................Spring 2018 James Amick...................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Norman Goldsmith..........................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Ronald Enstrom, Alternate...............................................................................................................Spring 2018 William Ayers, Alternate..................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Elizabeth Biddinger, Alternate..........................................................................................................Spring 2018

Ways and Means Committee

James Fenton, Chair...................................................................................................... Secretary, Spring 2020 Gessie Brisard.................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Michael Carter................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 Nianqianq Wu.................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 John Weidner..................................................................................................................................Spring 2019 Christina Bock.......................................................................................... Second Vice President, Spring 2018 Yue Kuo......................................................................................................Senior Vice President, Spring 2018

Other Representatives

Society Historian   Zoltan Nagy................................................................................................................................Spring 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science   Roque J. Calvo.....................................................................................................Term as Executive Director Chemical Heritage Foundation   Yury Gogotsi............................................................................................... Heritage Councilor, Spring 2018 External Relations Representative   Mark Orazem..............................................................................................................................Spring 2018 National Inventors Hall of Fame   Peter Fedkiw.....................................................................Chair, Honors & Awards Committee, Spring 2019


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Division News Energy Technology Division At the 231st ECS Meeting in New Orleans, the ECS Energy Technology Division (ETD) presented three division awards and six travel awards, cosponsored a symposium of invited talks in honor of the late H. Russel Kunz, and introduced a new slate of officers for

2017-2019. A symposium entitled “Invited Perspectives and Tutorials on Fuel Cell Technology” was presented in memory of Dr. Kunz. During his long career at United Technologies, and later at the University of Connecticut, Dr. Kunz was an essential contributor to the design and engineering of modern electrochemical energy devices, particularly phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With 45 invited talks from Dr. Kunz’s family, students, friends, and former colleagues, the symposium spanned more than three days with a large and engaged audience. The symposium culminated in a memorable reception and dinner commemorating Dr. Kunz. The Society is grateful to the family of Dr. Kunz, Giner Inc., Fuel Cell Energy, Inc., and the University of Connecticut for financial support of this event. At the ETD award reception and business meeting on Wednesday evening, the ETD Graduate Student Award Sponsored by Bio-Logic was presented to Antoni Forner-Cuenca, a PhD graduate of Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich and postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Forner-Cuenca’s award reflects his accomplishments in developing novel porous materials for advanced water management in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This year’s award is the first sponsored by Bio-Logic Science Instruments, and the division is grateful for their support. The ETD Supramaniam Srinivasan Young Investigator Award was presented to Ahmet Kusoglu of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This award was established in 2011 to recognize and reward an outstanding young researcher in the field of energy technology. Dr. Kusoglu was recognized for his contributions to modeling and diagnostics of ionomers and their interfaces, leading to improved functionality in electrochemical energy devices. The 23rd ETD Research Award was presented to Hubert Gasteiger of the Technical University of Munich, for his outstanding contributions to electrocatalysis and electrode design and diagnostics for fuel cells and electrolyzers. An ECS fellow, Dr. Gasteiger was also awarded the 2015 David C. Grahame Award of the ECS Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division. ETD student/postdoctoral travel grants to the New Orleans meeting were awarded to Debanjan Mitra, Jonathan Strobl, Jonathan Davis, Pavithra Murugavel Shanthi, Oyidia Elendu, Haegyeom Kim, and Lulu Zhang. Congratulations to these outstanding young researchers! Finally, newly-elected division officers were introduced in New Orleans. Chair Andrew Herring will take over for outgoing Chair Scott Calabrese Barton. The remaining officers are Vice Chair Vaidyanathan (Ravi) Subramanian, Secretary William Mustain, and newly-elected Treasurer Kathy Ayers. The division welcomes interested parties to attend the next executive committee meeting on Monday evening, October 2, 2017, at 7 p.m. in National Harbor.

Scott Calabrese Barton (left) with Antoni Forner-Cuenca (center), the 2017 winner of the ETD Graduate Student Award sponsored by Bio-Logic, and Bio-Logic owner Bill Eggers (right).

Ahmet Kusoglu delivered the ETD Srinivasan Young Investigator Award address, “New Insights into PFSA Ionomers: From Membranes to Thin Films.”

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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SOCIE T Y NE WS Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division The division acknowledges Robert Calhoun, not only as the outgoing divisional treasurer, but also as a father who, as he says, successfully persuaded his daughter, Margaret, to join the ranks of electrochemists. Ms. Calhoun gave her poster presentation (M. C. Calhoun, D. Crisostomo, and D. E. Cliffel, Poster 1991, “Simultaneous Optical and Electrochemical Imaging of Shewanella Oneidensis”) at the 231st ECS Meeting in New Orleans. She is a first-year graduate student at Vanderbilt University with David Cliffel, a former student of Allen Bard. Robert Calhoun received his PhD in 2007 from UT Austin under Allen Bard, which makes Ms. Calhoun an Allen Bard “academic granddaughter” in two ways.

Margaret Calhoun (left) and Rob Calhoun (right), in front of her poster at the New Orleans meeting.

The new PAT battery tester First fully integrated tester for the PAT series • 16 independent channels • Compatible with all PAT series test cells • Each channel with potentiostat / galvanostat / EIS • Integrated Peltier temperature control (+5°C to +80°C) • Intuitive software with most advanced graphing capabilities

28 The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org Please visit our website for more information: el-cell.com/products/pat-battery-tester/pat-tester-i-16


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New Division Officers New officers for the spring 2017 – spring 2019 terms have been elected for the following Divisions.

Electronics and Photonics Division Chair Colm O’Dwyer, University College Cork Vice Chair Junichi Murota, Tohoku University 2nd Vice Chair Robert Lynch, University of Limerick Secretary Soohwan Jang, Dankook University Treasurer Yu-Lin Wang, National Tsing Hua University Members-at-Large Travis Anderson, Naval Research Laboratory Albert Baca, Sandia National Labs Helmut Baumgart, Old Dominion University D. Noel Buckley, University of Limerick George Celler, Rutgers University Yu-Lun Chueh, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan Cor Claeys, IMEC M. Jamal Deen, McMaster University Erica Douglas, Sandia National Laboratories Manfred Engelhardt, Infineon Technologies AG Takeshi Hattori, Hattori Consulting International Jennifer Hite, Naval Research Laboratory Andrew Hoff, University of South Florida Hiroshi Iwai, Tokyo Institute of Technology Qiliang Li, George Mason University Mingha Pan, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Fred Roozeboom, Eindhoven University of Technology Jerzy Ruzyllo, Pennsylvania State University Tadatomo Suga, University of Tokyo Motofumi Suzuki, Kyoto University

Energy Technology Division Chair Andy Herring, Colorado School of Mines Vice Chair Vaidyanathan Subramanian, University of Nevada Reno Secretary William Mustain, University of Connecticut Treasurer Katherine Ayers, Proton Energy Systems, Inc. Members-at-Large Christina Bock, National Research Council of Canada Huyen Dinh, National Renewable Energy Laboratory James Fenton, University of Central Florida Thomas Fuller, Georgia Institute of Technology Lauren Greenlee, University of Arkansas Jean St-Pierre, University of Hawaii

Kunal Karan, University of Calgary Ahmet Kusoglu, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Mani Manivannan, Global Pragmatic Materials Sanjeev Mukerjee, Northeastern University Sri Narayan, University of Southern California Vito Di Noto, Universita degli Studi di Padova Peter Pintauro, Vanderbilt University Bryan Pivovar, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Krishnan Rajeshwar, University of Texas at Arlington Adam Weber, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Gang Wu, University at Buffalo-SUNY Hui Xu , Giner Inc. Minhua Shao, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Iryna Zenyuk, Tufts University

Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division Chair Graham Cheek, United States Naval Academy Vice Chair Diane Smith, San Diego State University Secretary / Treasurer Sadagopan Krishnan, Oklahoma State University Members-at-Large Toshio Fuchigami, Tokyo Institute of Technology Chang Ji, Texas State University Donal Leech, National University of Ireland Galway Ikuzo Nishiguchi

Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division Chair Alice Suroviec, Berry College Vice Chair Petr Vanýsek, Northern Illinois University Secretary Andrew Hillier, Iowa State University Treasurer Stephen Paddison, University of Tennessee Members-at-Large Anne Co, Ohio State University Svitlana Pylypenko, Colorado School of Mines Vito di Noto, Universita degli Studi di Padova Iwona Rutkowska, Uniwersytet Warszawski Luke Haverhals, Bradley University Hugh DeLong, United States Army Research Plamen Atanassov, University of New Mexico Paul Trulove, United States Naval Academy Alanah Fitch, Loyola University

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ECS Institutional Members SOCIE T Y NE WS The Electrochemical Society values the support of our institutional members. Institutional members help ECS support scientific education, sustainability, and innovation. Through ongoing partnership, ECS will continue to lead as the advocate, guardian, and facilitator of electrochemical and solid state science and technology. (Number in parentheses indicates years of membership)

Benefits of Membership Discounts on: • • • •

Advertising in print and online Meeting registrations Exhibits and sponsorships Access to ECS Digital Library

Benefactor Industrie De Nora S.p.A. (34) Pine Research Instrumentation (11) Saft Batteries, Specialty Batteries Group (35) Scribner Associates, Inc. (21) Zahner-elektrik GmbH & Co KG (1)

AMETEK-Scientific Instruments (36) Bio-Logic USA/Bio-Logic SAS (9) Duracell (60) Gamry Instruments (10) Gelest, Inc. (8) Hydro-Québec (10)

Patron EL-CELL GmbH (3) Energizer (72) Faraday Technology, Inc. (11) IBM Corporation (60)

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (13) Panasonic Corporation, AIS Company (23) Toyota Research Institute of North America (9)

Sponsoring Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (10) Permascand AB (14) TDK Corporation, Device Development Center (24) Technic Inc. (21) Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc. (18) The Electrosynthesis Company, Inc. (21) Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-Stock Co., Ltd. (3) Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. (37) Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences (19) ZSW (13)

Axiall Corporation (22) BASi (2) Central Electrochemical Research Institute (24) Ford Motor Company (3) GS-Yuasa International Ltd. (37) Honda R&D Co., Ltd. (10) IMERYS Graphite & Carbon (30) Medtronic Inc. (37) Molecular Rebar Design (1) NEXT ENERGY - EWE-Forschungszentrum für Energietechnologie e.V. (9)

Sustaining 3M Company (28) General Motors Corporation (65) Giner, Inc./GES (31) International Lead Association (38) Kanto Chemical Co., Inc. (5) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (1) Leclanche SA (32)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (9) Occidental Chemical Corp. (75) Quallion, LLC (17) Sandia National Laboratories (41) SanDisk (3) Targray (1)

Please help us continue the vital work of ECS by joining as an institutional member today. To join or discuss institutional membership options please The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org ext. 107 or Shannon.Reed@electrochem.org.

30 contact Shannon Reed, director of membership services at 609.737.1902

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ECS Division Contacts High Temperature Materials

Battery

Christopher Johnson, Chair Argonne National Laboratory johnsoncs@cmt.anl.gov • 630.252.4787 (US) Marca Doeff, Vice Chair Shirley Meng, Secretary Brett Lucht, Treasurer Doron Aurbach, Journals Editorial Board Representative Corrosion

Sannakaisa Virtanen, Chair Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de • +49 09131/85-27577 (DE) Masayuki Itagaki, Vice Chair James Nöel, Secretary/Treasurer Gerald Frankel, Journals Editorial Board Representative Dielectric Science and Technology

Yaw Obeng, Chair National Institute of Standards and Technology yaw.obeng@nist.gov • 301.975.8093 (US) Vimal Chaitanya, Vice Chair Peter Mascher, Secretary Uros Cvelbar, Treasurer Stefan De Gendt, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Turgut Gür, Chair Stanford University turgut@stanford.edu • 650.815.8553 (US) Gregory Jackson, Sr. Vice Chair Paul Gannon, Jr. Vice Chair Sean Bishop, Secretary/Treasurer Raymond Gorte, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering

Douglas Riemer, Chair Hutchinson Technology Inc. riemerdp@hotmail.com • 952.442.9781 (US) John Staser, Vice Chair Shrisudersan (Sudha) Jayaraman, Secretary/Treasurer Venkat Subramanian, Journals Editorial Board Representative Luminescence and Display Materials

Madis Raukas, Chair Osram Sylvania madis.raukas@sylvania.com • 978.750.1506 (US) Mikhail Brik, Vice Chair/Secretary/Treasurer Kailash Mishra, Journals Editorial Board Representative Nanocarbons

Electrodeposition

Elizabeth Podlaha-Murphy, Chair Northeastern University e.podlaha-murphy@neu.edu • 617.373.3769 (US) Stanko Brankovic, Vice Chair Philippe Vereecken, Secretary Natasa Vasiljevic, Treasurer Charles Hussey, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Slava Rotkin, Chair Lehigh University rotkin@lehigh.edu • 610.758.3931 (US) Hiroshi Imahori, Vice Chair Olga Boltalina, Secretary R. Bruce Weisman, Treasurer Francis D’Souza, Journals Editorial Board Representative Organic and Biological Electrochemistry

Electronics and Photonics

Colm O’Dwyer, Chair University College Cork c.odwyer@ucc.ie • +353 863.958373 (IE) Junichi Murota, Vice Chair Robert Lynch, 2nd Vice Chair Soohwan Jang, Secretary Yu-Lin Wang, Treasurer Fan Ren, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Graham Cheek, Chair United States Naval Academy cheek@usna.edu • 410.293.6625 (US) Diane Smith, Vice Chair Sadagopan Krishnan, Secretary / Treasurer Janine Mauzeroll, Journals Editorial Board Representative Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry

Energy Technology

Andy Herring, Chair Colorado School of Mines aherring@mines.edu • 303.384.2082 (US) Vaidyanathan Subramanian, Vice Chair William Mustain, Secretary Katherine Ayers, Treasurer Thomas Fuller, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Alice Suroviec Berry College asuroviec@berry.edu • 706.238.5869 (US) Petr Vanýsek, Vice Chair Andrew Hillier, Secretary Stephen Paddison, Treasurer David Cliffel, Journals Editorial Board Representative Sensor

Nianqiang (Nick) Wu, Chair West Virginia University nick.wu@mail.wvu.edu • 304.293.3111 (US) Ajit Khosla, Vice Chair Jessica Koehne, Secretary Larry Nagahara, Treasurer Rangachary Mukundan, Journals Editorial Board Representative


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Advancement News Supporting Students: The Future of ECS At the 231st ECS Meeting in New Orleans, ECS made special efforts to recognize the individuals and companies that have made commitments to ECS programs that foster the next generation of researchers and ECS members. ECS is grateful for the interest in supporting our younger members who will be the ones at the forefront of innovation and Society leadership in the future. Toyota Research Institute of North America, a division of Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc., has supported the ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship for projects in green energy technology for the past three years. Paul Fanson of Toyota in Ann Arbor, MI, coordinates the fellowships on behalf of the company and feels that the program is a win-win situation for ECS and Toyota. “You plant seeds and sometimes unexpected things grow,” Fanson said of the good ideas that have percolated from being involved with young and energetic fellowship winners. The inaugural class of Hilton Travel Grant recipients also gathered in New Orleans. Seeing a connection to their philanthropic focus on sustainability and understanding ECS’s great need for student travel support, Hilton donated Hilton Honors points to give free rooms to four students. The 2017 winners were Han Shao of the Tyndall National Institute (Ireland), Beatriz Eugenia Sanabria Arenas of Cinvestav del IPN Unidad Merida (Italy), Szymon Sollami Delekta of the KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden), and Tirumala Rao of the Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India). ECS divisions have also recently received support geared toward students. The Battery Division now has the K. M. Abraham travel awards and the Battery Division Postdoctoral Associate Research Award Sponsored by MTI Corporation and the Jiang Family Foundation. Bio-Logic Science Instruments SAS also stepped forward to sponsor the Energy Technology Division Graduate Student Award for a period of five award cycles, which this year went to Antoni Forner-Cuenca who is originally from Spain and now a post-doc at MIT.

Andy Huang (left), MTI, and ECS President Krishnan Rajeshwar (right).

From left to right: Eric Janecke from the Hilton New Orleans Riverside, Han Shao, Beatriz Eugenia Sanabria Arenas, and Szymon Sollami Delekta.

Donors Honored in New Orleans This year marks the 115th anniversary of the Society. This milestone presents an opportunity to honor the legacy of the members who helped ECS thrive and grow into an important and vibrant organization. Reflecting on our past precipitates the creation of a bold vision forward, which is demonstrated in our initiative to Free the Science, and our ever-expanding programming. Anniversaries are also important times to recognize supporters, those who have made contributions to the Society above their membership dues. As such, ECS has launched a new giving societies program which places individuals into different recognition categories based on their history of giving or annual gift amounts: 1902 Society, ECS Circuits, Edison Society, Founders Society, or the Carl Hering Legacy Society. During the 231st ECS Meeting, the founding members of the top giving tiers were publicly acknowledged for their contributions. This provided a great opportunity to thank ECS’s most generous supporters and hopefully inspire others to follow. Donors to ECS at every level are vitally important and help support the Society’s seminal work in advancing electrochemistry and solid state science through meetings, publications, and honoring outstanding members of the scientific community. Please contact the ECS Development Office to learn how you can assist in securing the future of ECS for another 115 years. 32

K. M. Abraham (left), E-Kem Sciences, and Arumugam Manthiram (right), University of Texas.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


SOCIE T Y NE WS How to Give to ECS

Free the Science News Do you want to hear more about open access and open science? The Free the Science monthly news blast will keep you updated with timely issues, highlighting important international trends, and reminding you about special events.

To sign up, head to

www.freethescience.org

and click the “Subscribe” button located at the bottom of the page.

There are many ways to give to ECS. Consider some of these ideas below: • Donate $115 to ECS in honor of our 115th anniversary • Make a gift of stock to ECS by contacting development@ electrochem.org • Give a gift at checkout time when you’re registering for your next ECS meeting • Donate your stipend, royalties, or speaker fees to ECS • Make a small recurring gift each month • Make a planned gift by leaving a bequest in your will or an IRA charitable rollover and be included in the Carl Hering Legacy Circle

Visit

www.electrochem.org

and click the red DONATE button to begin. Contact development@electrochem.org

ECS Top Contributors 1902 Society

Recognizing lifetime giving totaling $20,000 or more

Connect Share Discover ecsblog.org TheElectrochemicalSociety @ECSorg Find out what’s trending in the field and interact with a like-minded community through the ECS social media pages.

• K. M. Abraham • Ralph Brodd • Larry Faulkner • The Dow Chemical Company Foundation • Fondazione Oronzio de Nora Casella • Intel Corporation • Robert Savinell • Toyota Research Institute of North America, a division of Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA) • Jerry Woodall

ECS Circuits Society—Supercapacitors Recognizing annual giving of $10,000+

• K. M. Abraham • Bio-Logic Science Instruments SAS • Yue Kuo • MTI Corporation and Jiang Family Foundation • Carlton Osburn • Sekhar Rangarajan Sarukkai • Toyota Research Institute of North America, a division of Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA)

Find out how you can be recognized through ECS’s Giving Societies:

www.electrochem.org/be-recognizedfor-your-gift

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Free the Science Week ECS kicked off a year-long celebration of its 115th anniversary by opening up the ECS Digital Library the week of April 3-9, marking the first meeting of the Society held in Philadelphia. In 1902, ECS formed as a venue to discuss, publish, and disseminate important developments in the growing field of electrochemistry. Today, as the world faces numerous issues related to sustainability, it is more critical than ever that ECS continues to advance and spread the good work of its community. Opening the ECS Digital Library offers a preview of Free the Science, a future when there will be free access to all ECS research.

The Free the Science initiative also aims to move ECS toward an open science model that creates greater transparency from research design to sharing data and conclusions. ECS firmly believes that more sharing means more progress, because more minds will have access to information to help move technology and solutions forward. The infographic (above) shows usage data that illustrates the high demand for ECS’s research. The data also tells the story that many individuals likely do not have regular subscription or membership access to the ECS Digital Library, proving that many barriers still exist for researchers to perform their work.

International Open Access Week

If you missed Free the Science Week, be sure to take advantage of ECS’s participation in International Open Access Week, October 23-29, 2017 when again the ECS Digital Library will be free and open to everyone. This year’s theme is “Open in Order to …” which invites participants to share stories about

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what openness enables—in an individual discipline, at a particular institution, or in a specific context; then to take action to realize these benefits. The theme also recognizes the diverse contexts and communities within which the shift to open access is occurring and encourages specific discussion that will be most effective locally. International Open Access Week is a global, communitydriven week of action to open up access to research. The event is celebrated by individuals, institutions, and organizations across the world. The official hashtag of Open Access Week is #OAweek. Stay tuned for more information in the coming months.

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Being Open in National Harbor In the

The upcoming ECS National Harbor meeting (October 1-5, 2017) will include several must-attend events featuring “open science” (open access, open datasets, and open source software). Kicking off on Sunday, October 1 will be an ECS satellite edition of OpenCon 2017 at the Gaylord National Convention Center. The Sunday afternoon session will highlight prominent nonprofit organizations dedicated to open science (The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Dryad, and SPARC) as well as Ashley Farley ECS academic speakers and panelists that are Associate Officer leaders in the open science movement. This of Knowledge and is a great introduction to how open science Research Services at Bill & Melinda Gates can increase research productivity and Foundation accelerate progress for the electrochemical and solid state fields. The afternoon agenda, speakers, and registration are available online (www.opencon2017. org/ecs_opencon_2017). This program is free and open, however advance registration will be required.

Daniel Swartz

Matthew Murbach

• The fall 2017 issue of Interface will be a special issue focused on the theme of The Brain and Electrochemistry. Guest edited by Lili Deligianni and Mekki Bayachou, the issue will feature the following technical articles (titles are tentative): “Tools and Methods to Monitor Neurotransmitters in the Brain,” by Mark Wightman, “The Role of Molecules in Neurons,” by Christian Amatore, and “State-of-the-Art Materials for Neural Devices,” by Pasha Takmakov. • A preview of the 232nd ECS Meeting with information about the symposium topics, award winners, short courses, workshops, and special events. The meeting will take place in National Harbor, Maryland, October 1-5, 2017. • The third article in the “Looking at Patent Law” series by E. J. Taylor and Maria Inman, in which the authors address the classes of inventions patentable and introduce the novelty and nonobvious requirements for obtaining a patent.

Mercury Oxide Reference Electrode

David Beck

On Wednesday, October 4, will be “ECS Data Science Hack Day” for researchers interested in creating open source software for the electrochemical and solid-state community. Initiated by ECS@ UW Student Chapter President Matthew Murbach, student-led software development sessions have taken off at the University of Washington. ECS Data Science Hack Day will involve an actionpacked eight-hour session featuring a hands-on code development with Matt Murbach. Supporting Murbach will be data sciences expert David Beck, codirector of the NSF Data Intensive Research Enabling CleanTech (DIRECT) PhD training program, and senior data sciences fellow at the UW eSciences Institute. Electrochemical engineering expert Daniel Schwartz, an ECS fellow and director of the UW Clean Energy Institute, will be available to help with any “domain science” questions the Hack Day participants may have. Early sign up when the ECS Data Science Hack Day registration opens is recommended, as limited seats will be available.

Keep apprised of all National Harbor meeting activities, including registration opening, by visiting

www.electrochem.org/232.

issue of

Battery Development Electrochemistry in Alkaline Electrolyte All plastic construction for use where glass is attacked Stable, Reproducible Alkaline & Fluoride Media

www.koslow.com “Fine electrochemical probes since 1966”

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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ECS Leadership Circle Awards It is with tremendous pride and immense gratitude that ECS recognizes the recipients of the 2017 Institutional Membership Leadership Circle Awards. The following organizations celebrate milestones in institutional ECS membership this year:

Medallion Level (65 years):

• Gamry Instruments designs and manufactures a variety of electrochemical instrumentation and accessories. Our full line of single and multichannel potentiostats/galvanostats/ ZRAs/FRAs, EQCM, multiplexer, and spectroelectrochemical equipment will be on display. Anyone doing materials research or battery development, corrosion science, sensor development or fundamental physical electrochemical research should stop by our booth for a demonstration. Come find out why Gamry is the best value in electrochemical instrumentation. www.gamry.com

Silver Level (10 years):

• Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. was established in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture in 1933 and currently manufactures vehicles in 20 countries and areas around the world, including Japan. Nissan offers products and services in more than 160 countries and areas worldwide. www.nissan-global.com/

• General Motors Company is a global automotive company united by a single purpose: to earn customers for life. From electric cars to heavy-duty full-size trucks, General Motors provides a complete range of vehicles that meets the needs and expectations of drivers on a truly global scale. There are 10 distinctive automotive brands under the General Motors corporate umbrella: Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac, Opel, Vauxhall, Holden, Baojun, Wuling, and Jiefang. www.gm.com/ • Honda R&D Co., Ltd. began in 1960 with the separation of the research and development division from Honda Motor Co. With the goal of bringing the Honda magic to ever greater numbers of satisfied customers, Honda R&D was born as an independent entity. Our corporate culture is imbued with respect for the individual, emphasizing a research and development system that enables the talents of each engineer to flourish in the pursuit of our ultimate objective of bringing originality and innovation to the technologies and products that we develop. world.honda.com/RandD/ • Hydro-Quebec generates, transmits and distributes electricity, mainly using renewable energy sources, in particular hydroelectricity. It also conducts research in energy-related fields and takes an active interest in energy efficiency. http://www. hydroquebec.com/

Bronze Level (5 years):

• Kanto Chemical Co., Inc. has been developing and manufacturing highly competitive products in the area of reagents, chemicals for electronics industry and diagnostics as well as fine chemicals since the company’s establishment in 1944 with stringent systems for sophisticated quality controls. www. kanto.co.jp/en/

Want to learn more about ECS membership and its many benefits for your organization? Visit www.electrochem.org or contact Mr. Shannon C. Reed, director of membership services at Shannon. Reed@electrochem.org.

ECS Partners with Research4Life to Help Close the Knowledge Gap in the Developing World ECS is partnering with Research4Life to provide accessibility to over 132,000 articles and abstracts published in the ECS Digital Library. The full text of all papers published by ECS will be free to access for more than 8,200 institutions in an effort to reduce the scientific knowledge gap between high-income and low- and middleincome countries, by providing free or affordable access to critical scientific research. The ECS Digital Library is home to the Journal of The Electrochemical Society, the flagship journal of ECS, published continuously since 1902, and to the ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ECS Electrochemistry Letters, ECS Solid State Letters, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, ECS Transactions, ECS Meeting Abstracts, ECS Proceedings Volumes and the ECS quarterly membership magazine, Interface. The research published in ECS journals directly addresses the sustainability of our planet, with topics ranging from renewable energy storage and conversation to clean water and sanitation. “Open access, especially in electrochemistry and solid state science, is an important goal for scientific and technological development and, quite simply, creating a better world.” says Roque Calvo, executive director and CEO of ECS. “ECS’s partnership with Research4Life is a 36

step toward ensuring that everyone working on these issues, wherever they are in the world, has access to the latest research.” Since 2002, Research4Life has been partnering with publishers and is now providing scientific knowledge to institutions in 119 countries, areas, and territories in the developing world. They are enabling more than 8,000 institutions to benefit from online access of up to 77,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals, books, and databases. ECS will be joining more than 170 publishers already partnered with Research4Life. “We are pleased to welcome ECS as a Research4Life partner,” says Daniel Dollar, chair of the Research4Life executive council. “ECS’s commitment to Research4Life will help to advance the partnership’s goal of reducing the scientific knowledge gap between industrialized countries and the developing world.” This partnership aligns directly with ECS’s Free the Science initiative, aimed at making all research in the ECS Digital Library freely available to anyone, while remaining free for authors to publish. ECS believes that the opening and democratizing of this information will lead to rapid advances in some of the world’s most pressing issues. “Free the Science can assist people all over the world who need the content to create their own solutions to sustainability,” Calvo says. “Our work with Reserch4Life give us the chance to show some of that vision to the world.” The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


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Conference on Lithium Sulfur Batteries

ECS Staff News

The 26th and 27th of April saw the second Li-SM3 conference take place at the IET in London. Sponsored by ECS, the event looked at all aspects of lithium sulfur batteries. Over 150 people attended from 22 countries and there were 44 oral presentations along with over 35 posters. The standard of work presented was striking and the organizers recognize following people for their outstanding presentations: • Materials: Brett Helms, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Rational Design of Polymeric Materials for Ion and Electron Transport in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries” • Mechanisms: Nae-Lih (Nick) Wu, National Taiwan University, “Polysulfide-Mediating Redox Reactions in Li-S Battery” • Modelling: Mohammadhosein Safari, Hasselt University, “Minutiae of Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena in Li-S Battery Electrolytes” Many of the other presentations were of equally high quality and if you visit www.lism3.org you can download the pdfs and view videos of some of the presentations. Because of the success of the 2017 event, planning of 2018 is already underway. This will be led by the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) with support from OXIS Energy and Imperial College London. The 2018 event will be held in Chicago and further details will be made available on the website soon.

Ashley Moran joined the ECS staff as the corporate programs manager in March 2017, and is responsible for the management and development of institutional/corporate engagement for ECS programs included ECS exhibits, sponsorships, and advertising. Ashley earned her BA in public relations at Quinnipiac University and has recently been accepted to the Drexel University MBA program beginning fall 2017. Ashley’s career began as a marketing coordinator at a medical device component manufacturing company called Secant Medical in her home town of Perkasie, PA. In this position she coordinated aspects of marketing strategy including social media, website, webcasts, email marketing, tradeshows, and digital/print advertising. From there Ashley made the move to New Jersey to become the marketing/audience development manager at NJBIZ, a New Jersey focused business journal. Through her interactions with nonprofit organizations, Ashley realized this was where her true passion lies. This led her to accept a program coordinator position at the New Jersey Business and Industry Association where she was responsible for the coordination of special events. Ashley brings five years of marketing and event experience to the ECS meetings team. She is thrilled to be part of the team and is looking forward to cultivating meaningful relationships with ECS corporate partners. ECS Executive Director and CEO Roque Calvo commented that, “Ashley is a great fit for this position that we created to provide greater opportunity and support for the institutions that engage with ECS.”

Upcoming ECS Sponsored Meetings In addition to the ECS biannual meetings and ECS satellite conferences, ECS, its divisions, and sections, sponsor meetings and symposia of interest to the technical audience ECS serves. The following is a partial list of upcoming sponsored meetings. Please visit the ECS website (http://www.electrochem.org/upcoming-meetings/) for a list of all sponsored meetings.

2017

• SSI-21, 21st International Conference on Solid State Ionics; Padova, Italy; June 18-23, 2017; http://www.chimica.unipd.it/ssi21/ • Next Generation Electrochemistry (NGenE); Chicago, IL, USA; June 26-30, 2017; https://energyinitiative.uic.edu/energy/ngene • Energy, Water, and Environmental Sciences Symposium of the 46th World Chemistry Congress; São Paulo, Brazil, July 9-14, 2017; http://www.iupac2017.org/symposia.php#ee • Semiconductor Science & Technology Against the Global Storm; Nanjing, China; July 16-19, 2017 • 68th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry; Providence, RI; August 27-September 1, 2017; http://annual68.ise-online.org/ • 18th International Conference on Advanced Batteries, Accumulators and Fuel Cells (ABAF 18); Brno, Czech Republic; September 10-13, 2017; http://www.aba-brno.cz/ • 6th International Conference on Electrophoretic Deposition: Fundamentals and Applications (EPD-2017); Gyeongju, South Korea; October 1-6, 2017; http://www.engconf.org/conferences/materials-science-including-nanotechnology/ electrophoretic-deposition-vi-fundamentals-and-applications/ • Fuel Cell Seminar & Energy Exposition; Long Beach, CA, USA; November 7-9, 2017; https://www.fuelcellseminar.com/ • European Fuel Cells Technology & Applications Piero Lunghi Conference (EFC17); Naples, Italy; December 12-15, 2017; www.europeanfuelcell.it

2018

• 69th Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry; Bologna, Italy; September 2-7, 2018; http://annual69.ise-online.org/; Joint Symposium: “Theory: From Understanding to Optimization and Prediction” To learn more about what an ECS sponsorship could do for your meeting, including information on publishing proceeding volumes for sponsored meetings, or to request an ECS sponsorship of your technical event, please contact ecs@electrochem.org.

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websites of note by Alice H. Suroviec

MatWeb • MatWeb’s searchable database of material properties includes data sheets of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers such as ABS, nylon, polycarbonate, polyester, polyethylene and polypropylene; metals such as aluminum, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, steel, superalloys, titanium and zinc alloys; ceramics; plus semiconductors, fibers, and other engineering materials. http://matweb.com/

Forming Ceramic Films Using Cathodic Electrodeposition • Electrodeposition is evolving as an important method in ceramic processing. Two processes for forming ceramic films by cathodic electrodeposition are electrophoretic deposition, in which suspensions of ceramic particles are used, and electrolytic deposition, which is based on the use of metal salts solutions. Electrolytic deposition enables the formation of thin ceramic films and nanostructured powders. Electrophoretic deposition is also an important tool in preparing thick ceramic films and body shaping. Igor Zhitomirsky (McMaster University) http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0001/Zhitomirsky/Zhitomirsky-0001.html

Open Access Button • Enter a reference for a sought-after scholarly paper into the website (URL, DOI, PMID, PMC ID, title of citation) and they will search thousands of sources with millions of articles to link to free, legal, full text articles instantly. If an open access version is not available, they start a request for you. Creating an account is required. They request articles from authors, and guide them on making the work available to you and everyone who needs it. Open Access Button https://openaccessbutton.org

About the Author Alice Suroviec is an associate professor of bioanalytical chemistry and chair of the department of chemistry and biochemistry at Berry College. She earned a BS in chemistry from Allegheny College in 2000. She received her PhD from Virginia Tech in 2005 under the direction of Mark R. Anderson. Her research focuses on enzymatically modified electrodes for use as biosensors. She is currently the chair of the ECS Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division and an associate editor for the Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry topical interest area in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society. She can be reached at: asuroviec@berry.edu.

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


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Discover Your Community

Your ECS membership defines you as a leader in your field – as someone who believes in: • Disseminating scientific research in the most accessible ways • Advancing the science by bridging the gaps between academia, industry, and government

• Mentoring young people through networking and providing quality training and education • Honoring our heroes of the past, recognizing colleagues changing our lives now, and seeking those who are designing the future of our field

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The ECS Member Article Pack—$3,500 VALUE—100 free downloads from all ECS journals giving you access to full-text articles in the ECS Digital Library, including the top publications in solid state and electrochemical science and technology: w Journal of The Electrochemical Society w ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology w ECS Electrochemistry Letters w ECS Solid State Letters w ECS Transactions w Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters

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232nd ECS MEETING October 1-5, 2017

Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center

Photo by National Harbor

National Harbor, MD Meeting Topics A — Batteries and Energy Storage B — Carbon Nanostructures and Devices C — Corrosion Science and Technology D — Dielectric Science and Materials E — Electrochemical/Electroless Deposition F — Electrochemical Engineering G — Electronic Materials and Processing H — Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems I — Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion J — Luminescence and Display Materials, Devices, and Processing K — Organic and Bioelectrochemistry L — Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry M — Sensors Z — General Topics Photo by National Harbor

Important Deadlines Discounted hotel rates, starting at $239 at the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center will be available beginning in June 2017. The reservation deadline is August 25, 2017, or until the block sells out, so reserve early! Early bird registration opens in June 2017, with early bird pricing available through August 25, 2017. Travel grants are available for students and young professionals (early career and faculty). Make sure to submit your application before June 19, 2017. Take advantage of exhibition and sponsorship opportunities, submit your application by June 30, 2017. The 232nd ECS Meeting will be held at the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center. Please visit www.electrochem.org/232 for the most up-todate information on hotel accommodations, registration, short courses, special events, and to review the technical program. Full papers presented at ECS meetings may be submitted for publication in ECS Transactions.


SOCIE PEOPLE T Y NE WS

Jamal Deen Receives Honorary Doctorate

J

amal Deen, Professor and Senior Canada Research Chair in Information Technology at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, has received an honorary doctorate or a degree doctor honoris causa from the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (El Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE)) in Puebla, Mexico. This recognition was carried out during the graduation ceremony on November 11, 2016, where there was also celebrated the forty-fifth anniversary of INAOE. The honor was awarded to recognize Deen’s world-class research in the field of electronic devices as well as fundamental research and technology development of optical, chemical, and biological sensors with applications in information and communications technologies as well as health and environmental sciences. INAOE is one of the premier public research center with high leadership in the field of scientific investigations. Its goal is to stimulate technological and human resource development in the fields of astrophysics, optics, electronics, and computer sciences. Jamal Deen delivered the convocation address in acceptance of his honorary degree award.

Altmetrics in the ECS Digital Library What Are Altmetrics? Altmetrics report data for individual articles. By providing article level metrics, authors see not only how much attention their work is receiving, but where the attention is coming from, and at an earlier stage than traditional metrics.

How Are Altmetric Scores Generated?

Data comes from: • Online reference managers (Mendeley, CiteULike) • Mainstream media (newspapers and magazines) • Social media (Twitter, Facebook, blogs, etc.) Data is weighted based on: • Volume: How much attention is an article getting? • Sources: Which sources are mentioning the article? • Authors: Who is talking about the article?

(10) Google+ (12) news outlets (17) Facebook

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• Publish open access to increase access to your research. • Like, tweet, and share research. • Start a conversation and promote your work.

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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SOCIE PEOPLE T Y NE WS

In Memoriam memoriam William Brown 1943–2017

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(Bill) David Brown, age 73, passed away on Thursday, March 30, 2017 in Fayetteville, Arkansas. As an advocate of education, Brown spent many years working as a professor. He started his career in academia at the University of New Mexico (1975-1977), followed by the University of Arkansas (1977-2008), where he served as distinguished professor, head of the electrical engineering department, and associate dean for research in the College of Engineering. Brown joined The Electrochemical Society in 1983. Throughout his life, he dedicated himself to ECS, serving as the Society’s president (2010-2011), vice president (2007-2010), and treasurer (1998-2002). Additionally, he served as the secretary, vice chair, and chair of the ECS Dielectric Science and Technology Division; and chaired the Society’s Education Committee (1994-2002), where he was instrumental in the initiation of the highly successful Student Poster Session held at each ECS meeting. “Bill Brown was one of the Society’s finest leaders and a great teacher and mentor to me, and to many scientists and engineers in his field,” says Roque Calvo, ECS executive director and CEO. “He held an incredible number of top leadership positions in ECS but his work involving the Society’s Centennial and Free the Science fundraising campaigns could be his most notable contributions. He will be remembered for his contributions to our science and technology but more so for the character, integrity, and camaraderie that he brought to the Society.” illiam

Brown also served on ECS’s Technical Affairs Committed (20072009), Ways and Means Committee (2007-2010), Finance Committee (1998-2002), Financial Policy Advisory Committee (1998-2007), and the Audit Subcommittee (2006-2007). Brown’s involvement in the Society touched nearly every aspect of ECS’s programs. His work with ECS extended into the Society Meeting Committee (1998-2002), Honors and Awards Subcommittee for the Henry B. Linford Award (1994-1997), Fellows Selection Subcommittee of the Honors and Awards Committee (2003-2010), Search Committee for the Editor of Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters (2002-2004), Nominating Committee (2005-2008), Individual Membership Committee (2007-2008), Corporate Sponsorship Committee (2009-2012), Development Committee (2004-2009), Ad Hoc Gift Acceptance Committee (2001-2009), and the Solicitation Subcommittee of the Corporate Sponsorship Committee (20092012). While serving in these positions, Brown had been an ardent supporter of the Society’s efforts to disseminate technical information and expand the Society’s international activities. As a Society member, he co-organized 28 symposia, including the well-regarded Silicon Nitride and Silicon Dioxide Thin Insulating Films, Low Temperature Electronics and High Temperature Superconductivity, Diamond Materials, and the III-V Nitride series. He contributed a substantial number of papers to the Journal of The Electrochemical Society and ECS proceedings volumes. This notice was prepared by Rob Gerth, ECS director of marketing and communications, and was first posted on April 4, 2017 on the ECS Redcat Blog (http://www.electrochem.org/redcat-blog/ecsmourns-loss-bill-brown/).

In Memoriam memoriam Mildred Dresselhaus 1930–2017

M

Dresselhaus, known as the “queen of carbon science,” passed away on February 20, 2017. Dresselhaus was a recipient of both the Presidential Medal of Freedom and National Medal of Science, solidifying her role as a leader in the scientific community and an advocate for women in STEM. Among her scientific contributions, Dresselhaus is perhaps most known for playing a key role in unlocking the mysteries of carbon. Her contributions to fundamental research in the electronic structure of semi-materials and initial insight into fullerenes have made an extensive impact on the scientific community. ildred

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“We lost a giant — an exceptionally creative scientist and engineer who was also a delightful human being,” MIT President L. Rafael Reif wrote in a statement. “Among her many ‘firsts,’ in 1968, Millie became the first woman at MIT to attain the rank of full, tenured professor. She was the first solo recipient of a Kavli Prize and the first woman to win the National Medal of Science in Engineering.” This notice was prepared by Amanda Staller, ECS web content specialist, and was first posted on February 23, 2017 on the ECS Redcat Blog (http://www.electrochem.org/redcat-blog/mildreddresselhaus-carbon-science-pioneer-dies-86/).

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


SOCIE PEOPLE T Y NE WS

In Memoriam memoriam Michael Heyrovský 1932–2017

M

ichael Heyrovský passed away on April

23, 2017 in Prague, Czech Republic. Most recently Heyrovský contributed to ECS as a co-author of an ECS Classics article in Interface [K. Stejskalová and M. Keyrovský, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 24 (4), 36 (2015)] on the history of mercury drop and polarography invented by his father, Jaroslav Heyrovský. (The senior Heyrovský won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959 “for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis.”) Michael Heyrovský himself was a very accomplished electrochemist with over one hundred publications, with fairly varied themes, including inorganic chemistry (noble metals on mercury hanging electrode) as well as biological electrochemistry (characterization of protoplasts and their utilization for model membrane preparation.)

Heyrovský studied chemistry at the Charles University in Prague (Czechoslovakia). From 1962 to 1965 he did postgraduate research at the University of Cambridge (UK) on the electrochemical photoeffect and in 1967-1968 he was the Alexander von Humboldt scholar at the University of Bamberg, Germany. Since 1957, until his death, he was employed at the J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic. At his interment in Prague on April 21, 2017 close to two hundred people, friends, and chemists, who were positively touched over the years by his professional and personal magnanimity, came in support of his family and to pay him final respects. He is survived by four children, three granddaughters and his wife Rajalakshmi (Raji) Heyrovská, also an electrochemist. This notice was prepared by Petr Vanýsek, co-editor of Interface.

In Memoriam memoriam Roger Parsons 1926–2017

R

Parsons, an ECS member since 1957, passed away on January 7, 2017. He was an ECS Emeritus Member and a member of the Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division and the Europe Section. Parsons was born in London and studied chemistry at Imperial College where he stayed to study electrochemistry under the supervision of J. O’M. Bockris. He received PhD in 1948 for a subject of the hydrogen evolution reaction. He was at the University of Bristol from 1954 to 1977 where he became Doctor of Science in 1962. He spent the years 1977 to 1984 as the Directeur du Laboratoire d’Electrochimie Interfaciale du CN.R.S. at Meudon oger

in France. His final academic appointment was as a professor of chemistry at the University of Southampton, from 1985 to 1992. He was editor-in-chief of the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry from 1963 until  2000. Parsons received the ECS Olin Palladium Award in 1980. He was the fellow of the Royal Society since 1982 and in 2003 he received the most prestigious award of the Royal Society, the Davy medal, “For his distinguished career in electochemistry [sic]. He developed the method of preparing, for the first time, clean and well-defined metal surfaces and putting them into contact with the electrolyte without contamination.” He was an author of more than 200 scientific papers.

ECS Redcat Blog The blog was established to keep members and nonmembers alike informed on the latest scientific research and innovations pertaining to electrochemistry and solid state science and technology. With a constant flow of information, blog visitors are able to stay on the cutting-edge of science and interface with a like-minded community.

www.electrochem.org/redcat-blog

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


Looking at Patent Law: Why Is the Word “Rightˮ Mentioned Only Once in the Constitution of the United States? by E. Jennings Taylor and Maria Inman

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he subject of this column is the relationship between patents, inventions, and inventors. We begin the discussion by noting that the “rightˮ of an inventor to protect their invention via a patent was enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. In fact, the word “rightˮ is mentioned only one time in the U.S. Constitution, in the context of granting intellectual property rights. In contrast, the Founders did not include other natural or human rights in the Constitution (although these were ultimately dealt with by the first ten amendments to the Constitution, i.e., the Bill of Rights, and subsequent amendments). In Article I, Section 8, Clause 8,1 the Constitution states that “The Congress shall have Power …ˮ

“To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.ˮ At the time of the drafting of the Constitution, the terms “science” and “useful arts” referred to literature and inventions, respectively. Consequently, this clause is the basis for the U.S. copyright and patent system and laws. Patent systems were established at least as early as the 15th century, with The Venetian Patent Statute of 1474.2 The Venetian Patent Statute and subsequent patent systems, most notably across the European continent, were generally characterized by two main attributes. Patents (also known as “letters patent”) were: 1. Granted to promote and encourage local artisans and protect them from foreign competition, 2. Bestowed by the sovereign or monarch. While the original purpose of the U.S. patent system is similar to those of other countries that preceded it, i.e., the protection of inventor rights, the United States took a different approach in how a patent was granted to an inventor. A committee of the Continental Congress was formed to provide advice regarding the rationale for including incentives and protection for authors and inventors in the Constitution. On April 28, 1783, this committee reported that:3

“[N]othing is more properly a man’s own, than the fruit of his study, and that the protection and security of literary property would greatly tend to encourage genius, to promote useful discoveries and to the general extension of arts and commerce.” (continued on next page)

The law-related article in this issue by E. Jennings Taylor and Maria Inman, “Looking at Patent Law: Why Is the Word ‘Right’ Mentioned Only Once in the Constitution of the United States?” is the second in a series (perhaps irregular) of articles on patent law. The first article appeared in the spring 2017 Interface issue, p. 41. We are fortunate to have among our mostly technically minded members a few with the right background to give an insight in a nonmainstream Interface topic of law. With readership feedback the authors may try to entertain groups of questions in the next articles. Since law is serious business with serious implications, sometimes hinging on a few precise words, the readers should for their legal needs always consult their legal counsel. —Petr Vanýsek, Interface Co-editor

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Taylor and Inman

(continued from previous page)

Analogous to John Locke’s view of life, liberty and property as a “natural right,”4 people also have a “natural right” to their own creativity or intellectual “property.” In other words, this right does not need to be “bestowed upon them by a sovereign or monarch.” This sentiment found its way into the Constitution that was ratified on May 29, 1790. In 1831, Supreme Court Justice Henry Baldwin succinctly contrasted the U.S. and British patent systems:5 “In England a patent is granted as a favor, on such terms as the King thinks proper to impose; … here (America) a patent is a matter of right, on complying with the conditions prescribed by law.” Interestingly, while the Founders did not grant “natural rights” for slaves and women, the U.S. patent system was free and democratic.6 There were numerous examples of slaves being granted patents, even though their slave-owners attempted to claim inventorship on the patents for themselves. Similarly, there were numerous examples of women being granted patents, even though their fathers or husbands attempted to claim inventorship on the patents for themselves. As noted in current patent law:7 “An application for patent shall be made, or authorized to be made, by the inventor.” This focus on individual rights of inventors is unique to the U.S. patent system and has important implications on inventors and inventions. An invention is a two-step process, specifically involving “conception”8 and “reduction to practice.”9 In addition, reduction to practice is one of two types, “actual reduction to practice” or “constructive reduction to practice.” Actual reduction to practice involves building or testing the invention and demonstrating the workability of the invention. Patent case law generally indicates that the amount of testing or demonstrating required is specific to the nature of the invention. Constructive reduction to practice is fulfilled simply by filing a patent application at the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. In this latter case, experimental work is not required. The determination of inventorship on a patent application is a matter of law. The inventor or inventors of an invention are the individual or individuals involved in the conception of the invention. An individual solely involved in the actual reduction to practice of the invention, no matter how skilled, is not an inventor. This is in contrast to the authorship of technical publications. Professional protocol generally includes individuals who made significant contributions to the experimental aspects of a research activity as co-authors. However, being a co-author on a technical publication does not necessarily mean an individual is a co-inventor on a patented invention. In addition, whereas many technical publications include only significant co-author contributions, being a co-inventor does not necessarily correlate with the quantity or importance of the coinventor’s contribution. Appropriate determination of inventors is critical for the validity of U.S. patent applications. Inclusion of a co-inventor who did not participate in the conception of the invention is known as a misjoiner and invalidates an otherwise valid patent. Similarly, exclusion of a co-inventor who participated in the conception is known as a nonjoiner and invalidates an otherwise valid patent. If a misjoiner or nonjoiner occurred without “deceptive intent,” inventorship can be corrected during the patent application stage10 and after the issuance of the patent.11

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Conception and consequently inventorship is defined via case law. A summary of these findings regarding the definition of conception includes:8 “[C]omplete performance of the mental part of the inventive act.” “[F]ormation in the mind of the inventor of a definite and permanent idea of the complete and operative invention.” “[I]nvention is made sufficiently clear to enable one skilled in the art to reduce it to practice without the exercise of extensive experimentation or the exercise of inventive skill.” This last point is particularly important in that participation in the actual reduction to practice activity does not necessarily exclude an individual as a co-inventor. Specifically, during actual reduction to practice the individual may encounter challenges which require inventive skill leading to refinement of the initial conceived invention. In this case, that individual would be a co-inventor. Additionally, case law has established factors that point away from inventorship, including: 1. Following instructions or direction of inventors or simply providing analysis or testing as discussed above. 2. Explaining how the invention works.12 3. Contribution of general knowledge.13 4. Suggesting a desired result without explaining how to accomplish said result.14 5. Supplying a generally known component or starting material.15 Furthermore, in order for an invention to contain more than one inventor, there must be a “collaborative” connection. However, the collaboration may be direct or indirect. Joint inventorship16 does not require that the collaborators: 1) work together at the same location or during the same time; 2) make the same type or amount of contribution; or 3) contribute to every claim of the patent application. Recall from a previous article that inventions are defined by the claims in an analogous manner as the boundaries of real property are defined by the deed.17 Furthermore, during the examination of a patent application, claims are often cancelled due to prior art rejections based on either novelty and/or obviousness. Consequently, since inventorship is linked to the one or more claims, if the claims linked to a specific inventor are cancelled during prosecution of the patent application then that inventor must be removed in order to avoid a misjoiner. Inventions of scientists, engineers and researchers are generally assigned to their employers via an “Intellectual Property Rights Assignment Agreement.” Many employers (companies, universities and federal laboratories) have policies that include providing for sharing of the revenues generated from the issued patents, if any. In the case of joint inventors employed by the same entity, the assignment is provided to the same employer. In the case of inventors employed by different employers, then those two employers both jointly and equally own the invention even if one inventor contributed to one claim and the other inventor contributed to multiple claims. In other words, the ownership is not prorated on the basis of invented claims. In addition, ownership is not based on which entity paid for the prosecution costs and maintenance fees for the patent application and issued patent, respectively. This same scenario holds for “independent” joint inventors who individually own their patent applications. Finally, as noted in the preamble to Clause 8, “To promote the progress … of the useful arts [inventions],” the U.S. patent system clearly recognized the economic development aspects of encouraging inventions by providing a “limited” monopoly for the invention, currently twenty years from the filing date of utility patent applications. For this limited monopoly, the inventor is required to

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


Quid pro Quo Exclusive right

Full disclosure of invention

To encourage investors

To encourage other inventors

“If I have seen further it is by standing on ye shoulders of giantsˮ –Isaac Newton, 1676 Fig. 1. Progress is not an isolated event.

fully disclose the invention in the patent application. As shown in Fig. 1, the quid pro quo requirement of the patent system provided incentive for inventors in the form of an exclusive right for a limited period of time for full disclosure of the invention, which allowed the public to read the patent and create new inventions or devise improvements to the original patented invention. This “progress” metaphor while generally attributed to Sir Isaac Newton was likely adapted from Bernard of Chartres:18 “[We are] dwarfs perched on the shoulders of giants … we see more and farther than our predecessors, not because we have keener vision or greater height, but because we are lifted up and borne aloft on their gigantic stature.” Today we would similarly say the purpose of the patent clause of the U.S. Constitution is to promote “economic development” through “technological innovation.”19 In summary, the determination of inventorship on patent applications is a matter of law and is distinct from co-authors on a technical publication. The importance of inventorship for patents is traced to the U.S. Constitution and seems to be motivated as an “economic incentive” well as a “natural right.” The determination of joint inventorship in particular has been described as:20 “[O]ne of the murkiest concepts in the muddy metaphysics of patent law.” Due to the importance of correctly determining inventorship and joint inventors, we suggest that an open and frank discussion with all potential inventors be carried out in a single meeting in the presence of patent counsel. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F01172if.

About the Authors E. Jennings Taylor is the founder of Faraday Technology, Inc., a small business focused on developing innovative electrochemical processes and technologies based on pulse and pulse reverse electrolytic principles. Jennings leads Faraday’s patent and commercialization strategy and has negotiated numerous via field of use licenses as well as patent sales. In addition to technical publications and presentations, Jennings is an inventor on forty patents. Jennings is admitted to practice before the United States Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) in patent cases as a patent agent (Registration No. 53,676) and is a member of the American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA). Jennings has been a member of the ECS for thirty-eight years and is a fellow of the ECS and currently serves as treasurer. He may be reached at jenningstaylor@faradaytechnology.com. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3410-0267

Maria Inman is the research director of Faraday Technology, Inc. where she serves as principal investigator on numerous project development activities and manages the companies pulse and pulse reverse research project portfolio. In addition to technical publications and presentations, Maria is competent in patent drafting and patent drawing preparation and is an inventor on seven patents. Maria is a member of ASTM and has been a member of the ECS for twenty-one years. Maria serves the ECS as a member of numerous committees. She may be reached at mariainman@faradaytechnology.com. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2560-8410

References 1. United States Constitution, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8. 2. A. J. Kasper, B. D. Pedersen, A. M. Mueting, G. D. Allen, and B. R. Stanton, Patents After the AIA: Evolving Law and Practice, p. 2, Bloomberg BNA, Edison, NJ (2016). 3. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, Vol. XXIV (January 1-August 29) p. 326 (1783). (available https://memory. loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwjclink.html). 4. J. Locke, Two Treatises of Government, P. Laslett, Editor, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1988). 5. Whitney v. Emmett, 29 F. Cas. 1074 (1831). 6. B. Z. Khan, The Democratization of Invention: Patents and Copyrights in American Economic Development, 1790-1920, p. 85, Cambridge University Press, New York (2005). 7. 35 U.S.C. §111 (a)(1) Application. 8. Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPEP) 2138.04 Conception. 9. Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPEP) 2138.05 Reduction to Practice. 10. 35 U.S.C. §116(c) Inventors – Correction of Errors in Application 11. 35 U.S.C. §256(a) Correction of Named Inventor 12. GAF Corp. v. Amchem Prod. Inc., 514 F.Supp. 943, 211 USPQ 172 (E. D. Pa. 1981). 13. Union Paper Collar Co. v. Van Deusen, 90 U.S. 530 (1875). 14. Ethicon Inc. v. United States Surgical Corp., 135 F.3d 1456, 45 USPQ2d 1545 (Fed. Cir. 1998). 15. Hoop v. Hoop, 61 USPQ2d 1442 (Fed. Cir. 2002). 16. 35 U.S.C. §116(a) Inventors – Joint Inventions. 17. E. J. Taylor and M. Inman, “Looking at Patent Law: Why are Patents Often Referred to as Intellectual Property”, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, p. 41, Spring (2017). 18. John of Salisbury, The Metalogicon: A Twelfth-Century of the Verbal and Logical Arts of the Trivium, D. D. McGarry, Editor, p. 167, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA (1965). 19. Paulik v. Rizkalla, 760 F2d 1270, 226 USPQ 224 (Fed. Cir. 1985). 20. Mueller Brass Co. v. Reading Industries, Inc., 352 F. Supp. 1357, 1372 (E.D. Pa. 1972).

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T ECH HIGHLIGH T S Li3VO4 /C/CNTs Composites as HighPerformance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

Published in the “Focus Issue of Selected Papers from IMLB 2016 with Invited Papers Celebrating 25 Years of Lithium Ion Batteries.” Graphite-based materials continue to be the most commonly used anode materials in commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the practical application of graphite anodes in largescale LIBs may be hindered by safety issues arising from Li dendrite formation on the surface of the anode when cycling at fast rates. Li3VO4 has recently been identified as a promising intercalation mode anode material due to its theoretical capacity of 394 mAh g−1 and its operating voltage (between 0.8~0.5  V), which may avoid Li dendrite formation. Researchers from Xiamen University have developed a facile spray drying route to synthesize Li3VO4/C/ CNT composites with a hollow spherical morphology. The resulting composites have higher electronic conductivity than pristine Li3VO4 and demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 272 mAh  g−1 after 500 cycles at 10C. The stability of the composites is demonstrated by the retention of 86.1% of their capacity from the 2nd to the 500th cycle. These scalable composites offer promise for future LIB applications. From: Yang Yang, Jiaqi Li, Dingqiong Chen, and Jinbao Zhao, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, A6001 (2017).

Numerical Simulation of Micro-Galvanic Corrosion in Al Alloys: Effect of Geometric Factors Due to limitations associated with directly probing localized corrosion through electrochemical measurements, much research has focused on the development of models to inform the mechanisms that govern this corrosion process. Recently, a finite element model has been developed to examine the specific case of an intermetallic particle embedded in an Al-matrix and the resulting micro-galvanic corrosion. The effect of geometric factors on localized corrosion propagation was examined by simulation of a cathodic intermetallic particle of known radius and a surrounding anodic region of known width. Variation of each parameter while holding the other constant allowed for insight into competing physicochemical processes: Metal dissolution and local acidification, mass transport, deposition of Al(OH)3 and its inhibition of other chemical reactions, etc. The model was also utilized to examine the interplay of two cathodic particles as a function of distance and demonstrated the increase in local acidification when particles were closely spaced. This correlates with the breakdown of the passive film observed between co-located cathodic particles in experimental studies. The model will be enhanced to allow for simulation of the

corrosion initiation process and enable better comparison of corrosion damage to empirical data.

From: L. Yin, Y. Jin, C. Leygraf et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, C75 (2017).

Polymer-Assisted Solution Processing of TiO2 Thin Films for Resistive-Switching Random Access Memory Demand for modern flash memory devices is increasing due to the proliferation of handheld and smart electronic devices. Resistive-switching random access memory (ReRAM) has distinct advantages to contemporary flash memory technologies due to its simple structure, fast switching speed and low power consumption. The use of solution processing techniques for the deposition of these devices can be a cost-effective alternative to vacuum-based techniques which require high startup and running costs. Korea-based researchers have deposited titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrolyte layers for ReRAM devices via solution processing methods through the application of a polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) technique. The deposited TiO2 solid electrolyte layers have a dense microstructure while retaining an amorphous structure and smooth surface morphology. The layers were tested in a ReRAM device structure, demonstrating a memory window wider than 13, retention time longer than 104 s and a write cycle endurance of 500 cycles. The solution processing technique incorporating PAD demonstrates the functionality and cost-saving capabilities for flash memory devices. From: S. K. Vishwanath, S. Jeon, and J. Kim, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, H21 (2017).

Improving the Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bismuth Telluride-Based Materials Bismuth telluride-based semiconductor materials have been widely studied due to their excellent thermoelectric properties that make them attractive for applications in power generation, refrigeration, and thermal management. Researchers at the Tyndall National Institute in Ireland recently reported the results of a study that demonstrated a strong correlation between certain materials properties of electrodeposited materials and the resultant thermoelectric properties. The authors electrodeposited (Sb1−xBix)2Te3 films from an electrolyte prepared by mixing a nitric acid solution (containing dissolved tellurium and bismuth), a tartaric acid solution (containing dissolved antimony), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). They studied the effects of additions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant to the electrolyte on the microstructure, crystallinity, and thermoelectric properties of the resultant material. Increasing concentrations of SDS in the electrolyte resulted in changes in the chemical composition and average crystal

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

size of the Bi-Sb-Te films, and also resulted in generally improved values of the Seebeck coefficient and the thermoelectric power factor. Electrodeposited films deposited with SDS surfactant had a Seebeck coefficient of 91 µV/K, which was a 49% improvement compared to the film deposited without surfactant. In addition, the power factor of 264  µW/mK2 for the film deposited with surfactant was more than twice that of the film deposited without surfactant. From: S. Lal, D. Gautam, and K. M. Razeeb, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., 6, N3017 (2017).

Galvanic Corrosion Inhibitors for Cu/Ru Couple During Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Ru Ruthenium has been applied as a barrier layer for the production of copperbased integrated circuits, preventing interfacial diffusion between copper and the dielectric substrate upon which it is deposited. Electrochemically, ruthenium is significantly more noble than copper, introducing the risk of galvanic corrosion. Such attack has led to severe localized attack of the copper adjacent to the exposed barrier layer during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). This attack can negatively impact the reliability of interconnections in such structures. In CMP slurries containing oxidants such as KIO4 or H2O2, the galvanic effect is exacerbated. In this study, the authors explored the addition of benzotriazole and 1,2,4-triazole, two known anodic corrosion inhibitors for copper, to simulated CMP slurry chemistries, resulting in a significant reduction in the extent of galvanic corrosion. A range of inhibitor concentrations was explored, illustrating the potentially detrimental impact of too low a concentration of benzotriazole leading to the acceleration of attack, consistent with the behavior of anodic inhibitors. The effectiveness of 1,2,4-triazole was also found to be sensitive to concentration, where too high a concentration reduced the protective nature of the adsorbed inhibitor film, resulting in a loss of inhibitor efficiency. From: J. Cheng, T. Wang, X. Lu, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., 6, P62 (2017).

Tech Highlights was prepared by David Enos, Mara Schindelholz, and Mike Kelly of Sandia National Laboratories, Colm Glynn and David McNulty of University College Cork, Ireland, and Donald Pile of Rolled-Ribbon Battery Company. Each article highlighted here is available free online. Go to the online version of Tech Highlights, in each issue of Interface, and click on the article summary to take you to the fulltext version of the article.

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The IE&EE Division Issue by John Staser As vice chair of the Industrial Electrochemistry and grand challenges, including support for energy storage and conversion Electrochemical Engineering Division, it is with great as well as large-scale industrial processes. To that end, our division’s pleasure that I introduce the summer 2017 edition activities are quite broad, ranging from mathematical modeling of of Interface. The authors of the articles you are electrochemical systems, to optimization of industrial processes, about to read all worked tirelessly, and we owe them to environmental remediation and electrochemical conversion of acknowledgement and significant gratitude for putting this issue renewable raw materials to value-added chemicals. The diversity of together. Without their contributions, we would not be able to deliver our activities is highlighted in the following articles. Gerardine Botte the consistent quality of content that you expect in Interface. focuses on electrochemical applications of water treatment, including We as a division hope to highlight removal of metals in industrial the diverse activities of our members. waste streams and remediation of In the following pages you will find fracking wastewater, all important articles authored by industrial and environmental concerns. Antoine Today, the overarching goal academic members, with foci ranging Allanore focuses on electrochemical of our division is to provide electrochemicalfrom environmental applications to production of metals, while other mathematical modeling to large-scale articles focus on the chlor-alkali engineering-derived solutions industrial production of metals. Such industry, with consideration given to pressing grand challenges, including support breadth is evidence that our division’s to technical developments. Venkat for energy storage and conversion as well as activities, as has been the case in the Ramadesigan of the Indian Institute past, are ever evolving. of Technology, Bombay, has prepared large-scale industrial processes. The Industrial Electrochemistry an article on mathematical modeling and Electrochemical Engineering of Li-ion batteries, including insights Division has a long and storied history, into the historical nature of those and I would like to share some of efforts. His article highlights the that with you.1 The Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical application that electrochemical engineering has on developing Engineering Division began as a technical committee in 1915. The physics-based mathematical models for battery systems. newly formed Chlorine and Caustic Committee was soon rebranded I have enjoyed working with all of our authors to prepare these as the Chlor-Alkali Committee. The main practice of the committee articles, and I hope that you enjoy reading them as much as I have. at that time was preparing annual reports on the chlor-alkali industry. Thank you for reading, and I’m confident that you will walk away In 1943, the Chlor-Alkali Committee was moved into the Industrial with a new understanding of the importance of electrochemical Electrolysis Division. Members of the division continued to prepare engineering in all of our lives. Thank you for all of your support. reports on the chlor-alkali industry during this time, a practice that © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F03172if. continued into the first decade of this century. As time went on, the scope of the division members’ activities About the Guest Editor grew, although division membership was relatively small. To acknowledge the diversity of members’ activities, and in an attempt John Staser is the current vice chair of the to grow division membership, the division changed its name Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical to the Industrial Electrolysis and Electrochemical Engineering Engineering Division, and he is also that Division in 1990. In 2007, the name was again changed, this time division’s representative to the Interface advisory to the Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering board. He received a BS in chemical engineering Division, by which it is currently known. For more information, I from Case Western Reserve University and a encourage everyone to read about the history of the division in The PhD in chemical engineering from the University Electrochemical Society 1902-2002: A Centennial History. of South Carolina under the direction of John While our division was started to meet industrial needs, our Weidner. Staser is currently an assistant professor technical areas and our membership have become more diverse over in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular the past several decades. Today, the overarching goal of our division is Engineering at Ohio University, a position he has held since 2013. He to provide electrochemical-engineering-derived solutions to pressing may be reached at staser@ohio.edu.

Much of the history of the division that I write about here first appeared in The Electrochemical Society 1902-2002: A Centennial History, which was edited by Forrest A. Trumbore, Dennis R. Turner, and The Electrochemical Society staff. The relevant history of the division was kindly provided by Mary Yess, and was prepared by Robert S. Karpiuk incorporating material that was originally prepared by Clifford A. Hampel.

a

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Electrochemical Technologies for Water Treatment, Management, and Efficiency by Gerardine G. Botte

F

resh water is one of the world’s scarcest resources. Only 2.5% of the earth’s water is fresh water, of which 70% is frozen in icecaps. Most of the remaining fresh water is too deep underground to access; leaving only 1% of the earth’s fresh water available for human consumption.1 This scarcity makes water management a vital aspect of human subsistence as well as a multibillion dollar market. Each year around US$150 billion is spent worldwide on wastewater treatment.2 Water treatment, management, and recycling are also of critical importance for industrial processes, power generation, the chemical industry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Efficient management of the industrial water cycle can influence production performance, operating costs and the environment. Water management and efficiency were identified as critical sustainability goals for the Chemical and Allied industry in a recent roadmap, “Electrochemical Pathway for Sustainable Manufacturing” (EPSuM), which was funded by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) through the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Consortia (AMTech) Program.3 Partners in the EPSuM program Phase I included the Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research at Ohio University (CEER),4 the National Science Foundation Industry University Cooperative Research: Center for Electrochemical Processes and Technology (CEProTECH),5 PolymerOhio Inc.,6 The Electrochemical Society,7 and multiple companies. Rising concerns associated with water scarcity are becoming more of a significant issue across a greater number of regions, and especially in areas susceptible to drought and water shortages. Diminishing water supply is particularly disruptive to industries that are reliant on high quality process water for use in manufacturing. A wide variety of products (over 100,000)8 are manufactured in the chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries. As a consequence, waste streams generated in these industries can be heavily laden with contaminants, toxins, nutrients, and organic content, presenting unique challenges in terms of treatment especially as regulations become more stringent.9 Chemical industry waste streams can be highly complex, unique, and can exhibit a considerable amount of variation in terms of volume, quality, and composition. On the other hand, industrial-manufacturing processes in the pharmaceutical industry produce wastewater that is generally characterized as high strength organic effluent—waste streams that can be challenging to manage with conventional wastewater treatment. The main constituents in pharmaceutical waste streams that regulators are generally concerned with include oil and grease, pH, suspended solids, biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand levels, and mineral content.9 Electrochemical technologies can be implemented efficiently in different processes to address water treatment issues. As a result, it is timely to revisit different electrochemical technologies that are used for water treatment and to introduce examples of new economically efficient solutions to challenges related to industrial water treatment in hydraulic fracking and nitrogen removal.

Electrochemical Technologies for Water Treatment Classical electrochemical technologies that have been used for water treatment include: metal recovery and removal, electrocoagulation, electroflotation, and electrooxidation.10,11

Metal Recovery and Removal

Metals such as Ni, Co, Cr, Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, Zn, and V are widely used as base catalysts for multiple applications, including: oil refining, batteries, chemical processes, air emissions control, etc. In addition, in the electronics industry, these metals represent a significant waste from circuit boards. The production of such wastes (spent catalysts, batteries, and circuit boards) is a major environmental concern due to their toxicity potential for emissions to the environment in the transportation, post-processing, and disposal stages. Other industries leading to metal waste production include surface treatment and hydrometallurgy. Electrolysis has been widely used to extract metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Au, etc.) from various solutions and, therefore, to remove metals from water and to recycle these metals. The electrolytic recovery of metals involves two steps: collection of heavy metals and stripping of the collected metals. The electrochemical mechanism for metal recovery is based on the cathodic deposition of the metal: M

+n

+ ne → M

(1)

Metals are removed from the water in the cathodic compartment of the electrochemical cell, while water is oxidized at the anode of the electrochemical cell. The development of the electrochemical process is highly affected by the current efficiency (CE) as well as the space-time yield (STY) of the reactor—defined as the mass of product produced by the reactor volume per unit time. Areas of improvement for the process include minimization of the cell voltage and improvement of the CE. The high overpotential of the water oxidation reaction causes a high cell voltage, which also reduces the efficiency of the metal recovery process and affects the purity and the quality of the material recovered. This also limits the removal of metals from water when the concentration of ions is low (ppm level). Different types of electrochemical reactors have been implemented for metal recovery, including plate and frame cells, tank cells, rotating cells, fluidized beds, and packed beds.11 Because of the high oxidation potential in the electrochemical reactor caused by water oxidation, anode materials for metal recovery are typically made of steel or dimensionally stable anodes (DSA).12 To address challenges related to selectivity, low concentration of ions, current efficiency, and energy consumption, new technologies are being developed based on the concept of selective reductant electrowinning (SRE).13,14 Figure 1a presents a schematic of the SRE process. In the SRE process, a selective organic or inorganic compound with a lower oxidation potential than water is oxidized at the anode of the electrochemical cell, while metals are removed by cathodic deposition.13 The selective organic/inorganic compound must be inexpensive when compared to the metals that will be (continued on next page)

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Botte

(continued from previous page)

Fig. 1. Selective reductant electrowinning process for the removal/recovery of metals.13-14 (a) Schematic representation of the SRE process. (b) Electrochemical cell voltage of the SRE process using ammonia as the reductant chemical for the recovery of nickel from water. The cell voltage for the SRE process to recover nickel decreased from 2.35 V to 0.54 V, which represents 77% lower energy consumption when compared to the traditional metals removal process.

removed and/or recovered from water. Figure 1b shows a comparison of the SRE process implementing ammonia as the selective reductant with the traditional metal removal process (with water oxidation at the anode) for the recovery of Ni.14 The anode and cathode of the cell were separated using a Nafion 117 membrane. The anodic compartment of the cell operates at a slightly alkaline pH while the cathodic compartment operates at a relatively acidic pH. Charge balance is maintained by the transport of the cations through the cation exchange membrane; similarly to the application in the chloralkali process. The cell voltage for the SRE process to recover nickel decreased from 2.35  V to 0.54  V, which represents a 77% lower energy consumption when compared to the traditional metals removal process.

Electrocoagulation

Electrocoagulation (EC) has been used for the treatment of wastewater for the removal of suspended solids, the removal or destruction of microorganisms, algae, iron, silicates, and humus. EC applications include the treatment of wastewater from textile,15-17 petroleum and oils shale wastewater,18 municipal sewage,19 oily wastewater,20,21 etc. EC involves the generation of coagulants in situ by electrically dissolving either Al or Fe ions from Al or Fe electrodes, respectively. The generation of metal ions takes place at Al and Fe anodes in either alkaline or acidic media, according to: Al → Al + 3e E = −1.66 V vs. SHE

(2)

Al + 4OH → [ Al (OH 4 ) ] in alkaline pH

(3)

+3

+3

0

+3

+

Al + 3H 2O → Al (OH )3 + 3H in acidic pH +2

0

Fe → Fe + 2e E = −0.44 vs. SHE +2

Fe + 2OH → Fe(OH ) 2 in alkaline pH +2

+

4 Fe + O2 + 10 H 2O → 4 Fe(OH )3 + 8 H in acidic pH

(4) (5) (6) (7)

Hydrogen gas is released from the cathode. The hydrogen generated can also be used to flocculate particles out of the water (see Electroflotation). The oxidation reactions (2) and (5) compete with the oxygen evolution reaction: 2 H 2O → O2 + 4 H + + 4e −

(8)

Al and Fe ions are very efficient coagulants for particulates flocculating. These ions are thoroughly dispersed throughout the +3

+2

54

fluid to facilitate the elimination of suspended solids and colloids by gathering these together to form floc. Sedimentation, flotation and/or filtration systems are then used to separate the floc. Mechanisms for the coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation have been described in the literature.11 Factors that affect the EC process include current density, electrode type (typical electrodes include Fe and Al for the anode and stainless steel for the cathode), electrolyte concentration (typically NaCl is used as electrolyte,10 about 20% Cl− concentration is recommended to ensure normal operation), pH (affects solubility of species), temperature (higher current efficiencies have been reported when increasing temperature10), and power supply (polarization switching has been implemented to minimize passivation of the electrodes). Different designs of electrochemical reactors have been used for EC. The orientation of the electrode plates for the cell can be horizontal or vertical. The electrodes are typically connected in bipolar mode.

Electroflotation

Electroflotation (EF) has been used for different applications in wastewater treatment including mineral recovery,22 separation of oil and low-density suspended solids,23-27 spent cooling lubricant,28 wastewater from coke production,29 food processing wastewater,30 etc. In the EF process tiny bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen are generated from water electrolysis; the bubbles lead to the flotation of pollutants to the surface of the water. Typical EF systems consist of two electrodes, a power supply, and a sludge-handling unit. Electrodes are typically placed at the bottom of the cell and they can be placed vertically or horizontally.10 A simple blower system eliminates any hazard from the predominant escaping gas (hydrogen). EF is typically combined with EC (described earlier). This process provides several advantages in the treatment of wastewater:31 1. The electrode grids can be arranged to provide good coverage of the whole surface area of the flotation tank, enhancing mixing of the wastewater and the gas bubbles; 2. Gas production and residence time can be checked quickly and are easily controlled with a power source. Typical cell voltages are in the range of 5-20 V; 3. Gas generation is a function of the current and the salinity of the process; therefore, it is easy to control by monitoring pH and applied power; 4. It can be implemented in cases where air could be difficult to dissolve in a particular effluent.32 The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


The performance of an EF system is reflected by the pollutant removal efficiency and the power and/or chemical consumption. The removal efficiency is affected by the size of the bubbles. The power consumption is affected by: the design of the reactor, the type of electrodes, concentration of the electrolyte, temperature, pH, and arrangement of the electrodes. The electrode system is the most important part of the EF unit. Typically, electrodes that are not dissolved are recommended for the EF unit. TiO2-RuO2 DSA electrodes have been used but do not have high durability/lifetime for oxygen evolution. Most recently, IrOx-based DSA electrodes have been successfully implemented.10

electrochlorination provides a way to generate hypochlorite in situ, this abolishes the constraints created by the need to store chlorine or to transport and store dilute hypochlorite solutions. Electrochlorination was primarily developed to protect cooling circuits found on offshore platforms, electricity generating stations and factories supplied with seawater, against the proliferation of algae and mollusks, but this process has also been implemented in swimming pools.11 The main electrochemical reactions involved in the process are the oxidation of Cl− and the reduction of water at the anode and cathode of the cell, respectively:

Electrochemical Oxidation

Electrochemical oxidation (EO) has been used for the removal of organic compounds from wastewater produced in/by distilleries, agrochemical industries, pulp and paper mills, textile industries, oilfields, hospitals, pharmaceutical industries, micro-pollutants (e.g., pesticides), etc.33 Numerous studies at the pilot scale have demonstrated the removal of organics by EO including phenolic compounds,34-38 chlorinated organics,39 disinfection byproducts,40,41 pharmaceuticals,42-45 and various industrial streams.46-55 Several critical reviews on this topic are available in the literature.10,33,56,57 EO of pollutants can be performed by indirect electrochemical oxidation (IEO) and direct electrochemical oxidation (DEO). Figure 2 presents the differences between the two approaches. Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation4In the IEO process, strong oxidants are produced. The oxidants lead to the oxidation of the pollutant at the bulk of the solution. Typically, the oxidation of the pollutant with the oxidant is fast, however, the process is limited by the generation of the oxidant and its mass transport to the bulk of the solution. This technique can effectively oxidize many inorganic and organic pollutants. The most common processes are the electroFenton process (for organics) and the electrochlorination process (for organics and inorganics), which rely on hydrogen peroxide and chlorine as the oxidants, respectively. In the electro-Fenton process hydrogen peroxide is produced at the cathode of the cell. Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most powerful oxidants known, and through catalysis, H2O2 can be converted into hydroxyl radicals (·OH) with reactivity second only to fluorine. In such a system, the cathodic reaction is: O2 + 2 H + + 2e − → H 2O2

(9)

The efficiency of the electro-Fenton system depends mostly on the efficiency of the cathode, typical cathodes include58 porous carbon with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), carbon felt, graphite, carbon sponge, and activated carbon fibers, among others. Iron (Fe+2) salts can be added into the wastewater or generated in situ from an iron anode to initiate the electro-Fenton reaction, in which iron is a mediator: Fe +2 + H 2O2 → Fe +3 + OH − + ⋅OH

2Cl − → Cl2 + 2e −

(11)

2 H 2O + 2e − → H 2 + 2OH −

(12)

Chlorine will react with hydroxyl ions to form hypochlorite ions, which forms hypochlorous acid in equilibrium with water: Cl2 + 2OH − → ClO − +Cl − + H 2O

(13)

ClO − + H 2O  HClO + OH −

(14)

This process requires chlorine concentrations larger than 3 g/l.10 Industrial units consume approximately 4  kWh per kilogram of chlorine equivalent produced.11 As an example, ammonia can be removed from wastewater by breakpoint chlorination.59 Ammonium ions react with hypochlorous acid to produce chloramines. Further addition of chlorine to the breakpoint converts the chloramines to nitrogen gas as shown below: +

NH 4 + HOCl → NH 2 Cl + H 2O + H

+

(15)

NH 2Cl + HOCl → NHCl2 + H 2O

(16)

NHCl2 + HOCl → NCl3 + H 2O

(17)

2 NH 2Cl → NHCl2 + NH 3

(18)

2 NH 2Cl + HOCl → N 2 + 3HCl + H 2O

(19)

In a study performed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the operation of a wastewater treatment plant (in the Blue Plains locale of Washington, D.C.) implementing the breakpoint (continued on next page)

(10)

At the anode of the electrochemical cell, the oxidation of water takes place as shown in Eq. 8. The anode needs to withstand the overpotential of water oxidation. Different forms of Pt are the most stable material.10 However, because of the economic impact other materials have been implemented such as boron-doped diamond (BDD), titanium coated with IrO2/RuO2, RuO2/Ti mesh, and iron. Different type of reactor configurations and electrode materials have been evaluated for the electro-Fenton process, a summary of the different specifications can be found in the literature.58 Despite the advantages that the electro-Fenton process enables in terms of removing organic pollutants, its application has been hindered due to the energy consumption and cost. On the other hand, electrochlorination has been widely implemented for the removal of inorganic and organic pollutants because it obviates the need for storing chlorine gas on-site. Hypochlorite, an oxidant-disinfectant, is frequently used in water treatment. From a safety and procurement point of view,

Fig. 2. Approaches for the electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants. Direct electrooxidation takes place at the anode electrodes where pollutants are directly oxidized. In the indirect electrooxidation, strong oxidants—such as chorine and hydrogen peroxide—that lead to the oxidation of the pollutant at the bulk of the solution are produced. Mediators include metal ions.

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Botte

(continued from previous page)

chlorination process for the removal of ammonia, 10 parts by weight of Cl2 are required to remove 1 part by weight of NH3-N (this type of unit form uses the molecular weight of only the nitrogen atoms).59 If the chlorine was provided via electrolysis (4 kWh per kg of Cl2), the energy consumption for the process will be 40 kWh per kg of NH3-N. However, one of the concerns on the de-coupled implementation of breakpoint with chlorine electrolysis is the excess of HCl produced in the wastewater treatment plant, which represents a high consumption of NaOH and/or lime to regulate pH. Because excess of chlorine is required, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) will also require a downstream de-chlorination process. One alternate approach evaluated at several water treatment facilities including Blue Plains60,61 and South Tahoe61,62 is the combination of an ion exchange column with electrochlorination, provided via chlorine electrolysis cells. A schematic of the process is presented in Fig. 3. Zeolites that are selective for ammonia relative to calcium, magnesium, and sodium were evaluated, for example clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite that occurs in several extensive deposits in the western United States.60,61 During the operation cycle (Fig. 3a) wastewater with ammonia flows through the ion exchange bed until the column reaches the breakpoint. After about 150-200 bed volumes of normal-strength municipal waste have passed through the bed, the capacity of the clinoptilolite was to the point that ammonia begins to leak through the bed. At this point, the clinoptilolite must be regenerated so that its capacity to remove ammonia is restored. The key to the applicability of this process is the method of handling the spent regenerant, see Fig. 3b. The zeolite is regenerated by passing concentrated salt solutions through the exchange bed when the ammonia concentration reaches the breakpoint. Following regeneration, the ammonia-laden spent-regenerant volume is about 2.5 to 5 percent of the throughput treated before regeneration, therefore, the concentration of ammonia in the regenerant is higher than in the inlet wastewater; for example 500 mg/L for a 5% of the throughput treated assuming an inlet concentration of 25 mg/L. The spent regenerant is then treated by indirect electrooxidation (via electrochlorination) providing a fresh regenerant ready to be reused in the process. Because of the IEO process, see Eq. 11-19, the only byproducts of the process are nitrogen and hydrogen gas. However, it was reported that the electrical energy consumption during the IEO is high, 50 kWh per kg of NH3-N removed.59

The selective ion exchange process combined with the IEO was found to have multiple advantages for the removal of ammonia59 such as high efficiency, insensitivity to temperature fluctuations, removal of ammonia with minimal addition of dissolved solids, and the ability to eliminate any discharges of nitrogen to the atmosphere other than nitrogen gas. However, the process has relatively high costs due to the high energy consumption. Improvements in the system would require more efficient processes for electrolysis, for example, the use of direct electrolysis of ammonia (ammonia electrolysis63-73), instead of indirect electrolysis. The ammonia electrolysis process is described in the Example Applications section below. Direct Electrochemical-Oxidation4Electrooxidation of organic pollutants occurs directly on oxide anodes (MOx) in which water (in alkaline or acidic media) is also partially oxidized (Eq. 20) to generate physically adsorbed active oxygen (adsorbed hydroxyl radicals, ·OH). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydroxyl radicals may interact with the oxygen already present in the oxide anode with possible transition of oxygen from the adsorbed hydroxyl radical to the lattice of the oxide anode, forming a higher oxide, MOx+1 (chemisorbed active oxygen, see Eq. 21).74 The physically adsorbed active oxygen causes the complete combustion/oxidation of the organic compounds (R) (see Eq. 22), and the chemisorbed active oxygen participates in the formation of selective oxidation products (see Eq. 23):74 MOx + H 2O → MOx (⋅OH ) + H + + e −

(20)

MOx (⋅OH ) → MOx+1 + H + + e −

(21)

R + MOx (⋅OH ) z → CO2 + zH + + ze + MOx

(22)

R + MOx+1 → RO + MOx

(23)

In general, ·OH radicals are more effective for organic pollutants oxidation than the O in the MOx+1. Selection of the anode material is critical for the process. Specifically, electrode materials must have a high overpotential for oxygen evolution to increase the current efficiency of the process towards the removal of the organic pollutants. Exemplary anode materials include BDD film on titanium substrate,75 Ti/PbO2,76 granular graphite,77 and PbO2.78 Different designs of electrochemical reactors have been implemented. The simplest electrooxidation reactor design is the bipolar cell. Besides planar electrodes, cylindrical electrodes and packed bed electrodes have also been used.10

Example Applications: Hydraulic Fracking and Nitrogen Removal As described in the previous section, electrochemical technologies offer great opportunities for water treatment, management, and efficiency. This section highlights applications on electrochemical technologies within the context of hydraulic fracking process water and the removal of ammonia from municipal water treatment plants and fertilizer run-off.79

Advanced Water Treatment for Hydraulic Fracking Water

Fig. 3. Selective ion exchange process combined with electrochlorination. The process is effective in removing ammonia from water but the energy consumption is high 50 kWh/kg of NH3-N. 56

In the last decade, the use of hydraulic fracturing or fracking process to extract natural gas from shale formations has skyrocketed. Hydraulic fracking (HF) consists of injecting water, containing sand and chemicals, into wells under extremely high pressure to fracture or crack open pores in the shale formation to release the oil and gas. The hydraulic fracking process injects large quantity of water (~100 million gallons) per well. Ground water and surface water resources are withdrawn to account for the large volume of water needed for the hydraulic fracking process, which directly influences the availability

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


of ground and surface water for other consumption. The flow-back water and produced water obtained during the hydraulic fracking process contains organic chemicals, dissolved metal ions, dissolved solids, and chemical additives. If the flow-back and produced waters are not sufficiently treated and discharged to bodies of water, the contamination of ground and surface water will be significant. Therefore, water management and wastewater treatment presents a major techno-economic challenge to hydraulic fracking technology. Challenges when treating HF produced water include variability of the produced water, access of the water treatment technology to the well, and cost. Table I shows an example of the variability range of certain contaminants in HF produced water. The concentration of the contaminants varies as the produced water ages. A cooperation between the Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research (CEER) at Ohio University and De Nora Tech was established via CEProTECH (industry/university cooperative consortium) to evaluate and demonstrate the performance of a pilot scale skid mobile system that incorporated electrochemical oxidation with hydrodynamic cavitation (mechanical treatment) and UV-ozone to treat HF produced water with a capacity of 400 gpm.80 Figure 4 presents a picture of the skid system that was installed at CEER and evaluated with HF water that was provided by De Nora Tech. The system was designed with two tanks to allow for full evaluation of the water quality through different passes from the units in the skid. The electrochemical reactor consisted of three bipolar electrodes with DSA anodes. The electrochemical cell was designed and built by De Nora Tech to perform both direct and indirect electrochemical oxidation (mediated with chlorine). The water quality was characterized before and after treatment including: TDS, TOC, COD, TKN, chloride, BETX, barium strontium, boron, pH, arsenic, cadmium, iron, manganese, mercury, silica, and sulfates. The skid system was tested through multiple passes: 1, 5, 10, and 20. Successful treatment of the produced HF water was demonstrated at the different passes. Over 80% removal of BTEX was achieved demonstrating complete abatement of volatile organic compounds. The concentration of iron was reduced by 83.3%, manganese concentration was lowered by 87.5%, and concentration of nitrogencontaining compounds expressed in terms of total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN) was reduced by 95%. The concentrations of BTEX, nitrogencontaining compounds (TKN), and manganese in the treated water were compliant with the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations after 20 passes through the skid.80 Current estimated cost for treating the produced water varies and it could be up to

$8.50 per barrel based on the technology, location (on-site or offsite), and end use. The ability to remove key constituents (BTEX, manganese, nitrogen-containing compounds, iron) from produced water to meet water regulations using the current configuration of the skid is a strong indicator for efficient treatment of the technology. The economic target of the project is to bring the cost for treating the produced water between $2 and $4 per barrel.

Advanced Water Treatment for Nitrogen Removal

Ammonia emissions into air (ambient ammonia) and water represent an environmental challenge. Ambient NH3 contributes to inorganic PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) directly and plays an important role in secondary organic aerosol formation by interacting with gaseous phase organic acids and forming condensable salts.81 Various industries are considered ammonia emitters, including fertilizer manufacturing, livestock management, coke manufacture, fossil fuel combustion, and refrigeration methods.82 Fossil fuel combustion is included in (continued on next page)

Fig. 4. Pilot system for the treatment of hydraulic fracking produced water. The hydrodynamic cavitation unit is at the forefront, the UV-ozone generator is mounted on the wall, and there are two storage containers for testing of the hydraulic fracking produced water.

Table I. Example of hydraulic fracking water characteristics and comparison with water standards.80 Produced water range (5 days post fracture)

Produced water range (14 days post fracture)

Water standard

Standard Source

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), mg/L

38,500-238,000

30,010-261,000

500

U.S. EPA Secondary Standard

Total Organic Carbon (TOC), mg/L

3.7-388

3.7-388

2-20

Typical values in surface waters

195-17,700

228-21,900

10

WHO* standard for drinking water

38-204

5.6-261

2-6

Widely recognized as an acceptable range of total nitrogen

26,400-148,000

1,670-181,000

250

WHO

BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), µg/L

Non-detect

1-350

Benzene: 5 Toluene: 1,000 Ethylbenzene: 700 Xylene: 10,000

U.S. EPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards

Barium, mg/L

21.4-13,900

43.9-13,600

2

U.S. EPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards

345-4,830

163-3,580

8

U.S. EPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards

25-30

100-150

24

WHO

Parameter

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), mg/L Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), mg/L as N Chloride, mg/L

Strontium, mg/L Boron, mg/L *WHO: World Health Organization

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Fig. 5. Ammonia electrolysis process. Direct oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen gas takes place at the anode of the cell while hydrogen is cogenerated at the cathode of the cell. The theoretical energy consumption for the removal of ammonia is lower than any other biological or chemical process (0.33 kWh per kg of NH3-N removed).

the list of ammonia emitters because of their NOx emission control methods. The exhaust gas from fossil fuel processing plants has nitrogen oxides. Therefore, this gas must be treated with urea or ammonia via selective catalytic reduction to convert the NOx into nitrogen gas before discharge to the atmosphere. However, a portion of the ammonia may exit along with the exhaust gas, which is known as ammonia slip.83 Similarly, even though not considered an industry, combustion gases from diesel vehicles also contributes to ammonia emissions. Other sources of ambient ammonia are caused by the volatilization of ammonia from inappropriate control in water (e.g.,

livestock, fertilizer run-off). Meng, et al., presented a recent inventory of ambient ammonia for 2011.82 The authors reported that 8.77 Tg of ammonia were emitted from combustion and industrial sources, and this amount accounts for one-eighth of the overall ambient ammonia emissions in 2011.82 According to this, the overall NH3 ambient emissions in 2011 correspond to 70.16 Tg. When comparing to the total amount of ammonia produced worldwide in 2010, 159 million tons,84 the total ambient ammonia emissions in 2011 represent 48.5% of the global ammonia production in 2010. Ammonia emissions in water are associated with environmental problems such as algae bloom.79 Methods for the removal of ammonia include biological and physicochemical methods. Biological methods are not the most appropriate for industrial wastewater treatment. Currently, wastewater treatment solutions for ammonia (biological and chemical treatments) consume a significant amount of energy (4.5 to 50 kWh per kg of ammonia removed); have high operational costs ($4 per lb of ammonia removed); require significant capital investment ($658,000 per million gallons per day (MGD) for retrofit and $9,000,000 per MGD for grassroots plants/new constructions); are not easily adaptable to tighter emissions regulations; take a long time to start up (i.e., for the micro-organisms to stabilize in the biological reactors); and are large in size.85 For example, the combination of ion exchange with indirect electrooxidation requires at least 50 kWh per kg of NH3-N removed. An alternative for efficient ammonia water treatment is the ammonia electrolysis technology, illustrated in Fig. 5. This technology has been under development at CEER for the treatment of wastewater.63-69 In this process, the direct oxidation of ammonia takes place at the anode of the electrochemical reactor in alkaline media producing nitrogen gas (Eq. 24), while hydrogen is produced at the cathode of the cell (Eq. 25): 2 NH 3 + 6OH − → N 2 + 6 H 2O + 6e − E  = − 0.77 V vs. SHE (24) 2 H 2O + 2e − → H 2 + 2OH − E  = − 0.829 V vs. SHE

(25)

The overall cell reaction is: 2 NH 3 → N 2 + 3H 2 E  = 0.059 V

(26)

Because the cell voltage for the oxidation of ammonia is lower than for water electrolysis, ammonia can be removed from the water. Based on the thermodynamic cell voltage, 0.33 kWh per kg of NH3-N removed are needed for water treatment, which is much lower energy

Fig. 6. Construction and components of the Ammonia GreenBox pilot system for the City of Athens Wastewater Treatment Plant. The system was built in a mobile unit that was plugged into the entrance line of the water treatment plant. 58

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


consumption than for electrochlorination. This value does not include the energy that can be recovered in the process via the combustion or conversion of hydrogen to heat and/or heat and power. A partnership between CEER and the City of Athens (Ohio) Wastewater Treatment Plant86 was established to evaluate and demonstrate the performance of a pilot scale ammonia electrolysis system—Ammonia GreenBox. The ammonia electrolysis cell was combined with zeolite ion exchange columns as shown in Fig. 3. The main difference is that ammonia electrolysis cells were used instead of chlorination electrolysis cells. The system had a capacity to manage 760 gallons of wastewater per day. The Ammonia GreenBox consisted of 5 electrolysis cells with electrode size of 300 cm2 and a power consumption of up to 20 W. The components of the system were installed in a mobile trailer and connected to the water treatment plant as an electrical appliance (with minimum plumbing and direct connection to power). Figure 6 presents the different components of the system and the progress during its construction. The whole system was built and assembled in two months (June – July 2015), which is relatively a short time when compared to major construction of systems for WWTPs. For example, the Athens WWTP went through significant renovations and the whole process from design to installation took 2.5 years. The unit was plugged in at the entrance of the influent after primary filtration. The water treatment system was tested and evaluated for four months. Successful removal of ammonia was demonstrated. Figure 7 presents examples of the evaluation. The concentration of ammonia at the inlet of the treatment system varied from 20 to 85 ppm. As shown in Fig. 7a, the concentration at the exit of the column or exit from the water treatment unit was mostly zero. The saturation point for the column was set to a concentration >1 ppm of ammonia. The system was designed to achieve column saturation in 12 hours as shown in Fig. 7a. After saturation, the column was recovered and a spent regenerant was produced with a concentration of ammonia of ~1,200 ppm. The spent regenerant was sent to the ammonia electrolysis stack for the removal of ammonia and the recovery of the regenerant, as shown in Fig. 7b. The system operated with recirculation. An average ammonia removal rate per cell of 10.5  mg/min was achieved. The average energy consumption was ~6 kWh per kg of NH3-N without recovery of energy from the hydrogen produced. This energy consumption is 88% lower than electrochlorination. The ability to remove the ammonia to levels (less than 1 ppm) much lower than current regulations (~10 ppm) is a strong indicator for the efficient treatment of the technology. The pilot system demonstrated an energy efficient technology for ammonia removal. Optimizing the flow

through the electrolyzer as well as implementing some minor changes on the electrodes could further reduce the energy consumption for ammonia removal. The ammonia electrolysis technology is also being evaluated by the Department of Defense (DoD) for energy efficient water reuse.87,88

Outlook Electrochemical technologies offer multiple advantages for water treatment, management, and efficiency: • Tolerant to variability of the waste streams. The processes can be designed to withstand the variability of waste streams and they can be combined effectively with other unit operations. • Effective treatment at point of use. Advanced electrochemical reactors for water treatment are compact, modular, and portable. • Easy to operate. The water treatment process can be completely automated and its performance can be monitored and controlled via the cloud. • Easy to install. The systems can be plugged into wastewater treatment facilities as an electrical appliance (minimum plumbing, no heavy concrete construction needed) for complete removal of pollutants or to increase capacity of the water treatment facility (retrofit). • Enable decentralized treatment of water. This minimizes risks of water contamination during storms and decreases energy consumption. • Easy integration with renewable energy (electricity) sources. This has a significant impact in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Current processes for municipal water treatment are based on biological alternatives and are not efficient to be coupled with renewable energy sources. The incorporation of electrochemical technologies would enable the direct use of electricity to remove contaminants. • Enable recovery of resources. Depending on the composition of the waste stream, electrochemical technologies can be used to recover chemicals, metals, or energy. • Lower emission limits. Electrochemical technologies provide opportunities to remove contaminants at levels that cannot be achieved with biological processes. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F04172if. (continued on next page)

Fig. 7. Performance of the pilot ammonia water treatment at the City of Athens Wastewater Treatment Plant. (a) Ammonia removal via the zeolite columns. (b) Removal of ammonia from the regenerant. An average ammonia removal rate per cell of 10.5 mg/min was achieved. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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Acknowledgments The author thanks the financial support of different programs and the cooperation of different partners: • Department of Defense through the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory Grants W9132T-09-1-001 and W9132T-12-2-0006 that funded part of the development of the ammonia electrolysis technology. • The Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research at Ohio University, the City of Athens Wastewater Treatment Plant, TechGROWTH Ohio, and private investors that funded the pilot evaluation of the ammonia electrolysis technology. • Dr. Kathryn Guy from the Engineering Research and Development Center’s Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL) of the U.S. Department of Defense. • The National Science Foundation I/UCR Center for Electrochemical Processes and Technology (award number lIP1362075) and De Nora Tech for funding the pilot demonstration for the treatment of hydraulic fracking produced wastewater.

About the Author Gerardine (Gerri) Botte is a university distinguished professor and Russ professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Ohio University, the founder and director of Ohio University’s Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research, and the founder and director of the National Science Foundation I/ UCRC Center for Electrochemical Processes and Technology. She and members of her research group are working on projects in the areas of electrochemical engineering, electrosynthesis, batteries, electrolyzers, sensors, fuel cells, mathematical modeling, and electrocatalysis. She has 140 publications (including 22 granted patents). She is a fellow of The Electrochemical Society, charter fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, and a fellow of the World Technology Network. Botte served as past chair, vice chair, and secretary/treasurer of the IEEE Division. She received her BS in chemical engineering from Universidad de Carabobo (Venezuela) in 1994. Prior to graduate school, she worked as a process engineer in a petrochemical plant (Petroquimica de Venezuela) where she was involved in the production of fertilizers and polymers. She received her PhD in 2000 (under the direction of Ralph E. White) and ME in 1998, both in chemical engineering, from the University of South Carolina. She may be reached at botte@ohio.edu. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5678-6669

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49. L. Ouattara, M. M. Chowdhry, and C. Comninellis, New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol., 14, 239 (2004). 50. S. S. Vaghela, A. D. Jethva, B. B. Mehta, S. P. Dave, S. Adimurthy, and G. Ramachandraiah, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 2848 (2005). 51. P. Canizares, R. Paz, J. Lobato, C. Saez, and M. A. Rodrigo, J. Hazard. Mater., 138, 173 (2006). 52. E. Chatzisymeon, N. P. Xekoukoulotakis, A. Coz, N. Kalogerakis, and D. Mantzavinos, J. Hazard. Mater., 137, 998 (2006). 53. N. Mohan, N. Balasubramanian, and C. A. Basha, J. Hazard. Mater., 147, 644 (2007). 54. V. K. Gupta, R. Jain, and S. Varshney, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2312, 292 (2007). 55. S. Masid, S. Waghmare, N. Gedam, R. Misra, R. Dhodapkar, T. Nandy, and N. N. Rao, Desalination, 259, 192 (2010). 56. B. P. Chaplin, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 16, 1182 (2014). 57. J. Radjenovic and D. L. Sedlak, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 11292 (2015). 58. P. V. Nidheesh and R. Gandhimathi, Desalination, 299, 1 (2012). 59. Physical-Chemical Nitrogen Removal, Wastewater Treatment, EPA Technology Transfer Seminar Publication, AWBERC Library, U.S. EPA (July 1974). 60. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Pollution Control Research Series No. 17080 DAR 09/71 (Sept. 1971). 61. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Pollution Control Research Series No. 17010 ECZ 02/71 (Feb. 1971). 62. R. Prettyman, Ammonia Removal by Ion Exchange and Electrolytic Regeneration, Unpublished report, CH2M/HILL Engineers (Dec. 1973). 63. G. G. Botte, U.S. Patent 7,803,264 (2010). 64. G. G. Botte, M. Cooper, and F. Vitse, U.S. Patent 7,485,211 (2009). 65. G. G. Botte, U.S. Patent 8,221,610 (2012). 66. G. G. Botte, U.S. Patent 8,216,437 (2012). 67. G. G. Botte, U.S. Patent 8,216,956 (2012). 68. L. Diaz, G. G. Botte, Electrochemical Deammonification of Swine Wastewater, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51, 12167 (2012). 69. E. P. Bonnin, E. J. Biddinger, and G. G. Botte, J. Power Sources, 182, 284 (2008). 70. F. Vitse, M. Cooper, and G. G. Botte, J. Power Sources, 142, 18 (2005).

71. M. Muthuvel and G. G. Botte, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol 45, R. E. White, Editor, p.07-243, Springer Verlag (2009). 72. G. G. Botte, Paper presented at the 12th Annual Ammonia Fuel Conference, Chicago, IL, September 2015. 73. A. Estejab and G. G. Botte, Paper 1239 presented the 227th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Chicago, IL, May 24-28, 2015. 74. C. Comninellis, Electrochim. Acta, 39, 1857 (1994). 75. X. Chen, G. Chen, and P.L. Yue, Chem. Eng. Sci., 58, 995 (2003). 76. R. Kotz, S. Stucki, and B. Carcer, J. Appl. Electrochem., 21, 14 (1991). 77. Y. M. Awad and N. S. Abuzaid, J. Environ. Sci. Health A, 32, 1393 (1997). 78. D. W. Kirk, H. Sharifian, and F. R. Foulkes, J. Appl. Electrochem., 15, 285 (1985). 79. http://www.cnbc.com/2016/07/26/why-are-there-so-manytoxic-algae-blooms-this-year.html (Accessed April 2017). 80. M. Muthuvel and G. G. Botte, in Industry-Nominated Technology Breakthroughs of NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers, C. S. Scott, Editor, p. 43-45, National Science Foundation (2016). 81. K. Na, C. Song, C. Switzer, and D. R. Cocker, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 6096 (2007). 82. W. Meng, Q. Zhong, X. Yun, X. Zhu, T. Huang, H. Shen, Y. Chen, H. Chen, F. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Wang, E. Y. Zeng, and S. Tao, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 2821 (2017). 83. D. Misenheimer, T. Warn, S. Zelmanowitz, Ammonia Emission Factors for the NAPAP Emission Inventory, Alliance Technologies Corporation EPA-600/7-87/001 (1987). 84. https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/nitrogen/mcs2011-nitro.pdf (Accessed April 2017). 85. http://www.scribd.com/doc/217400634/Wastewater-TreatmentPerformance-and-Cost-Data#scribd (Accessed August 2015). 86. http://www.ci.athens.oh.us/index.aspx?NID=225 (Accessed April 2017). 87. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/News-and-Events/NewsAnnouncements/Program-News/ESTCP-announces-FY-2017new-start-project-selections/(language)/eng-US (Accessed April 2017) 88. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/Program-Areas/EnvironmentalRestoration/ER-2218/ER-2218 (Accessed April 2017).

ECS Electrochemistry

KNOWLEDGE BASE One site. Thousands of resources. 4 Over 1,000 electrochemical definitions 4 Dozens of articles by leading experts 4 Links to over 1,000 electrochemical websites 4 Over 3,000 books and proceedings volumes listed

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The 7th International ECS Electrochemical Energy Summit Monday, October 2 – Wednesday, October 4

National Harbor, MD

Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center Photo by National Harbor

2017 The 7th International ECS Electrochemical Energy Summit brings together policymakers and researchers from around the globe to discuss the ways in which science impacts the planet’s key sustainability issues. It will be held as part of the 232nd ECS Meeting and focus on Human Sustainability – Energy, Water, Food, and Health, featuring three separate symposia: Z03 - Energy-Water Nexus will focus on the connection between energy and water and emerging technologies that could improve access to clean, safe, and affordable resources across the globe. In addition to technical sessions ranging from membranes for water purification to fuel cells, the symposium will feature talks from members of federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Interior, to discuss funding opportunities.

Photo by National Harbor

Z04 - The Brain and Electrochemistry will focus on research and developments in the brain, central nervous system, and the peripheral nervous system and aims to open the doors to this exciting field for electrochemical and solid state scientists, highlighting interdisciplinary approaches to emerging technologies and potential funding streams from government and other large agencies. Z05 - Sensors for Food Safety, Quality, and Security will be a one day, poster-focused session. In addition to the technical posters, the symposium will feature five overview talks from government, industry, and association representatives.

2017 E2S Organizing Group Chair Eric Wachsman, University of Maryland Organizers Bryan Chin, Auburn University Lili Deligianni, IBM Corporation Research Center Christina Bock, National Research Council of Canada Visit www.electrochem.org/232 for updated E2S information, including speakers and participating organizations.

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Electrochemical Engineering for Commodity Metals Extraction by Antoine Allanore

W

ith the projected addition of 2 billion inhabitants on earth by 2050, the primary extraction of commodity metals is poised to grow. For comparison, the population increase of nearly 2 billion over the last 35 years led to a doubling of the primary production of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu), while aluminum (Al) production almost tripled. Figure 1 shows the production of key metals by tonnage in 2015.1-4 Within the next 33 years, the metal industry will not only need to increase its output, but equally important, deliver those metals at a cost affordable to the regions experiencing the greatest population growth. Indeed, for various logistical and economic reasons, those regions today have access to those metals only at prices that exceed global trade prices. Meanwhile, environmental awareness, both globally (e.g., greenhouse gases) and locally (e.g., SOx, dioxines, dusts emissions, or water consumption), calls for a significant technological effort to enhance the sustainability of these industries.5 Is it possible that cost effective, C-free power generation put forth in several energy scenarios enable the metal extraction industries to revisit their technologies? In a future with GHG-free electricity at potentially $0.05 per kWh, could electrochemical engineers dedicated to Fe, Al, or Cu primary production offer a sustainable path? In particular, which electrolyte could enable us to match the productivity of today’s technology? An overview of the present markets and underlying technologies is presented in this article to help frame the discussion.

It is acknowledged that the existing technologies operate close to the thermodynamic minimum, with a total energy consumed of around 5000 kWh/t and an equivalent CO2 emission of around 1.85 tCO2/t. This energy originates mostly from coal and is partly used in the numerous steps necessary before and after the blastfurnace (coke and sinter production, conversion to steel).To date there are no electrolytic processes to substitute C-based extraction of Fe, in part because of the multiple valency of iron (Fe3+ and Fe2+), and the stringent economics and scale of this metal production. At conversion costs of less than $350/t6 for a product that often sells for less than $500, the room for operational uncertainty and inefficiency is very limited.

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million tonnes in 2015

$ billion in 2015

Situation in 2015 Market Reality

As presented in Fig. 1, the metal most consumed is iron (Fe), mostly in the form of steel products, with 1,620 million tons produced in 2015 (equivalent to almost one Eiffel tower every 2 minutes). Second is aluminum at 60 million tons followed by copper at 18 million tons. Zinc and lead are next, together at around 24 million. The demand for these primary metals drives the mining of the corresponding ores and the production of concentrates, whose market shares are summarized in Fig. 1. The revenue from mining metal feedstocks represents several hundred billion dollars per year, not counting gold and silver, with oxides (for Fe, Al, but also Mn, V, Cr, Ti, etc.) and sulfides (for Cu, Zn, Pb, but also Ni, Ag, etc.) equally represented. Figure 2 shows the energy, metal price and conversion costs that support the annual consumption rates shown in Fig. 1. At around $5000/t ($2.3/lb), copper is barely sold at the retail price of organic potatoes in North America. Around 10 times less expensive ($0.25/lb), steel is sold at less than the retail price of flour. These prices are an essential reality of commodity production, and it is hard to conceive developing countries being able to cope with higher costs for those products in the future.

Fig. 1. Left, global production of primary Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn+Pb in 2015, in million tons. Right shows estimates of the corresponding mining market revenue used as feedstock today (Fe2O3@$60/t, Al2O3@$350/t, Cu, Zn, and Pb feedstocks are sulfides, accounted here as metal value contained in concentrates3,4).

Energy, Costs and Environment

Figure 2 also shows the amount of energy consumed for the extraction of one tonne of metal today. A summary of the underlying engineering principles, technical progress, and role of electricity can be read elsewhere10 for iron. The chemical basis of its extraction is the carbo-thermic reduction of iron oxide (Fe2O3, >90% ) following Eq. 1, conducted in a blast-furnace where liquid iron (pig iron) is produced:

Fe2O3 + 3 2 C → 2 Fe(l ) + 3 2 CO2 ( g )

(1)

Fig. 2. Specific energy consumption (bars) and conversion costs (dots, x10). Price estimates are shown in parenthesis. Data for conversion costs: Fe from Ref. 6, Al from Ref. 7 and 8, and Cu from Ref. 9.

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For copper, the chemical extraction from sulfides represents 80% of the primary copper produced yearly,9 and is based on the simplified Eq. 2 which produces liquid copper, liquid oxide (slag) and sulfur dioxide (to be converted to sulfuric acid): (Cu , Fe) S 2 + 5 2 O2 ( g ) → Cu (l ) + FeO(l ) + = 2 SO2 ( g )

(2)

Here, despite the exergonic nature of Eq. 2 predicted by thermodynamics, the actual net energy consumption is around 3600 kWh/t, with nearly 70% of it being electricity consumption.11 Per se, the copper production from sulfide today has room to improve its energy efficiency. Some of the reasons for such energy consumption are the need to prepare nearly pure O2 from air, the need to recover part of the copper oxide contained in the FeO in an electric arc furnace, and the need to convert SO2 into sulfuric acid. Additional refining of the liquid Cu are also needed to obtain copper of sufficient purity (electrorefining, 340  kWh/t12). While several electrolytic processes have been proposed to substitute the existing smelting operation, a cost-competitive substitute to directly make liquid copper from sulfide ores solely based on electrochemistry has yet to be found. The selectivity for the various elements present in copper sulfide concentrates is a key challenge to current practices, as exemplified by the amount of Fe lost as FeO (almost 1 tFe/tCu), or the difficulty in the direct recovery of elements more noble than Cu such as Ag, Mo, or Sb. Conversion costs are estimated at $320 per ton of copper, including $100 per ton for electrorefining.9 Interestingly, the conversion costs for Cu are very similar to those for Fe, and both processes rely on pyrometallurgy, oxidation of a fuel (S for Cu, C for Fe), and gas/liquid or gas/solid reactions. Liquid aluminum is produced from high purity alumina (Al2O3, +99.5%) using both carbon affinity for oxygen and electrolysis, since Eq. 3 is driven and maintained at temperature solely thanks to electricity: Al2O3 + 3 2 C → 2 Al (l ) + 3 2 CO2 ( g )

(3)

As reviewed in this journal,13 the efficiency of the Hall-Héroult (HH) electrolysis process underlies the affordability of aluminum, and remains the hallmark of primary metal extraction by electrolysis. It is presented in some details hereafter since it may serve as a baseline for the deployment of novel electrolytic processes for direct decomposition of other metal compounds, such as Fe2O3 for iron or CuFeS2 for copper. The process today for aluminum14 consumes a carbon anode (0.4 tC/t) and around 13,000 kWh/t for the electrolysis itself. The production of carbon anodes requires energy, so that around 18,000 kWh are needed per ton of aluminum.15 Direct CO2 emissions for aluminum are therefore bounded by the stoichiometry of Eq. 3, while indirect emissions are directly linked to the mode of power generation. Aluminum shows that tonnage metal can be produced solely relying on electricity. Production costs for this metal7,8 show that electricity accounts for 60% of the expenditure when excluding the costs of the raw materials (carbon anode, alumina). At 13,000 kWh/t for electrolysis, this implies an equivalent cost for electricity at $0.05/kWh. This number matches what is often put forth as the future costs of C-free electricity generation, highlighting the real opportunity offered by electrochemistry.

The three metals have therefore key technical challenges to further integrate low GHG electricity and embrace the requirements by society of a more efficient usage of energy or mined products as well as a lower environmental impact. The three metals also have economy of scales and exceptional productivity, which need to be maintained in order to allow affordability. Those are briefly reviewed below in order to define the conditions in which electrolysis, with its efficient use of energy, selectivity, unique control of productivity and flexibility could become a viable alternative to existing routes.

Productivity, Footprint, and Scale Table I provides some of the features of existing Fe, Cu, and Al producing plants (smelters). These plants are nowadays integrated, going from ore concentrate to a semi-finished product (rolled coils for Fe, ingots for Al, and cathode plates for Cu), with different capacity and productivity per square meter. The ranking in capacity matches mankind’s consumption rate: 4,000,000 tpa of iron, a productivity that is around 10 times larger than for aluminum at around 400,000 tpa, similar to that of recent copper smelters. Columns 5 and 6 show the footprint and specific productivity of the reactors for Eq. 1–3 accounting for the unit operations where reactant preparation and product recovery and refining are conducted. Al and Fe are entirely reduced and refined in the liquid state, while copper undergoes electrorefining in the solid state as an ultimate step, a notoriously low productivity process. Smelters cover large areas, though only a small surface is actually dedicated to Eq. 1, 2, or 3. Most of the surface is occupied by unit operations that handle and prepare the reactants, or separate, recover and purify the products and by-products. Cu and Fe have a similar productivity per square meter, twice larger than Al. The amount of energy handled at smelters is of consequence, equivalent to very large power plants. This feature suggests the integral role the metal extraction sector can play in energy management in any community. From a production cost standpoint, novel electrolytic process for these three metals must exhibit the same conversion costs as today’s technologies (see column 2 in Table 1). Considering that 60% of conversion costs for electrolytic extraction come from electricity, as currently found for aluminum electrolysis, the assumption of an electricity cost at $0.05/kWh allows one to calculate the electrical energy budget available for Fe, Al, and Cu extraction. Current aluminum and copper conversion costs have a respective “available” electricity budget at 13200 and 3840 kWh/t, comparable with the overall energy expenditure of today’s technology. The total electricity consumption that could be afforded for Fe is around 3900  kWh/t, which is lower than today’s energy consumption of an integrated steel plant. Assuming the footprint for the reduction steps in smelters may be used as a proxy for capital costs (column 6), the specific productivity realized for an aluminum electrolysis cell today would have to be at least doubled for iron and steelmaking. Assuming the production capacity of the current smelters is optimized for the capital and conversion costs as well as the market reality presented above, the overall production rate for steel would have to be 10 times larger than for aluminum or copper. Are those metrics reasonable for electrochemical reactors? It is proposed hereafter to review the situation for aluminum electrolysis production, and use this as the baseline for extrapolating to Fe and Cu.

Table I. Features of existing technologies for Fe, Cu, and Al extraction from their feedstock (concentrates). Conversion Costs ($)

Specific Energy (kWh/t)

Plant Productivity (t/h)

Fe

325

5000

457

Cu

320

3600

Al

1100

18000

Total Energy Managed (Primary) (MW)

Footprint for Reduction (m2)

kg/h/m2

Plant Capacity and Footprint Estimates

2283

640000

0.71

4 Mtpa, includes coke plant, sinter plant, blast furnace, BOF, oxygen plant

46

164

64000

0.71

400 ktpa, includes flux preparation, smelter, acid plant, oxygen plant, electrorefining

46

822

145000

0.31

400ktpa, includes anode plant, gas treatment, electrolysis hall

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As shown above, aluminum today is entirely produced by electrolysis. The core of aluminum extraction is electrolysis conducted in a Hall-HĂŠroult cell where Al2O3 is dissolved at around 3 wt% in a molten fluoride bath mostly composed of cryolite (81  wt% Na3AlF6, 11% AlF3, 5% CaF2) at 960  °C.17 The cell adopts a horizontal design where a gravity driven separation of the products is obtained. Consumable carbon anodes at the top evolve CO2, and liquid aluminum is recovered at the bottom cathode. The liquid aluminum (purity >99%) is periodically siphoned, on a yearly average of 3.5 t/day per cell. Al2O3 is periodically fed to maintain a concentration of a few weight percent. The key features of a modern electrolytic cell16 are presented in the first line of Table II. A very high cathode current density (0.8 A/cm2) and current efficiency (+95%) justify the productivity and costs. Figure 3 shows that remarkable electrochemical engineering efforts have been accomplished since the discovery by Hall and HĂŠroult [See “ECS Classics: Hall and HĂŠroult and the Discovery of Aluminum Electrolysis,â€? T. Beck, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 23(2) 36 (2014).]. Those progresses enabled an increase in the cell dimensions and increase in the amount of current flowing in a single cell. Improvements in faradaic efficiency and heat management to decrease operational costs have also been significant. Today energy losses amount to around 53%.17

energy consumption for a process following Eq. 4 being 9260 kWh/t (compared to 6338  kWh/t for Eq. 3 with carbon), inert anodes are anticipated to enable a net reduction in energy consumption and operating costs for aluminum production (see Ref. 21 for the underlying engineering arguments). This is not entirely surprising for electrochemical engineers who may recall that the “decarbonization� of chlorine production by electrolysis (deployment of dimensionally stable anodes instead of graphite for Chlor/Alkali electrolysis) also led to drastic cost and energy savings.28,29

Targets

The direct electrochemical decomposition of metal compounds eliminates carbon or fuel from the chemical basis of metal extraction. It requires developing a technology where Eq. 5 is conducted solely with the use of low GHG-electricity: MX → M (l ) + 1 2 X 2 ( g )

For prompt adoption, MX is ideally selected from the major compounds of the feedstock available today from existing mining and beneficiation operations, i.e., Fe2O3 for iron or CuFeS2 for copper. The only by-product is O2(g) from an oxide concentrate, and S2(g) from a sulfide concentrate. Both are very valuable in the context of clean combustion technologies, with S2(g) having the advantage of (continued on next page)

Direct Decomposition: The Next Challenge?



As seen above, carbon anode consumption in Eq. 3 for aluminum electrolysis means that even with a C-free power source, the extraction of aluminum as practiced today will emit CO2. Therefore the industry has, since the early days of Hall,19 envisioned changing the chemical basis of aluminum production from alumina by accomplishing the direct decomposition Eq. 4 with a non-consumable anode: (4)

As may be anticipated from the chemistry and electrochemistry of molten cryolite, the molten fluoride electrolyte being designed to dissolve most oxides, finding an anode material to evolve oxygen in a Hall-HĂŠroult cell is a remarkable challenge.20,21 It is difficult to find a stable conductive but passivating layer on anode materials for the conditions described in Table II. In addition, the reactivity of aluminum means that most other elements present in the molten electrolyte will be reduced preferentially, implying contamination of the metal product at the cathode. Nevertheless, some promising developments have been reported using metal, ceramic, or composite anodes, close to commercial demonstration in the early 2000s with publicized efforts from companies such as Alcoa or Moltech, a company founded by Vittorio De Nora.21 Recent updates22 from China,23 Russia,24 the European Union,25,26 and the United States27 point to a renewed interest in this area, though not much transpired into electrochemical engineering literature. Despite the minimal

!  

Example of Inert Anode for Aluminum

Al2O3 → 2 Al (l ) + 3 2 O2 ( g )

(5)

 







   



 



           

 

Hall-HĂŠroult as a Baseline



Fig. 3. Variation of the specific energy consumption (left, closed circles) and cell amperage (right, open circles) for Al electrolysis. From Ref. 15 and 18.

Table II. Key features of existing HH cells for aluminum and projection of hypothetical performances for Fe and Cu. A cathode area of 54m2 is used (18mx3m). (min. corresponds to the minimum thermodynamic, 53% loss to the heat efficiency of HH, 33% to a cell with enhanced heat management). Cell Voltage in V

Faradaic Efficiency

Al today

4.26

0.95

Fe (min.)

1.72

Fe (53% loss)

3.65

Fe (33% loss)

Energy Consumption in kWh/t

Cathode Current Density in A/cm2

kg/h/m2 (Cathode)

Production Rate in t/day

Cell Amperage in kA

13380

0.8

2.55

3.4

440

0.95

2600

3.9

25.50

33.0

2087

0.95

5532

3.9

25.50

33.0

2087

2.56

0.95

3881

3.9

25.50

33.0

2087

Cu (min.)

1.30

0.95

1976

0.23

5.10

6.6

122

Cu (53% loss)

2.77

0.95

4204

0.23

5.10

6.6

122

Cu (33% loss)

1.95

0.95

2949

0.23

5.10

6.6

122

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being condensable and transportable for remote energy generation or safe storage. Developing such a technology is a challenge. Indeed, to substitute existing technologies, the new electrolysis processes need to exhibit the cost, scale and productivity highlighted in Table I and discussed above. To compete on capital costs, the production per unit of time and per unit of area needs to be comparable to existing technologies. Aluminum electrolysis technology, with its high productivity gains (see Fig. 3), shows that producing a liquid metal enables the separation, handling and separation of the metal from a cell without interrupting the current. For iron, an electrolysis cell technology of the same dimensions as today’s HH cell would have to produce 10 times more liquid metal per hour, every hour, every day, every year, and for several years. The energy budget available is dictated by the cost of electricity, with special restrictions to the various contributions of the cell voltage introduced in Ref. 13 and detailed in Ref. 28. Hereafter, a projection of the electrochemical engineering metrics necessary for Fe and Cu direct electrolysis to compete with existing technology is proposed, using today’s aluminum electrolysis performances as a baseline.

Engineering of an Electrolysis Cell Producing a Liquid Metal Commodity

Assuming the production of a liquid metal, the existing HH cell dimensions and efficiency can be used as a baseline to evaluate the features of a similar process to make Fe (Tm =  1538  °C) and Cu (Tm  =  1085  °C). For a mitigation of environmental impact, the gaseous anodic product evolves on a non-consumable anode (O2 for Fe, S2 for Cu), meaning a significant departure and improvement of the anode design for gas evolution and removal (see Ref. 21). The aluminum cells today are self-heating reactors, where the engineering of irreversibility (Joule effect due to the ohmic drop) is used to maintain the temperature of the electrolysis cell. The cell operates at 960  °C, with energy losses of around 53%. Some of those heat losses are purposely engineered to allow the formation of a frozen side-wall to contain molten cryolite. Additional losses include heat transfer through the bottom, walls, top electrodes and gas leaving the cell.15 The current efficiency for aluminum is very high, greater than 95%, an important feature for affordable tonnage metals production. Knowledge of the energy and current efficiency allows one to evaluate the actual energy consumption anticipated to conduct Eq. 5 for Fe and Cu. Maintaining the existing productivity and footprint for those metals (see Table II for existing data) calls for a re-evaluation of the total current flowing in electrolysis cells, meaning operating at a different current density. The current and current density recalculated for Cu and Fe are shown in Table II (column 5), where a single HH cell is considered with a cathode area of 54 m2.14 For iron, the production rate has been multiplied by 10 to match today’s smelter capacity differences with Al. For copper, the productivity by square meter has been scaled by 1.13, to match the difference in smelter footprint.

The energy consumption estimated for Cu direct decomposition, at 4204 kWh/t using the existing performance of HH cells (53% losses) is not yet compatible with the electricity budget available at $0.05/kWh derived above (3840 kWh/t). For Cu, energy management improvements for electrolysis are required to be at par with today’s conversion costs and losses can only represent 45% of the electricity consumed. If losses can be reduce to 33%, direct copper electrolysis would enable reduced energy consumption for copper extraction (2949  kWh/t). Matching specific surface productivity of today’s operations call for a current density at around 0.23 A/cm2, around 3 times what is found today in copper aqueous electrowinning. For iron, the energy losses experienced today in HH cells are not compatible with the cost of the final product. Indeed, affordable iron made by Eq. 5 driven by electrolysis requires a maximum of 3900 kWh/t, which could not be achieved with 53% losses. A direct electrolytic decomposition cell for iron production would need to achieve less than 33% energy loss, a challenge that requires careful mastering of heat transfer at 1538 °C. Existing electrical processes at such high temperatures suggest that such performance is possible, though yet to be proven for electrolysis.30 In terms of productivity, matching existing performances for iron requires a current density of around 4 A/cm2, a figure pointing to a need for a breakthrough in electrochemical reactivity of metal ions. For Cu, Fe, and Al, the requirement for high productivity highlights the relevance of producing a liquid metal product, avoiding the limitations inherent to electro-crystallization. The current example of Hall-Héroult cells or the past amalgam Cl2/Na production with a liquid cathode at a current density up to 1.5 A/cm2 are strong indicators of the benefits of such an approach. 28

Consequences on Electrolyte and Electrochemical Engineering

Some of the figures calculated above are challenging for electrical and mechanical engineering. For example, as suggested in Table II, line 4, how to safely operate a 2000 kA cell at around 1600 °C for liquid steel production, with the corresponding recovery of 120  Nm3/ min of O2, all at a terminal voltage of less than 2.6  V? Electrochemists are also challenged to find conditions that could actually enable Eq. 5 to be driven at such a rate, with a selectivity greater than 95%. Considering the desire to produce liquid metal, high temperature molten electrolytes are needed. Table II shows the conditions of the HH process, which again can be used as an inspiration. Considering the cathode current density used in today’s HH cells corresponds to 70% of the limiting current density—it is common in electrodeposition not to run at the limiting current to avoid uneven growth of the metal—it is possible to evaluate the equivalent mass transfer conditions existing at the cathode via:

kD =

jlim 1 3F [ M 3+ ]

(6)

Using a bulk concentration of Al3+ equivalent to 10 mol/L,1 the equivalent mass transfer coefficient amounts to around 4.10−6  m/s, familiar to aqueous and molten salts electrochemists. Assuming

Table III. Important physical chemical data for some molten electrolytes (μ: viscosity in mPa.s; ρ: density in g.cm−3; κ: conductivity in S.cm−1). Pros

Cons

Halides (Ref. 36, 37, and 38)

high κ [0.02 – 6] low μ [1 – 6] low ρ [1.3 to 1.9]

- temperature limited to <1200 °C - low solubility for O2−, S2− - possible liquid metal solubility

Fluorides (Ref. 36)

high κ [0.1 – 10] low μ [1 – 20] low ρ [1.8 to 4]

- temperature limited to <1200 °C - corrosive - vapor pressure

Oxides (Ref. 31 and refs therein)

high solubility for oxide low vapor pressure

- high viscosity in presence of network former - electronic conduction

Sulfides (Ref. 39)

high solubility for sulfides high κ low µ

- vapor pressure - electronic conduction

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an electrolyte with similar mass transfer coefficient as for HH, one can calculate the equivalent bulk concentration of Cu or Fe cations required to achieve the current densities evaluated in Table II. The calculation suggests that electrolytes with at least 5 mol/L and 50 mol/L of respectively Cu+ and Fe3+ cations needs to be dissolved from the feedstock. Which molten electrolyte could exhibit such features? Table III lists some of the possible candidates, where molten oxides (see Ref. 31 for a review), and molten sulfides have recently received renewed attention. Molten halides are well known electrolytes with a limited solubility for oxides and sulfides, and a rather limited range of temperature. Liquid copper production has been demonstrated in such halides,32 but challenges inherent to the anode reactions remain. Molten fluorides are also well recognized candidates and have the reported challenges of being very corrosive to oxides, again exhibiting a fairly limited range of temperature stability. Molten sulfides remain understudied, and recent efforts toward high-melting point quasi-binary and -ternary systems indicate a possible path forward to the direct decomposition of sulfides to metal and sulfur.33 In this situation, the handling and selectivity of direct electrolysis for multiple metal species coming from the sulfide concentrates remain to be demonstrated, e.g., Fe but also Se, As, or Ag from chalcopyrite. It indeed remains to be demonstrated that Eq. 5 can be conducted from ore concentrates available on the market. Molten oxides are best suited to treat oxide ores, and exhibit a wide range of operating temperature. The general lack of understanding and study of the physical chemistry, thermodynamic and electrochemical properties of all those electrolytes is the first challenge faced by electrochemical engineers, and a concerted effort from materials scientists, chemists and electrochemists would greatly enhance the rate of progress in the use of those electrolytes. The high solubility of metal cations is necessary for competitive productivity, and molten oxides and sulfides are interesting candidates from such a standpoint. Equally important is the concentration of the electronegative species that forms the metal feedstock compound, i.e., the species oxidized at the anode to yield X2(g) in Eq. 5. This is particularly important for electrolytes that are based on different electronegative elements than in the feedstock, e.g., oxides in molten fluorides or sulfides in molten halides. As known in HH cells as the anode effect, a low concentration of oxygen next to the anode may lead to the oxidation of another species, such as CFC in fluoride-based electrolytes.33 The author has in particular studied such mass transfer issues in molten oxides, in the context of oxygen ions oxidation to oxygen gas,34,35 showing that natural and bubble-induced convection are likely essential phenomena to support the range of anode current densities necessary for commodity metal extraction by electrolysis.

Summary Iron, aluminum, and copper have a cost per unit and production capacity that ranks them as commodity. The success of aluminum production by electrolysis enabled this metal to become such a commodity, and the perspective of cost effective C-free electricity offers a unique opportunity to envision new electrolytic processes for Cu and Fe. Those processes will have to exhibit stringent productivity, high-energy efficiency, and evolve environmentally compatible products at the anode to maintain the sustainability of both metals. From a productivity standpoint, the production of liquid metal is an important feature that calls for the development of high temperature electrolytes compatible with the metal feedstocks. This challenge requires a multidisciplinary endeavor, where the physicochemical understanding of high temperature electrolytes and the electrochemistry of both cathodic and anodic reactions will need to be provided to enable the design of competitive electrochemical reactors with unique performance. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F05172if. This concentration is chosen as an order of magnitude. The actual species reduced at the cathode are not Al3+ cations and the mechanism actually involves fluorinated species of Al.

a

About the Author Antoine Allanore’s research applies to sustainable materials extraction and manufacturing processes, in particular using electrochemistry. Allanore joined MIT in 2010 where he devised a new inert anode material for oxygen evolution at 1600 °C in molten oxide for steel production. As a faculty in the Department of Materials Science & Engineering, he has developed numerous alternative approaches for metals and minerals extraction and processing. With an emphasis on electrochemical methods for both analytical and processing purposes, his group combines experimental and modeling approaches to promptly investigate the ultimate state of condensed matter, the molten state. Allanore is a member of The Electrochemical Society since 2006. He was awarded The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) DeNora Prize in 2012, recognizing outstanding contribution to the reduction of environmental impacts, especially focused on extractive processing, as well as the Early Career Faculty award also from TMS. He may be reached at allanore@mit.edu. http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-2594-0264

References 1. Worldsteel Statistics, https://www.worldsteel.org/steel-by-topic/ statistics.html 2. Word-Aluminum, http://www.world-aluminum.org 3. International Copper Study Group, http://www.icsg.org 4. International Lead and Zinc Study Group, http://www.ilzsg.org/ static/home.aspx 5. S. H. Ali, D. Giurco, N. Arndt, E. Nickless, G. Brown, A. Demetriades, R. Durrheim, M. Amélia Enriquez, J. Kinnaird, A. Littleboy, L. D. Meinert, R. Oberhänsli, J. Salem, R. Schodde, G. Schneider, O. Vidal, and N. Yakovleva, Nature, 543, 367 (2017). 6. Nuccor Steel investor presentation, http://www.nucor.com/ media/IR-March2014InvestorPresentation.pptx 7. J. King, “The Aluminum Industry,” 1st Ed., Woodhead Publishing, New York (2001). 8. See, for example: B. Raahauge, “Sustainable Production of Primary Aluminum in Greenland,” FLSmidt Minerals, Denmark (2014). 9. M. E. Schlesinger, M. J. King, K. C. Sole, and W. G. Davenport, “Extractive Metallurgy of Copper,” 5th ed., Elsevier Science, New York (2011). 10. A. Allanore, JOM, 65, 131 (2012) 11. P. Coursol, P. J. Mackey, and C. M. Díaz, “Energy Consumption in Copper Sulphide Smelting,” Proceedings of Copper 10, Vol. 2, p. 649, GDMB, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, 2010. 12. M. Free, M. Moats, T. Robinson, N. Neelameggham, G. Houlachi, M. Ginatta, D. Creber, and G. Holywell, in Electrometallurgy. Now and in the Future, M. Free, Editor, p. 3, TMS, Pittsburgh, PA, 2012. 13. G. G. Botte, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 23(3), 49 (2014). 14. http://www.ega.ae/en/technology/reduction-cell-technologies/ dxplus-technology/ 15. J. N. Jarrett, AIChE Symp. Ser., 77, 27 (1981). 16. The Successful Implementation of Dubal DX+ Technology at EMAL, E. Williams, Editor, TMS, Pittsburgh, PA, 2016. 17. J. Thonstad, P. Fellner, G.M. Haarberg, J. Hives, H. Kvande, and Å. Sterten, Aluminum Electrolysis. Fundamentals of the HallHeroult Process, 3rd ed.. Aluminum-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2001. 18. W. E. Haupin, “History of Electrical Energy Consumption by Hall-Héroult Cells,” W.S. Peterson and R.E. Miller, Editors, p. 106, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1986. 19. C. M. Hall, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 3, 143 (1911).

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20. D. R. Sadoway, JOM, 53(5), 34 (2001). 21. I. Galasiu, R. Galasiu, and J. Thonstad, Inert Anodes for Aluminum Electrolysis, 1st Ed., Aluminum-Verlag, Dusseldorf, 2007. 22. R. P. Pawlek, in Light Metals, p. 1309, TMS, Hoboken, NJ, 2014. 23. T. Z. Liang, Y.-Q. Lai, Z.-Y. Li, D.-P. Chai, J. Li, and Y.-X. Liu, JOM, 66, 2229 (2014). 24. http://www.rusal.ru/en/development/innovations/inert_anode/ 25. http://www.european-aluminum.eu/about-aluminum/storiesof-innovation/a-revolutionary-project-towards-low-carbonaluminum-production/ 26. C. Barthelemy, S. Bouvet, A. Gabriel, V. Laurent, and A. Marmottant, WO 2015-IB1041. 27. J. Yang, H. Jianhong, N. John, and G. K. Krumdick, in Light Metals, p. 421, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2006. 28. F. Hine, Electrode Processes and Electrochemical Engineering, Plenum Press, New York, 1985. 29. S. Trasatti, Electrochim. Acta, 45, 2377 (2000). 30. K. D. Peaslee, S. N. Lekahk, and B. Randall, Thermal Efficiency of Steel Melting, Steel Founders’ Society of America, Crystal Lake, IL, 2004. 31. A. Allanore, J. Electrochem. Soc., 162, 13 (2014). 32. R. G. Hoar and T. P. Ward, Inst. Min. Metall., 618, 393 (1958). 33. S. Sokhanvaran, S.-W. Lee, G. Lambotte, and A. Allanore J. Electrochem. Soc., 163, 115 (2016). 34. A. Allanore, Electrochim. Acta, 110, 587 (2013). 35. A. H. Caldwell, E. Lai, A. Gmitter, and A. Allanore, Electrochim. Acta, 219, 178 (2016). 36. P. Chamelot and J.-C. Poignet, in Sels Fondus à Haute Température, V. Ghetta, J. Fouletier, and P. Taxil, Editors, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2009. 37. G. J. Janz, R. P. T. Tomkins, C. B. Allen, J. R. Downey, Jr., G. L. Gardner, U. Krebs, and S. K. Singer, in Molten Salts, Volume 4, p. 871-1178, 1975. 38. G. J. Janz, R. P. T. Tomkins, and C. B. Allen, in Molten Salts, Volume 4, p. 125-302, 1979. 39. G. J. Janz, Molten Salts Handbook, Academic Press, New York, 1967.

Uhlig’s Corrosion Handbook (3rd Edition) Edited by R. Winston Revie (2011) 1,296 pages, ISBN 978-0-470-08032-0 Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition (2nd Edition) By M. Paunovic and M. Schlesinger (2006) 373 pages, ISBN 978-0-471-71221-3 Fundamentals of Electrochemistry (2nd Edition) Edited by V. S. Bagotsky (2005) 752 pages, ISBN 978-0-471-70058-6 Electrochemical Systems (3rd Edition) By J. Newman and K. E. Thomas-Alyea (2004) 672 pages, ISBN 978-0-471-47756-3

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Electrochemical-Engineering-Based Models for Lithium-Ion Batteriesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Past, Present, and Future by Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan

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ore than 25 years have passed since SONY commercialized the first Li-ion battery in 1990.1 Today, Li-ion batteries are prevalent in a wide gamut of applications including portable electronic devices, automobiles, energy storage, military, and space. The current push towards adopting renewable energy sources and electric vehicles have led to increased dependence on batteries. The critical needs for batteries with high power capabilities, high-energy storage capabilities, insensitivity to charging/discharging parameters, long lifetimes without significant degradation of performance, and portability with very small footprint/volume are increasing day by day. We make trade-offs to optimize their performance for a given application. Battery modeling plays a very important role in designing efficient, cost effective, and safe batteries. Mathematical modeling allows us to explore a wide variety of system parameters with a minimum expenditure of time and materials. This requires a certain amount of confidence in the ability of the model to describe the system properly. However, in any case, the optimum design identified in the modeling effort can be built, tested, and used as a first approximation to a truly optimized design.2 Empirical models employ past experimental data to predict future behavior of Li-ion batteries without the consideration of physicochemical principles. It is extremely important for the battery models to be based on the underlying physical phenomena to facilitate efficient cell design to develop better and more efficient batteries with existing technologies. The electrochemical engineering field has long employed macroscopic continuum models that incorporate chemical/ electrochemical kinetics and transport phenomena to produce more accurate predictions than empirical models. Electrochemical engineering models of Li-ion batteries have appeared in the literature for more than twenty years. This article will discuss the history of battery modeling and the current state-of-the-art.

they derived by using a volume-averaging technique. Properties were averaged over a small volume which is large compared to the pore structure. The electrodes were viewed as a superposition of active material, binder, and electrolyte, and these phases coexist at every point in the model. Electroneutrality is assumed on all phases considering that the thickness of a double layer is small compared to the pore volume. Newman and co-workers developed a pseudo-2-dimensional (P2D) model with the concentrated solution theory for electrolyte diffusion.11 The P2D model included diffusion in the electrolyte and solid phases, as well as Butler-Volmer kinetics. This paper was one of the first to model the reaction rate with the Butler-Volmer equation, instead of simplified linear kinetics or the Tafel approximation. Fuller, Doyle, and Newman published a similar model of a dual Liion insertion cell (graphite anode and manganese oxide cathode).12 Doyle, et al., then published a comparison of model predictions with experimental data for the full Li-ion battery (anode and cathode).13 These papers are of great importance in the field of Li-ion battery modeling, as they developed the first complete simulations of Liion batteries and established the role of porous electrode theory in modeling these systems. The same theoretical framework has been applied to many other types of cells, such as Li-sulfur, LFP and lithium polymer batteries. The model is based on concentrated solution theory to describe the internal behavior of a Li-ion sandwich consisting of positive and negative porous electrodes, a separator, and a current collector (see schematic in Fig. 1). This model is generic enough to incorporate further addition of physics enabling better understanding of battery systems, leading to the development of a number of similar models.14 This physics-based model is by far the most widely used by battery researchers, and solves for the electrolyte concentration, electrolyte potential, solid-state potential, and solid-state concentration within the porous electrodes and (continued on next page)

Electrochemical Engineering in Li-Ion Battery Models In the 1950s, the first models for current and potential distribution in porous battery electrodes were developed.3 Major strides towards understanding the behavior of porous electrodes were made in the early 1960s with the development of porous electrode theory.4 This generalized the earlier modeling efforts into a macro-homogeneous modeling framework that is still used in most models to this day. Later the governing equations for porous electrodes were presented by Newman and Tiedemann in 1975.5 Newman also presented similar equations for applications to electrochemical systems in general.6 The first attempts to model the processes occurring in Li-ion insertion based cells were developed in the 1980s. The earliest mathematical models for the composite insertion electrode was developed by West and his coworkers.7,8 The model by West, et al., covered only a single porous electrode and did not have the advantages of a full-cell sandwich model. This model lacked the treatment of complex, interacting phenomena between the cell layers and utility for design purposes. Mao and White developed a similar model with the addition of a separator adjacent to the electrode.9 De Vidts and White10 also presented equations for porous electrodes, which

Fig. 1. Schematic of a Li-ion cell sandwich for a P2D model with the cathode, anode, and separator also showing the spherical particles in the pseudosecond dimension.

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the electrolyte concentration and electrolyte potential within the separator. This model, which is based on the principles of transport phenomena, electrochemistry, and thermodynamics, is represented by coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in x, r, and t that can take seconds to minutes to simulate. The inclusion of many internal variables allow for improved predictive capability, although at a greater computational cost. Based on the governing equations developed by Newman and co-workers, Wang, et al., developed a micro-macroscopic coupled model for batteries and fuel cells utilizing the volume-averaging technique, that includes solid-state physics of electrode active materials and interface morphology and chemistry.15 The energy balance equation for insertion battery systems was developed by Newman and coworkers.16 Botte et al., accommodated the effect of side reactions in the thermal behavior of a cell, extending the theory by use of the energy balance.17 Electrochemical models for secondary lithium batteries have been developed utilizing simplified equations for different limiting cases.18 The simplest physics-based model is the Single-Particle Model (SPM) that incorporates the effects of transport phenomena in a simple manner.19 In the SPM, diffusion and intercalation are modeled in a single particle, which represents the entire thickness of the electrode. It considers that each electrode consists of a single particle with the same surface area as the electrode. This model neglects the concentration and potential effects in the solution phase between the particles. Because of simplifications, the computational time of this model is very short but is only valid for limited conditions, such as low rates and thin electrodes. A parabolic profile approximation for the lithium concentration within the particle provides greater efficiency in computational time.20 Several other models of varying complexities and approximations have been developed and are used in various applications that include linearized or Tafel kinetics, absence of spatial variation of certain variables, etc. More complicated continuum three-dimensinoal (3D) models for batteries have also been developed.21 While the 1D and 2D

models only focus on the macro-scale distribution of state variables, 3D models can investigate local distributions of micro-variables such as ionic concentration and potential through distinct phases of battery components, though with additional computational requirements.

Current Focus in Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries With the advancement in computational infrastructure, the current focus is on developing multiscale, multidimensional, and multiphysics electrochemical-thermal coupled models to describe all the important phenomena that occur during the operation of Liion batteries accurately. These are useful for high power/energy applications such as in electric/hybrid vehicles and large-scale energy storage. It is beneficial to include temperature effects into the P2D model though it adds to the complexity of the model. Modeling capacity fade/degradation in batteries is a very widely researched area. Degradation in batteries happens due to cumulative non-separable effects of individual mechanisms occurring simultaneously and often times researchers neglect important electrochemical/transport phenomena in the quest of adding capacity fade mechanisms. A few phenomena including the diffusion of lithium in graphite are not well understood. Since lithium diffuses within the particle, the expansion and contraction of the material does not occur uniformly across the particle, causing stress in the particle that may lead to fracture and loss of active material. Various models have been developed to examine the volume change and stress induced by Li-ion intercalation for single particles. Some continuum models have also accounted for the distribution of particle sizes and its effect on the battery performance. Battery models are improved by considering multiple cells arranged in a stack configuration to mimic large-format batteries. The ability to efficiently simulate battery stacks would facilitate the temperature and health monitoring of individual cell behavior during charging and discharging operations preventing thermal runaway. Since such models are computationally quite expensive, several approximations are made, resulting in various shortcomings.

Fig. 2. Wide range of physical phenomena dictates different computational demands.14 70

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The advent of electrochemical engineering-based models has paved the way in various domains of research including efficient simulation, model-based optimization and design, state estimation, and model predictive optimal control. Major research has occurred in the field of efficient simulation of these complex models. The models with multiple physical phenomena result in complex coupled partial differential equations. Some of the important work includes efficient simulation using model reformulation, order reduction, approximations, use of efficient solvers and discretization schemes, methods of solution, etc. A trial-and-error determination of battery design parameters and operating conditions is inefficient, which has led to the use of battery models to numerically optimize battery designs. Once an efficient method of simulating the battery models is devised, the next step is to formulate optimization problems to address the real-world challenges. Optimization of operating conditions, control variables, and material design (architecture) can be performed based on specific performance objectives. This would enable design of better battery management systems including model predictive control strategies using physics based models. As mentioned earlier, mathematical models for Li-ion batteries vary widely in terms of complexity, computational requirements, and reliability of their predictions (see Fig. 2). Including more detailed physicochemical phenomena in a battery model can improve its predictions but at a cost of increased computational requirements, so simplified battery models continue to be applied in the literature, when appropriate for the particular needs of the application. Models for the prediction of battery performance can be broadly grouped into four categories: empirical models, electrochemical engineering models, multiphysics models, and molecular/atomistic models. The future direction of research in the field of battery modeling include combining multi-scale, multiphysics models to mimic the battery operations as close to reality as possible. Inclusion of temperature variation to understand and predict thermal runaway, mechanical stress generation, multi-dimensional variation of properties, etc. are some of the active areas of research. Though the electrochemical engineering battery models for Li-ion batteries have existed for more than two decades, they are yet to be included in state-of-the-art battery management systems (BMS) for efficient control of batteries. Efforts are underway to efficiently simulate and push physics based models into these controllers for better and safe operation of batteries in different applications. Understanding various physical phenomena happening inside the battery at different time and length scales, through electrochemical engineering based battery modeling, is one of the best ways to design cost effective, safe, and long lasting batteries for the future.

Conclusion A mathematical description of the system is extremely important to completely understand the operation of Li-ion batteries. To date, many of the electrochemical engineering models are based on the schemes and theory developed by Newman and his co-workers several decades ago. These fundamental theories and equations form the basis for current day battery models and will continue to do so in the future. Efficient simulation of multi-physics multi-dimensional battery models will help bridge various gaps in understanding of battery operation and aid in future growth of the battery industry in helping to manufacture safer, longer lasting and cheaper batteries.

About the Author Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan is an assistant professor in the Department of Energy Science and Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (IIT Bombay). His research involves modeling and simulation of electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, system level integrated modeling of renewables (PV)-battery systems, optimal control and system integration. He was a recipient of the ECS IEEE Division Student Achievement Award (2011). He may be reached at venkatr@iitb.ac.in. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7934-7127

References 1. T. Nagaura and K. Tozawa, Prog. Batter. Sol. Cells, 9, 209 (1990). 2. M. Doyle, thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA (1995). 3. O. S. Ksenzhek and V. V. Stender, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 106, 487 (1956). 4. J. S. Newman and C. W. Tobias, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 1183 (1962). 5. J. Newman and W. Tiedemann, AIChE J., 21, 25 (1975). 6. J. S. Newman and K. E. Thomas-Alyea, Electrochemical Systems, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, N.J., (2004). 7. K. West, T. Jacobsen, and S. Atlung, J. Electrochem. Soc., 129, 1480 (1982). 8. S. Atlung, B. Zachau‐Christiansen, K. West, and T. Jacobsen, J. Electrochem. Soc., 131, 1200 (1984). 9. Z. Mao and R. E. White, J. Power Sources, 43, 181 (1993). 10. P. De Vidts and R. E. White, J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, 1343 (1997). 11. M. Doyle, T. F. Fuller, and J. Newman, J. Electrochem. Soc., 140, 1526 (1993). 12. T. F. Fuller, M. Doyle, and J. Newman, J. Electrochem. Soc., 141, 982 (1994). 13. M. Doyle, J. Newman, A. S. Gozdz, C. N. Schmutz, and J. Tarascon, J. Electrochem. Soc., 143, 1890 (1996). 14. V. Ramadesigan, P. W. C. Northrop, S. De, S. Santhanagopalan, R. D. Braatz, and V. R. Subramanian, J. Electrochem. Soc., 159, R31 (2012). 15. C. Y. Wang, W. B. Gu, and B. Y. Liaw, J. Electrochem. Soc., 145, 3407 (1998). 16. L. Rao and J. Newman, J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, 2697 (1997). 17. G. G. Botte, B. A. Johnson, and R. E. White, J. Electrochem. Soc., 146, 914 (1999). 18. S. Santhanagopalan, Q. Z. Guo, P. Ramadass, and R. E. White, J. Power Sources, 156, 620 (2006). 19. D. Zhang, B. N. Popov, and R. E. White, J. Electrochem. Soc., 147, 831 (2000). 20. V. R. Subramanian, V. D. Diwakar, and D. Tapriyal, J. Electrochem. Soc., 152, A2002 (2005). 21. G. B. Less, J. H. Seo, S. Han, A. M. Sastry, J. Zausch, A. Latz, S. Schmidt, C. Wieser, D. Kehrwald, and S. Fell, J. Electrochem. Soc., 159, A697 (2012).

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Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Efficient Manufacturing of Chlorine and Other Chemicals by Juergen Kintrup, Marta Millaruelo, Vinh Trieu, Andreas Bulan, and Ernesto Silva Mojica

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hlorine is an important base chemical involved ThyssenKrupp Uhde Chlorine Engineers, De Nora, and Covestro directly or indirectly in the manufacture of more than (formerly known as Bayer MaterialScience). This process has been 60 percent of all chemical products. For example, developed and improved for over two decades. The first demonstration Covestro uses chlorine for the efficient manufacturing plant started operations in 2003 in Brunsbuettel, Germany, with a of its main products; polyurethane raw materials and capacity of 20 kt Cl2/year. In 2008 a world-scale chlorine production polycarbonates. facility was started in Caojing, China, with a capacity of 215 kt Cl2/ Electrochemical chlorine production is currently one of the most year, and today, several other industrial plants operate using this energy-intensive processes in the chemical industry. The state-oftechnology.5 the-art technologies for chlorine production include the membrane Key elements of the ODC technology, represented in Fig. 2, process for sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolysis and the diaphragm include a full metallic electrolyzer having cells with an active process for hydrochloric acid (HCl) electrolysis. These processes area of 2.5  m2 and a 2-compartment cell with a so-called zero-gap are highly developed and widely implemented in industry, and configuration on the cathode side.5 This configuration allows for both generate hydrogen (H2) as a co-product at the cathode of the the direct contact of the proton-conducting ion exchange membrane electrolysis cell. Assuming an estimated world chlorine production to the ODC, and prevents the cathode from flooding. To meet the capacity of 89 million metric tons in 20171 and the typical energy industrial economic requirements of a minimum of 4 years lifetime, consumption of the membrane NaCl electrolysis process of 2,200 a rhodium sulfide electrocatalyst was developed that is resistant to – 2,600 kWh per ton of chlorine,2 chlorine producers are expected impurities and the corrosive operating conditions of the process.6,7 to consume a minimum of 195,800 GWh this year. Similarly, the This electrocatalyst is incorporated into a carbon cloth-based, highly average carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the most widely used conductive gas diffusion electrode shown in Fig. 2. This electrode electricity generation sources is about 420 g/kWh,3 which would allows the simultaneous flow of oxygen to the catalyst layer and the result in emissions of more than 82 million metric tons of CO2 related drainage of water produced at the cathode side. Energy consumption to chlorine production in 2017. For simplification, the typical energy of the process is about 1,070 kWh per metric ton of chlorine.5 consumption of the membrane NaCl electrolysis process was used for Compared to the HCl ODC electrolysis, where water is the this estimation; however, it is important to note that other electrolysis only cathodic product, the development of NaCl ODC electrolysis, processes with even higher energy consumption rates are also used where caustic soda (NaOH) is produced as a valuable cathodic coin industry. Therefore, it is not surprising that chlorine producers are product, is more challenging. Although the oxygen reduction reaction interested in sustainable ways of optimizing their processes in order (ORR) has been extensively studied for the development of fuel cell to reduce their energy consumption and carbon footprint. This article technologies, and the first relevant publication to use it in chlorine highlights the development of gas diffusion electrodes for efficient (continued on next page) manufacturing of chlorine and for use in other electrochemical processes. A significant improvement in efficiency is only possible by introducing a major technology change. Selecting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as an alternative cathode reaction and using a gas diffusion electrode that allows for the use of oxygen as the feed, the oxygen depolarized cathode (ODC), results in significant reduction in the energy use with respect to state of the art processes.4 Energy savings of up to 30% are achievable with this configuration due to the lower thermodynamic decomposition voltages, which in theory can be lowered by 1.23 V under standard conditions, as shown in Fig. 1. Since the overpotential for the 4-electron ORR is typically higher than that for the 2-electron hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), voltage savings of up to 1 V can be achieved in an industrial setting. The HCl membrane electrolysis with Fig. 1. Half-cell reactions and standard electrode potentials for HCl and NaCl electrolysis with and without ODC technology was developed by oxygen depolarized cathodes (ODC). The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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Toagosei reported the startup of another chlor-alkali plant in Japan in 2013, using gas diffusion electrodes with a different technology,13 but no further information was disclosed on the plant capacity, cell technology, or the type of gas diffusion electrode used. To deliver industrial scale quantities of ODC, Covestro has started a new gas diffusion electrode manufacturing plant with a production capacity of more than 25,000 m2 per year. The average energy consumption of the Covestro ODC NaCl electrolysis demonstration plant over 4 years of operation at a current density of 4 kA/m2 is 1,650 kWh per metric ton of chlorine. ODC electrodes that work at higher current densities up to 6 kA/m2, have recently been developed and are now ready for industrial use. Figure 5 illustrates the economic result of the NaCl ODC electrolysis process relative to standard chlor-alkali technologies, where the savings result from the electricity cost reduction. Even Fig. 2. HCl-ODC electrolysis cell concept (left) and cross section of gas after factoring the capital expenses (Capex) for the implementation diffusion electrode (right). of the technology, and all variable costs specific to the production site including the purchase or generation of oxygen and the value loss of manufacturing appeared circa 1950,8 its implementation in industrial hydrogen as a co-producer or energy sources, signficant savings are chlorine production via NaCl electrolysis remains a challenge. achieved. Numerous attempts to incorporate the ODC into a reliable, stable and In addition to the economic analysis, the environmental aspects scalable chlorine production process have been reported.9 of the best available chlor-alkali chlorine production plants were The cooperation of ThyssenKrupp Uhde Chlorine Engineers, investigated using seven relevant impact categories. The NaCl ODC Covestro, and other partners was initiated by two publicly funded electrolysis showed lower environmental impact in six of the seven projects. This cooperation resulted in the development of a threecategories, compared to plants using state of the art technologies in compartment cell, the so-called percolator cell design depicted in Fig. which hydrogen is co-produced in the process. This study included 3, and a silver-based oxygen depolarized cathode shown in Fig. 4. several scenarios for hydrogen use and a life-cycle assessment Figure 3 shows that in this process, caustic soda flows from the (LCA).14 Furthermore, the use of ODC technology in conjunction top of the electrochemical cell through a percolator, resulting in a with other green technologies such as renewable energy sources or homogeneous distribution inside the wet side compartment of the alternative raw materials, can offer additional advantages in terms cathode. Homogeneous distribution is important to: (i) achieve long of energy savings, lower carbon footprint, and utilization of new membrane lifetime; (ii) optimize the utilization of the gas diffusion industrial feed streams. electrode; (iii) maintain a constant caustic pressure over the full cell The oxygen depolarized cathodes described in this publication height; and (iv) avoid flooding of the gas diffusion electrode. are also the basis for a gas diffusion electrode technology platform The oxygen depolarized cathode shown in Fig. 4 is a composite that can be used in several other applications. These applications of a silver-based electrocatalyst and a binder material on an electron include electrosynthesis, water purification and disinfection, power conductive support. This electrode offers robustness in operation and generation, and energy storage. Several types of gas diffusion high chemical and mechanical stability, which help to prevent known electrodes and their corresponding industrial processes are currently lifetime issues related to carbon corrosion under the alkaline operating under development. For example, Chemetry has recently developed conditions of ~ 32 wt% NaOH at temperatures up to 90 °C.10,11 The a process for the production of ethylene dichloride—a raw material first demonstration of this technology started in 2011 with a 20  kt used in PVC manufacturing—using a metal chloride reaction where Cl2/year Covestro plant in Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany (see the the formation of chlorine gas is avoided. In this technology, oxygen photograph on the cover of this issue). Subsequently in 2015, a 40 kt depolarized cathodes from Covestro lower the energy consumption Cl2/year plant was brought online by the Befar Group Co. in China.12 of the process.15 Covestro also has extensive experience in the use of ODC for the synthesis of several oxidants of industrial interest in water treatment applications including NaOCl, NaClO3, and O3, the latter in cooperation with CONDIAS GmbH in Germany. The use of ODC in the synthesis of these oxidants enables energy savings of up to 30% with respect to standard synthesis processes. In addition, the use of ODC enhances the intrinsic safety of the process by avoiding the formation of hydrogen and any possible explosive gas mixtures. These advantages make the ODC technology an attractive alternative for the anticipated increased demand for water purification and disinfection technologies. Gas diffusion electrodes are notably one of the most promising elements for the synthesis of chemicals using carbon dioxide as a raw material.16,17 For example, 16 different reaction products (!) have already been reported for the single case where a copper surface is used as a catalyst in the electrochemical reduction of CO2.18 Since slight variations in the electrochemical reduction potential can significantly influence the Fig. 3. NaCl-ODC cell technology from ThyssenKrupp Uhde Chlorine Engineers.

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Acknowledgements The authors thank their cooperation partners, the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung BMBF, grant numbers 01LS05003, 01LS0901A, 03SFK2M0), and the EnCO2re programme from Climate-KIC by the European Institute of Innovation & Technology, a body of the European Union.

About the Authors

Fig. 4. Packing of silver-based oxygen depolarized cathode at Covestro Deutschland AG.

formation of a product, controlling selectivity remains a challenge. The selectivity for specific products may be improved by optimizing the electrocatalysts, the structure of the gas diffusion electrodes, the electrolytes, and the reaction conditions, resulting in a more environmentally friendly production of a variety of chemicals. Significant steps for the industrial development of electrochemical CO2 reduction have been reported recently. Examples include the acquisition of Liquid Light Inc. by Avantium for the electrochemical synthesis of oxalic acid, glycolic acid, ethylene glycol and other chemicals,19 the formation of the German “Power-to-X” project with two research clusters (one led by Siemens AG) for conversion to carbon monoxide and synthesis gas,20 and the establishment of the European development program EnCO2re with projects in electrochemistry and catalysis.21 Furthermore, the development of electrochemical routes for challenging reactions such as nitrogen fixation to NH3 has been recently reviewed.22-25 Gas diffusion electrodes are already recognized as an established technology for use in fuel cells and chlorine production. Due to the promising ongoing efforts in research and development, they can be expected to enable the industrial implementation of new, sustainable electrochemical processes in the future. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F07172if.

Juergen Kintrup is a research chemist at Covestro Deutschland AG in Leverkusen, Germany. With a strong background in materials characterization and heterogeneous catalysis, the main focus of his work for more than 15 years has been the development of electrocatalysts and electrodes, especially gas diffusion electrodes for chlorine production and new electrochemical processes. He may be reached at juergen. kintrup@covestro.com. Marta Millaruelo is a marketing manager in the area of basic chemicals in Covestro with focus on the HCl and gas diffusion electrodes market. Her experience includes technology scouting, business development, and innovation management. She may be reached at marta. millarueloboira@covestro.com.

Vinh Trieu is an innovation manager at Covestro Deutschland AG, Germany. His role involves technology scouting, open innovation and innovation management, particularly related to new technologies in the area of electrochemistry. He can be reached at vinh.trieu@covestro.com.

Andreas Bulan is a chemical engineer at Covestro Deutschland AG in Leverkusen, Germany, with more than 30 years of experience in research and process development of electrochemical and inorganic processes. In the last years his focus was on the development of gas diffusion electrode especially for ChlorAlkali electrolysis and other electrochemical processes. He can be reached at andreas.bulan@ covestro.com. Ernesto Silva Mojica is an innovation manager at Covestro LLC in Pittsburgh, PA. His role involves technology scouting, open innovation, and new business opportunity assessment, particularly related to new technologies in the areas of electrochemistry and composites. He can be reached at ernesto.silva@covestro.com.

Fig. 5. Economic drivers for NaCl-ODC electrolysis.

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References 1. “IHS Chlor-Alkali World Analysis” 2017, https://www.ihs. com/products/world-petro-chemical-analysis-chlor-alkali.html 2. J. Jörissen, T. Turek, and R. Weber, Chem. unserer Zeit, 45, 172 (2011). 3. “Recent trends in the OECD: energy and CO2 Emissions,” https://www.iea.org/media/statistics/Recent_Trends_in_the_ OECD.pdf, accessed on 02-28-2017. 4. M. Grotheer, R. Alkire, and R.Varjian, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 15(1), 52 (2006) 5. “Hydrochloric Acid Electrolysis – Sustainable Chlorine Production,” http://www.thyssenkrupp-industrial-solutionsasia-pacific.com/fileadmin/documents/brochures/Hydrochloric_ Acid_Electrolysis.pdf, accessed 02-28-2017. 6. S. Mora, La Chimica e l’Industria, 95, 144 (2013). 7. A. Gulla, L. Ganes, R. J. Allen, and S. Mukerjee, Appl. Catal. A, 326, 227 (2007). 8. C. Butler, U.S. Patent 2681884 (1950). 9. I. Moussalem, J. Jörissen, U. Kunz, S. Pinnow, and T. Turek, J. Appl. Electrochem., 38, 1177 (2008). 10. T. Morimoto, K. Suzuki, T. Matsubara, and N. Yoshida, Electrochim. Acta, 45, 4257 (2000). 11. L. Lipp, S. Gottesfeld, and J. Chlistunoff, J. Appl. Electrochem., 35, 1015 (2005). 12. Thyssenkrupp-Uhde chlorine engineers’ web page https://www. thyssenkrupp-uhde-chlorine-engineers.com/en/stories/befardeploys-nacl-odc/, accessed 03-20-2017.

13. Toagosei Annual Report 2014: http://www.toagosei.co.jp/ir/ library/annual_report/pdf/ar2014.pdf, accessed on 02-22-2017. 14. J. Jung, S. Postels, and A. Bardow, J. Cleaner Prod., 80, 46 (2014). 15. Press release 2016-12-12: http://www.technip.com/en/ press/technip-and-chemetry-sign-agreement-licensing-andengineering-eshuttle%E2%84%A2-technology, accessed on 03-14-2017. 16. B. Kumar, J. P. Brian, V. Atla, S. Kumari, K. A. Bertram, R. T. White, and J. M. Spurgeon, Catal. Today, 270, 19 (2016). 17. Q. Lu and F. Jiao, Nano Energy, 29, 439 (2016). 18. K. Kuhl, E. R. Cave, D. N. Abram, and T. F. Jaramillo, Energy Environ. Sci., 5, 7050 (2012). 19. Press release 2017-01-10: https://www.avantium.com/pressreleases/avantium-acquires-liquid-light/, accessed on 03-102017. 20. Press release 2016-10-13: http://www.fz-juelich.de/ SharedDocs/Pressemitteilungen/UK/EN/2016/2016-10-13kopernikus-power2x.html;jsessionid=7D594759EC00A393AE 701C8E21ACC219, accessed on 02-28-2017. 21. Focus on Catalysts 2017(2), 2017, 3. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.focat.2017.01.010, accessed on 03-27-2017. 22. C. van der Ham, M. T. Koper, and D. G. Hetterscheid, Chem. Soc. Rev., 43, 5183 (2014). 23. J. H. Montoya, C. Tsai, A. Vojvodic, and J. K. Norskov, ChemSusChem, 8, 2180 (2015). 24. V. Kyriakou, I. Garagounis, E. Vasileiou, A. Vourros, and M. Stoukides, Catal. Today, 286, 2 (2017). 25. M. Shipman and M. Symes, Catal. Today, 286, 57 (2017).

Announcing the Carl Hering Legacy Circle The Hering Legacy Circle recognizes individuals who have participated in any of ECS’s planned giving programs, including IRA charitable rollover gifts, bequests, life income arrangements, and other deferred gifts.

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ECS thanks the following members of the Carl Hering Legacy Circle, whose generous gifts will benefit the Society in perpetuity: K. M. Abraham Masayuki Dokiya Robert P. Frankenthal George R. Gillooly Stan Hancock

Carl Hering W. Jean Horkans Keith E. Johnson Mary M. Loonam Edward G. Weston

Carl Hering was one of the founding members of ECS. President of the Society from 1906-1907, he served continuously on the Society’s Board of Directors until his death on May 10, 1926. Dr. Hering not only left a legacy of commitment to the Society, but, through a bequest to ECS, he also left a financial legacy. His planned gift continues to support the Society to this day, and for this reason we have created this planned giving circle in his honor.

To learn more about becoming a member of the Carl Hering Legacy Circle, please contact Karla Cosgriff, development director. 609.737.1902 ext. 122 | Karla.Cosgriff@electrochem.org

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Chlor-alkali Production, Safety, and Industry Leadership by Robyn Brooks

I

—Trevor Kletz

Accidents are not due to lack of knowledge but failure to use the knowledge we have.

t should come as no surprise that the industry responsible for producing, packaging, and transporting chlorine in modern society leads the way in promoting chlorine safety across the entire value chain from producer to packager to distributor to end-user. Who other than the chlor-alkali industry is more fully aware of both the beneficial roles chlorine plays and the dangers it may pose? Scientists know the same attributes that make chlorine so useful, namely its oxidizing power and its ability to combine with other elements through covalent bonding, also make it a potential hazard. This is not a new revelation. Chlorine appears as a green/yellow gas that is heavier than air, or as an amber liquid. It is detectable at very low concentrations, and its effect on people varies from being an irritant to a life-threatening hazard, depending on concentration and exposure. Neither explosive nor flammable, chlorine will support combustion under certain conditions. It is classified as a hazardous material, and specifically a toxic inhalation hazard (TIH).a Chlorine was discovered in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele and its bleaching properties became readily apparent to textile manufacturers and others. In 1786, a French textile producer prepared a bleaching agent by dissolving gaseous (non-electrolytic) chlorine in water. In 1789, the bleaching agent was improved by adding the chlorine to a caustic potash solution. The popularity of the bleach solution spread throughout the industrialized world in the nineteenth century, and other applications were developed. For example, in the 1830s, chlorine was used to make chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. In the U.S., the first electrolytically produced chlorine for bleach was at a plant in Rumford Falls, Maine in 1892 using a cell equipped with an asbestos diaphragm. (Asbestos is still used in about 23% of chlorine production facilities in the U.S.) In the U.S., the first commercial delivery of liquefied chlorine in cylinders was made in 1909, and in the same year, a Michigan company was the first in America to ship liquid chlorine in a 15-ton single tank carload. By the time it was employed in urban water purification—the Jersey City project of 1908—chlorine was already playing a number of additional roles in society. By 1924, the estimated yearly capacity of all commercial plants in the U.S. and Canada was approximately 180,000 tons of chlorine gas. Today, the U.S. produces approximately one million tons of chlorine gas and one million tons of sodium hydroxide each month.1 In this paper I will briefly explain how the properties of chlorine led to its widespread use in a broad range of commercial and industrial applications, and then describe the steps taken by the chloralkali industry, and its leading association, The Chlorine Institute, to promote safety across the entire value chain. For a detailed description of chlorine’s properties, visit: http://www.chlorineinstitute.org/stewardship/chlorine/chemical-properties.

a

It’s 2017. So Why Do We Still Need Chlorine? Readers know chlorine is a disinfectant that kills bacteria, which is why various forms of chlorine and chlorinated chemicals are used to treat drinking water, swimming pool water, and wastewater. These products kill bacteria by changing their biochemistry. “Drinking water chlorination played a major role in increasing Americans’ life expectancy by 50 percent during the 20th century. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention calls drinking water chlorination ‘one of the most significant public health advances in U.S. history.’”2 Sodium hypochlorite, bleach, breaks the chemical bonds that make up stains or discolorations, which creates new substances that are stain-free, usually because they cannot absorb coloration or because of how they reflect light. Chlorine is used to make hundreds of consumer products from paper to paints, and from textiles to insecticides. Its ability to bond and form new molecular structures makes it an ideal agent for materials engineering. The growth of synthetic materials, from miracle fibers such as nylon to modern plastics, is attributable in large part to chlorine chemistry, including the production of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), a byproduct of most forms of chlorine production. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer, was discovered in 1872 and patented in 1912, making it one of the first plastics. Today, roughly 20% of all chlorine is used in PVC production. PVC is used in water pipes, window frames, car interiors, soles and heels of shoes, electrical insulation, coated fabrics, plastic films, patio furniture, vinyl flooring, novelty toys, yard fences, home siding, credit cards, and medical plastics such as blood bags, heart catheters, prosthetics and X-ray films.3 In fact 25 percent of medical devices contain chlorine.4 Another major use for chlorine is in organic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution reactions. Fully 85% of pharmaceuticals use chlorine or its compounds at some stage in their manufacture.5 Chlorinated solvents are used in the production of electronics, avionics, metallurgy, and a wide range of other high-tech equipment, including optical elements used in cutting edge scientific equipment such as telescopes. Additionally, chlorine chemistry plays a significant role in refrigeration, dry cleaning, foam, and insulation production.b

How Do We Make Chlorine (and Caustic Soda)? Most chlorine is manufactured electrolytically by the diaphragm, membrane, or mercury cell process. In each process, a salt solution (sodium or potassium chloride) is electrolyzed by the action of direct electric current, which converts chloride ions to elemental chlorine. Chlorine is also produced through electrolysis of molten sodium or magnesium chloride to make elemental sodium or magnesium metal; electrolysis of hydrochloric acid; and non-electrolytic processes.6 (continued on next page)

For an easy-to-use reference, spend a few minutes with “The Chlorine Tree” on the American Chemistry Council website: https://chlorine.americanchemistry. com/Chlorine-Benefits/Products-of-the-Chlorine-Tree.pdf b

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Diaphragm Cell Technology

Currently in North America, most chlorine is made through diaphragm cell technology, as shown in Fig. 1. A nearly saturated sodium chloride solution (brine) enters the diaphragm cell anolyte compartment and flows through the diaphragm to the cathode section. Chloride ions are oxidized at the anode to produce chlorine gas. Hydrogen gas and hydroxide ions are produced at the cathode. Sodium ions migrate across the diaphragm from the anode compartment to the cathode side to produce cell liquor containing 10% to 12% sodium hydroxide. Some chloride ions also migrate across the diaphragm resulting in the cell liquor containing about 16% sodium chloride.

Membrane Cell Technology

Membrane cell technology uses sheets of perfluorinated polymeric ion exchange membranes to separate the anodes and cathodes within the electrolyzer. Ultra-pure brine is fed to the anode compartments, where chloride ions are oxidized to form chlorine gas. The membranes are cation (positively charged ions) selective, which results in predominantly sodium ions and water migrating across the membranes to the cathode compartments, where they ultimately form sodium hydroxide.

Mercury Cell Technology

There are only two mercury cell facilities in the U.S. and one of these announced it will close by the end of 2017 or early 2018. Under the United Nations Environment Program’s Minamata Convention, all global use of mercury in chlor-alkali production must end in 2025, so the other plant will cease operation by that time.

In this form of production, a stream of mercury serves as the cathode, with anodes suspended a few millimeters above the flowing mercury. Brine is fed into one end of the cell box and flows by gravity between the anodes and the cathode. Chlorine gas is evolved and released at the anode and subsequent reactions produce hydrogen and caustic.

How Do We Get From Process to Process Safety? Even a cursory understanding of the processes described above make it clear that improper or faulty equipment, ill-trained personnel, and mistakes in manufacturing and packaging chlor-alkali products can result in very serious consequences for communities, workers, customers, and the environment. Manufacturers recognized that process safety was both the right thing to do, and a sound business principle. Because safety-related incidents can affect people, communities, and the bottom line, the ethical and business cases for emphasizing process safety are self-evident. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) states, “Process Safety is a disciplined framework for managing the integrity of operating systems and processes handling hazardous substances by applying good design principles, engineering, and operating practices. It deals with the prevention and control of incidents that have the potential to release hazardous materials or energy. Such incidents can cause toxic effects, fire, or explosion and could ultimately result in serious injuries, property damage, lost production, and environmental impact.”

Fig. 1. Diaphragm cell chlorine production diagram. (Image source: http://www.eurochlor.org/the-chlorine-universe/how-is-chlorine-produced/the-diaphragmcell-process.aspx) 78

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Fig. 2. Cover of the Chlorine Institute Safety Resources catalogue.

AIChE adds, process safety began “In the early days of the 19th century at the E. I. du  Pont black powder works. Recognizing that even a small incident could precipitate considerable damage and loss of life, du Pont directed the works to be built and operated under very specific safety conditions.”7 As a mature industry, chlor-alkali producers had nearly a century to develop process safety best practices. Because chlor-alkali chemicals can be hazardous, are prepared under a variety of temperatures and pressures, and react with a wide range of materials, process safety best practices must cover not just the process itself, but also the design of facilities, materials used to build equipment, ventilation and temperature of manufacturing, storage and handling areas, the nature and construction of pipes and valves, and much more. To be effective, this information should be shared across the value chain to include production, storage, loading, unloading, transportation, disposal, and more. Transportation is especially important because while chlorine is used all over the country, it is made in a small number of places, so it must be shipped where it is needed. Process safety is built on the accumulated knowledge of real-world experience, so “the process of process safety” is never finished—it is always a work in progress.

What Does Safety Leadership Look Like? Shortly after the manufacturers of chlorine created The Chlorine Institute (CI) in 1924, it became clear that CI’s work must focus on safety concerns of the industry and its customers. These are the core functions through which CI fulfills its safety mission and promotes process safety: • Sharing best practices. • Education and training. • Partnering and collaboration with government and business allies. In 1926, the Interstate Commerce Commissions accepted CI’s recommendations regarding the design of rail tank cars. In 1929, CI adopted a uniform standard for valves used on the one-ton containers and 150 lb. cylinders in which chlorine is shipped. In 1935, CI published its first safety pamphlet, Container Procedure at Chlorine Plants, launching an 80-plus year effort to inform the industry about best safety practices.

Today, CI provides more than 70 pamphlets, videos, booklets, and posters to help the industry and the value chain safely use chloralkali products. Subjects cover virtually every aspect of chlor-alkali production, packaging, and transportation, and pamphlets and other materials are free to download (see Fig. 2). In addition, through meetings, discussion forums, member exchanges, and technology symposiums, CI encourages the face-toface sharing of ideas and experiences. Industry experts, government officials and others present case studies, describe incidents and their remediation, and generally expand the knowledge base upon which the industry depends. CI also collects safety and environmental performance data from member companies, and uses the data to help members benchmark their own performance. Key performance indicators include recordable injuries, reportable quantity (RQ) releases, and risk management plan (RMP) incidents (that trigger implementation of the facility’s RMP). Top performers are honored each year at CI’s safety recognition event. To earn Diamond Level status, facilities must attain zero recordable injuries and zero RQ incidents and zero RMP incidents over a five-year period. “Aim for Zero,” CI’s organizational theme, reflects both the goal of attaining zero injuries and incidents, and the commitment each of our member organizations makes to reach this goal as quickly as possible. CI believes “zero” is both feasible and essential. “Zero injuries, zero leaks, zero incidents, and zero excuses!” CI members also devote time and energy to education and training, including the meetings and symposiums noted above, which can be very helpful on subjects ranging from correct repair and replacement procedures, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (such as breathing devices and goggles) to incident remediation. Through customer safety checklists and other outreach, CI members help educate end-users about safe handling, storage, and use of chlor-alkali products. Walking the customer through the checklist (Fig. 3) provides excellent opportunities to explain safety and review the customer’s strengths and vulnerabilities. (continued on next page)

The Chlorine Institute (CI) founded in 1924, is a technical trade association that exists to support the chlor-alkali industry in advancing safe, secure, environmentally compatible, and sustainable production, distribution, and use of its mission chemicals: chlorine, sodium and potassium hydroxides, sodium hypochlorite, the distribution of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and the distribution and use of hydrogen chloride. CI and its members are committed to ensuring the safe and proper handling of the industry’s products throughout the value chain, by developing and sharing technical information, training and best practices for the industry, its customers, emergency responders and the community.

Visit CI online:

www.chlorineinstitute.org.

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Fig. 3. Section of CI customer checklist.

Training includes members of CI’s own chlorine emergency plan (CHLOREP) initiative. Launched in 1972, CHLOREP is the Institute’s mutual aid program that provides a rapid and effective response to chlorine emergencies in the U.S. and Canada by ensuring that transportation service providers, end-users, first responders, hazmat teams, and others have quick access to accurate information and industry expertise. CHLOREP provides emergency responders with expert support via telephone within minutes, and if needed, will rapidly deploy emergency equipment and personnel to the scene of any chlorine emergency in the U.S. or Canada. The CHLOREP network includes more than 80 response teams and participants are carefully trained at a week-long session held annually at the Mississippi State Fire Academy (Fig. 4). Collaboration and partnering also are essential for CI’s safety mission. Over the years CI has worked closely with a wide range of government agencies which include, among others, the U.S. Chemical Safety Board, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal

Railroad Administration, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). CI’s work with DHS allowed the department to conduct the “Jack Rabbit” test program, a series of controlled releases of large volumes of chlorine gas from which DHS is developing new dispersion models to aid in emergency planning and response, industrial safety, hazard prediction modeling, and risk mitigation. CI members supplied and handled the chlorine used in these experiments and operated much of the equipment. CI collaborates with other hazmat shippers and transportation partners, including major railroads, to provide emergency response training to communities across the U.S. and Canada under the TRANSportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response (TRANSCAER) program. And on the international level, CI formed a partnership to share best practice and other safety information with the Poland-based International Center for Chemical Safety and Security.

Fig. 4. Typical TRANSCAER training, provided by CI members to the first responder community. 80

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Through these activities, and many others, the Institute and the industry have embraced the safety leadership role. The record is not perfect—incidents still occur. But as companies “Aim for Zero,” the chlor-alkali industry is fully committed to both continuous improvement and to sharing its growing knowledge base. In 1936, Albert Einstein wrote, “All of science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday thinking.”8 For members of CI, the “safety of our science” is indeed part of everyday thinking. So too is the importance of sharing of what we learn.

the technical service inbox, and analyzing incident data. She transitioned into the director role in 2015, adding government engagement to her realm of responsibility and was again promoted in 2017 to senior director. Robyn is a summa cum laude graduate with a BS in chemical engineering from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville and recently earned her nonprofit management executive certificate from Georgetown University. She may be reached at rbrooks@CL2.com.

References

© The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F08172if.

About the Author Robyn Brooks serves as senior director, Health Environment Safety and Security (HESS) at The Chlorine Institute (CI). In this role, Robyn provides staff leadership and support for the Institute’s HESS activities including leading updates of CI pamphlets to reflect best industry safety practice. She also serves as the Institute’s primary government representative to EPA, OSHA and applicable agencies within DHS. Robyn joined CI in 2012 as a project engineer. In 2014 she was promoted to a senior project engineer in recognition of her substantial contributions, including: a key role in developing the award-winning Pool Chemical Safety video, providing on-camera introduction of the TRANSCAER Chlorine Tour Video, managing

1. See https://www.chlorineinstitute.org/about-us/history/ for more historical information. 2. h t t p s : / / c h l o r i n e . a m e r i c a n c h e m i s t r y. c o m / C h l o r i n e / DrinkingWaterFAQ. 3. http://science.jrank.org/pages/1431/Chlorinated-HydrocarbonsChlorinated-hydrocarbon-polymers.html. 4. http://www.worldofchemicals.com/435/chemistry-articles/ chlorine-role-in-day-to-day-life.html. 5. See http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/17/chlorine. 6. www.chlorineinstitute.org/stewardship/chlorine/chlorinemanufacture/. 7. See: https://www.aiche.org/ccps/about/process-safetyfaqs#What%20is%20the%20origin%20of%20Process%20 Safety?. 8. “Physics and Reality,” cited in: http://www.asl-associates.com/ einsteinquotes.htm.

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T ECH SEC TION HIGHLIGH NE WS TS ECS MEMBERS Receive a Discount! Visit us at www.electrochem.org

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 2nd Edition

Mark E. Orazem, Bernard Tribollet This book provides the fundamentals needed to apply impedance spectroscopy to a broad range of applications with emphasis on obtaining physically meaningful insights from measurements. The second edition provides expanded treatment of the influence of mass transport, time-constant dispersion, kinetics, and constant-phase elements. The new edition improves on the clarity of some of the chapters, more than doubling the number of examples. It has more in-depth treatment of background material needed to understand impedance spectroscopy, including electrochemistry, complex variables, and differential equations. This title includes expanded treatment of the influence of mass transport and kinetics, and reflects recent advances in the understanding of frequency dispersion and interpretation of constantphase elements.

ISBN: 978-1-118-52739-9 Cloth | May 2017 | 768pp $135.00 | €129.60 | £108.00

About the Authors Mark E. Orazem is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida. He organized the 6th International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedence Spectroscopy and teaches a short course on impedance spectroscopy for The Electrochemical Society.

Visit us at www.ecsdl.org to see more titles and for your membership discount.

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Bernard Tribollet is the Director of Research at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Associate Director of the Laboratoire Interfaces et Systémes Electrochemique at Pierre and Marie Curie University. Dr. Tribollet instructs an annual short course on impedance spectroscopy.

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T ECH SEC TION HIGHLIGH NE WS TS Georgia Section The ECS Georgia Section held its local conference at the Georgia Institute of Technology on May 5, 2017. The meeting was organized by Marta Hatzell, Paul Kohl, Xuetian Ma, and Seung Woo Lee. The event was initiated with a reception and an invited seminar, “Electric Vehicle Will Save the World,” given by James Fenton, director of the

Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida. It was followed by lunch and a student poster session. Four student poster awards were presented at the award ceremony: Shan Xiong (First Place, Georgia Tech), Andrew Star (Second Place, Georgia Tech), Ali Abdelhafiz (Third Place, Georgia Tech), and Hamid Reza Seyf (Peoples’ Choice, Georgia Tech).

Attendees gathered at Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute during the 2017 ECS Georgia Local Conference.

Korea Section The ceremony for 2017 Korea Student Award, given by the ECS Korea Section, was held on April 6 at the International Convention Center in Jeju, Korea, concurrently with the Korean Electrochemical Society (KECS) spring meeting. Hye Won Jeong received the 2017 student award with a cash prize of $500 from the Society. During the KECS spring meeting, Jeong presented her work, “Fabrication of patterned WO3 photoanodes for enhancing photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance.” Jeong is a PhD candidate at Kyungpook National University in Korea. Her current research interest is the development of metal oxide semiconductor materials for water oxidation reaction in artificial photosynthesis system. She reported the fabrication of well-ordered WO3 microstructure and its enhanced absorption induced by optical resonance and improved charge transfer in the radial direction. The next award will be presented at the spring symposium of the section in 2018.

Hye Won Jeong (right) received the 2017 Korea Section Student Award from KECS president Yongkeun Son (left). The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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AWARDS NE W MEMBERS PROGRAM

Awards, Fellowships, Grants ECS distinguishes outstanding technical achievements in electrochemistry, solid-state science and technology, and recognizes exceptional service to the Society through the Honors & Awards Program. Recognition opportunities exist in the following categories: Society Awards, Division Awards, Student Awards, and Section Awards. ECS recognizes that today’s emerging scientists are the next generation of leaders in our field and offer competitive Fellowships and Grants to allow students and young professionals to make discoveries and shape our science long into the future.

See highlights below and visit www.electrochem.org for further information.

Society Awards The Edward Goodrich Acheson Award was established in 1928 for distinguished contributions to the advancement of any of the objects, purposes, or activities of The Electrochemical Society. The award consists of gold medal, wall plaque, a $10,000 prize, life membership, and complimentary meeting registration. Materials are due by October 1, 2017. The Charles W. Tobias Young Investigator Award was established in 2003 to recognize outstanding scientific and/or engineering work in fundamental or applied electrochemistry or solid state science and technology by a young scientist or engineer. The award consists of a scroll, a $5,000 prize, life membership, complimentary meeting registration, and travel assistance to the designated meeting. Materials are due by October 1, 2017.

Division Awards The Electronics and Photonics Division Award was established in 1968 to encourage excellence in electronics research and outstanding technical contribution to the field of electronics science. The award consists of a scroll, a $1,500 prize, and the choice between travel assistance of up to $1,000 or life membership. Materials are due by August 1, 2017. The Energy Technology Division Research Award was established in 1992 to encourage excellence in energy related research. The award consists of scroll, a $2,000 prize and membership in the energy technology division for as long as the recipient is an ECS member. Materials are due by September 1, 2017.

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The Energy Technology Division Supramaniam Srinivasan Young Investigator Award was established in 2011 to recognize and reward an outstanding young researcher in the field of energy technology. The award consists of a scroll, a $1,000 prize, and complimentary meeting registration. Materials are due by September 1, 2017. The SES Research Young Investigator Award of the Nanocarbons Division was established in 2007 to recognize and reward one outstanding young researcher each year in the field of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanostructures. The award consists of a scroll, a $500 prize and complimentary meeting registration. Materials are due by September 1, 2017. The Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division David C. Grahame Award was established in 1981 to encourage excellence in physical electrochemistry research and to stimulate publication of high quality research papers in the Journal of The Electrochemical Society. The award consists of a scroll and a $1,500 prize. Materials are due by October 1, 2017. The Corrosion Division Herbert H. Uhlig Award was established in 1972 to recognize excellence in corrosion research and outstanding technical contributions to the field of corrosion science and technology. The award consists of a scroll, a $1,500 prize and possible travel assistance. Materials are due by December 15, 2017. The High Temperature Materials Division Outstanding Achievement Award was established in 1984 to recognize excellence in high temperature materials research and outstanding technical contributions to the field of high temperature materials science. The award consists of a scroll, a $1,000 prize and possible travel assistance. Materials are due by January 1, 2018.

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AWARDS NE W AWA MEMBERS PROGRAM RDS The Luminescence and Display Materials Divisions Centennial Outstanding Achievement Award was established in 2002 to encourage excellence in luminescence and display materials research and outstanding contributions to the field of luminescence and display materials science. The award consists of a scroll and a $1,000 prize. Materials are due by January 1, 2018.

The Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Student Achievement Award was established in 1989 to recognize promising young engineers and scientists in the field of electrochemical engineering and to encourage the recipients to initiate careers in this field. The award consists of a scroll and a $1,000 prize. Materials are due by September 15, 2017.

Student Awards

The Corrosion Division Morris Cohen Graduate Student Award was established in 1991 to recognize and reward outstanding graduate research in the field of corrosion science and/or engineering. The award consists of a certificate and a $1,000 prize. The award, for outstanding Masters or PhD work, is open to graduate students who have successfully completed all the requirements for their degrees as testified to by the student’s advisor, within a period of two years prior to the nomination submission deadline. Materials are due by December 15, 2017.

The Georgia Section Outstanding Student Achievement Award was established in 2011 to recognize academic accomplishments in any area of science or engineering in which electrochemical and/or solid state science and technology is the central consideration. The award consists of a $500 prize. Materials are due by August 15, 2017. The Energy Technology Division Graduate Student Award sponsored by Bio-Logic was established in 2012 to recognize promising young engineers and scientists in fields pertaining to this division. The award consists of a scroll, a $1,000 prize, complimentary student meeting registration, and complimentary admission to the ETD business meeting. Materials are due by September 1, 2017. The Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Achievement Award was established in 1990 to recognize promising young engineers and scientists in the field of electrochemical engineering and applied electrochemistry. The award consists of a scroll and a $1,000 prize to be used for expenses associated with the recipient’s education or research project. Materials are due by September 15, 2017.

Section Awards The Europe Section Alessandro Volta Medal was established in 1998 to recognize excellence in electrochemistry and solid state science and technology research. The award consists of a silver medal and a $2,000 prize. Materials are due by September 1, 2017 (deadline extended). The Korea Student Award was established in 2005 to recognize academic accomplishments in any area of science or engineering in which electrochemical and/or solid state science and technology is the central consideration. The award consists of a $500 prize. Materials are due by September 30, 2017.

DIVISION AWARDS Recognizing excellence in DIVISION AWARDS solid state and electrochemical Recognizing excellence in science andelectrochemical technology solid state and science and technology www.electrochem.org/awards www.electrochem.org/awards

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NE W MEMBERS ECS is proud to announce the following new members for January, February, and March 2017.

Members Noemi Aguiló-Aguayo, Dornbirn, V, Austria Liang An, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Kenta Arima, Suita, Osaka, Japan Bill Baloukas, Montreal, QC, Canada Kaustav Banerjee, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Paul Bayley, Santa Clara, CA, USA Rachel Blaser, New Hudson, MI, USA Theodore Blaske, Rutherfordton, NC, USA Robert Braun, Golden, CO, USA Katharina Brinkert, Noordwijk, Netherlands Pengyu Chen, Auburn, AL, USA Joanna Clark, Ruislip, Middlesex, UK James Clasquin, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Nigel Corlett, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK Calvin Davis, Corvallis, OR, USA John Dennis, London, UK Vicky Doan-Nguyen, Goleta, CA, USA Marie-Laure Doche, France Nikhil Dole, Union City, CA, USA Chengyuan Dong, Shanghai, China Aaron Fafarman, Philadelphia, PA, USA Byron Farnum, Auburn, AL, USA David Fermin, Bristol, UK Summer Ferreira, Albuquerque, NM, USA Heike Fliegl, Oslo, Norway Rajan Gangadharan, Fremont, CA, USA Wei Gao, Apex, NC, USA Jenna Gorecki, Portland, OR, USA Steven Hamm, Boulder, CO, USA Tobias Hertel, Wuerzburg, BY, Germany Jean-Yves Hihn, Besancom, FrancheComte, France Harley Hoskins, Henderson, NV, USA Chia-Hung Hou, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan Juejun Hu, Cambridge, MA, USA Yizhong Huang, Singapore, Singapore Chen-Hsiung Hung, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan Syed Hussaini, Tulsa, OK, USA Mark Huza, Morven, NC, USA Taisei Inoue, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Japan Arika Isobe, Atsugi, Japan Congrui Jin, Binghamton, NY, USA Shyankay Jou, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan Sriraman K Rajagopalan, Montreal, QC, Canada Yasuo Kakinuma, Chigasaki, Kanagawa, Japan

Theodoros Kalogiannis, Aalborg, Aalborg East, Denmark Taishi Kanazawa, Morgan Hill, CA, USA Wi Seob Kang, Sejong-si,Sejong-si, South Korea Nick Karditsas, Lake Orion, MI, USA Andrew Kercher, Oak Ridge, TN, USA Daeun Kim, Ulsan, Republic of Korea, South Korea Song I Kim, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Youngsang Kim, Berkeley, CA, USA Nikhil Koratkar, Troy, NY, USA Peter Kruse, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Rathinam Kumar, Chennai, India Ka Cheong Lau, Chicago, IL, USA Nathaniel Leonard, Berlin, BE, Germany Liang Li, Lemont, IL, USA Ming-Yang Li, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan Matthew Limpert, Bel Air, MD, USA Chih Ting Lin, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan Haiqing Lin, Buffalo, NY, USA Song Lin, Ithaca, NY, USA Jilei Liu, Singapore, Singapore Jerry Mack, San Jose, CA, USA Audrey Mandroyan, Besancon, France Lucia Mascaro, Sao Carlo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Brandon Mitchell, West Chester, PA, USA Leonardo Naibo, Conegliano, Italy Unnatii Naik, Ahmedabad, GJ, India Gunnar Niklasson, Uppsala, Uppland, Sweden Eunsu Paek, Potsdam, NY, USA Jae Wan Park, Davis, CA, USA Jonghyun Park, Rolla, MO, USA Satish Patil, Bangalore, India Scott Peterson, Moses Lake, WA, USA Cary Pint, Nashville, TN, USA Kosmas Prassides, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Jingjing Qiu, Eugene, OR, USA Jiawen Ren, Ashburn, VA, USA Margaret Rice, New York, NY, USA Tania Roy, Orlando, FL, USA Felix Sathiyanathan, Vellore, TN, India Josh Schaidle, Lakewood, CO, USA Holly Sebastian, Calgary, AB, Canada Noyel Victoria Selvam, Raipur, CT, India Krenar Shqau, Columbus, OH, USA Jianxin Song, Changsha Shi, Hunan Sheng, China Shruti Srivastav, Stockholm, Sweden Michael Therien, Durham, NC, USA Nafiu Tijjani, Abuja, Nigeria

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Elissa Trueman, Bethesda, MD, USA Burak Ulgut, Ankara, Ankara, Turkey Peter Vesborg, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Keyu Xie, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Zhichuan Xu, Singapore, Singapore Qingyu Yan, Singapore, Singapore Jihui Yang, Bellevue, WA, USA Kirsi Yliniemi, Espoo, Uusimaa, Finland Wonseok Yoon, Billerica, MA, USA Alexandra Zevalkink, Okemos, MI, USA Jinqiu Zhang, Harbin, China Pei Zhang, Cambridge, MA, USA Ruiming Zhang, Dublin, CA, USA Jun-chao Zheng, Changsha City, Hunan Province, China

Student Members Pedram Abbasi, Chicago, IL, USA Swapnil Adsul, Hyderabad, TG, India Salahuddin Ahamad, New Delhi, HR, India Chengying (Arlene) Ai, Calgary, AB, Canada Zakaria Al Balushi, University Park, PA, USA Soroush Almassi, Chicago, IL, USA Tansu Altunbasak, Ankara, Turkey Hyosung An, College Station, TX, USA Craig Armstrong, Lancaster, Lancashire, UK Kabir Ashraf, Attock, Pakistan Hemesh Avireddy, Sant Adriae de Besae, Barcelona, Spain Nilab Azim, Jacksonville, FL, USA Aaron Baker, Melrose Park, SA, Australia Prince Baranwal, Guwahati, AS, India Vera Beermann, Berlin, Germany Diana Berinde, Bucharest, Romania Stephanie Bonvicini, Calgary, AB, Canada Rumki Bose, Chicago, IL, USA Luc Bouscarrat, Lancaster, Lancashire, UK Nicholas Brady, New York, NY, USA Januka Budhathoki-Uprety, New York, NY, USA Colin Burke, Dublin, CA, USA Marianne Burnett, Fort Worth, TX, USA Can Cao, Calgary, AB, Canada Henrique Cardoso, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Aranzazu Carmona Orbezo, Manchester, Greater Manchester, UK Luca Cervini, Lancaster, Lancashire, UK Bilgehan Cetinoz, Ankara, Turkey Mylad Chamoun, Stockholm, Stockholms Laen, Sweden Zhongmou Chao, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


NE W MEMBERS Cheng Chen, Kachsiung, Taiwan Allan Cheung, Markham, ON, Canada Shravan Kumar Chintakindi, Mumbai, MH, India Tse-Ming Chiu, College Station, TX, USA Amantay Dalbanbay, Almaty, Kazakhstan Kathryn Dallon, Spanish Fork, UT, USA Katelynn Daly, Calgary, AB, Canada Lius Daniel, Vancouver, BC, Canada Zulfiqar Danwar, Islamabad, Capital Teritory Islamabad, Pakistan Jonathan Davis, Bronx, NY, USA Umanga De Silva, Rolla, MO, USA Ramasubramonian Deivanayagam, Chicago, IL, USA Julie Anne del Rosario, Quezon City, Metro Man, Philippines Sanjeev Deshpande, Chicago, IL, USA Brian DiMarco, Greensboro, NC, USA Daniel Donnelly, Portsmouth, RI, USA Alexis Dubois, Golden, CO, USA Alemayehu Duma, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan Gaurab Dutta, Ruston, LA, USA Niloofar Ehteshami, Muenster, NW, Germany Oyidia Elendu, Tallahassee, FL, USA Chellda Exantus, Liege, Wallonie, Belgium Mengdi Fan, Seattle, WA, USA Yuanchao Feng, Calgary, AB, Canada Arielle Floyd, Norwalk, IA, USA Patrick Fortin, Coquitlam, BC, Canada Thomas Fudge, Higham, Kent, UK Wilbert James Futalan, Quezon City, Metro Man, Philippines Rohit Gaddam, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Nadia Gamboa Valero, Mexico City, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico Angela Gerard, Prince George, VA, USA Reynaldo Geronia II, Quezon City, Metro Man, Philippines Benjamin Gerroll, Bloomington, IN, USA Ava Ghalayani Esfahani, Shiraz Fars, Iran Hannah Giang, Carbondale, IL, USA Maria De Lourdes Gomes, Porto Alegre, Brazil Poorwa Gore, Mumbai, MH, India Adam Greer, Leigh, Lancashire, UK Nicholas Grundish, Helotes, TX, USA Nur-Miko Guiamano, Quezon City, Metro Man, Philippines D V Santhosh Kumar Gunapu, Sangareddy, TG, India Xiaoru Guo, Milwaukee, WI, USA Shiva Gupta, Buffalo, NY, USA Hui-Ling Han, Alameda, CA, USA Ruochen Han, Tucson, AZ, USA Emilee Hardy, Provo, UT, USA

Korina Hartmann, Liege, Belgium Hiroshi Haruna, Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan Md. Tanvir Hasan, Fort Worth, TX, USA Mohammad Amin Hashemian, Chicago, IL, USA Brittany Hauert, Plainfield, IL, USA Dina Hejja, Romeoville, IL, USA Hakeem Henry, Hyattsville, MD, USA Sofiya Hlynchuk, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Amelia Hohenadel, Vancouver, BC, Canada Victor Hu, Seattle, WA, USA Zhennan Huang, Chicago, IL, USA Ahmed Ibrahim, Toyonaka-city, Osaka, Japan Yasushi Imada, Tokyo, Japan David Jackson, Madison, WI, USA Piotr Jankowski, Warsaw, Poland Alexandre Jarauta-Arabi, Edmonton, AB, Canada Asanka Jayawardena, Auburn, AL, USA Vijay Jayswal, Gonda, UP, India Taizhi Jiang, Austin, TX, USA Zhiyuan Jiang, Xi’an, China Marcus Johnson, Ashburn, VA, USA Jarina Joshi, Kathmendu, Nepal, Nepal Sunwoo Jung, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Daniel Kabtamu, Taipei,Taipei, Taiwan Mariko Kadowaki, Miyagi-prefecture, Japan Niloofar Kamyab, Columbia, SC, USA Sindhu Katta, Chicago, IL, USA Kurishima Kazunori, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Eun Jeong Kim, St Andrews, Fife, UK Jung Hwan Kim, Seoul, Dongjak-Gu, South Korea Junhyeong Kim, Seoul, Dongjak-Gu, South Korea Youngjin Kim, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea Dylan Kirsch, Rockville, MD, USA Matthew Klein, Alameda, CA, USA Hannah Knight, Provo, UT, USA Sampath Kommandur, Atlanta, GA, USA Ove Korjus, Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia Maadhav Kothari, St Andrews, Fife, UK Marc Francis Labata, Quezon City, Metro Man, Philippines Ke-Yu Lai, Austin, TX, USA Swatchith Lal, Cork, Province of Munster, Ireland Mitchell Lancaster, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Da Li, St Andrews, Fife, UK Jie Li, Rolla, MO, USA Wei-Ting Li, Taipei City, Taiwan, Taiwan Wenhao Li, Sunderland, MA, USA Alexander Limia, Atlanta, GA, USA

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

Tzu-En Lin, Sion, Valais, France Yu-Jhen Lin, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan Yu-Jiung Lin, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan Stephanie Linnell, Lymm, Cheshire, UK Gary Linnett, Preston, Lancashire, UK Botong Liu, Morgantown, WV, USA Chuck Loney, Fairview Park, OH, USA Quang Ly, Westminster, CA, USA Thiago Machado, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Harlan Mantelli, Cleveland, OH, USA Adam Maraschky, Shaker Heights, OH, USA Jorge Matos, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Jan Samuel Matuba, Quezon City, Metro Man, Philippines Phil Maughan, Lancaster, Lancashire, UK Emmanuel Mena Morcillo, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico Jacob Mingear, College Station, TX, USA Saurabh Misal, Chicago, IL, USA Ivana Mitevski, Lake Hiawatha, NJ, USA Daniel Morales Martinez, Mexico City, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico Joe Morgenstern, Easton, MD, USA Siba Moussa, Montreal, QC, Canada Elias Munoz, College Station, TX, USA Aravind Muthiah, Singapore, Singapore Sabir Nazir, Multan Punjab, Pakistan Van Anh Nguyen, Toronto, ON, Canada Shahin Nikman, Lancaster, Lancashire, UK Chika Okonkwo, Xiamen, Fujian, China Jafar Orangi, Auburn, AL, USA Vinayaraj Ozhukil Kollath, Calgary, AB, Canada Yani Pan, Montreal, QC, Canada Christoforos Panteli, London, South Kensington, UK Caitlin Parke, Seattle, WA, USA Mumukshu Patel, Denton, TX, USA Jefferson Pells, Calgary, AB, Canada Michael Pence, Bloomington, IN, USA Drew Pereira, Columbia, SC, USA Jonathan Pistorino, Oakland, CA, USA Fezzeh Pouraghajan, Provo, UT, USA Shengda Pu, London, London, UK Anil Kumar Pulikkathodi, Hsinchu, Taiwan Kwoking Quan, Chongqing, China Ashwin Ramanujam, Athens, OH, USA M Tirumala Rao, Chennai, TN, India Emily Remington, Bozeman, MT, USA Lisa Rhodes-Martin, Telford, Shropshire, UK Matthias Riegraf, Stuttgart, BW, Germany Ian Robinson, Frederick, MD, USA (continued on next page) 87


NE W MEMBERS (continued from previous page)

Oliver Rodriguez Martinez, Southampton, Hampshire, UK Chloe Rotty, Besancon,Doubs, France Katarzyna Rybickajasinska, Warszawa, Poland Mayank Sabharwal, Edmonton, AB, Canada Daiana Sacilotto, Porto Alegre, Brazil Manasa Samavedam, Mahaboobnagar, TG, India Beatriz Sanabria Arenas, Bergamo, Italy Prashanth Sandineni, Rolla, MO, USA Najmus Saqib, Golden, CO, USA Pongsarun Satjaritanun, Columbia, SC, USA Cynthia Saucedo, Aurora, IL, USA Baharak Sayahpour, Chicago, IL, USA Olivia Scheibel, Canandaigua, NY, USA Henrike Schmies, Berlin, Brandenburg, Germany Ace Christian Serraon, Quezon City, Metro Man, Philippines Arash Shadravan, College Station, TX, USA

Farhan Shaikh, Karachi Sindh, Pakistan Fatemeh ShakeriHosseinabad, Calgary, AB, Canada Mohita Sharma, Calgary, AB, Canada Annadanesh Shellikeri, Tallahassee, FL, USA Tianpei Shu, Calgary, AB, Canada Garima Shukla, Amiens, France Stephanie Silic, Henderson, NV, USA Arvinder Singh, Philadelphia, PA, USA Ashutosh Singh, Calgary, AB, Canada Elizabeth Sizemore, Fort Worth, TX, USA Sebastian Skaanvik, Montreal, QC, Canada Szymon Sollami Delekta, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden Tong Sun, Flushing, NY, USA Haibin Tang, Morgantown, WV, USA Audrey Taylor, Vancouver, BC, Canada Tobias Teufl, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, RP, Germany Annelise Thompson, Pasadena, CA, USA Ashley Timmerman, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Aaron Unger, Henderson, NV, USA

Viridiana Valdovinos, Querétaro, Mexico Laura Valencia Osorio, Medellaen, Robledo, Colombia Matthijs van den Berg, Stanford, CA, USA John Vandersleen, Calgary, AB, Canada Dejuante Walker, Long Beach, CA, USA Chen Wang, Oak Park, IL, USA Jialiang Wang, Madison, WI, USA Namal Wanninayake, Lexington, KY, USA Andrew Wong, Cambridge, MA, USA FAN WU, London, London, UK Hsiwen Wu, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Lin Xie, Toronto, ON, Canada Hui Yang, Morgantown, WV, USA Yuanyuan Yang, Fort Collins, CO, USA Yonas Yohannes, Taipei City, Taiwan, Taiwan Bo Yuan, Newark, DE, USA Ahmad Zakiyuddin, Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea Shuoshuo Zhang, St Andrews, Fife, UK Huilei Zhao, College Station, TX, USA Jie Jeremy Zhou, Edmonton, AB, Canada Ahmed Zubair, Houston, TX, USA

Member Anniversaries It is with great pleasure that we recognize the following ECS members who have reached their 30, 40, 50, and 60 year anniversaries with the Society in 2017. Congratulations to you all!

60 Years

Robert Alwitt Helen M. Friend Akiya Kozawa John P. Olatta Allen L Solomon

50 Years

Murray W. Bullis John P. Dismukes Norman Goldsmith Sidney Gross Howard R. Huff Roger Newman Jan Robert Selman Norman L. Weinberg

40 Years

S. Ashok Bernard A. Boukamp Harlan J. Byker Clive R. Clayton Thomas Z. Fahidy David B. Hibbert Robert J. Horning Thomas F. Kuech Peter A. Lewis Nguyen Quang Minh Robert J. Nowak Masatoshi Ohta Robert Reich Masakazu Sakaguchi Paul M. Skarstad Sigurd Wagner Jack Winnick Kathuhiro Yokota

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30 Years

Stephan Atanassov Armyanov Dale P. Barkey Richard M. Bendert James E, Brule Chao-Peng Chen Jenn-Shing Chen Philippe Chenebault Robert M. Corn Francis H. Feddrix Jeffrey Fergus Fernando H. Garzon Walther Grot Hidetaka Hayashi Lloyd Hihara Toshiro Hirai Jean-Yves Huot Shoichiro Ikedo Marc W. Juzkow Claus-Peter Klages

Stephen E. Lyke Zhenhua Mao Morio Matsunaga Francis Maury Junichi Murota Kenichiro Ota Uday B. Pal Waldfried Plieth Elizabeth J. Podlaha-Murphy Srini Raghavan Hazara S. Rathore Katsuaki Shimazu Rengaswamy Srinivasan Denise B. Taylor Edson Antonio Ticianelli Yang Yuan Wang Harovel G. Wheat R. Mark Wightman Lawrence A. Zazzera

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T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS Auburn University Student Chapter The ECS Auburn University Student Chapter, founded in 2007, has a multidisciplinary group of inquisitive student members from the chemistry, physics, chemical engineering, and material engineering departments of Auburn University. During the past year, the chapter organized two kick-off sessions for the activity introduction and discussion. A research seminar was subsequently held where James Radich from the chemical engineering department gave a lecture on “Potential Step Methods for Quantitative Kinetics and Transport Analysis.”

The chapter also hosted four “lunch and learn” sessions, where a total of eight students presented their research throughout the meetings. The topics of presentations were diverse, ranging from photoelectrochemisty for hydrogen production, electrochemical sensors, and bio-fuel cells, to 2D nanomaterials for supercapacitors. In December 2016, a poster presentation competition was organized that involved more than 20 students and faculty members.

ECS Auburn University Student Chapter members with James Radich (center), facility member of the chemical engineering department, after a seminar in June 2016.

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Student Chapter On March 27, the ECS Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (KHUST) Student Chapter had the pleasure of hosting Shelley Minteer, faculty member of the Utah Science and Technology Research Initiative and professor of chemistry and materials science and engineering at the University of Utah. During her visit, Prof. Minteer gave a seminar titled “Enzymatic Biofuel Cells,” with a particular emphasis on designing enzyme cascades at bioanodes.

After the seminar, Prof. Minteer met with members of the student chapter. Minhua Shao, faculty advisor of the student chapter, hosted the meeting. The students shared their current research projects on fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, and electrolyzers. Prof. Minteer also talked about her experience as the faculty advisor to the ECS University of Utah Student Chapter.

Members of ECS HKUST Student Chapter with the guest speaker (left to right): Wai Leong Mickey Chan, Jiadong Li, Shangqian Zhu (chapter vice chair), Yao Yao, Xueping Qin (chapter secretary), Shelley Minteer, Lulu Zhang (chapter chair), and Yuze Yao. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

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T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS Lewis University Student Chapter In both the fall of 2016 and the spring of 2017, the ECS Lewis University Student Chapter traveled to local schools and community centers to host demo shows and increase STEM awareness. These demo shows included hands-on activities allowing the children to participate, such as building their own Alka-Seltzer bottle rockets and boats, making silly putty, and conducting various experiments exploring the fundamental laws of science. The goal of these demo shows was to harness the curiosity and initial skepticism of children and provide them with real life examples of how chemistry is a huge part of their everyday life. Lewis University hosted its annual Night in the Lab in March of 2017, sponsored jointly by the chemistry and physics departments. Every year, this allows an opportunity for students to be directly involved in showing their passion for science as they aid in activities

such as a laser maze, egg drop competition, and more. Students also participate in the closing demo show that consists of metal-ion flame tests, elephant’s toothpaste, genies lamp, and others. This year, the student chapter welcomed former astronaut, Linda Godwin, who shared her experiences and answered any questions students, faculty, and children asked. The chapter looks forward to hosting these annual events as well as planning new and innovative ways to continue to engage children in the community with science. New events for the upcoming year include a movie night with a demo that correlates to the theme of the movie, a water filtration competition for local high schools, and a Pi Day Bike-A-Thon fundraiser for charity. Lewis University is also hosting a summer camp for women in STEM.

Members of the ECS Lewis University Student Chapter at the annual Lewis University Celebration of Scholarship.

ECS Career Expo Career E xpo

Coming Fall 2017 232nd ECS Meeting National Harbor, MD October 2017

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T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS Munich Student Chapter The ECS Munich Student Chapter was established in 2005 and currently has 41 members, connecting students in sciences and engineering working on energy storage and conversion. On November 29, the second symposium by the student chapter took place at the Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM) Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Garching. The symposium topic was mathematical modeling and computational simulation of lithiumion batteries. In total, more than 50 researchers from 14 different research groups from TUM and industry attended the symposium. The symposium began with a keynote lecture from Wolfgang Bessler. The second keynote speaker was Arnulf Latz. Additional talks were held by representatives from the BMW Group and researchers from four different groups at TUM. Further, the first young professionals’ event of the chapter was hosted on April 5. Several TUM alumni accepted the invitation to attend this event as guest speakers and shared some of their experiences and recent impressions as young professionals in industry. The focus

of this event was on energy storage and conversion in the automotive field. In addition to the guest speakers, more than 40 participants from six different research groups at TUM enjoyed the ten-minute presentations and the following extensive Q&A sessions. For some of the students, however, the highlight of the event was clearly the chance to network both with alumni and researchers from other chairs at TUM. The chapter also established a Materials & Methods Club in January 2017, when it became clear that there was demand for a format where electrochemical methods and other related analytical tools would be introduced to students who were not familiar with them. The first Materials & Methods Club meeting was held in January 2017, led by Michael Metzger, a student chapter member, who gave an introduction to online-electrochemical mass spectrometry. The chapter is also proud of its brand new website: www.tec.ch.tum.de/ecsscm.

Group photograph from the second ECS Munich Student Chapter symposium.

Look Out !

We want to hear from you! Students are an important part of the ECS family and the future of the electrochemistry and solid state science community . . .

• What’s going on in your student chapter? • What’s the chatter among your colleagues?

• What’s the word on research projects and papers? • Who’s due congratulations for winning an award?

Send your news and a few good pictures to Shannon Reed, director of membership services, at Shannon.Reed@electrochem.org. We’ll spread the word around the Society. Plus, your student chapter may also be featured in an upcoming issue of Interface!

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T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS Norwegian University of Science and Technology Student Chapter In May 2017, the ECS Norwegian University of Science and Technology Student Chapter hosted an event for the Department of Materials Science and Engineering’s electrochemistry group at Ringve Music Museum in Trondheim. Over 40 students, professors, and chapter members attended the annual seminar, which has previously been held at a number of locations around Trondheim.

After an introduction from Student Chapter President Gøril Jahrsengene, all of the MSc students and a number of PhD students presented their work. The talks were on topics including lithiumion batteries, aluminum electrolysis, and corrosion detection and prevention. Afterwards, the lively discussion was continued over dinner, with more events involving the student chapter and the whole electrochemistry group being planned for the future.

Participants at the ECS Norwegian University of Science and Technology Student Chapter’s annual electrochemistry seminar.

University of Maryland Student Chapter On April 22, the ECS University of Maryland Student Chapter gathered at the National Mall in the nation’s capital for the March for Science. With proposals to reduce or eliminate funding for government agencies such as the Department of Energy and Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, opportunities for electrochemical research are being threatened. Despite the poor weather, ECS members and tens of thousands of scientists marched to promote evidence-based science led by famous science advocates such as Bill Nye and Rush Holt, among others. To support electrochemical studies, ECS student members wore and distributed Free the Science shirts and buttons to demonstrators. By participating in the March for Science, the student chapter helped support and publicize evidence-based studies to improve scientific literacy.

ECS University of Maryland Student Chapter Vice President Griffin Godbey displayed his sign at the March for Science in Washington, DC.

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T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS University of St. Andrews Student Chapter The ECS University of St. Andrews Student Chapter successfully organized and hosted the Butler Meeting 2017 in April. The oneday symposium was held in conjunction with the Royal Society of Chemistry’s Electrochemistry Group, and hosted over 70 attendees from across Scotland and the north of England to discuss electrochemistry research in a variety of fields. Two prominent keynote speakers in the field of electrochemistry—Ulrich Stimming from Newcastle University and Serena Corr from the University of Glasgow—were invited to discuss their research and assist with judging the best posters and oral presentations. The event was a good opportunity to expand the network of the chapter. The chapter hopes to continue its progress in 2017 by hosting two further events: a poster session later in the summer to showcase the work of the chapter and a workshop in the fall to improve analytical and electrochemical techniques. Meanwhile, Robert Price, chapter president, will attend SOFC-XV where he will give an oral presentation. Additionally, chapter member Da Li delivered an oral presentation at the 231st ECS Meeting in New Orleans. From left to right: Ulrich Stimming (Newcastle University), Onagie Avemoba (University of Aberdeen), winner of the oral presentation prize at the 2017 Butler Meeting, and Serena Corr (University of Glasgow).

University of Virginia Student Chapter The ECS University of Virginia (UVA) Student Chapter together with the UVA Department of Materials Science and Engineering hosted a seminar featuring Mark Orazem of the University of Florida on April 10, 2017. Dr. Orazem talked about the interpretation of constant-phase elements in impedance spectroscopy. The seminar was attended by faculty and students from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering as well as the Department of Chemical Engineering. Prior to the seminar, the student chapter arranged individual meetings for Dr. Orazem with professors

and students from UVA. Dr. Orazem provided insights on current research projects related to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. This year, the goal of the chapter is to provide activities with more interactions for fellow student members as well as provide avenues to enhance competence in soft skills. Thus, aside from the regular seminar, the chapter also sponsored an activity to improve presentation skills both for graduate and undergraduate students. Senior members of the chapter provided insights and asked interesting questions to the students who presented talks and posters.

Mark Orazem (fourth from left) with UVA student chapter members and chapter advisor Giovanni Zangari (second from right).

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T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS University of Washington Student Chapter The ECS University of Washington (UW) Student Chapter recently held two major activities. The first activity was an industry panel (cohosted with the Materials Research Society student chapter), which was an overwhelming success with 50 graduate and undergraduate student attendees from departments across campus. The panel was comprised of speakers from Microsoft, Intellectual Ventures Labs, Boeing, PolyDrop, and UniEnergy Technologies. Students had the opportunity to ask questions, learn about the research environments at companies ranging from start-ups to multinationals, and network with local industry leaders in a small room setting. The April event was the first in what the organizations hope is a biannual tradition for the UW electrochemical community. The chapter also participated in an “enginearrings” demo at the annual Engineering Discovery Days, an event which draws nearly 10,000 K-12 students to campus to learn about STEM research at the UW. As described in the fall 2006 issue of Interface, the “enginearrings” demo teaches young students how electrochemistry can transform gray titanium wires into colorful and unique pieces of jewelry by creating a thin titanium dioxide film. The demo is a crowd favorite (the chapter handed out over 800 pairs of earrings this year) and continuing the tradition is a great way for the chapter to teach the next generation the excitement and power of electrochemistry.

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The ECS University of Washington Student Chapter members demonstrate electrochemistry by making “enginearrings” at the Engineering Discovery Days.

Welcoming Our Newest

Student Chapters ECS hosts a flourishing network of brilliant, innovative young minds through its student chapter program. During the March 2017 board meeting, three new student chapters were approved: • University of New Mexico • Aalborg University • Oklahoma Student Chapter This brings the total number of ECS Student Chapters to 67 chapters worldwide. Student chapters receive exclusive benefits: • Engage with fellow students and peers • Opportunities to organize technical meeting programs and scholarly activities • Collaborate with members to present posters at ECS biannual meetings • A network of more than 8500 international ECS members • Access to career resources • Impressive extracurricular activity for resume • Funding to support chapter activities • Partnership opportunities with local ECS sections on activities and technical programs • Recognition on the ECS website and in Interface If you are interested in starting an ECS student chapter, contact Shannon Reed, director of membership services, at Shannon.Reed@electrochem.org.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS

ECS STUDENT PROGRAMS

Awarded Student Membership Summer Fellowships

ECS Divisions offer Awarded Student Memberships to qualified full-time students. To be eligible, students must be in their final two years of an undergraduate program or enrolled in a graduate program in science, engineering, or education (with a science or engineering degree). Postdoc students are not eligible. Memberships include generous meeting discounts, an article pack with access to the ECS Digital Library, a subscription to Interface, and much more. uApply www.electrochem.org/student-center uQuestions customerservice@electrochem.org uDeadline Renewable yearly

The ECS Summer Fellowships were established in 1928 to assist students during the summer months.

Travel Grants Several of the Society’s divisions and sections offer Travel Grants to students, postdoctoral researchers, and young professionals presenting papers at ECS meetings. Please be sure to review travel grant requirements for each division and sections. In order to apply for a travel grant, formal abstract submission is required for the respective meeting you wish to attend.

Please visit the ECS website for complete rules and nomination requirements.

uApply www.electrochem.org/fellowships uQuestions awards@electrochem.org uDeadline January 15

uApply www.electrochem.org/travel-grants uQuestions travelgrant@electrochem.org

uNote Applicants must reapply each year

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Select My Memberships from the My Account Links menu.

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2016

Annual Report Providing Solutions


“Free the Science means that we are truly democratizing the practice of publishing.ˮ Krishnan Rajeshwar ECS President

Get the latest ECS news at www.electrochem.org

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Providing Solutions for Dissemination L Krishnan Rajeshwar President

Roque J. Calvo Executive Director & CEO

ast year, our annual report reviewed the reasons why ECS is embarking on a game-changing initiative called Free the Science. The initiative calls for a complete 180 degree turn of our publications model where, in the future, upon establishing a supporting fund, we will make our digital library completely free for authors to publish in and for readers, everywhere, to access without subscription fees. We are doing this for two reasons. First, we know that the research that ECS advances in energy, communications, infrastructure, manufacturing, safety, water, and health, leads to progress that benefits mankind and the sustainability of our resources. Second, research publishing is on the cusp of massive change and ECS wants to lead this revolution in our field. This includes moving toward a more open science philosophy that will increase the speed at which research is shared and increase the number of people able to access and participate in the research process. Becoming more open and accessible means that we are sharing more knowledge and sharing more solutions. And who benefits from sharing in this way? People. And it’s people who we want to celebrate in this year’s annual report. People like you, who helped make 2016 one of the most successful years in our history: • We experienced the largest meeting attendance ever due to the growth of our PRiME meeting in Hawaii. • We had the highest number of submissions to our journals in history, and published over 1,700 more journal articles in our digital library. • We grew the number of downloads in the ECS Digital Library to 3.2 million. • We doubled the number of donors to ECS. These accomplishments do not happen without people and their willingness to contribute their research, time, and resources to ECS. It truly is the force of our community that makes ECS not only a trusted and effective leader in our fields, but also an ambitious leader among scientific societies and publishers. As we mark our milestone 115th anniversary this year, we hope this upward trend in numbers that we saw in 2016 persists, so that ECS continues to flourish in the 21st century. Thank you for continuing to support ECS. Your attendance at our meetings, your gifts to the Society, your article submissions, and your membership, all speak to your dedication to sharing your work that has the potential to improve our lives and make the world a better place.

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The New Model S cientific publishing is a multi-billion dollar industry, yet little of that money is reinvested in the scientists actually conducting the research. Paywalls for those looking to access information and high open access publishing fees impede scientific progress and favor individuals and institutions with resources. As one of the last independent, nonprofit scientific publishers completely governed by scientists, ECS has committed to a long term initiative called Free the Science. Ultimately, the Society wants to make its research freely available to all readers and free for authors to publish open access.

ECS is uniquely qualified to Free the Science. ECS has a long history of excellent science, and doing excellent science vetting. The reviewers of ECS journals are there because they’re interested in science.You get good quality people who are knowledgeable in the field in which you are submitting a paper.

Yue Kuo Texas A&M University professor and 2nd Vice President of ECS

“ECS is one of the oldest professional societies with a great reputation. Written in its history are many famous authors and members, from Nobel Prize laurates to industry leaders and pioneers.”

Johna Leddy University of Iowa professor and ECS Senior Vice President

“ECS doesn’t just publish papers; ECS actually publishes good science.” —Shirley Meng University of California San Diego professor

I think it’s good that we make the information available, but we really need a way of controlling or evaluating to make sure the information is correct. ECS has high quality standards, so the Society can play a really important role in that.

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Neus Sabaté Researcher at the Microelectronic Institute in Barcelona and Science for Solving Society’s Problems Challenge grantee

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of Publishing It’s now or never to make this move. Knowledge and information are power, and ECS is determined to give the power back to the people, back to the authors, back to the researchers, and back to the scientists. “The authors are going to get their information read more widely. They’re going to get cited more widely, and that should open up collaborations, and just expand and grow the field at a much more rapid rate.”

Lili Deligianni IBM Principal Investigator and past ECS Secretary

EJ Taylor Chief Technical Officer of Faraday Technology and ECS Treasurer

“ECS could take the easy road and collaborate with a commercial, forprofit publisher. However, there’s a clear downside in the long run because ECS is formed by the members and its mission is to disseminate the science. If we lose the journals, we lose the content.”

Christina Bock Senior Research Scientist at the National Research Council and 3rd Vice President of ECS

“The rise of commercial publishers has corrupted the process by which we vet, disseminate, and research.” —Johna Leddy University of Iowa professor

Free the Science will have a global impact. “I get a lot of requests from students in developing countries. Their institution may Shirley Meng University of California San not have the resources Diego professor and Vice Chair to subscribe to the of the ECS Battery Division journals, and they send me personal emails to ask for a paper. In some way, ECS is helping developing countries build up their science program.”

(Free the Science) means that we are truly democratizing the practice of publishing. We’re making it an even playing field. It makes it easy for authors to get their results out to places where the use of those results could be maximized. Let’s face it, ultimately what are we doing all this for? We are doing this to improve the quality of life and to leave a better world for the succeeding generations than what we found.

“Giving access to people in developing nations and schools that do not have the same economic resources as some of the higher-tier research institutions, opens up more people to that knowledge, and they can either build upon it or utilize it.” The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

Krishnan Rajeshwar University of Texas at Austin professor and ECS President

David Go University of Notre Dame professor and previous ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship winner

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Publications

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haring scientific solutions is vital to and at the heart of the ECS mission. It proved to be a successful year for both content acquisition and dissemination.

• In 2016, total submissions in ECS journals increased 5.8%. Between 2012 and 2016, submissions have increased almost 25%. • The total number of journal articles published increased 9.2%, a significant jump for one year alone, but also impressive when compared with the previous five years, which averaged under 2% annual growth. Throughout this growth, ECS has maintained its commitment to high quality peer review. • ECS published 582 open access journal articles that went through the same rigorous peer review as did non-open access articles.

75th volume of ECS Transactions

25th anniversary of Interface

• The ECS Digital Library saw a 2.2% increase in the dissemination of content while available content grew by 8%.

It is through important partnerships that the Society seeks solutions to share content. In 2016, a generous grant from the Army Research Office enabled the digitization of the 14 original proceedings volumes of the Molten Salts series making the content freely available in the ECS Digital Library. Involvement in global events, such as Open Access Week, are essential to the discovery and accessibility of our content. In October, ECS participated in International Open Access Week by removing the paywall to the ECS Digital Library, giving the world a preview of what Free the Science will look like in the future. Comparing the average monthly full text/PDF downloads for October 2016 over 2015, ECS recorded a 77% increase in usage of the Society’s active publications. Improvements in operations continue to enhance the discoverability of ECS content. In 2016, upgrades were made to the ECS Online Store, enabling users to simultaneously purchase and download full issue PDFs of ECS Transactions.

8 journal focus issues published

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25% journals manuscript submission increase since 2012

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Meetings 6,053 attendees at the 2016 biannual meetings

50% first time attendees at the 2016 biannual meetings

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f attendance numbers at last year’s biannual meetings are an indicator, we are certainly witnessing the power that electrochemistry and solid state science have to improve the quality of life for people all over the world. For the first time since 1998, ECS returned to San Diego for its May meeting. At this meeting we hosted a special session with the Science for Solving Society’s Problems grantees who were funded through a special program with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The grant winners showcased their research on improving access to clean water and sanitation in developing countries. ECS also celebrated the 25th anniversary of the nanocarbons symposium, first chaired by Karl Kadish. Since 1991, it has featured the founding fathers in this field including Nobel Laureate Richard Smalley and almost 6,000 additional speakers. With 2016 being the silver anniversary of the lithium-ion battery, ECS was proud to continue its relationship with the International Meeting on Lithium Batteries by managing their 17th conference in Chicago, IL, in June. Seventy-five of the world’s leading researchers gave invited talks on this revolutionary technology, with an additional 1,159 poster presentations. The 7th Pacific Rim International Meeting on Electrochemistry (PRiME) was held in Honolulu in October. Originating in 1987 as a joint meeting of ECS and The Electrochemical Society of Japan, PRiME 2016 welcomed the Korean Electrochemical Society as a full partner, and included the technical co-sponsorship of the Chinese Society of Electrochemistry, the Electrochemistry Division of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the Korean Physical Society Semiconductor Division, and the Semiconductor Physics Division of the Chinese Physics Society. The packed meeting schedule included the 6th International Electrochemical Energy Summit, which focused on “Renewable Energy Generation, Distribution, and Storage.ˮ PRiME also recognized the 25th anniversary of the commercialization of the lithium-ion battery with keynote talks from renowned battery pioneers and innovators John Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham, Michael Thackeray, Zempachi Ogumi, and Martin Winter.

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Membership & Education

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n 2016, we continued to focus on solutions to improve the experience for our members: we instituted an automatic membership renewal program; worked to revise institutional member benefits to make them more rewarding for our business allies; grew our student chapter membership by ten worldwide; and, launched a monthly student-oriented enewsletter to keep our early career researchers engaged with the Society. ECS provided almost $30,000 to help fund student chapter activities and awarded over 700 students Society memberships through educational and division funds. Divisions provided more than $80,000 in travel grant funds through the biannual meeting travel grant program to more than 150 student members. There were almost 400 biannual meeting travel grant applications across various divisions. Since 2014, ECS has partnered with Toyota Research Institute of North America on a fellowship for young researchers working in the area of green energy technology. Goals include finding viable alternative energy sources as a replacement for oil, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, and preventing air pollution. Last year, we awarded over $195,000 for the ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowships.

8,477 ECS members

$25,000 awarded for five ECS summer fellowships

2,693 student members

This was a great experience all around. It was a real shot of confidence, in the early days, to be recognized as having an interesting idea. Then, an aspect I didn’t necessarily anticipate was the interaction with Toyota’s Research Institute. They not only visited our site, but also gave me the chance to visit their site to discuss our results. This was an opportunity for some really insightful feedback from some very smart people that wouldn’t have been possible in such an intimate setting otherwise. — Patrick Cappillino, assistant professor, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

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Honors & Awards 13 fellows of ECS inducted

(That’s a total of 295 since 1990.)

34 total number of Society, division, and section awards given out in 2016

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raditionally, when a group forms, one of the first things that members do is create a means of recognition. Founding member and sixth ECS president Edward Acheson created the first ECS award in 1929. Since, the Society has built an awards program that includes over 50 Society, division, and section awards. Society and division awards are recognized at each biannual meeting where recipients are invited to present their research. In 2016, John Scully, corrosion expert and mentor at the University of Virginia, delivered his talk as winner of the prestigious Henry B. Linford Award for Distinguished Teaching. Yelena Gorlin of Technische Universität München spoke as one of the inaugural winners of the Battery Division Postdoctoral Associate Research Award Sponsored by MTI Corporation and the Jiang Family Foundation. PRiME 2016 was our biggest endeavor for many reasons including that it was the 44th time that we bestowed our oldest and most significant honor: the Edward Goodrich Acheson Award. The 2016 Acheson award winner was Barry Miller. Previous winners of the Acheson award have been successful scientists, committed ECS volunteers and financial supporters of the organization—including Acheson himself. Miller leaves the same legacy with a career at such institutions as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Case Western University. At ECS, it was his dedication and leadership that executed our first successful (and largest, to that point) European meeting in Paris, France. Finally, his is also a legacy of philanthropy as he was generous enough to make a lead gift to the Free the Science campaign in 2016. Serendipity? Perhaps or simply the ultimate conclusion that benevolence and recognition are intertwined.

$13,000 awards to poster session winners

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Open Science

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othing epitomizes the theme of “Sharing Solutionsˮ as does open access and open science. Since 2013, when ECS’s first foray into openness began, these programs have gained considerable momentum. The most significant step was the establishment of a partnership with the Center for Open Science. In 2016, ECS began working on a number of projects with COS. The first was the decision by ECS to become a signatory to the TOP Guidelines, a set of recommendations for researchers and publishers to establish sound practices for transparency, open sharing, and reproducibility. A next step was partnering with COS to build a new ECS Digital Library to support and embrace the Society’s ultimate goal of completely opening all the content it publishes, with no fees to authors and no charges to individuals or libraries for subscriptions. ECS also began the planning (with COS) of a preprint server, as a solution for researchers to freely share outputs of their research—data sets, presentation slides, draft abstracts and manuscripts—with many benefits. Once committed to open access, the Society decided to do so with its high-quality, peer-reviewed journals, and to not create new ones simply for the sake of publishing open access. In 2016, the journals offered even more of their best-quality content by publishing all ECS focus issues open access. Data science is an exciting area in many disciplines, and ECS has created a Data Science Initiative, including plans for a workshop, an OpenCon event, and publishing the outputs of this research. Data science is an excellent way for ECS to segue from open access into the exciting opportunities of open science.

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2016 ECS partnered with Center for Open Science

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Donors

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hank you to the following individuals and organizations that made either unrestricted or program gifts to ECS during 2016. With their support we are able to honor leaders in our field, support travel grants, create innovative programs, and build our Free the Science Fund:

Special thanks Toyota Research Institute of America (TRINA), a division of Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA) MTI Corporation and Jiang Family Foundation Houston Endowment, Inc. Thanks to all of our 2016 individual donors. Kuzhikalail Abraham James Acheson Radoslav Adzic Robert Alwitt Khalil Amine Alfred Anderson John Angus Susumu Arai Marcelle Austin Zhumabay Bakenov Jennifer Bardwell* Ahmad Barham Daniel Bauza Rajaram Bhat John Blocher Marta Boaro Christina Bock** Gerardine Botte Mikhail Brik Glen Brown William Brown Rudolph Buchheit** D. Noel Buckley W. Murray Bullis James Burgess Keith Burnette

Kenneth Cadien Long Cai Scott Calabrese Barton** Robert Calhoun Ann Call Roque Calvo Michael Carpenter Graham Cheek Guohua Chen Pushpa Chhetri Giovanni Chiavarotti Toyohiro Chikyow Bryan Chin** Karen Chmielewski Anne Co Karla Cosgriff Beth Craanen Stephen Creager Alexander DeAngelis Enrique Dede Lili Deligianni** Howard Dewald Francesco Di Quarto Detlef Diesing Daniel Dobkin Marca Doeff Edward Donahue Wei-Ping Dow Stephan Eichhorn Jens Eller Darell Engelhaupt Mayken Espinoza Brian Evanko Marco-Tulio F. Rodrigues David Fabian Thomas Fahidy Fu-Ren Fan Jiang Fan

Larry Faulkner James Fenton** Jeffrey Fergus* Gerald Frankel* Robert Frankenthal Hiroyuki Fujimori Shinji Fujimoto Yasuhiro Fukunaka Jun Furukawa Timothy Gamberzky Fernando Garzon Hubert Gasteiger Rob Gerth Don Gervasio Ann Goedkoop Norman Goldsmith Genevieve Goldy Nathan Goldy Richard Goodin Vladimir Gritsenko Lorenz Gubler Turgut Gur** Masa-aki Haga Takashi Hakari Douglas Hansen Akito Hara Leslie Hardy James Harris Adam Heller Dennis Hess* Michael Heynes Fumio Hine Curtis Holmes Natalie Holzwarth W. Jean Horkans Kimberly Horsley Howard Huff Ghulam Hussain

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Charles Hussey Subramanian Iyer Rangarajan Jagannathan Gaurav Jain Angelique Jarry Christopher Johnson** Norbert Jux Ryogo Kato Nozomi Kawakami Robert Keidan Robert Kelly Martin Kendig Marco Kirm Takeshi Kobayashi Paul Kohl** Bernd Kolbesen Suryanarayana Kolluri Joe Koshina Robert Kostecki** Sankalp Kota Zlata Kovac Mahadevaiyer Krishnan Sadagopan Krishnan Kevin Krist Simeon Krumbein Michael Krumpelt Yue Kuo** Bruce Lane Jose Larcin Kelly Lazzaroni Arthur Learn Johna Leddy** Ui-Hyoung Lee Peter Lewis Hongyang Li Ying-Chih Liao Chek Hai Lim Clovis Linkous

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Donors Chung-Chiun Liu Jun Liu Yanwen Liu Henri Maget Tyler Mahy Alfredo Mameli Nicholas Maskalick Gangadhara Mathad Toshiaki Matsui Michael May James McIntyre Paul McIntyre Shirley Meng Jeremy Meyers Barry Miller Shelley Minteer* Sudhan Misra Tomofumi Miyashita Thomas Moffat Esmaily Mohsen Herbert Moltzan Masayuki Morita Theodore Moustakas Rangachary Mukundan* Takurou Murakami Joel Murphy Madhivanan Muthuvel Masaru Nagai Kiyoharu Nakagawa Hironori Nakajima John Newman Jun-Ichi Nishizawa Yaw Obeng** Kenji Ogisu Toshikazu Okubo Anna Olsen Yasuhisa Omura Mark Overberg** Sennu Palanichamy Robert Palmer Bryan Pivovar Elizabeth PodlahaMurphy** Linus Portman

Mark Pritzker Swetha Puchakayala Sampath Purushothaman Sudarshan Purushothaman Jing Qi Krishnan Rajeshwar** Vijay Ramani Murali Ramasubramanian Satyalakshmi Ramesh Robert Rapp Madis Raukas** Erin Redmond Douglas Riemer** Ryota Saito Muthumanickam Sankarapandian John Sans Mukundan Sarukkai Ramesh Sarukkai Sekhar Sarukkai Keith Sasaki Robert Savinell* Daniel Scherson** Morton Schwartz Hiroshi Senoh Gayatri Seshadri Saba Seyedmahmoudbaraghani Yang Shao-Horn Toshio Shibata David Shifler Tadashi Shinohara Ashok Shukla Kurt Sieber Milton Silver Jeong Gon Son Narasi Sridhar Vivek Srinivasamurthi A K Srouji Kurt Stern Steven Stevenson Keith Stine Frederick Strieter Alice Suroviec Seisho Take

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Esther Takeuchi Daisuke Takimoto Zhijiang Tang E. Jennings Taylor** Isabel Tejedor Agnès Tixier-Mita Carl Townsend Orlin Trapp Forrest Trumbore Donald Tryk Hiroaki Tsuchiya Junichi Tsuji Natasa Vasiljevic Philippe Vereecken Anil Virkar Eric Wachsman** Kyosuke Watanabe Adam Weber John Weidner Bruce Weisman** Clinton Winchester David Wipf Mei Hsuan Wu Nae-Lih Wu* Nianqiang Wu** Naoaki Yabuuchi Masahiro Yamamoto Osamu Yamamoto Masaki Yamamura Takeshi Yanagida Mary Yess Hiroshi Yoneyama David Young Ji-Sang Yu Jiaxin Zheng

ECS is grateful to the following companies and institutions which have supported the Society through membership, sponsorship, and/ or exhibits. Their involvement ensures that we are able to advance the most cutting edge research in our fields through conferences and publications. 3M Company Air Force Office of Scientific Research Air Liquide Advanced Materials Air Products Aldritch Materials Science ALS Co., Ltd AMETEK - Scientific Instruments Applied Materials Applied Microengineering Ltd. Arbin Instruments Argonne National Laboratory Asahi Kasei Corporation ASM Association of Fuel Cells/ECSJ Axiall Corporation BASi Bio-Logic USA BMW Group Bondtech Co., Ltd. Central Electrochemical Research Institute Chemcat Scientific Committee of Battery Technology, Japan Dioxide Materials Dropsens SL Duracell EL-Cell GmbH Energizer ESL Electro-Science EV Group Faraday Technology, Inc.

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Donors FEI Fluffy Graphene Ford Motor Company Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. FUJIFILM Dimatix, Inc. Gamry Instruments Gelest, Inc. General Motors Corporation Giner, Inc./GES GLOBALFOUNDRIES GS-Yuasa International Ltd. HE3DA Hiden Analytical Hohsen Corporation Hokuto Denko Honda R&D Co., Ltd. Honda Research Institute USA HORIBA Scientific HORIBA, Ltd. Hydro-Quebec I2CNER IBM Corporation IMERYS Graphite & Carbon Industrie De Nora S.p.A. Interactive International Lead Association IonPower i-SENS Ivium Technologies Kanto Chemical Co., Inc. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Koei Chemical Co., Ltd. Lam Research Corporation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Leclanche SA LG Chem Los Alamos National Laboratory Maccor Mattson Thermal Products GmbH McScience, Inc.

Medtronic Inc. Metrohm USA MFC Systems, LLC Micrux Fluidic Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Machine Tool Co., Ltd. Molecular Rebar Design MTI Corporation Musashino Engineering Next Energy EWE - Forschungszentrum für Energietechnologie Nichia Corporation Nippon Chemi-Con Corporation Nissan ARC, Ltd. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. NKT Photonics Novati Technologies, Inc. Novonix Occidental Chemical Corp. Office of Naval Research Panasonic Corporation, AIS Company Park Systems Corporation Permascand AB Phosphor Research Society of Japan Picosun USA Pine Research Instrumentation Princeton Applied Research/ Solartron Analytical Princeton Instruments Product Systems, Inc. Quallion, LLC RASIRC Saft Batteries, Specialty Batteries Group Samsung R&D Institute Japan Samsung SDI Sandia National Laboratories SanDisk Scribner Associates, Inc. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Targray

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TDK Corporation, Device Development Center Technic Inc. Tektronics Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc. The Electrosynthesis Company, Inc. Thermo Fisher Scientific Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-Stock Co., Ltd. Tokyo Electron Limited (TEL) Toray Research Center, Inc. Toshima Manufacturing Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. Toyota Research Institute of North America U.S. Army Research Office Ultratech/Cambridge Nano Tech Umicore AG & Co. KG Vacuum Technology, Inc. Verder Scientific Water Star, Inc. Western Digital WildCat Discovery Technology Xergy, Inc. X-FAB MEMS Foundry GmbH Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences at CWRU Zahner-elektrik GmbH & Co KG ZSW In-kind support Hilton Worldwide GoogleAds *Denotes ECS Editorial Board Member **Denotes ECS Board Member Thank you to all of our supporters. If there is a mistake in our listings, please contact development@electrochem.org and we will issue a correction.

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Financials STATEMENT OF ACTIVITIES (for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015)

2016

2015

$7,346,472

$7,438,703

5,487,591 505,682 484,511 724,671 7,202,455 144,017 904,043 $1,048,060

5,763,436 566,249 277,782 704,716 7,312,183 126,520 (493,617) $(367,097)

2016

2015

$13,734,986

$12,261,861

4,149,379

4,234,484

Total Assets LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS Liabilities

$17,884,365

$16,496,345

$2,373,433

$2,033,473

Net Assets Total Liabilities and Net Assets

15,510,932 $17,884,365

14,462,872 $16,496,345

REVENUE Total Operation Revenue EXPENSE Program Services Rental Operations Fundraising General & Adminsitrative Total Expense TOTAL INCREASE IN NET ASSETS FROM OPERATIONS Net Change in Fair Value of Investments INCREASE IN NET ASSETS

STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION (for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015)

ASSETS Cash, Investmetns and other Property & Equipment

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Mission

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he mission of ECS is to advance and disseminate knowledge in the fields of electrochemical and solid state science and technology, and allied subjects. To encourage research, discussion, and critical assessment, the Society holds meetings, publishes scientific papers, fosters training and education of scientists and engineers, and cooperates with other organizations to promote science and technology in the public interest. ECS envisions a future where our published peer-reviewed research will be completely open access, an initiative that we call Free the Science. ECS is leading the way as a steward of scientific knowledge in our technical domains and accelerating scientific discovery and innovation by promoting openness and increased accessibility of research, the scientific process, and data. To support our bold vision for open access you can make a gift directly to the Free the Science campaign or to any ECS program area that contributes to the overall financial position of the organization: • Awards • Specific collections in the ECS Digital Library • Meeting symposia • The ECS Fund, an unrestricted fund supporting the greatest needs of the organization as determined by leadership

Visit electrochem.org & freethescience.org to donate online or send an email to development@electrochem.org to discuss ways to give, including planned giving and IRA charitable rollovers. Other ways to contribute to ECS include membership, exhibiting, sponsoring, advertising, and submitting abstracts to our meetings and/or articles to our journals. Together, our Society can share solutions for the benefit of our global society. Thank you. CONTACT ECS ECS – The Electrochemical Society 65 South Main Street, Building D Pennington, NJ 08534-2839, USA 609.737.1902 electrochem.org | ECSBlog.org | @ECSorg

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2016

BY THE NUMBERS BY THE PEOPLE

What follows are the statistics that chart the progress of ECS and the names of individuals who are making ECS successful.

Thank you! 112

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Board and Staff ECS Board of Directors (as of December 31, 2016)

Officers Krishnan Rajeshwar, President Distinguished Professor University of Texas Arlington Johna Leddy, Senior Vice President Associate Professor The University of Iowa Yue Kuo, 2nd Vice President Holder of the Dow Professorship Texas A&M University Christina Bock, 3rd Vice President Senior Research Officer National Research Council of Canada James Fenton, Secretary Director, Florida Solar Energy Center University of Central Florida E. Jennings Taylor, Treasurer Chief Technical Officer Intellectual Property Director Faraday Technology, Inc.

Madis Raukas, Chair Luminescence & Display Materials Division Daniel Scherson, Past President Case Western Reserve University Douglas Riemer, Chair Industrial & Electrochemical. Engineering, Division Stuart Swirson Nonprofit Financial Professional Sannakaisa Virtanen, Chair Corrosion Division Eric Wachsman, Chair Interdisciplinary Science & Technology Subcommittee Nianqiang Wu, Chair Sensor Division

ECS Staff

(as of December 31, 2016)

Dinia Agrawala, Graphic Designer/Interface Production Manager Casey Annunziata, Meetings Specialist Marcelle Austin, Board Relations Specialist Roque Calvo, Executive Director/Chief Executive Officer

Roque J. Calvo, Executive Director Chief Executive Officer The Electrochemical Society

Linda Cannon, Staff Accountant

Directors

Paul Cooper, Editorial Manager

Scott Calabrese Barton, Chair Energy Technology Division

Beth Craanen, Director of Publications

Mekki Bayachou, Chair Organic & Biological Electrochemistry Division Turgut Gür, Chair High Temperature Materials Division

Karen Chmielewski, Finance Associate Karla Cosgriff, Director of Development

Tammi Doerfler, Human Resources Tim Gamberzky, Chief Operating Officer Rob Gerth, Director of Marketing and Communications Annie Goedkoop, Associate Director of Publications/Interface Managing Editor Paul Grote, Director of Finance

Christopher Johnson, Chair Battery Division

Andrea L. Guenzel, Publications Specialist

Pawel Kulesza, Chair Physical & Analytical Electrochemistry Division

Mary Hojlo, Membership and Constituent Services Specialist

Yaw Obeng, Chair Dielectric Science & Technology Division

John Lewis, Associate Director of Meetings

Mark Overberg, Chair Electronics & Photonics Division

Anna Olsen, Senior Content Associate and Library Liaison

Elizabeth Podlaha – Murphy, Chair Electrodeposition Division

Beth Schademann, Publications Specialist

Slava Rotkin, Chair Nanocarbons Division

Delaney Hellman, Development Associate Christie Knef, Director of Meetings Winnie Mutch, Web Manager Shannon Reed, Director of Membership Services Amanda Staller, Web Content Specialist Logan Streu, Publications Content Manager Beth-Anne Stuebe, Meetings and Conference Content Manager Mary E. Yess, Chief Content Officer/Publisher

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Editorial Boards (as of December 31, 2016)

Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES)

ECS Journals Editorial Advisory Committee

Editor: Robert Savinell

Scott A. Calabrese Barton Byung Doo Chin

JES Technical Editors

Mike Hickner

Doron Aurbach, Batteries and Energy Storage

Rainer Küngas

David Cliffel, Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry

Anant Setlur

Gerald S. Frankel, Corrosion Science and Technology

ECS Transactions

Thomas F. Fuller, Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion Charles L. Hussey, Electrochemical/Electroless Deposition Janine Mauzeroll, Organic and Bioelectrochemistry Rangachary Mukundan, Sensors Venkat Subramanian, Electrochemical Engineering JES Associate Editors Thierry Brousse, Batteries and Energy Storage Raymond J. Gorte, Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion Takayuki Homma, Electrochemical/Electroless Deposition Boryann Liaw, Batteries and Energy Storage Scott Lillard, Corrosion Science and Technology Stephen Maldonado, Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry Paul Natishan, Corrosion Science and Technology Thomas J. Schmidt, Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion

Jeffrey W. Fergus ECS Transactions Editorial Advisory Board Robert Lynch, Battery Division Dev Chidambaram, Corrosion Division Zhi (David) Chen, Dielectric Science and Technology Division Elizabeth Podlaha-Murphy, Electrodeposition Division D. Noel Buckley, Electronics and Photonics Division James M. Fenton, Energy Technology Division Cortney Kreller, High Temperature Materials Division John Harb, Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Kailash C. Mishra, Luminescence and Display Materials Division R. Bruce Weisman, Nanocarbons Division James Burgess, Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division Petr Vanýsek, Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division Dong-Joo Kim, Sensor Division

Venkat Srinivasan, Batteries and Energy Storage Alice Suroviec, Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry

Interface

Nae-Lih (Nick) Wu, Batteries and Energy Storage

Petr Vanýsek, Co-Editor

ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS)

Interface Advisory Board

Editor: Dennis Hess

Robert Kostecki, Battery Division

Vijay Ramani, Co-Editor

Sanna Virtanen, Corrosion Division JSS Technical Editors

Durga Misra, Dielectric Science and Technology Division

Jennifer A. Bardwell, Electronic Materials and Processing

Elizabeth Podlaha-Murphy, Electrodeposition Division

Stefan De Gendt, Dielectric Science and Materials

Jerzy Ruzyllo, Electronics and Photonics Division

Francis D’Souza, Carbon Nanostructures and Devices

Mani Manivannan, Energy Technology Division

Kailash C. Mishra, Luminescence and Display Materials, Devices, and Processing

Paul Gannon, High Temperature Materials Division

Fan Ren, Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems

John Staser, Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Uwe Happek, Luminescence and Display Materials Division

JSS Associate Editor

Slava Rotkin, Nanocarbons Division

George Celler, Electronic Materials and Processing / Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems

Jim Burgess, Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division Andrew Hillier, Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division Nae-Lih (Nick) Wu, Sensor Division

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Finance We are pleased to present the audited financial statements of ECS for the year ending December 31, 2016. These reports indicate that our financial health continues to be strong and that we continue to work towards the Society’s objectives of contributing to the advancement of electrochemical and solid state science through the dissemination of technical content. For the year ended December 31, 2016, net assets increased by $1.04 million. The increase was a result of revenues, which exceeded the budget, totaling $8.25 million, and expenses of $7.20 million. The revenue performance against the budget was largely due to increases in the market value of securities in the investment portfolio of $0.9 million. This was supplemented by greater than expected performance in the meetings area. The total operating expenses decreased to $7.2 million primarily due to decreased publications and general and administrative costs, partially offset by increases in fundraising, and marketing costs compared to the previous year. Fundraising costs increased as a result of increased efforts in the area of the Free the Science open access initiative, while Marketing costs increased due to continued investment in the ECS Website and other marketing initiatives. The Society’s Statement of Financial Position reflects assets of $17.8 million. Of these total assets, 70.6% are either custodial or endowment funds. Growth in these funds is important because it is clear that there will be pressure to generate financial support through investment and contribution revenues. The Free the Science open access initiative has shifted our focus to the eventual free dissemination of content. Digital Library subscription prices have been frozen and, over time, will begin to decline as we shift from a subscriptionbased model to a contribution-based model. Our broader financial goal is to avoid the use of the endowment funds to cover operating expenses, if possible, enabling the funds to maintain future growth. From an operational perspective, 2016 was an outstanding year for ECS, largely due to the strong attendance at our biannual meetings and the strong performance of the investment portfolio. We anticipate the continued need for significant investments to fund the technology necessary to advance our programs, disseminate content and support the open access initiative. The Society’s current financial strength will aid in these investments.

E. Jennings Taylor Treasurer

ECS Revenue Percentages - 2016 Membership 8.6%

Constituent programs 0.5%

Publications 32.8%

Other revenues 0.0% Rental income 7.2%

Grants 2.8%

Contributions 2.4%

Society meetings and activities 44.1%

Investment income 1.6%

ECS Expense Percentages - 2016 Membership 4.5% Publications 31.9%

Rental operations 7.0%

Fundraising 6.7%

Constituent programs 1.2%

Marketing 5.3%

Society meetings and activities 32.8%

General and administrative 4.8%

Grant subawards 2.9% Awards, fellowships and grants 2.9%

NOTE: Marketing expense depicted above does not include marketing expenses for program-specific purposes. Those are included in the individual programs.

Tim Gamberzky Chief Operating Officer

NOTE: The Electrochemical Society is a nonprofit international association of scientists and engineers chartered as a taxexempt organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code. The Board of Directors engages the services of an independent auditor to assure that the Society maintains an effective system of financial management, and operates under its nonprofit charter. The Board of Directors received an unmodified or clean opinion from their independent auditors, WithumSmith+Brown for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2016. To obtain a complete copy of the Audit Financial Statements, interested parties can e-mail their request to paul.grote@electrochem.org.

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Financial Summary CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION (for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015)

ASSETS

Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable, net Unconditional promises to give, net Prepaid expenses, deposits and other assets Investments in marketable securities Custodial account investments Deferred rent Investments in real estate: Land Buildings, less accumulated depreciation of $858,232 Intangible assets Total assets

LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS Liabilities Accounts payable and accrued expenses Deferred revenue Custodial account liability Security deposits Deferred compensation Net Assets Unrestricted Temporarily restricted Permanently restricted Total net assets Total liabilities and net assets

2016

2015

$1,474,067 39,755 21,010 176,986 11,971,444 424 51,300

$805,208 35,396 18,585 95,418 11,158,854 83,059 65,341

1,603,427 2,545,952 $17,884,365

1,603,427 2,631,057 $16,496,345

$408,176 1,758,066 424 38,773 167,994

$344,305 1,432,147 83,059 39,391 134,571

13,972,061 579,803 959,068 15,510,932 $17,884,365

13,092,002 469,802 901,068 14,462,872 $16,496,345

$2,411,457 630,783 33,938 3,234,636 119,628 177,731 205,144 531,069 2,086 7,346,472

$2,636,802 643,650 25,165 2,844,332 298,902 127,918 345,346 516,324 264 7,438,703

$2,296,940 327,398 88,611 2,354,828 212,129 207,685 5,487,591

$2,486,267 323,551 70,950 2,363,460 300,000 219,208 5,763,436

342,608 382,063 484,511 505,682 1,714,864 7,202,455 144,017 904,043 1,048,060 14,462,872 $15,510,932

408,836 295,880 277,782 566,249 1,548,747 7,312,183 126,520 (493,617) (367,097) 14,829,969 $14,462,872

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN NET ASSETS (for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015)

REVENUES

Publications Membership Constituent programs Society meetings and activities Investment income Contributions Grants Rental income Other revenues Total Revenues

EXPENSES

Program services Publications Membership Constituent programs Society meetings and activities Grant sub-awards Awards, fellowships and grants Total Program Services Expenses Supporting services General and administrative Marketing Fundraising Rental operations Total Supporting Services Expenses Total Expenses Increase in net assets from operations Net change in fair value of investments Change in net assets Net assets, beginning of year Net assets, end of year

These financial statements are a condensed version of the audited statements of ECS for the years ending December 31, 2016 and 2015. ECS will be pleased to provide complete copies along with all footnotes and the unqualified report of our auditors upon request. 116

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Notes to Financial Statements 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of The Electrochemical Society, Inc. (the Society) and its Divisions, Groups and Sections and ECS Holdings, LLC, (the LLC). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The consolidated financial statements are prepared on the accrual basis of accounting. Revenue, other than contributions, is recognized when earned and expense is recognized when the obligation is incurred. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared to focus on the Society and its subsidiaries as a whole, and to present balances and transactions according to the existence or absence of donor-imposed restrictions. Accordingly, net assets and changes therein are classified as follows: Unrestricted net assets – net assets not subject to donor-imposed stipulations; Temporarily restricted net assets – net assets subject to donor-imposed stipulations that will be met by actions of the Society and/or by the passage of time; Permanently restricted net assets (endowment funds) – net assets subject to donorimposed stipulations that they be maintained permanently by the Society. 2 - Income Tax Status and Income Taxes ECS and its Divisions, Groups, and Sections qualify as a taxexempt organization described under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and all of its income, except income generated through the advertising included in its publications, is exempt from Federal income taxes. As a single-member limited liability company, the LLC is treated as a “disregarded entity” for income tax purposes and, as such, its financial activity is reported in conjunction with the Federal income tax filings of ECS. The Society has adopted the accounting pronouncement that provides guidance on uncertain tax positions. The Society has no unrecognized tax benefits at December 31, 2016. 3 - Investments Investments in equities and fixed income instruments are reported at fair market value, and investment in real estate is reported at cost. Investment income and realized and unrealized net gains and losses on investments of permanently restricted net assets are reported as follows: as increases or decreases in temporarily restricted net assets if the terms of the gift impose restrictions on the use of the income and/or net gains; as increases or decreases in unrestricted net assets in all other cases. Cost, market value and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) at December 31, 2016 are summarized as follows: Cost Money market funds Stocks and mutual funds Certificate of deposit Corporate and U.S. bonds Real estate Real Estate Trust Total

Fair Market Value

Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)

$ 12,517

$ 12,517

$

--

8,137,656

9,640,087

1,502,431

105,784

105,784

--

1,750,440

1,877,690

127,250

5,007,611

5,007,611

--

250,000 335,790 $15,264,008 $16,979,479

85,790 $1,715,471

4 - Endowment Funds The Society’s endowment funds consist of several funds established to fund awards, as well as an educational endowment fund and a Free the Science fund. The endowment funds include both donor-restricted funds and funds designated by the Board of Directors to function as endowments. As required by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), net assets associated with endowment funds are classified based on the existence or absence of donor-imposed restrictions. The Society’s policy requires the preservation of the fair value of the original gift as of the gift date of the donor-restricted endowment funds absent explicit donor stipulations to the contrary. As a result, the Society classifies as permanently restricted net assets the original value of gifts donated to the permanent endowment and the original value of subsequent gifts to the permanent endowment. The remaining portion of the donor-restricted endowment fund that is not classified in permanently restricted net assets is classified as temporarily restricted net assets until those amounts are appropriated for expenditure by the Society. 5 - ECS Holdings, LLC ECS Holdings LLC was chartered in 1998 to manage the real estate assets of the Society. Current real estate holdings include five buildings at Howe Commons in Pennington, NJ valued at a cost of $5,007,611. The Society occupies one of the buildings and the other four are classified as an investment. The LLC leases office space in these four buildings to various tenants under operating leases arrangements expiring through 2021. Rental income under the aforementioned leases totaled $531,069 (excluding intercompany rentals of $89,472) for the year ended December 31, 2016. Report of the ECS Audit Committee The ECS Audit Committee provides oversight of The Electrochemical Society’s financial reporting process on behalf of the Board of Directors. Management (ECS Staff Directors and Officers) is responsible for the financial statements and the financial reporting process, including the system of internal control. In fulfilling its oversight responsibilities, the Committee discussed the financial statements in the annual report with management, including a discussion of quality, not just the acceptability, of the accounting principles; the reasonableness of significant judgments; and the clarity of disclosures in the financial statements. The members of the Audit Committee in 2016 were Daniel Scherson (Chair), Krishnan Rajeshwar, E. Jennings Taylor, Johna Leddy and Stuart Swirson. The ECS Audit Committee discussed with the independent auditors the overall scope and plans for their respective audits. The Committee meets with the independent auditors with and without management present, to discuss the results of their examinations, their evaluations of the Society’s internal control, compliance with laws and regulations, and the overall quality of the Society’s financial reporting. Based on the discussions referenced above, the ECS Audit Committee recommended for acceptance to the Board of Directors the audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016 and the Board unanimously approved.

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Membership Statistics (as of October 1, 2016) Table I. ECS Membership by Class

CATEGORY 2011 2012 Members-Good Standing 4731 4657 Members-Expired N/A N/A Members-Lapsed N/A N/A Member Representatives-Good Standing 112 134 Member Representatives-Expired N/A N/A Member Representatives-Lapsed N/A N/A Retired Members N/A N/A Life Members (Paid Life + Award Life) 52 64 Emeritus Members 289 288 Honorary Members 23 22 Subtotal Members in Good Standing 5207 5165 Total Delinquent (Expired + Lapsed) 1236 1302 Total Members 6443 6467 Student Members-Good Standing 1427 1502 Student Members-Expired N/A N/A Student Members-Lapsed N/A N/A Total Student Members Delinquent (Expired + Lapsed) 825 847 Total Students Members 2252 2349 Total Individual Members 8695 8816 Automatic Renewal Enrollment N/A N/A *Number represents a recategorization in 2015 of good standing, expired & lapsed members. **Membership numbers no longer include free memberships from ECS meetings.

2013 4253 N/A N/A 175 N/A N/A N/A 101 283 25 4837 1225 6062 1438 N/A N/A 775 2213 8275 N/A

2014 4260 N/A N/A 219 N/A N/A N/A 105 296 27 4907 1143 6050 1497 N/A N/A 760 2257 8307 N/A

2015* 3889 393 1235 269 16 10 N/A 117 299 22 4596 1654 6250 1519 228 858 1086 2605 8855 N/A

2016** 3536 382 1035 316 7 18 6 131 330 23 4342 1442 5784 1625 270 798 1068 2693 8477 176

2016-2015 # Change -353 -11 -200 47 -9 8 6 14 31 1 -254 -212 -466 106 42 -60 -18 88 -378 176

2016-2015 % Change -9.08 -2.80 -16.19 17.46 -56.25 80.00 11.97 10.37 4.55 -5.53 -12.82 -7.46 6.98 18.42 -6.99 -1.66 3.38 -4.27 100.00

2015* 89 27 256 215 7 64 74 94 1005 136 70 31 636 146 49 147 217 66 244 64 122 47

2016** 67 26 217 137 8 72 83 56 768 87 49 19 553 75 37 103 168 43 198 68 112 40

2016-2015 # Change -22 -1 -39 -78 1 8 9 -38 -237 -49 -21 -12 -83 -71 -12 -44 -49 -23 -46 4 -10 -7

2016-2015 % Change -24.72 -3.70 -15.23 -36.28 14.29 12.50 12.16 -40.43 -23.58 -36.03 -30.00 -38.71 -13.05 -48.63 -24.49 -29.93 -22.58 -34.85 -18.85 6.25 -8.20 -14.89

2015* 1701 426 204 392 511 995 154 218 286 64 161 560 225

2016** 1605 389 194 365 502 930 171 184 257 68 150 545 212

2016-2015 # Change -96 -37 -10 -27 -9 -65 17 -34 -29 4 -11 -15 -13

2016-2015 % Change -5.64 -8.69 -4.90 -6.89 -1.76 -6.53 11.04 -15.60 -10.14 6.25 -6.83 -2.68 -5.78

2015* 2227 1724 360 119 121

2016** 2151 1288 309 137 33

2016-2015 # Change -76 -436 -51 18 -88

2016-2015 % Change -3.41 -25.29 -14.17 15.13 -72.73

Table II. ECS Membership by Section (data does not include member representatives) SECTION Arizona Brazil Canada Chicago Chile China Cleveland Detroit Europe Georgia India Israel Japan Korea Mexico National Capital New England Pittsburgh San Francisco Taiwan Texas Twin Cities

2011 109 65 381 182 N/A 81 123 118 1105 171 58 39 771 243 31 159 381 87 413 122 144 74

2012 98 66 382 180 10 86 124 116 1108 179 59 39 775 253 30 154 360 80 416 123 146 76

2013 102 47 371 155 13 78 106 96 1041 133 59 27 756 205 30 162 292 58 376 87 142 53

2014** N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Table III. ECS Membership by Division (data does not include member representatives) DIVISION Battery Division Corrosion Division Dielectric Science & Technology Division Electrodeposition Division Electronics & Phontonics Division Energy Technology Division Nanocarbons Division High Temperature Materials Division Industrial Electrochemistry & Electrochemical Engineering Division Luminescence & Display Materials Division Organic & Biological Electrochemistry Division Physical & Analytical Electrochemistry Division Sensor Division

2011 1668 456 319 483 679 1220 176 184 307 111 184 618 229

2012 1709 427 275 448 550 1194 160 218 290 97 176 564 217

2013 1987 458 256 464 581 1122 183 212 303 94 180 609 233

2014 1824 434 235 445 556 1025 177 202 282 90 166 561 218

Table IV. ECS Membership by Occupation (data does not include member representatives or student members) OCCUPATION Academic Industry Government Retired Other

2011 2434 2094 387 109 N/A

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2012 2362 2123 377 110 N/A

2013 2206 1902 377 111 N/A

2014 2346 1900 435 117 N/A

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Meetings Statistics 3,917

4,000

4,011

3,961 4,196

3,500 3,130

3,000

2,747

2,500

2,391 2,144

2,000 1,603 1,653 1,500

1,514 1,481

1,709

2,054

2,274 2,076

2,092 2,233

1,749

1,684

1,000 500 0 Seattle PRiME

Toronto

San Orlando Francisco

Cancun

Attendance

Chicago

Phoenix San Diego PRiME

Papers

PRiME 2016 ABSTRACTS BY THE NUMBERS

ECS 229/SAN DIEGO ABSTRACTS BY THE NUMBERS

ALL PRESENTATIONS Electrochemical Energy Summit Talks Award Talks (Society and Division) Invited & Keynote Talks

ALL PRESENTATIONS 3 17 604

Science for Solving Society’s Problems Challenge Grant Winner Talks Award Talks (Society and Division) Invited & Keynote Talks

Oral Presentations

2,218

Oral Presentations

Posters

1,354

Posters

Total Presentations

4,196

STUDENT PRESENTATIONS Total Student Presentations

Total Presentations

544 1,186 486 2,233

STUDENT PRESENTATIONS 1,372

Total Student Presentations

33% TOTAL COUNTRIES Number of Countries Represented

8 9

646 29%

TOTAL COUNTRIES 67

ATTENDEES

Number of Countries Represented

61

ATTENDEES

Total Attendees

3961

Total Attendees

2092

New Attendees

2041

New Attendees

970

Percentage of New Attendees

52%

Percentage of New Attendees

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46%

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ECS Student Chapters STUDENT CHAPTER (Year Founded) Atlanta Student Chapter at Georgia Tech (2008) Auburn University (2007) Belgium (2015) Boston ECS (2009) Northwestern University Harvard University MIT British Columbia University (2013) Brno University (2006) Calgary Student (2011) California State University-Fullerton (2012) Case Western Reserve University (2005) Central Illinois (2008) Clemson University (2014) Colorado School of Mines (2012) Drexel University (2012) Hong Kong University (2016) Illinois Institute of Technology (2015) Indiana University (2012) Kerala, India at CUSAT (2008) Lahore, Pakistan (2008) Lewis University (2015) Louisiana State University (2016) Montana State University (2013) Montreal (2010) Munich (2015) New Mexico State University (2015) North Florida (2014) Norwegian University of Science and Technology (2014) Ohio State University (2006) Ohio University (2011) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (2013) Research Triangle (2013) Duke University NC State UNC-Chapel Hill South Brazilian (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul) (2010) SRM University (2013) Tel Aviv University (2009) Texas A&M University (2016) Tyndall National Institute (2012) UK Northwest (2015) University of Alabama (2016) University of Arkansas (2014) University of California-Berkeley (2014) University of California-Los Angeles (2015) University of California-Riverside (2011) University of California-San Diego (2014) University of Central Florida (2000) University of Cincinnati (2007) 120

FACULTY ADVISOR Peter J. Hesketh Majid Beidaghi Stefan De Gendt Eugene Smotkin

Dan Bizzotto Jiri Vondrak Viola Ingrid Briss John L. Haan Robert Savinell Andrzej Wieckowski Stephen E. Creager Andy M. Herring Yury Gogotsi Ektarina Pomerantseva Minhua Shao Adam Hock Vijay K. Ramani Lane A. Baker Dennis G. Peters M. K. Jayaraj Inam UI Haque Jason Keleher Christopher G. Arges Paul Gannon Ryan W. Anderson Steen B. Schougaard Hubert Gasteiger Vimal H. Chaitanya Hongmei Luo Pedro Moss Ann Mari Svensson Ann Co Gerardine Botte David J. Duquette Daniel J. Lewis Jeffrey T. Glass (Duke)

Luís Frederico P. Dick Ranjit Thapa Bhalchandra Kakade Eliezer Gileadi Yosi Shacham-Diamand Yue Kuo Alan O’Riordan Laurence J. Hardwick Shanlin Pan Rick Wise Bryan D. McCloskey Sarah H. Tolbert Alexander A. Balandin Shirley Meng Kalpathy B. Sundaram Marc Cahay The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


STUDENT CHAPTER (Year Founded) University of Florida (2005) University of Houston (2016) University of Illinois at Chicago (2016) University of Iowa (2014) University of Kansas (2016) University of Kentucky (2014) University of Maryland (2011) University of Nevada-Reno (2014) University of Oxford (2016) University of Pittsburgh (2014) University of South Carolina (2010) University of St. Andrews (2015) University of Tartu (2013) University of Texas at Austin (2006) University of Texas at Dallas (2012) University of Toronto (2016) University of Utah (2015)

FACULTY ADVISOR Erin Patrick Yan You Brian P. Chaplin Johna Leddy Trung Van Nguyen Mona Shirpour Eric D. Wachsman Dev Chidambaram Charles W. Monroe Prashant N. Kumta Xiao-Dong Zhou John T.S. Irvine Kaido Tammeveski Arumugam Manthiram Moon J. Kim Donald W. Kirk Shelley D. Minteer Henry White Giovanni Zangari Stuart B. Adler Venkat R. Subramanian Candace K. Chan

University of Virginia (2006) University of Washington (2016) Valley of the Sun (Central AZ) Student Chapter (2013)

ECS Sections ECS Section Chairs as of 12/31/2016:

Arizona Section Brazil Section Canada Section Chicago Section Chile Section China Section Cleveland Section Detroit Section Europe Section Georgia Section India Section Israel Section Japan Section Korea Section Mexico Section National Capital Section New England Section Pittsburgh Section San Francisco Section Taiwan Section Texas Section Twin Cities Section

Candace Kay Chan, Chair Luís Frederico P. Dick, Chair Christa Brosseau, Chair Alan Zdunek, Chair Jose H. Zagal, Chair Yong Yao Xia, Chair Heidi B. Martin, Chair Stephen Maldonado, Chair Enrico Traversa, Chair Seung Woo Lee, Chair Vijayamohanan K. Pillai, Chair Daniel Mandler, Chair Hiroshi Iwai, Chair Yung-Eun Sung Ignacio Gonzalez, Chair Erich D. Wachsman, Chair Sanjeev Mukerjee, Chair Clifford W. Walton Wei Tong, Chair Cheng-lun Wang, Chair Harovel G. Wheat, Chair Peter Zhang, Chair

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ECS Honor Roll Past Presidents of the Society J. W. Richards............................... 1902-1904 H. S. Carhart................................. 1904-1905 W. D. Bancroft............................... 1905-1906 C. Hering....................................... 1906-1907 C. F. Burgess................................. 1907-1908 E. G. Acheson................................ 1908-1909 L. H. Baekeland............................. 1909-1910 W. H. Walker................................. 1910-1911 W. R. Whitney............................... 1911-1912 W. L. Miller.................................... 1912-1913 E. F. Roeber................................... 1913-1914 F. A. Lidbury.................................. 1914-1915 L. Addicks..................................... 1915-1916 F. A. J. FitzGerald........................... 1916-1917 C. G. Fink...................................... 1917-1918 F. J. Tone....................................... 1918-1919 W. D. Bancroft............................... 1919-1920 W. S. Landis.................................. 1920-1921 A. Smith........................................ 1921-1922 C. G. Schluederberg.................................1922-1923 A. T. Hinckley................................ 1923-1924 H. C. Parmelee.............................. 1924-1925 F. M. Becket................................... 1925-1926 W. Blum........................................ 1926-1927 S. C. Lind...................................... 1927-1928 P. J. Kruesi.................................... 1928-1929 F. C. Frary...................................... 1929-1930 L. Kahlenberg................................ 1930-1931 B. Stoughton................................. 1931-1932 R. A. Witherspoon......................... 1932-1933 J. Johnston................................... 1933-1934 H. S. Lukens.................................. 1934-1935 J. H. Critchett................................ 1935-1936 D. A. MacInnes.............................. 1936-1937 W. G. Harvey................................. 1937-1938 R. L. Baldwin................................. 1938-1939 H. J. Creighton.............................. 1939-1940 F. C. Mathers................................. 1940-1941

R. R. Ridgway............................... 1941-1942 E. M. Baker.................................... 1942-1943 R. M. Burns................................... 1943-1944 S. D. Kirkpatrick............................ 1944-1945 W. R. Veazey................................. 1945-1946 W. C. Moore.................................. 1946-1947 G. W. Heise................................... 1947-1948 J. A. Lee........................................ 1948-1949 A. L. Ferguson............................... 1949-1950 C. L. Faust..................................... 1950-1951 R. M. Hunter................................. 1951-1952 J. C. Warner.................................. 1952-1953 R. J. McKay................................... 1953-1954 M. J. Udy...................................... 1954-1955 H. H. Uhlig.................................... 1955-1956 H. Thurnauer................................. 1956-1957 N. Hackerman............................... 1957-1958 S. Swann....................................... 1958-1959 W. C. Gardiner............................... 1959-1960 R. A. Schaefer............................... 1960-1961 H. B. Linford.................................. 1961-1962 F. L. LaQue.................................... 1962-1963 W. J. Hamer.................................. 1963-1964 L. I. Gilbertson.............................. 1964-1965 E. B. Yeager................................... 1965-1966 H. J. Read..................................... 1966-1967 H. C. Gatos.................................... 1967-1968 I. E. Campbell................................ 1968-1969 N. C. Cahoon................................. 1969-1970 C. W. Tobias.................................. 1970-1971 C. V. King...................................... 1971-1972 T. D. McKinley............................... 1972-1973 N. B. Hannay................................. 1973-1974 D. A. Vermilyea............................. 1974-1975 T. R. Beck...................................... 1975-1976 M. J. Pryor.................................... 1976-1977 D. N. Bennion................................ 1977-1978 D. R. Turner.................................. 1978-1979

J. B. Berkowitz.............................. 1979-1980 E. M. Pell....................................... 1980-1981 R. J. Brodd.................................... 1981-1982 F. J. Strieter................................... 1982-1983 J. B. Wagner, Jr............................. 1983-1984 P. C. Milner.................................... 1984-1985 R. C. Alkire.................................... 1985-1986 R. E. Enstrom................................ 1986-1987 F. G. Will........................................ 1987-1988 B. E. Deal...................................... 1988-1989 E. J. Cairns.................................... 1989-1990 J. M. Woodall................................ 1990-1991 L. R. Faulkner................................ 1991-1992 W. L. Worrell................................. 1992-1993 R. P. Frankenthal........................... 1993-1994 J. A. Amick.................................... 1994-1995 K. R. Bullock................................. 1995-1996 D. W. Hess.................................... 1996-1997 B. Miller........................................ 1997-1998 G. M. Blom.................................... 1998-1999 D. E. Hall....................................... 1999-2000 C. M. Osburn................................. 2000-2001 J. Talbot........................................ 2001-2002 K. Spear........................................ 2002-2003 B. Scrosati.................................... 2003-2004 R. Susko....................................... 2004-2005 W. Smyrl....................................... 2005-2006 Mark Allendorf.............................. 2006-2007 Barry MacDougall......................... 2007-2008 D. Noel Buckley............................. 2008-2009 Paul Natishan................................ 2009-2010 William D. Brown.......................... 2010-2011 Esther S. Takeuchi......................... 2011-2012 Fernando Garzon........................... 2012-2013 Tetsuya Osaka............................... 2013-2014 Paul Kohl....................................... 2014-2015 Daniel Scherson............................ 2015-2016

I. E. Campbell................................ 1959-1965 R. F. Bechtold................................ 1965-1968 D. R. Turner.................................. 1968-1974 P. C. Milner.................................... 1974-1980 F. A. Trumbore............................... 1980-1984 J. A. Amick.................................... 1984-1988 E. W. Brooman.............................. 1988-1992

J. McBreen.................................... 1992-1996 R. Susko....................................... 1996-2000 P. Natishan.................................... 2000-2004 P. Vanýsek..................................... 2004-2008 J. Leddy........................................ 2008-2012 H. Deligianni.................................. 2012-2016

E. G. Enck...................................... 1961-1964 R. H. Schaefer............................... 1964-1967 R. H. Cherry.................................. 1967-1973 F. J. Strieter................................... 1973-1976 J. L. Griffin.................................... 1976-1982 J. Kruger....................................... 1982-1986 R. P. Frankenthal........................... 1986-1990

R. E. White.................................... 1990-1994 W. M. Bullis................................... 1994-1997 Y. H. Wong.................................... 1997-1998 W. D. Brown.................................. 1998-2002 P. Fedkiw....................................... 2002-2006 J. Susko........................................ 2006-2010 Christina Bock............................... 2010-2014

Past Secretaries of the Society C. Hering.................................................1902 C. J. Reed...................................... 1902-1904 S. S. Sadtler.................................. 1904-1907 J. W. Richards............................... 1907-1921 C. G. Fink...................................... 1921-1947 R. M. Burns................................... 1947-1949 H. B. Linford.................................. 1949-1959

Past Treasurers of the Society P. G. Salom................................... 1902-1920 F. A. Lidbury.................................. 1920-1924 A. Smith........................................ 1924-1931 R. M. Burns................................... 1931-1943 W. W. Winship............................... 1943-1949 E. G. Widell................................... 1949-1955 L. I. Gilbertson.............................. 1955-1961

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Edward Goodrich Acheson Award E. G. Acheson...........................................1929 E. F. Northrup...........................................1931 C. G. Fink.................................................1933 F. J. Tone..................................................1935 F. M. Becket..............................................1937 F. C. Frary.................................................1939 C. F. Burgess............................................1942 W. Blum...................................................1944 H. J. Creighton.........................................1946 D. A. MacInnes.........................................1948 G. W. Vinal...............................................1950 J. W. Marden............................................1952 G. W. Heise..............................................1954 R. M. Burns..............................................1956 W. J. Kroll................................................1958 H. B. Linford.............................................1960 C. L. Faust................................................1962 E. A. Gulbransen......................................1964 W. C. Vosburgh........................................1966 F. L. LaQue...............................................1968 S. Ruben..................................................1970 C. W. Tobias.............................................1972 C. V. King.................................................1974 N. B. Hannay............................................1976 D. A. Vermilyea........................................1978 E. B. Yeager..............................................1980 H. C. Gatos...............................................1982 N. Hackerman..........................................1984 E. M. Pell..................................................1986 H. H. Uhlig...............................................1988 T. R. Beck.................................................1990 D. R. Turner.............................................1992 J. B. Wagner, Jr........................................1994 R. C. Alkire...............................................1996 J. M. Woodall...........................................1998 L. R. Faulkner...........................................2000 B. Deal.....................................................2002 W. L. Worrell............................................2004 V. de Nora................................................2006 Robert P. Frankenthal...............................2008 John Newman..........................................2010 Dennis Hess.............................................2012 Ralph J. Brodd.........................................2014 Barry Miller..............................................2016

Olin Palladium Award (formerly the Palladium Medal Award, 1951-1977)

C. W. Wagner...........................................1951 N. H. Furman............................................1953 U. R. Evans..............................................1955 K. F. Bonhoeffer........................................1957 A. N. Frumkin...........................................1959 H. H. Uhlig...............................................1961 N. Hackerman..........................................1965 P. Delahay................................................1967 T. P. Hoar..................................................1969 L. Brewer.................................................1971 V. G. Levich..............................................1973 M. J. N. Pourbaix.....................................1975 H. Gerischer.............................................1977 R. Parsons...............................................1979 I. M. Kolthoff............................................1981 M. Cohen.................................................1983 M. Fleischmann........................................1985 A. J. Bard.................................................1987 B. E. Conway............................................1989 J. Newman...............................................1991 J.-M. Savéant...........................................1993 J. Kruger..................................................1995 R. W. Murray............................................1997 J. B. Goodenough....................................1999 N. Sato.....................................................2001 E. Gileadi..................................................2003 R. Rapp....................................................2005 Sergio Trasatti..........................................2007 Dieter M. Kolb..........................................2009 Koji Hashimoto........................................2011 Ralph White.............................................2013 Digby Macdonald.....................................2015

J. F. Gibbons............................................1989 J. D. Plummer..........................................1991 B. E. Deal.................................................1993 W. L. Worrell............................................1995 K. E. Spear...............................................1997 I. Akasaki.................................................1999 A. Reisman...............................................2001 R. B. Fair..................................................2003 D. Hess....................................................2005 Tak H. Ning..............................................2007 C. Grant Willson.......................................2009 Stephen Pearton......................................2011 Fan Ren....................................................2013 Yue Kuo...................................................2015

Vittorio de Nora Award in Electrochemical Engineering and Technology (formerly the Electrochemical Science and Technology Award, 1974-1977)

A. Brenner................................................1974 R. B. MacMullin.......................................1976 F. T. Bacon................................................1978 H. B. Beer.................................................1980 J. C. Schumacher.....................................1982 D. E. Danly...............................................1984 K. Kordesch.............................................1986 A. Heller...................................................1988 C. W. Tobias.............................................1990 E. B. Yeager..............................................1992 L. T. Romankiw........................................1994 R. Baboian...............................................1996 W. G. Grot................................................1998 D. R. Turner.............................................2000 R. C. Alkire...............................................2004 F. Mansfeld...............................................2006 John S. Newman......................................2008 Derek Pletcher..........................................2010 Bruno Scrosati.........................................2012 Chad Mirkin..............................................2014 Ralph White.............................................2016

Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid-State Science and Technology (formerly the Solid State Science & Technology Award, 1973-2005)

W. G. Pfann..............................................1973 H. C. Gatos...............................................1975 R. N. Hall..................................................1977 M. B. Panish.............................................1979 G. L. Pearson...........................................1981 N. Holonyak, Jr.........................................1983 J. M. Woodall...........................................1985 A. Y. Cho..................................................1987

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

Carl Wagner Memorial Award A. J. Bard.................................................1981 G. C. Wood...............................................1983 R. C. Alkire...............................................1985 R. W. Murray............................................1987 W. L. Worrell............................................1989

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ECS Honor Roll Carl Wagner Memorial Award (continued)

D. D. Macdonald .....................................1991 J. Jorné....................................................1993 B. R. MacDougall.....................................1995 M. J. Weaver............................................1997 C. R. Martin..............................................1999 P. A. Kohl.................................................2001 R. M. Crooks............................................2003 J. Hupp....................................................2005 Philip N. Bartlett.......................................2007 Henry S. White.........................................2009 Peter Bruce..............................................2011 Marc T. M. Koper......................................2013 Martin Winter...........................................2015

Henry B. Linford Award for Distinguished Teaching C. W. Tobias.............................................1982 B. E. Conway............................................1984 A. J. Bard.................................................1986 L. Brewer.................................................1988 J. Newman...............................................1990 K. Nobe....................................................1992 J. O’M. Bockris.........................................1994 T. C. Franklin............................................1996 R. A. Rapp................................................1998 G. Stoner..................................................2000 D. Peters..................................................2002 R. M. Latanision.......................................2004 D. Pletcher...............................................2006 Eliezer Gileadi...........................................2008 Daniel T. Schwartz....................................2010 Mark E. Orazem........................................2012 Dennis Hess.............................................2014 John Scully..............................................2016

Charles W. Tobias Young Investor Award Stuart B. Adler..........................................2004 Hock Min Ng............................................2006 Yang Shao-Horn.......................................2008 Thomas J. Schmidt..................................2010 Bryan S. Pivovar......................................2012 Bilge Yildiz...............................................2012 Adam Weber............................................2014 Y. Shirley Meng........................................2016

Allen J. Bard Award Henry White.............................................2015

Honorary Members Charles F. Chandler..................................1919 Edgar F. Smith..........................................1919 Carl Hering...............................................1922 Edward G. Acheson..................................1923 Wilder D. Bancroft....................................1925 Edward Weston........................................1926 Thomas A. Edison....................................1928 W. Lash Miller..........................................1929 Edward Dean Adams................................1930 Charles F. Burgess....................................1932 Frederick M. Becket..................................1934 L. H. Baekeland........................................1936 Robert A. Witherspoon............................1940 Archer E. Wheeler....................................1941 W.R. Whitney...........................................1944 Paul J. Kruesi...........................................1944 Colin G. Fink.............................................1946 Oliver W. Brown.......................................1946 John W. Marden.......................................1947 William Blum............................................1953 Robert M. Burns......................................1959 George W. Heise......................................1959 Frank C. Mathers......................................1959 Stanislaus Skowronski.............................1962 Oliver W. Storey.......................................1962 A. Kenneth Graham..................................1963 Howard A. Acheson..................................1971 Charles L. Faust.......................................1971 Cecil V. King.............................................1973 Herbert H. Uhlig.......................................1973 Norman Hackerman.................................1973 Henry B. Linford.......................................1974 Sherlock Swann.......................................1974 Ernest G. Enck..........................................1975 W. C. Gardiner..........................................1975 Ivor E. Campbell.......................................1976 Ernest B. Yeager.......................................1977 David A. Vermilyea...................................1977 Charles W. Tobias.....................................1977 Harry C. Gatos.........................................1978 Ralph M. Hunter.......................................1979 Dennis R. Turner......................................1980 Henry F. Ivey............................................1980 Walter J. Hamer.......................................1980 Michael J. Pryor.......................................1981 Francis L. LaQue......................................1981 N. Bruce Hannay......................................1982 Theodore R. Beck.....................................1982

124

Vittorio de Nora........................................1982 John L. Griffin..........................................1983 Erik M. Pell...............................................1983 Samuel Ruben..........................................1983 Paul C. Milner..........................................1986 Harold J. Read.........................................1986 Forrest A. Trumbore.................................1986 Douglas N. Bennion.................................1987 Ralph J. Brodd.........................................1987 Jerome Kruger.........................................1987 Glenn W. Cullen........................................1990 James C. Acheson....................................1990 Richard C. Alkire......................................1991 Bertram Schwartz....................................1991 J. Bruce Wagner, Jr..................................1991 V. H. Branneky..........................................1991 R. S. Karpiuk............................................1996 F. J. Strieter..............................................1996 W. L. Worrell............................................1996 Barry Miller..............................................1999 Jefferson Cole..........................................2001 L. Faulkner...............................................2003 R. Frankenthal..........................................2003 L. Romankiw............................................2003 Gordon E. Moore......................................2007 John S. Newman......................................2007 Jerry M. Woodall......................................2007 Allen J. Bard.............................................2013 John B. Goodenough...............................2013 Adam Heller.............................................2015 Dennis Hess.............................................2016

Fellows of The Electrochemical Society Allen J. Bard.............................................1990 Robert B. Comizzoli..................................1990 Glenn W. Cullen........................................1990 Theodore I. Kamins..................................1990 Paul C. Milner..........................................1990 Edward H. Nicollian..................................1990 Robert A. Osteryoung..............................1990 Arnold Reisman.......................................1990 Lubomyr T. Romankiw.............................1990 Geraldine C. Schwartz..............................1990 Ben G. Streetman.....................................1990 J. Bruce Wagner, Jr..................................1990 Theodore R. Beck.....................................1991 Elton J. Cairns..........................................1991 Bruce E. Deal............................................1991 Werner Kern.............................................1991 William A. Pliskin.....................................1991 Charles W. Tobias.....................................1991 Rolf Weil..................................................1991 Richard C. Alkire......................................1992 Vittorio de Nora........................................1992 Jerome Kruger.........................................1992 Barry Miller..............................................1992 Dennis R. Turner......................................1992 Jerry M. Woodall......................................1992

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Richard P. Buck........................................1993 Larry. R. Faulkner.....................................1993 Dennis W. Hess........................................1993 Vik J. Kapoor............................................1993 Rolf H. Muller...........................................1993 Carlton M. Osburn....................................1993 Robert A. Rapp........................................1993 George L. Schnable..................................1993 Y. H. Wong...............................................1993 Petr Zuman..............................................1993 George K. Celler.......................................1994 Sung-Nee George Chu.............................1994 John P. Dismukes....................................1994 Richard B. Fair.........................................1994 Adam Heller.............................................1994 Richard A. Oriani......................................1994 Boone B. Owens.......................................1994 Wayne L. Worrell.....................................1994 Fred Anson...............................................1995 Laurence D. Burke....................................1995 Brian E. Conway.......................................1995 Robert P. Frankenthal...............................1995 Karl M. Kadish..........................................1995 Digby D. Macdonald.................................1995 Gleb Mamantov........................................1995 Florian Mansfeld......................................1995 Royce W. Murray.....................................1995 John Newman..........................................1995 Yutaka Okinaka.........................................1995 Howard W. Pickering................................1995 George Rozgonyi......................................1995 Mordechay Schlesinger............................1995 Karl E. Spear............................................1995 John M. Blocher, Jr..................................1996 Hans K. Böhni..........................................1996 Der-Tau Chin............................................1996 Hugh Isaacs.............................................1996 Wolfgang J. Lorenz..................................1996 S. J. Pearton............................................1996 Subhash C. Singhal..................................1996 Venkataraman Swaminathan....................1996 James A. Amick.......................................1997 Denis Noel Buckley..................................1997 Eliezer Gileadi...........................................1997 Michel J. Froment....................................1997 Koji Hashimoto........................................1997 Chung-Chiun Liu......................................1997 Edward McCafferty..................................1997 Theodore D. Moustakas...........................1997 Shyam P. Muraka.....................................1997 Stella W. Pang..........................................1997 Joachim Walter Schultze..........................1997 James D. Sinclair.....................................1997 Norman L. Weinberg................................1997 Lawrence Young......................................1997 Huk Y. Cheh..............................................1998 Donald E. Danly........................................1998 Dennis H. Evans.......................................1998 Fumio Hine...............................................1998 Dennis C. Johnson...................................1998 Zoltan Nagy..............................................1998

Katsumi Niki.............................................1998 Jun-ichi Nishizawa...................................1998 Fan Ren....................................................1998 Antonio J. Ricco.......................................1998 David A. Shores.......................................1998 William H. Smyrl......................................1998 George Thompson...................................1998 Eric Brooman...........................................1999 Stanley Bruckenstein................................1999 Kathryn Bullock........................................1999 Shimshon Gottesfeld................................1999 Yue Kuo...................................................1999 Dieter Landolt..........................................1999 Jerzy Ruzyllo............................................1999 Norio Sato................................................1999 Ralph White.............................................1999 William Yen..............................................1999 Cammy Abernathy....................................2000 Kuzhikalail M. Abraham............................2000 John C. Angus..........................................2000 W. Ronald Fawcett...................................2000 David S. Ginley.........................................2000 Yasuhiko Ito.............................................2000 Howard Huff.............................................2000 Robert F. Savinell.....................................2000 Roger Staehle..........................................2000 Charles W. Struck....................................2000 Sergio Trasatti..........................................2000 Dieter M. Kolb..........................................2001 David J. Lockwood...................................2001 James McBreen.......................................2001 Patrick J. Moran.......................................2001 Shohei Nakahara......................................2001 William E. O’Grady...................................2001 Supramanian Srinivasan..........................2001 Mark Allendorf.........................................2002 William Brown..........................................2002 Cor Claeys................................................2002 Martin Kendig..........................................2002 Kim Kinoshita...........................................2002 Paul Kohl..................................................2002 Zempachi Ogumi......................................2002 Tetsuya Osaka..........................................2002 Krishnan Rajeshwar.................................2002 Israel Rubinstein......................................2002 Sigeru Torii..............................................2002 Toshio Shibata.........................................2002 Sorin Cristoloveanu..................................2002 David Duquette........................................2003 Peter Fedkiw............................................2003 Charles Hussey........................................2003 Richard McCreery....................................2003 Frank McLarnon.......................................2003 Robin Susko............................................2003 Darrel Untereker.......................................2003 Osamu Yamamoto....................................2003 G. T. Burstein...........................................2004 C. Clayton.................................................2004 G. Davis...................................................2004 M. J. Deen................................................2004 S. Fonash.................................................2004

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M. Meyyappan.........................................2004 J. F. Rusling.............................................2004 M. Seo.....................................................2004 M. Shur....................................................2004 J. Simonet................................................2004 M. Stratmann...........................................2004 J. Talbot...................................................2004 M. S. Whittingham...................................2004 R. Adzic....................................................2005 J. Davidson..............................................2005 T. Hattori..................................................2005 J. P. Leburton...........................................2005 P. Marcus.................................................2005 C. Martin..................................................2005 P. Natishan...............................................2005 D. Pletcher...............................................2005 B. Scrosati...............................................2005 J. Scully...................................................2005 R. Singh...................................................2005 H. H. Strehblow........................................2005 M. Williams..............................................2005 A. Baca.....................................................2006 S. Bandyopadhyay...................................2006 T. Fahidy...................................................2006 G. Frankel.................................................2006 C. Jagadish..............................................2006 N. Koshida...............................................2006 J. Lessard................................................2006 H. Massoud..............................................2006 H. Yokokawa............................................2006 B. MacDougall..........................................2006 M. Orazem...............................................2006 D. Misra...................................................2006 A. Virkar...................................................2006 A. Wieckowski..........................................2006 Simon S. Ang...........................................2007 Viola Birss................................................2007 Marc Cahay..............................................2007 James M. Fenton......................................2007 Dennis G. Peters......................................2007 Daniel A. Scherson...................................2007 Eric D. Wachsman....................................2007 Doron Aurbach.........................................2008 Albert J. Fry.............................................2008 Fernando Garzon......................................2008 Yury Gogotsi............................................2008 Curtis F. Holmes.......................................2008 Prashant V. Kamat....................................2008 Patrik Schmuki.........................................2008 Gery R. Stafford.......................................2008 Joseph R. Stetter.....................................2008 John Stickney..........................................2008 Thomas Thundat......................................2008 Vladimir Bagotsky....................................2009 Ugo Bertocci............................................2009 Manfred Engelhardt..................................2009 Tom Fuller................................................2009 Peter Hesketh...........................................2009 Uziel Landau............................................2009 Dolf Landheer..........................................2009 Thomas P. Moffat.....................................2009 125


ECS Honor Roll Fellows (continued)

Ikuzo Nishiguchi......................................2009 Kohei Uosaki............................................2009 Rudolph G. Buchheit................................2010 Francis D’Souza.......................................2010 Toshio Fuchigami.....................................2010 Michel Houssa.........................................2010 Robert G. Kelly.........................................2010 Roger C. Newman....................................2010 Peter N. Pintauro......................................2010 Peter C. Searson......................................2010 David Shoesmith......................................2010 Bernard Tribollet......................................2010 John W. Weidner......................................2010 David J. Young.........................................2010 Hugh C. DeLong.......................................2011 Hubert Gasteiger......................................2011 Arumugam Manthiram.............................2011 Ashok Kumar Shukla................................2011 Paul C. Trulove.........................................2011 Karim Zaghib............................................2011 Giovanni Zangari......................................2011 Thomas A. Zawodzinski...........................2011 Jeffrey R. Dahn........................................2012 Stefan DeGendt........................................2012 Hariklia Deligianni....................................2012 Andrew Gewirth.......................................2012 Meilin Liu.................................................2012 Junichi Murota.........................................2012 Sri Narayan..............................................2012 Trung Van Nguyen....................................2012 Winston Revie..........................................2012 Daniel Schwartz.......................................2012 Esther Takeuchi........................................2012 Mark Verbrugge.......................................2012 Petr Vanýsek............................................2012 Bruce Weisman........................................2012 Hector Abruña..........................................2013 Nancy Dudney..........................................2013 Gary Hunter.............................................2013 Jiri Janata................................................2013 Johna Leddy............................................2013 Shelley Minteer........................................2013 Sanjeev Mukerjee.....................................2013 Elizabeth Opila..........................................2013 Jan Robert Selman...................................2013 Kalpathy Sundaram..................................2013 Enrico Traversa........................................2013 Martin Winter...........................................2013 George E. Blomgren.................................2014 Gerardine Botte........................................2014 Ralph J. Brodd.........................................2014 Yasuhiro Fukunaka...................................2014 Jay W. Grate.............................................2014 Dirk Guldi.................................................2014 Bruce Parkinson.......................................2014 Fred Roozeboom......................................2014 Alvin Salkind............................................2014 Sudipta Seal.............................................2014 Michael Thackeray...................................2014 Tooru Tsuru..............................................2014

Harry Tuller..............................................2014 Jose Zagal................................................2014 Piotr Zelenay............................................2014 Simon Deleonibus....................................2015 Raymond Gorte........................................2015 Ellen Ivers-Tiffeé......................................2015 Deborah Jones.........................................2015 Robert Kostecki........................................2015 Mogens Mogensen..................................2015 Kailash Mishra.........................................2015 Emanuel Peled.........................................2015 E. Jennings Taylor....................................2015 John Turner..............................................2015 Steven Visco............................................2015 Nick Birbilis..............................................2016 John Goodenough....................................2016 Masahiro Watanabe.................................2016 Hiroshi Imahori........................................2016 Alan C. West............................................2016 Eddy Simoen............................................2016 Bryan Chin...............................................2016 Ram S. Katiyar.........................................2016 Bor Yann Liaw..........................................2016 Jeffrey Fergus..........................................2016 Peter Mascher..........................................2016 A. Robert Hillman.....................................2016 Jürgen Fleig ............................................2016

Edward G. Weston Summer Fellowship

(formerly the Edward G. Weston Fellowship, 1930-1945)

E. B. Sanigar............................................1930 K. Solliner................................................1931 M. E. Fogle...............................................1932 R. D. Blue.................................................1933 P. A. Jacquet............................................1934 M. A. Coler...............................................1935 H. B. Linford.............................................1936 G. L. Putnam............................................1937 V. de Nora................................................1938 W. P. Ruemmier.......................................1940 R. E. Black................................................1941 W. E. Roake..............................................1942 R. D. Misch..............................................1947 M. T. Simnad............................................1948 R. L. Brubaker..........................................1961 D. Yohe....................................................1962 H. O. Daley, Jr..........................................1963 M. D. Hawley............................................1964 T. G. McCord............................................1965 J. D. McLean............................................1966 K. B. Prater...............................................1967 K. Doblhofer.............................................1968 L. R. Faulkner...........................................1969 W. J. Horkans...........................................1970 W. J. Horkans...........................................1971 W. J. Bover...............................................1972 B. J. Alexander.........................................1973 S. S. Fratoni, Jr. ......................................1974 M. Suchanski...........................................1975 R. J. Nowak..............................................1976

126

P. A. Kohl.................................................1977 C. D. Jaeger.............................................1978 L. Bottomley.............................................1979 G. L. McIntire...........................................1980 J. Pemberton...........................................1981 M. E. Kordesch.........................................1982 R. G. Tompson.........................................1983 P. M. Kovach............................................1984 J. N. Harb.................................................1985 S. E. Creager............................................1986 X. Zhang...................................................1987 C. Amass..................................................1988 R. J. Phillips.............................................1989 J. E. Franke..............................................1990 S. R. Snyder.............................................1991 P. Pantano................................................1992 G. J. Edens...............................................1993 B. Idriss...................................................1994 D. Bizzotto................................................1995 L. A. Lyon.................................................1996 C. Claypool...............................................1997 B. Bath.....................................................1998 A. C. Templeton........................................1999 P. W. Wuelfing..........................................2000 K. Balss....................................................2001 T. Hu........................................................2002 J. Mauzeroll.............................................2003 J. Seegmiller............................................2004 E. Blair.....................................................2005 F. Laforge.................................................2006 Aleix G. Güell............................................2007 Matthew J. Banholzer...............................2008 Shulei Chou..............................................2009 Binh-Minh Nguyen...................................2010 Abrin Schmucker.....................................2011 Sujat Sen..................................................2012 Philippe Dauphin Ducharme.....................2013 Tuncay Ozel..............................................2014 Gen Chen.................................................2015 Soo Kim...................................................2016

Colin Garfield Fink Summer Fellowship P. Brown...................................................1962 W. G. Lemmermann.................................1963 W. G. Stevens...........................................1964 J. P. Carney..............................................1965 S. Piekarski..............................................1966 B. S. Pons................................................1967 R. E. Bonewitz..........................................1968 L. Papouchado.........................................1969 R. G. Reed................................................1970 R. Fike......................................................1971 D. L. McAllister........................................1972 R. R. Chance............................................1973 P. I. Lee....................................................1974 J. B. Flanagan...........................................1975 J. S. Hammond........................................1976 P. D. Tyma................................................1977 S. M. Wilhelm..........................................1978 J. D. Porter...............................................1979

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


R. S. Glass...............................................1980 E. E. Bancroft...........................................1981 T. D. Cabeika............................................1982 B. L. Wheeler...........................................1983 E. T. T. Jones............................................1984 D. A. Van Galen........................................1985 J. S. Hanson.............................................1986 P. Gao.......................................................1987 D. T. Schwartz..........................................1988 A. E. Russell.............................................1989 J. Xue.......................................................1990 C. K. Rhee................................................1991 M. J. Shane..............................................1992 C. M. Pharr...............................................1993 J. M. Lauerhaus.......................................1994 S. M. Hendrickson...................................1995 J. C. Hutchinson.......................................1996 P. V. A. Pamidi..........................................1997 G. S. Hwang.............................................1998 W. Baker...................................................1999 A. Crown..................................................2000 R. Maus...................................................2001 S. Peper...................................................2002 M. Alpuche-Aviles....................................2003 A. Mugweru.............................................2004 G. Lica......................................................2005 A. Martinson............................................2006 Prabeer Barpanda....................................2007 Sau Yen Chew..........................................2008 Hyea Kim..................................................2009 Brian Adams............................................2010 Tae-Ho Shin.............................................2011 Devika Sil.................................................2012 Gabriel G. Rodríguez-Calero.....................2013 Christena K. Nash....................................2014 Hadi Khani................................................2015 Yelena Gorlin ...........................................2016

R. M. Cohen.............................................1980 R. N. Dominey..........................................1981 R. M. Ianniello..........................................1982 D. F. Tessier..............................................1983 N. T. Sleszynski........................................1984 C. M. Lieber.............................................1985 J. L. Valdes..............................................1986 R. Q. Bligh................................................1987 D. W. Conrad............................................1988 S. A. Schofield.........................................1989 J. A. Roberts............................................1990 M. S. Freund............................................1991 L. Gao......................................................1992 H. Gasteiger.............................................1993 J. Schoer..................................................1994 S. Morin...................................................1995 N. Madigan...............................................1996 S. Petrovic...............................................1997 J. J. Sumner.............................................1998 A. Wijayawardhana...................................1999 B. Liu.......................................................2000 C. Noble...................................................2001 C. B. France..............................................2002 P. Ramadass............................................2003 J. Carroll..................................................2004 K. Salaita..................................................2005 J. Breger..................................................2006 Sadagopan Krishnan................................2007 Meng Jiang..............................................2008 Haizhou Liu..............................................2009 Mohammad Rez Khajavi...........................2010 Jeyavel Velmurugan.................................2011 Balazs Berkes...........................................2012 Yongjin Lee..............................................2013 Andrey Gunawan......................................2014 Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi......2015 Charuksha T. Walgama ............................2016

Joseph W. Richards Summer Fellowship

Frederick M. Becket Summer Fellowship

V. E. Hauser, Jr.........................................1960 M. J. Schaer.............................................1961 R. E. Visco...............................................1961 A. K. Postma............................................1962 C. C. Liu...................................................1963 M. J. Vasile..............................................1964 M. J. Vasile..............................................1965 C. C. Liu...................................................1966 B. N. Baron...............................................1967 L. P. Zajicek, Jr.........................................1968 K. R. Bullock............................................1969 S. H. Cadle...............................................1970 J. W. Webb...............................................1971 C. P. Keszthelyi.........................................1972 M. Shabrang............................................1973 D. H. Karweik...........................................1974 T. P. DeAngelis.........................................1975 D. L. Feke.................................................1976 H. Faulkner...............................................1977 D. M. Novak.............................................1978 B. R. Karas...............................................1979

R. B. Johnson..........................................1962 J. K. Johnstone........................................1964 K. Lehman................................................1966 H. K. Bowen.............................................1967 T. E. Parker...............................................1971 G. M. Crosbie...........................................1973 N. A. Godshall..........................................1975 J. D. Hodge..............................................1977 W. Cheng.................................................1979 P. Davies..................................................1981 P. A. Barron..............................................1983 G. J. Miller...............................................1985 M. Rosenbluth.........................................1987 J. D. Cotton..............................................1989 J. Philliber................................................1991 P. Agarwal................................................1993 H. C. Slade...............................................1995 K. S. Weil.................................................1997 G. S. Hwang.............................................1999 J. Parrish.................................................2001

(formerly the F. M. Becket Memorial Award 1962-1999)

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

S. Wasileski.............................................2002 E. Clark.....................................................2003 F. Deng.....................................................2004 S. Harrison...............................................2005 Y. Yang.....................................................2006 Michael Orthner.......................................2007 Marcos Jose Leitos Santos......................2008 Steve Rhieu..............................................2009 James Whitaker.......................................2011 Celeste Morris..........................................2012 Carlo Santoro...........................................2013 Brandy Kinkead........................................2014 Raphaële Clément....................................2015 Muhammad Boota ...................................2016

Herbert H.Uhlig Summer Fellowship Natalia Shustova......................................2008 Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan...........2009 Swetha Puchakayala................................2011 Julia van Drunen......................................2012 Junsi Gu...................................................2013 Hadi Tavassol...........................................2014 Alexander Pak..........................................2015 Michael Metzger ......................................2016

Energy Research Summer Fellowship

(supported by the U.S. Department of Energy)

M. R. Deakin............................................1985 P. B. Johnson...........................................1985 D. A. La Hurd...........................................1985 S. E. Morris..............................................1985 D. P. Wilkinson.........................................1985 D. G. Frank...............................................1986 K.-C. Ho...................................................1986 R. G. Kelly................................................1986 I.-H. Yeo...................................................1986 J. Kwak....................................................1986 L. C. Dash................................................1987 S. A. Naftel...............................................1987 T. R. Nolen...............................................1987 D. Schwartz..............................................1987 T. H. Wong...............................................1987 S. D. Fritts................................................1988 D. A. Koos................................................1988 D. A. Hazlebeck........................................1988 M. O. Schloh............................................1988 S. S. Perine..............................................1988 J. E. Baur.................................................1989 C.-P. Chen................................................1989 D. W. Eng.................................................1989 R. L. McCarley.........................................1989 C. J. Murphy............................................1989 C. K. Nguyen............................................1990 I.-H. Oh....................................................1990 T. G. Strein...............................................1990 J. W. Weidner...........................................1990 S. E. Gilbert..............................................1990 C. S. Johnson...........................................1991 H. Huang..................................................1991 127


ECS Honor Roll Energy Research Summer Fellowship

Norman Hackerman Young Author Award

D. R. Lawson...........................................1991 B. D. Pendley...........................................1991 C. C. Streinz.............................................1991 P. A. Connick............................................1992 A. C. Hillier...............................................1992 D. L. Taylor...............................................1992 K. K. Lian.................................................1992 T. T. Nadasdi.............................................1992 D. G. Jensen.............................................1993 J. C. Bart..................................................1993 G. Seshadri..............................................1993 J. A. Poirier..............................................1993 K. W. Vogt................................................1993 Z. Shi.......................................................1994 C.-C. Hsueh..............................................1994 V. A. Adamian...........................................1994 K. M. Maness...........................................1994 K. M. Richard...........................................1994 Y.-E. Sung................................................1995 J. C. Conboy.............................................1995 L. A. Zook.................................................1995 W. R. Everett............................................1995 H. Zhang..................................................1995 S. Grabtchak............................................1996 J.-B. Green...............................................1996 S. Motupally.............................................1996 C. Nasr.....................................................1996 S. Nayak...................................................1996 K. Hu........................................................1997 M. E. Williams..........................................1997 A. Zolfaghari.............................................1997 C. R. Horne..............................................1997 G. K. Jennings..........................................1997 M. Zhao....................................................1998 S. Sriramulu.............................................1998 J. Ritchie..................................................1998 M. A. Elhamid...........................................1998 S. Zou......................................................1998 K. Cooper.................................................2000 K. Grant....................................................2000 D. Hansen................................................2000 J. F. Hicks.................................................2000 Z. Liu........................................................2000

(formerly the Young Authors Prize, 1929-1988)

(continued)

Oronzio de Nora Industrial Electrochemistry Fellowship N. Mano...................................................2004 N. Mano...................................................2005 N. Mano...................................................2006 Vijayasekaran Boovaragavan....................2007 Vijayasekaran Boovaragavan....................2008 Vijayasekaran Boovaragavan....................2009 Wenjing (Angela) Zhang...........................2010

W. C. Gardiner..........................................1929 D. K. Alpern..............................................1930 F. L. Jones................................................1931 F. W. Godsey, Jr........................................1932 B. L. Bailey...............................................1933 J. R. Heard, Jr..........................................1934 U. B. Thomas, Jr......................................1935 W. A. Johnson..........................................1936 R. S. Soanes............................................1937 N. B. Nichols............................................1938 G. A. Moore..............................................1939 J. S. Mackay.............................................1940 E. Adler....................................................1941 S. Speil.....................................................1942 W. G. Berl.................................................1943 J. P. Coyle................................................1944 A. E. Hardy...............................................1945 N. A. Nielsen............................................1946 H. Leidheiser, Jr.......................................1947 M. A. Streicher.........................................1948 J. C. Griess, Jr..........................................1949 G. W. Murphy...........................................1950 J. T. Byrne................................................1951 W. E. Kuhn...............................................1952 J. Halpern.................................................1953 M. J. Pryor...............................................1954 M. Stern...................................................1955 R. S. Cooper.............................................1956 P. Ruetschi...............................................1957 M. Stern...................................................1958 F. A. Posey ..............................................1959 A. C. Makrides..........................................1960 J. D. Newson............................................1961 M. J. Dignam...........................................1962 J. A. Cunningham.....................................1963 R. E. Westerman......................................1964 R. E. Visco...............................................1965 J. Newman...............................................1966 H. W. Pickering........................................1967 G. G. Charette...........................................1968 G. Dryhurst..............................................1969 J. Newman...............................................1969 W. R. Parrish............................................1969 A. J. Appleby............................................1970 D. C. Johnson..........................................1970 D.-T. Chin.................................................1971 M. S. Whittingham...................................1971 M. A. Hopper............................................1972 F. Kuhn-Kuhnenfeld..................................1972 M. J. Bowden...........................................1973 L. Thompson............................................1973 D. Simonsson..........................................1973 S. H. Cadle...............................................1974 A. D. Dalvi................................................1974 L. R. Faulkner...........................................1975 S. Solmi...................................................1975 P. Negrini.................................................1975 B. MacDougall..........................................1976

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S. K. Ubhayakar.......................................1976 C. W. Manke.............................................1977 W. J. Horkans...........................................1977 A. G. Gonzalez..........................................1978 C. H. Tsang...............................................1978 D. A. Antoniadis.......................................1978 D. Y. Wang...............................................1979 C. W. Magee.............................................1979 E. Takayama.............................................1980 H. Reller...................................................1980 W. J. P. Van Enckevort..............................1981 M. W. M. Graef.........................................1981 C. Y. Chao................................................1981 L. F. Lin....................................................1981 D. W. Sittari..............................................1982 T. P. Chow................................................1982 P. G. Pickup..............................................1983 K. F. Jensen..............................................1983 D. B. Graves.............................................1983 N. A. Godshall..........................................1984 E. K. Broadbent........................................1984 J. C. Farmer.............................................1985 G. S. Oehrlein...........................................1985 J. Richer...................................................1986 T. Tanaka..................................................1986 C. P. Wilde................................................1987 P. N. Bartlett.............................................1987 J. Maier....................................................1987 J. A. Bardwell...........................................1988 C.-J. Han..................................................1988 A. E. Husser.............................................1989 D. H. Craston...........................................1989 J. M. Rosamilia........................................1989 J. H. Comfort...........................................1989 M. W. Verbrugge......................................1990 C. J. Giunta..............................................1990 T. J. Mountziaris.......................................1991 J. V. Cole..................................................1991 D. W. Suggs.............................................1991 B. W. Gregory...........................................1991 D. B. Bonham...........................................1992 E. S. Aydil.................................................1992 P. P. Apte..................................................1993 A. West....................................................1993 H. A. Gasteiger.........................................1994 F. R. Myers...............................................1994 R. Vidal....................................................1995 G. D. Papasouliotis...................................1995 J. H. Nordlien...........................................1996 J. Lee.......................................................1996 A. K. Padhi...............................................1997 S. M. Han.................................................1997 A. D. Robertson.......................................1998 Y. Shao-Horn............................................1998 S. R. Kaluri...............................................1998 A. Bautista................................................1999 P. A. O’Neil...............................................1999 R. T. Leah.................................................2000 J. W. Klaus...............................................2000 J. F. Whitacre...........................................2001 P. Feichtinger...........................................2001

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


T. J. Pricer................................................2002 P. S. Lee...................................................2002 K. Jambunathan.......................................2003 S. Noda....................................................2003 M. Miyamoto............................................2003 R. Akolkar................................................2004 Y.-K. Hong................................................2004 S. Borini...................................................2005 M. Kunimatsu...........................................2005 Mathieu Bervas........................................2006 Pradeep Dixit............................................2006 Steffen Eccarius.......................................2007 A. T. J. van Niftrik.....................................2007 Kevin Ralston...........................................2008 Eu Jin Tan................................................2008 Yudi Setiawan..........................................2008 Paul Albertus............................................2009 Louis Hutin..............................................2009 Gijs Dingemans........................................2010 Erik Langereis..........................................2010 Stephen E. Potts......................................2010 Xingbao Zhu.............................................2010 Igor Volov................................................2011 Claudia Fleischmann................................2011 Sebastien Couet.......................................2011 Koen Schouteden.....................................2011 Philipp Hönicke........................................2011 Kiersten Horning......................................2012 Sykes Mason ...........................................2012 Balavinayagam Ramalingam....................2012 Rahul Malik..............................................2013 Aziz Abdellahi...........................................2013 Nathaniel D. Leonard................................2014 Trevor M. Braun.......................................2015 Mark Burgess...........................................2016 Kenneth Hernandez-Burgos.....................2016

Bruce Deal & Andy Grove Young Author Award Konstantinos Spyrou................................2013 Pengfei Guo.............................................2014 Ran Cheng...............................................2014 Wei Wang.................................................2014 Kohei Shima.............................................2015 Peng Sun.................................................2016

ECS General Society Student Poster Session Awards F. Forouzan...............................................1993 D. L. Taylor...............................................1993 L. Abraham..............................................1994 A. J. Aldykiewicz......................................1994 A. Dalmia.................................................1994 M. Murthy................................................1994 R. Munkundan.........................................1995 A. E. Thomas............................................1995 C. E. Ramberg..........................................1995 W. Wang..................................................1995 S. Chen....................................................1996 K. Kowal...................................................1996

C. Leger...................................................1997 E. Potteau.................................................1997 K. Bera.....................................................1998 E. Dickenson............................................1998 G. Q. Lu....................................................1998 M. W. Riley...............................................1998 J. Pearton.................................................1999 A. Templeson...........................................1999 N. Baydokhi..............................................2000 A. Pismenny.............................................2000 A. Besing..................................................2001 V. Sochnikov............................................2001 S. Dimovski..............................................2002 P. Maitra...................................................2002 H. Ohtsuka...............................................2002 T. Wiley....................................................2002 P. Kavanagh.............................................2003 B. Monahan..............................................2003 O. Rabin...................................................2003 P. Scopece...............................................2003 K. Yasuda.................................................2003 M. Guan...................................................2004 K. Kanaizuka.............................................2004 A. Oide.....................................................2004 R. M. Todi................................................2004 W. J. Cheong............................................2005 J. Chmiola................................................2005 S. Chrisanti..............................................2005 C. Drake...................................................2005 D. L. Gonzalez-Parra................................2006 Naoko Kamiura........................................2006 T. Takeyasu...............................................2006 Arun Vijayakumar.....................................2006 Naoaki Hashimoto....................................2007 Daisuke Kikutani......................................2007 Toyoki Okumura.......................................2007 Gholamreza Rostamikia...........................2007 Arun Vijayakumar.....................................2007 Rajwant Singh Bedi..................................2008 Bryan K. Boggs........................................2008 John Chmiola...........................................2008 Yuta Ishigami...........................................2008 J. S. O’Brien.............................................2008 Tyler Osborn............................................2008 Ralf Peipmann..........................................2008 Philippe Perret.........................................2008 Kenji Takada.............................................2008 Vinit Todi..................................................2008 Natalia B. Shustova..................................2008 Joshua Snyder.........................................2008 Tomomasa Sugiyama...............................2008 Anasuya Adibhatla....................................2009 Magdalena Gizowska................................2009 Frederik Golks..........................................2009 Karina Kangas..........................................2009 Kiera A. Kurak..........................................2009 Manale Maalouf........................................2009 Debasish Mohanty...................................2009 Natalia Shustova......................................2009 Joko Sutrisno...........................................2009 Jaroslaw Syzdek......................................2009

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

Alex Avekians...........................................2010 Shayna Brocato........................................2010 Pablo de la Iglesia....................................2010 Christian Desilets.....................................2010 Ayesha Maria Hashambhoy......................2010 Carolin Lau...............................................2010 Raja S. Mannam.......................................2010 Joshua P. McClure...................................2010 Sarvesh Pasem........................................2010 Robert Sacci............................................2010 Misato Tashiro.........................................2010 Jesse Benck.............................................2011 Benjamin Caire.........................................2011 Zhebo Chen..............................................2011 Damilola Daramola...................................2011 Kirsten Marie Jensen...............................2011 Javed Khan..............................................2011 Simon Lux................................................2011 Ashley Maes.............................................2011 Lingchong Mai.........................................2011 Francis Richey..........................................2011 Neil Spinner.............................................2011 Melissa Vandiver......................................2011 Georgi Bodurov........................................2012 Aurelien Etiemble ....................................2012 Kiersten Horning .....................................2012 Yoon Jang Kim.........................................2012 Prabhu Doss Mani...................................2012 K. Sykes Mason.......................................2012 Seungha Oh.............................................2012 Michael Siedlik.........................................2012 Bong Seob Yang......................................2012 Yoshinobu Adachi....................................2012 Kwi Nam Han...........................................2012 Takashi Hasegawa....................................2012 Cheng Ai Li...............................................2012 Shigeta Yagyu..........................................2012 Michal Osiak............................................2013 Andrew J. Naylor......................................2013 Danielle Smiley........................................2013 Mohammed Boota....................................2013 Kelsey B. Hatzall.......................................2013 Christopher R. Dennison..........................2013 Tobias Placke...........................................2013 Buido Schmuelling...................................2013 Richard Kloepsch.....................................2013 Olga Fromm.............................................2013 Sergej Rothermel.....................................2013 Paul Meister.............................................2013 Kristy Jost................................................2013 John McDonough....................................2013 Takashi Tsuda...........................................2013 Masanari Hashimoto................................2013 Axel Gambou-Bosca.................................2014 Miguel Angel Arellano Gonzalez...............2014 Andrew Durney........................................2014 Elizabeth Hotvedt.....................................2014 Andrew R. Akbashev................................2014 Jorge Ivan Aldana-Gonzalez.....................2014 Heather Barkholtz.....................................2015 Subrahmanyam Goriparti.........................2015 129


ECS Honor Roll ECS General Society Student Poster Session Awards (continued)

Daiki Ito....................................................2015 Jonathan Kucharyson..............................2015 Maria Lukatskaya.....................................2015 Kenta Machida.........................................2015 Rajankumar Patel.....................................2015 Xiaoxing Xia.............................................2015 Mallory Fuhst...........................................2016 Shota Matsumura....................................2016 Hiyori Sakata............................................2016 Masahiro Kato..........................................2016 Futaba Yamamoto....................................2016 Masha Lotfi Marchoubeh.........................2016 Leanne Mathurin......................................2016 Isaac Taylor..............................................2016 Haitham Kalil............................................2016

ECS Sponsored Meeting Student Poster Award Winners Simposio Brasileiro de Electroquimica e Eletroanalitica (SIBEE) L. M. Nunes.............................................2009 Felipe Ibanhi Pires....................................2011 V. Dos Santos...........................................2013 China Semiconductor Technology International Conference (CSTIC) C. Santini.................................................2009 L. Ma........................................................2010 M. B. Gonzalez.........................................2011 Chien Chi Chen.........................................2012 Tao Deng..................................................2013 Meng Lin..................................................2014 Jin Jisong................................................2015 Xiaofei Wu................................................2015 Yanfen Xiao..............................................2015 Alberto V. de Oliveira ...............................2016 Jie Cheng.................................................2016 Euro CVD Award A. Szkudlarek...........................................2011 IC4N: From Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials to Nanodevices and Nanosystems M. Gharbi.................................................2009 H. N. Green..............................................2011 Mariana Sendova.....................................2013 Brian DiMarco..........................................2016 Sociedad Mexicana de Electroquímica (SMEQ) and ECS Mexican Section Meeting A. Mendez-Albores...................................2008 L. S. Hernandez-Munoz............................2009 C. Avila-Gonzalez.....................................2010 D. C. Martinez-Casillas.............................2011 Lidia G. Trujano-Ortiz...............................2012 Paola Yamela De la Cruz-Guzmán............2013 Maria Dámaris Cortez Diaz.......................2015 Gibran Hernandez-Moreno.......................2016

ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship Awards

Professor Elizabeth Biddinger..................2016 Professor Joaquin Rodriguez Lopez........2016 Professor Joshua Snyder.........................2016

Turner Book Prize

S. Speil.....................................................1942 W. G. Berl.................................................1943 J. P. Coyle................................................1944 J. T. Waber...............................................1945 B. Cartwright............................................1946 A. E. Hardy...............................................1947 M. A. Streicher.........................................1948 R. E. Hoeckelman.....................................1949 P. Delahay................................................1950 K. H. Stern...............................................1951 C. C. Templeton........................................1951 P. T. Gilbert...............................................1952 R. B. Holden.............................................1953 D. A. Vermilyea........................................1954 J. G. Jewell...............................................1955 J. H. Westbrook.......................................1956 A. C. Makrides..........................................1957 J. P. Pemsler............................................1958 R. G. Carlson............................................1959 R. E. Meyer..............................................1960 P. C. Milner...............................................1960 H. Freitag.................................................1961 P. J. Boddy...............................................1962 E. J. Cairns...............................................1963 M. Weinstein............................................1963 R. W. Bartlett............................................1964 E. M. Hofer...............................................1965 C. S. Tedmon, Jr.......................................1966 F. P. Kober................................................1967 J. M. Hale.................................................1968

Leadership Circle Awards Legacy Level Dow Chemical Co., Central Research, received 2011 Olin Chlor Alkali Products Division, received 2011 Occidental Chemical Corp., received 2013 Energizer, received 2015 Medallion Level Occidental Chemical Corp., received 2007 Atotech USA, Inc., received 2009 Energizer, received 2009 Diamond Level General Electric Co., Corporate Research & Development, received 2001 General Motors Research Laboratories, received 2001 Rayovac, received 2002 Duracell, received 2006 IBM Corporation, received 2006

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Gold Level Toshiba Corp., Research & Development Center, received 1998 Siltronic AG, received 1998 Osram Sylvania, Inc., Chemical & Metallurgical Division, received 1999 Sandia National Laboratories, received 2000 International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc., received 2003 Medtronic, Inc., Energy and Component Center, received 2004 Toyota Central Research and Development Labs, Inc., received 2004 Yuasa Corp, received 2004 Princeton Applied Research/Solartron Analytical, received 2005 Saft Batteries, received 2006 CSIRO Minerals, received 2007 Industrie de Nora, received 2007 Ballard Power Systems, Inc., received 2008 ECO Energy Conversion, received 2008 Varta Automotive GmbH, Advanced Battery Division, received 2008 Greatbatch, Inc., received 2010 Leclanche S. A., received 2009 Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, received 2009 Giner, Inc., received 2010 Greatbatch, Inc., received 2010 TIMCAL Graphite and Carbon Ltd., received 2011 3M Company, received 2014 Silver Level Eltech Systems Corp., received 1992 Tronox LLC, received 1994 Japan Storage Battery Co., Ltd., received 1997 3M Company, received 1998 E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., HD Microsystems, received 1998 Solartron Instruments, received 1999 Central Electrochemical Research Institute, received 2002 TDK Corp., R&D Center, received 2002 Valence Technology, received 2002 DAISO, Co., Ltd., received 2003 Panasonic Corp., received 2003 C. Uyemura & Co., Ltd., Central Research Lab, received 2005 Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., received 2005 FMC Corporation, Active Oxidants Division, received 2005 Nacional de Grafite, LTDA, received 2005 Permelec Electrode, Ltd., received 2005 PG Industries, Inc., Chemicals Group Technical Center, received 2005 Scribner Associates, Inc., received 2005 Technic Inc., received 2005 Advance Research Chemicals, Inc., received 2007 Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences at CWRU, received 2007 PEC North America, received 2009 Quallion, LLC, received 2009 UTC Power, received 2009

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


Broddarp of Nevada, received 2010 Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., received 2010 OM Group, Inc., received 2012 Evonik Degussa GmbH, received 2013 Permascand AB, received 2013 ZSW, received 2014 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, received 2014 Bronze Level Hach Company, Radiometer Analytical Division, received 2002 De Nora Technologie Elettrochimiche S.r.L., received 2003 BAE Systems Battery Technology Center, received 2005 Agilent Laboratories, received 2008 Evonik Degussa GmbH, received 2008 Samsung SDI, received 2008 GAIA-Akkumulatorenwerke GmbH, received 2009 Permascand AB, received 2009 ZSW Center for Solar Energy & Hydrogen Research, received 2009 Coolohm, Inc., received 2010 ElectroChem, Inc., received 2010 Faraday Technology, Inc., received 2010 Johnson Matthey, received 2010 Metrohm USA, received 2010 Pine Research Instrumentation, received 2010 Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., received 2011 Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., received 2011 Hydro-Québec, received 2011 Bio-Logic USA/Bio-Logic SAS, received 2012 Gamry Instruments, received 2012 Rockwood Lithium, received 2012 ENEOS CELLTECH Co. Ltd., received 2012 Fortu Research GmbH, received 2012 Asahi Kasei E-Materials Corp., received 2014 Gelest, Inc., received 2014 Honda R+D Co. Ltd., received 2014 Next Energy EWE-Forschungszentrum, received 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory, received 2015 Toyota Research Institute of North America, received 2015

Battery Division Student Research Award

J. R. Waggoner........................................1980 K. E. Yee...................................................1980 W. A. van Schalkwijk................................1981 C. Y. Mak..................................................1986 T. I. Evans................................................1987 C. C. Streinz.............................................1988 J. Weidner................................................1989 M. G. Lee.................................................1990 E. J. Podlaha............................................1991 G. E. Gray.................................................1992 D. Qu........................................................1993

P. De Vidts................................................1994 S. Motupally.............................................1995 J. Xu.........................................................1996 Y. Shao-Horn............................................1997 I. Courtney...............................................1998 G.E. Rousse.............................................1999 V. Srinivasan............................................2000 M. Zhao....................................................2001 V. Subramaniam.......................................2001 L. Fransson..............................................2002 K.-W. Park................................................2003 A. Weber..................................................2004 C. Delacourt.............................................2005 K. Kang....................................................2006 Feng Jiao..................................................2007 Nonglak Meethong...................................2009 Yi-Chun Lu...............................................2010 Christopher Fell........................................2011 Yuhui Chen...............................................2012 Mohammed Ati........................................2013 Martin Ebner............................................2014 Matteo Bianchini......................................2015 Billur Deniz Polat Karahan .......................2016

Battery Division Research Award

J. J. Lander..............................................1958 D. M. Smyth.............................................1959 T. P. Dirkse...............................................1962 F. G. Will...................................................1964 J. Burbank................................................1966 C. P. Wales...............................................1966 D. Tuomi..................................................1968 Y. Okinaka................................................1970 A. C. Simon .............................................1972 S. M. Caulder...........................................1972 J. McBreen...............................................1974 T. Katan....................................................1976 S. Szpak...................................................1976 A. Heller...................................................1978 K. R. Bullock............................................1980 R. A. Huggins...........................................1982 D. Pavlov..................................................1984 G. H. J. Broers.........................................1985 J. L. Devitt................................................1986 D. H. McClelland......................................1986 J. P. Gabano.............................................1987 M. Armand...............................................1988 J. Jorne....................................................1989 A. N. Dey..................................................1990 R. E. White...............................................1991 D. N. Bennion...........................................1992 E. Peled....................................................1993 K. M. Abraham.........................................1995 J. Dahn.....................................................1996 B. Scrosati...............................................1997 C. Delmas.................................................1999 J. B. Bates................................................2000 S. Wittingham..........................................2002 K. Kinoshita..............................................2003 J. Newman...............................................2004 G. Ceder...................................................2004 M. Thackeray...........................................2005 T. Ohzuku.................................................2006

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Clare P. Grey............................................2007 Peter G. Bruce..........................................2008 Linda Nazar..............................................2009 Dominique Guyomard..............................2010 Yang-Kook Sun........................................2011 Stefano Passerini.....................................2012 Doron Aurbach.........................................2013 Arumugam Manthiram.............................2014 Martin Winter...........................................2015 Yang Shao-Horn.......................................2016 Nobuyuki Imanishi...................................2016

Battery Division Technology Award Y. Nishi.....................................................1994 K. Ozawa..................................................1994 E. S. Takeuchi...........................................1995 S. Gilman.................................................1996 J.-M. Tarascon.........................................1997 G. E. Blomgren.........................................1998 A. Yoshino................................................1999 H. Y. Cheh................................................2000 B. B. Owens.............................................2001 D. Wilkinson.............................................2002 M. Winter.................................................2002 J. Yamaki.................................................2003 M. Yoshio.................................................2003 M. Ue.......................................................2004 D. Aurbach...............................................2005 P. Novak...................................................2005 K. Lee.......................................................2006 Michel Broussely......................................2007 Hiroshi Inoue...........................................2008 Satoshi Mizutani......................................2008 Eiji Endoh.................................................2009 Khalil Amine.............................................2010 Jeffrey Dahn.............................................2011 Yet-Ming Chiang.......................................... 2012 Karim Zaghib................................................ 2013 Feng Wu....................................................... 2014 Ashok Shukla............................................... 2015 Dominique Guyomard.................................. 2016

Battery Division Postdoctoral Associate Research Award Sponsored by MTI Corporation and the Jiang Family Foundation Yelena Gorlin............................................2016 Liumin Suo..............................................2016

Corrosion Division H. H. Uhlig Award (formerly the Outstanding Achievement Award of the Corrosion Division 1973-1983)

M. Cohen.................................................1973 D. A. Vermilyea........................................1975 J. Kruger..................................................1977 M. J. Pryor...............................................1979 T. R. Beck.................................................1981 N. Sato.....................................................1983 131


ECS Honor Roll

Electrodeposition Division Research Award

Corrosion Division H. H. Uhlig Award (continued)

P. Kofstad.................................................1985 H. W. Pickering........................................1987 R. P. Frankenthal......................................1989 H. Leidheiser............................................1991 H. Isaacs..................................................1993 W. H. Smyrl..............................................1995 M. J. Graham...........................................1997 K. Hashimoto...........................................1999 D. Macdonald...........................................2001 F. Mansfeld...............................................2002 C. Leygraf.................................................2003 R. Newman..............................................2004 P. Marcus.................................................2005 G. T. Burstein...........................................2006 Edward McCafferty...................................2007 Martin Stratmann.....................................2008 John R. Scully..........................................2009 Gerald S. Frankel......................................2010 Patrik Schmuki.........................................2011 Hans-Henning Strehblow.........................2012 Mário Ferreira..........................................2013 Paul Natishan...........................................2014 David Shoesmith......................................2015 Robert G. Kelly.........................................2016

Corrosion Division Morris Cohen Graduate Student Award (formerly the Corrosion Division Award for Summer Study 1986-1988)

S. D. Scarberry........................................1986 C. C. Streinz.............................................1987 R. Bianco.................................................1988 M. A. Harper.............................................1992 R. G. Buchheit..........................................1993 J.-F. Yan...................................................1994 B. V. Cockeram.........................................1995 I. Odnevall................................................1996 D. G. Kolman............................................1997 C. S. Brossia............................................1998 M. Verhoff................................................1999 S. Yu........................................................2000 S. F. Nitodas.............................................2001 K. Cooper.................................................2002 T. Ramgopal.............................................2003 Q. Meng...................................................2004 D. Chidambaram......................................2005 H. Tsuchiya..............................................2006 Magnus Johnson.....................................2007 Christopher D. Taylor...............................2008 Mariano Iannuzzi......................................2009 Pouria Ghods...........................................2010 Hongbo Cong...........................................2011 Mariano Kappes.......................................2012 Quentin Van Overmeere...........................2013 Yolanda Hedberg......................................2014 Eric Schindelholz......................................2015 Saman Hosseinpour.................................2016

Dielectric Science and Technology Division Thomas D. Callinan Award J. A. Davies..............................................1968 J. P. S. Pringle..........................................1968 G. M. Sessler...........................................1970 J. E. West.................................................1970 C. A. Mead...............................................1971 W. Kern....................................................1972 J. R. Szedon.............................................1973 C. M. Osburn............................................1975 T. W. Hickmott..........................................1976 J. R. Ligenza............................................1977 R. Williams...............................................1978 R. J. Kriegler............................................1979 B. E. Deal.................................................1982 L. Young..................................................1983 A. K. Sinha...............................................1985 A. C. Adams.............................................1986 S. P. Murarka...........................................1987 R. B. Comizzoli.........................................1988 E. A. Irene................................................1988 R. A. Levy.................................................1989 M. H. Woods............................................1990 V. J. Kapoor..............................................1991 S. I. Raider...............................................1992 D. W. Hess...............................................1993 Y.-H. Wong...............................................1994 K. L. Mittal...............................................1995 W. D. Brown.............................................1996 J. P. Dismukes.........................................1997 R. Singh...................................................1998 A. Rohatgi................................................1999 K. Saraswat..............................................2000 P. Ho........................................................2001 J. Deen.....................................................2002 S. K. Banerjee...........................................2003 A. G. Revesz.............................................2003 S. Fonash.................................................2004 Paul A. Kohl.............................................2008 Tsu-Jae King Liu......................................2011 Durgamadhab (Durga) Misra...................2013 Kalpathy Sundaram..................................2015

Electrodeposition Division Early Career Investigator Award Yihua Liu..................................................2016

132

W. Weil.....................................................1980 Y. Okinaka................................................1981 E. B. Budevski..........................................1982 R. C. Alkire...............................................1983 L. T. Romankiw........................................1984 R. J. von Gutfeld......................................1984 J. W. Dini.................................................1985 H. R. Johnson..........................................1985 H. Leidheiser............................................1986 J. P. Hoare................................................1987 H. Y. Cheh................................................1988 D. S. Lashmore........................................1989 S. Nakahara..............................................1990 T. C. Franklin............................................1991 R. E. White...............................................1992 P. C. Andricacos.......................................1993 M. J. Froment...........................................1994 D. Landolt................................................1995 T. Osaka...................................................1996 M. Schlesinger.........................................1997 Madhav Datta...........................................1998 R. Winand................................................1999 H. Honma.................................................2000 D. Kolb.....................................................2002 J. Switzer.................................................2003 J. Dukovic................................................2004 P. Bartlett.................................................2005 T. P. Moffat.............................................. 2006 Ibro Tabakovic..........................................2007 Olaf Magnussen.......................................2008 John Stickney..........................................2009 Takayuki Homma......................................2010 Philippe Allongue.....................................2011 Hariklia Deligianni....................................2012 Daniel Lincot............................................2013 Alan C. West............................................2014 Daniel Schwartz.......................................2015 Stephen Maldonado.................................2016

Electronics and Photonics Division Award F. A. Trumbore..........................................1970 F. C. Palilla................................................1971 M. B. Panish.............................................1972 W. A. Pliskin.............................................1973 B. E. Deal.................................................1974 H. M. Manasevit.......................................1975 M. G. Craford...........................................1976 A. Y. Cho..................................................1977 C. M. Wolfe..............................................1978 E. Sirtl......................................................1979 J. M. Woodall...........................................1980 G. A. Rozgonyi.........................................1981 G. W. Cullen.............................................1982 D. W. Shaw..............................................1983

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


A. Reisman...............................................1984 S-M. Hu...................................................1985 E. H. Nicollian...........................................1986 B. Schwartz..............................................1987 K. E. Bean.................................................1988 T. Kamins.................................................1989 D. M. Brown.............................................1990 C. M. Osburn............................................1991 G. S. Oehrlein...........................................1992 B. S. Meyerson.........................................1993 G. K. Celler...............................................1994 L. C. Kimerling.........................................1995 H. Huff.....................................................1996 A. F. Tasch................................................1997 U. M. Gösele............................................1999 S. N. G. Chu.............................................2000 S. P. Murarka...........................................2001 S. Cristoloveanu.......................................2002 T. Ohmi....................................................2003 C. Claeys..................................................2004 S. Pearton................................................2005 H. Massoud..............................................2006 Yue Kuo...................................................2007 Fan Ren....................................................2008 Eicke R. Weber.........................................2009 Lih J. Chen...............................................2010 M. Jamal Deen.........................................2011 Chennupati Jagadish ...............................2012 Durgamadhab (Durga) Misra...................2013 Albert Baca...............................................2014 Cammy Abernathy....................................2015 Michael Shur............................................2016

Energy Technology Division Research Award M. W. Verbrugge......................................1994 S. Srinivasan............................................1996 H. R. Kunz................................................1998 A. W. Czanderna.......................................1999 R. Selman................................................2001 I. Uchida...................................................2001 A. Nozik....................................................2003 K. Kinoshita..............................................2004 K. Kanamura............................................2005 S. Licht.....................................................2006 Radoslav Adzic.........................................2007 Yang Kook Sun........................................2007 Tom Fuller................................................2008 Krishnan Rajeshwar.................................2009 Jai Prakash..............................................2009 John Weidner...........................................2010 Karim Zaghib............................................2010 Claude Levy-Clément...............................2011 Piotr Zelenay............................................2013 James Fenton...........................................2014 Rodney Borup..........................................2015 Thomas Zawodzinski ...............................2016

Energy Technology Division Srinivasan Young Investigator Award Vijay Ramani............................................2012 Adam Weber............................................2012 Stefan Freunberger..................................2013 Minhua Shao............................................2014 William Mustain.......................................2015 Prabeer Barpanda ...................................2016

Energy Technology Division Graduate Student Award Thomas Dursch........................................2014 James Radich..........................................2014 Scott Cushing..........................................2015 Haegyeom Kim.........................................2015 Matthew Genovese ..................................2016

High Temperature Materials Division Outstanding Achievement Award J. B. Wagner, Jr........................................1986 W. L. Worrell............................................1988 R. A. Rapp................................................1990 H. Schmalzried.........................................1992 S. C. Singhal............................................1994 C. G. Vayenas...........................................1996 C. Bernard................................................2001 H. Yokokawa............................................2002 K. Spear...................................................2004 A. Virkar...................................................2006 David J. Young.........................................2008 Harry L. Tuller..........................................2010 Eric Wachsman........................................2012 Janusz Nowotny.......................................2014 Harlan Anderson......................................2016

High Temperature Materials Division J. B. Wagner, Jr. Young Investigator Award S. Mohney................................................1999 S. M. Haile...............................................2001 M. Swihart...............................................2003 R. Mukundan...........................................2005 Xiao-Dong Zhou.......................................2007 Juan Claudio Nino....................................2009 Toshiaki Matsui........................................2011 Paul Gannon............................................2013 Sean Bishop.............................................2015

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division New Electrochemical Technology (NET) Award Asahi Glass Company..............................1999 DeNora Tecnologie...................................2005 E-Tek........................................................2005 Bayer Material Science AG.......................2005 Ballard Power Systems............................2007 FuelCell Energy........................................2009 U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and Electro Tech CP........................................2011 UTC Power...............................................2013 Matthew Ward Brodt................................2014 Proton OnSite..........................................2015

Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Achievement Award R. Bakshi..................................................1991 G. J. Yusem..............................................1992 J. A. Poirier..............................................1993 S. Siu.......................................................1994 M. Vreeke.................................................1995 A. E. Thomas............................................1996 S. A. Leith................................................1997 P. Soo.......................................................1998 S. Sriramulu.............................................1999 K. M. Jeerage...........................................2000 A. L. Prieto...............................................2001 W. He.......................................................2002 J. Zhang...................................................2003 S. Basker..................................................2004 V. Ramani.................................................2005 N. Jalani...................................................2006 Brenda L. Garcia-Diaz..............................2007 Sunil Roy.................................................2008 Prabeer Barpanda....................................2009 Brandon Bartling......................................2010 Long Cai...................................................2011 Meng Li....................................................2012 Young Woo-Lee.......................................2013 Matthew Ward Brodt................................2014 Santosh Vijapu.........................................2015

133


ECS Honor Roll Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Student Achievement Award

Y.-E. Sung................................................1995 J. K. N. Mbindyo......................................1996 C. A. Smith...............................................1997 J. A. Drake...............................................1998 R. Lowrey.................................................1999 C. Arvin....................................................2000 B. Djurfors...............................................2001 V. Subramanian........................................2002 P. M. Gomadam.......................................2003 I. AlNashef...............................................2004 V. Sethuraman..........................................2006 Minhua Shao............................................2007 Vinten Dewikar.........................................2008 Paul Albertus............................................2009 Satheesh Sambandam.............................2010 Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan............2011 Rainer Kungas..........................................2012 Wei Yan....................................................2013 Christopher Arges....................................2013 Paul Northrop..........................................2014 Venkata Raviteja Yarlagadda....................2014 Vedasri Vedharathinam............................2014 Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi......2015 Regis P. Dowd, Jr.....................................2016

Luminescence and Display Materials Division Centennial Award A. Meijerink..............................................2004 A. Srivastava............................................2004 H. Guedel.................................................2006 David J. Lockwood...................................2010 Hajime Yamamoto....................................2012 Baldassare Di Bartolo ..............................2016

Nanocarbons Division Richard E. Smalley Research Award Sumio Ijima..............................................2008 Phaedon Avouris......................................2009 Robert Haddon.........................................2011 Nazario Martín..........................................2013 Dirk Guldi.................................................2015

SES Research Young Investigator Award of the Nanocarbons Division Nikhil Koratkar.........................................2009 Mark C. Hersam.......................................2010 Aurelio Mateo-Alonso..............................2012 Jiayan Luo................................................2016

Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division Manuel Baizer Memorial Award T. Shono...................................................1994 H. Lund....................................................1996 H. Schäfer................................................1998 S. Torii.....................................................1998 J. Simonet................................................2000 J. Utley.....................................................2000 J. M. Savéant...........................................2002 M. Tokuda................................................2004 D. Evans...................................................2004 I. Nishiguchi.............................................2006 Albert Fry.................................................2008 Toshio Fuchigami.....................................2010 Dennis Peters...........................................2012 Jun-Ichi Yoshida......................................2014 Kevin Moeller...........................................2016

Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division David C. Grahame Award

Sensor Division Outstanding Achievement Award J. Janata...................................................1994 R. P. Buck.................................................1996 I. Lundström............................................1998 A. J. Ricco................................................2000 M. Aizawa.................................................2002 N. Yamazoe..............................................2004 W. Heineman............................................2006 Chung-Chiun Liu......................................2008 Thomas Thundat......................................2010 Sheikh Ali Akbar.......................................2012 Peter Hesketh...........................................2014 Rangachary Mukundan............................2016

Sensor Division Student Paper Award Jeffrey Kirsch...........................................2012 Kazuaki Edagawa......................................2012

F. C. Anson...............................................1983 J. Newman...............................................1985 A. Heller...................................................1987 M. J. Weaver............................................1989 B. Miller...................................................1991 A. T. Hubbard...........................................1993 R. M. Wightman.......................................1995 D. M. Kolb................................................1997 P. N. Ross, Jr............................................1999 D. A. Scherson.........................................2001 A. Wieckowski..........................................2003 H. White...................................................2005 Joseph T. Hupp........................................2007 Héctor D. Abruña.....................................2009 Masatoshi Osawa.....................................2011 Richard L. McCreery................................2013 Hubert Gasteiger......................................2015

Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division Max Bredig Award in Molten Salt Chemistry M. Blander...............................................1987 G. P. Smith..............................................1990 R. A. Osteryoung......................................1992 G. Mamantov...........................................1994 N. Bjerrum...............................................1996 H. A. Øye..................................................1998 Y. Ito........................................................1999 G. N. Papatheodorou................................2002

134

M. Gaune-Escard.....................................2004 J. Wilkes..................................................2006 Bernard Gilbert.........................................2008 C. Austen Angell.......................................2010 Derek Fray................................................2012 Charles Hussey........................................2014 Masayoshi Watanabe...............................2016

Gwendolyn B. Wood Section Excellence Award Metropolitan New York Section...... 1975-1976 Columbus Section.......................... 1976-1977 Chicago Section............................. 1979-1980 Chicago Section............................. 1980-1981 Chicago Section............................. 1981-1982 Southern Wisconsin Section.......... 1982-1983 Southern Wisconsin Section.......... 1983-1984 Southern Wisconsin Section.......... 1984-1985 National Capital Section................. 1985-1986 North Texas Section....................... 1986-1987 Southern Wisconsin Section.......... 1987-1988 Chicago Section............................. 1988-1989 Southern Wisconsin Section.......... 1989-1990 North Texas Section....................... 1990-1991 Southern Wisconsin Section.......... 1991-1992 Southern Wisconsin Section.......... 1992-1993 New England Section..................... 1993-1994 National Capital Section................. 1994-1995 National Capital Section................. 1995-1996 National Capital Section................. 1996-1997 Canadian Section and National Capital Section................. 1997-1998 Chicago Section............................. 1998-1999 New England Section..................... 1999-2000 National Capital and New England Section..................... 2000-2001 National Capital Section................. 2001-2002 National Capital Section................. 2002-2003

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


San Francisco Section.................... 2003-2004 San Francisco Section.................... 2004-2005 San Francisco Section.................... 2005-2006

Canada Section Electrochemical Award E. J. Casey...............................................1982 Brian E. Conway.......................................1986 L. Young..................................................1990 S. Flengas................................................1994 Jacek Lipkowski.......................................1998 Jean Lessard............................................2002 Jeffrey R. Dahn........................................2006 David Shoesmith......................................2010

Canada Section R. C. Jacobsen Award George Fraser..........................................1988 Barry MacDougall....................................1990 Louis Brossard.........................................1994 Ernest E. Criddle......................................2002 Sharon G. Roscoe....................................2006 Jacek Lipkowski.......................................2010

Canada Section W. Lash Miller Award J. L. Ord...................................................1969 J. E. Desnoyers........................................1971 A. K. Vijh..................................................1973 W. R. Fawcett...........................................1975 W. A. Adams, A. J. Spring Thorpe............1977 Barry MacDougall....................................1979 David W. Shoesmith.................................1981 A. Belanger...............................................1983 Viola I. Birss.............................................1985 S. Das Gupta............................................1987 K. Tomantscher, D. Leaist........................1989 Jennifer Bardwell.....................................1991 Jeff Dahn..................................................1993 Alireza Zolfaghari-Hesari..........................1999 Daniel Bizzotto.........................................2001 Jamie Noel...............................................2003 Aicheng Chen...........................................2009 Hua-Zhong (Hogan) Yu............................2011 Not Awarded............................................2013 Federico Rosei.........................................2015

Canada Section Student Award Jean St-Pierre..........................................1988 Gessie Brisard..........................................1989 James Hinatsu.........................................1990 Gregory Jerkiewicz...................................1991 Hubert Dumont........................................1992 Meijie Zhang............................................1993 Dan Bizzoto..............................................1994 Sylvie Morin.............................................1995 Alexandre Brolo........................................1996 Aicheng Chen...........................................1997 Ian A. Courtney........................................1998 Dany Brouillette........................................1999 Shiyuan Qian............................................1999 Bryan Park...............................................2000

Luc Beaulieu............................................2001 Vlad Zamliny............................................2002 Sandra Rifai.............................................2003 Amy Lloyd................................................2004 M. Toupin.................................................2006 Thamara Laredo.......................................2007 Arash Shahryari.......................................2008 Mohamed Naser.......................................2009 Mohammed Naser....................................2010 Ahmad Ghahremaninezhad......................2011 Karen Chan..............................................2012 Drew Higgins...........................................2013

Cleveland Section Ernest B. Yeager Electrochemistry Award B. Miller...................................................2004 Richard McCreery....................................2006 Uziel Landau............................................2008 Jacek Lipkowski.......................................2010 Gerald Frankel..........................................2012

Europe Section Gerischer Award Akira Fujishima........................................2003 Michael Graetzel.......................................2005 Allen J. Bard.............................................2007 Rüdiger Memming...................................2009 Helmut Tributsch......................................2011 Arthur Nozik.............................................2013 Adam Heller.............................................2015

Europe Section Alessandra Volta Award M. Armand...............................................2000 J.-M. Tarascon.........................................2002 R. G. Compton.........................................2004 Bruno Scrosati.........................................2006 Not Awarded............................................2010 Jean-Noël Chazalviel................................2012 Phillip Bartlett..........................................2014 Christian Amatore....................................2016

Georgia Section Student Award Matthew Lynch.........................................2012 Kara Evanoff.............................................2013 Johanna Karolina Stark............................2014

Korea Section Student Award Ho-Suk Ryu..............................................2006 Jae-Hwan Oh............................................2007 Sung Ki Cho.............................................2008 Cheol-Min Park........................................2009 Ji-Hyung Han...........................................2010 Young Woo Lee........................................2011 Not Awarded............................................2012 Seong Min Bak.........................................2013 Haegyeom Kim.........................................2014 Minah Lee................................................2015 Changshi Jo.............................................2016

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org

National Capital Section William Blum Award W. Blum...................................................1958 S. Schuldiner...........................................1960 D. N. Craig...............................................1962 A. Brenner................................................1964 J. Kruger..................................................1966 J. Burbank................................................1969 K. H. Stern...............................................1972 B. F. Brown...............................................1974 A. C. Simon..............................................1976 R. T. Foley................................................1978 R. de Levine.............................................1980 E. McCafferty...........................................1982 R. L. Jones...............................................1984 Ugo Bertocci............................................1986 P. J. Moran...............................................1988 M. H. Peterson.........................................1990 D. S. Lashmore........................................1992 J. R. Scully...............................................1994 Paul M. Natishan......................................1996 G. D. Davis...............................................1998 W. E. O'Grady...........................................2000 Thomas P. Moffat.....................................2002 J. L. Hudson.............................................2004

National Capital Section Robert T. Foley Award R. T. Foley................................................1989 W. J. Hamer.............................................1991 G. E. Stoner..............................................1993 P. J. Moran...............................................1995 P. M. Natishan..........................................1997 J. Kruger..................................................1999 R. G. Kelly................................................2001

San Francisco Section Daniel Cubicciotti Student Award L. J. Oblonsky..........................................1995 Y. Ma........................................................1996 C. Wade...................................................1997 C. R. Horne..............................................1998 M. Tucker.................................................1999 L. V. Protsailo...........................................2000 H. Visser..................................................2001 D. Wheeler...............................................2002 J. Hollingsworth.......................................2003 E. Guyer...................................................2004 D. Steingert..............................................2005 Sarah Stewart..........................................2006 James Wilcox...........................................2007 Susan Ambrose........................................2008 Que Anh Nguyen...... Honorable Mention 2008 Yuan Yang ............... Honorable Mention 2008 Paul Albertus............................................2009 Andrew Lee.............. Honorable Mention 2009 Mark Oliver ............. Honorable Mention 2009 Venkat Viswanathan.................................2010 Yi Wei Chen.............. Honorable Mention 2010 Thomas Conry......... Honorable Mention 2010 135


ECS Honor Roll San Francisco Section Daniel Cubicciotti Student Award (continued)

Maureen Tang..........................................2011 Yi Wei Chen.............. Honorable Mention 2011 Thomas Conry......... Honorable Mention 2011 Allison Engstrom......................................2012 Matthew McDowell...... Honorable Mention 2012 Xiongwu Kang.......... Honorable Mention 2012 Daniel Cohen............................................2013 Mallory Hammock.... Honorable Mention 2013 Anthony Ferrese....... Honorable Mention 2013 Nian Liu....................................................2014 Isaac Markus............ Honorable Mention 2014 Alan Berger.............. Honorable Mention 2014 Karthish Manthiram.................................2015

Christina Li............... Honorable Mention 2015 Lei Cheng................. Honorable Mention 2015 Yiyang Li .................................................2016 William Nguyen........ Honorable Mention 2016 Katherine Harry........ Honorable Mention 2016 Andrew Scheuermann......Honorable Mention 2016

Outstanding Student Chapter Award University of Maryland.............................2013 Ohio University.....Chapter of Excellence 2013 University of Texas at Austin......Chapter of Excellence 2013 University of Texas at Austin....................2014 University of Maryland...........Chapter of Excellence 2014

Valley of the Sun (Central Arizona)...Chapter of Excellence 2014 Indiana University....................................2015 University of Virginia.............Chapter of Excellence 2015 University of Maryland...........Chapter of Excellence 2015 University of South Carolina....................2016 University of Kentucky...........Chapter of Excellence 2016 University of Maryland...........Chapter of Excellence 2016

ECS Honors & Awards Program …fall and winter deadlines fast approaching. • • • •

136

Society Awards Division Awards Section Awards Student Awards

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer 2017 • www.electrochem.org


National Harbor, MD

Photo by National Harbor.

Future ECS Meetings Seattle, WA

USA 2017

USA 2018

232nd ECS Meeting

233rd ECS Meeting

Gaylord National Resort and Conference Center

Seattle Sheraton and Washington State Convention Center

October 1-5, 2017

Cancun, Mexico

May 13-17, 2018

Dallas, TX

USA 2019 AiMES 2018

235th ECS Meeting

Moon Palace Resort

Sheraton Dallas

September 30-October 4, 2018

May 26-May 31, 2019

www.electrochem.org/meetings


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Interface Summer 2017  

Volume 26, Number 2

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